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Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
a is part of Tondaimandalam (Tondai Nadu), known as Kānchi (kāñcipuram; [kaːɲd͡ʒipuɾəm])[1] is a city in the Indian state
Indian state
of Tamil Nadu, 72 km (45 mi) from Chennai – the capital of Tamil Nadu. The city covers an area of 11.605 km2 (4.481 sq mi) and had a population of 164,265 in 2001.[2] It is the administrative headquarters of Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
District. Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
is well-connected by road and rail. Chennai
Chennai
International Airport is the nearest domestic and international airport to the city, which is located at Tirusulam
Tirusulam
in Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
district. Located on the banks of the Vegavathy river, Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
has been ruled by the Pallavas, the Medieval Cholas,[3] the Later Cholas, the Later Pandyas, the Vijayanagara Empire, the Carnatic kingdom, and the British, who called the city "Conjeeveram".[3] The city's historical monuments include the Kailasanathar Temple and the Vaikunta Perumal Temple. Historically, Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
was a centre of education [4] and was known as the ghatikasthanam, or "place of learning".[5] The city was also a religious centre of advanced education for Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
between the 1st and 5th centuries.[6] In Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
Hindu theology, Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
is one of the seven Tirtha (pilgrimage) sites, for spiritual release.[7] The city houses Varadharaja Perumal Temple, Ekambareswarar Temple, Kamakshi Amman Temple, and Kumarakottam Temple
Kumarakottam Temple
which are some of major Hindu temples in the state. Of the 108 holy temples of the Hindu god Vishnu, 14 are located in Kanchipuram. The city is particularly important to Sri Vaishnavism, but is also a holy pilgrimage site in Shaivism. The city is well known for its hand woven silk sarees and most of the city's workforce is involved in the weaving industry.[8] Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
is administered by a Special
Special
grade municipality constituted in 1947. It is the headquarters of the Kanchi
Kanchi
matha, a Hindu monastic institution believed to have been founded by the Hindu saint and commentator Adi Sankaracharya, and was the capital city of the Pallava Kingdom between the 4th and 9th centuries. Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography 4 Climate 5 Government and politics 6 Demographics 7 Economy

7.1 Human rights

8 Transport, communication and utility services 9 Education 10 Religion

10.1 Buddhism 10.2 Jainism 10.3 Hinduism 10.4 Other religions

11 Notes

11.1 Footnotes 11.2 Citations

12 References 13 External links

Etymology[edit] Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
was known in early Tamil literature
Tamil literature
as Kachi or Kachipedu but was later Sanskritized to Kanchi
Kanchi
or Kanchipuram.[9] According to legend, the name Kanchi
Kanchi
is derived from Ka referring to the Hindu god Brahma
Brahma
and anchi, referring to his worship of Hindu god Vishnu
Vishnu
at this place.[10] The earliest inscription from the Maurya period (325–185 BCE) denote the city as Kanchipuram, where King Visnugopa was defeated by Samudragupta Maurya (320–298 BCE).[11] Patanjali
Patanjali
(150 BCE or 2nd century BCE) refers to the city in his Mahabhasya as Kanchipuraka.[11] The city was referred to by various Tamil names like Kanchi, Kanchipedu and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
names like Kanchipuram.[9][11] The Pallava inscriptions from (250–355) and the inscriptions of the Chalukya dynasty refers the city as Kanchipura.[11] Jaina Kanchi
Kanchi
refers to the area around Tiruparutti Kundram.[11] During the British rule, the city was known as Conjeevaram[1] and later as Kanchipuram. The municipal administration was renamed Kancheepuram, while the district retains the name Kanchipuram.[12][13] History[edit] See also: Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
in the pre-Pallava period

Sculptures inside Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
Kailasanathar Temple – the oldest existing temple in the city

Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
Timeline

200 — – 400 — – 600 — – 800 — – 1000 — – 1200 — – 1400 — – 1600 — – 1800 — – 2000 —

Pallavas

Cholas

Vijayanagara Empire

Arcot Rulers

British

Independent India

An approximate time-scale of Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
rulers.

While it is widely accepted that Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
had served as an Early Chola capital,[14][15] the claim has been contested by Indian historian P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar who wrote that the Tamil culture of the Sangam period did not spread through the Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
district, and cites the Sanskritic origins of its name in support of his claim.[16] The earliest references to Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
are found in the books of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammarian Patanjali, who lived between the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE.[16] The city is believed to have been part of the mythical Dravida Kingdom of the Mahabharatha,[16] and was described as "the best among cities" (Sanskrit: Nagareshu Kanchi) by the 4th-century Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poet, Kalidasa.[17][dead link] The city was regarded as the "Banaras of the South".[18] Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
grew in importance when the Pallavas
Pallavas
of southern Andhra Pradesh, wary of constant invasions from the north, moved their capital south to the city in the 6th century.[19][20] The Pallavas fortified the city with ramparts, wide moats, well-laid-out roads, and artistic temples. During the reign of the Pallava King Mahendravarman I, the Chalukya
Chalukya
King Pulakesin II
Pulakesin II
(610–642) invaded the Pallava kingdom as far as the Kaveri River. The Pallavas
Pallavas
successfully defended Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
and foiled repeated attempts to capture the city.[21] A second invasion ended disastrously for Pulakesin II, who was forced to retreat to his capital Vatapi
Vatapi
which was besieged and Pulakesin II
Pulakesin II
was killed by Narasimhavarman I
Narasimhavarman I
(630–668), son of Mahendravarman I (600–630), at the Battle of Vatapi.[22][21] Under the Pallavas, Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
flourished as a centre of Hindu and Buddhist learning. King Narasimhavarman II
Narasimhavarman II
built the city's important Hindu temples, the Kanchi
Kanchi
Kailasanathar Temple, the Varadharaja Perumal Temple
Varadharaja Perumal Temple
and the Iravatanesvara Temple.[23] Xuanzang, a Chinese traveller who visited Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
in 640, recorded that the city was 6 miles (9.7 km) in circumference and that its people were renowned for their bravery, piety, love of justice, and veneration for learning.[20][24] The Medieval Chola king Aditya I
Aditya I
conquered the Pallava kingdom, including Kanchipuram, after defeating the Pallava ruler Aparajitavarman (880–897) in about 890.[25] Under the Cholas, the city was the headquarters of the northern viceroyalty.[26] The province was renamed "Jayamkonda Cholamandalam" during the reign of King Raja Raja Chola I
Raja Raja Chola I
(985–1014),[27][28] who constructed the Karchapeswarar Temple and renovated the Kamakshi Amman Temple.[28] His son, Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
(1012–44) constructed the Yathothkari Perumal Temple.[29] According to the Siddhantasaravali of Trilocana Sivacharya, Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
brought a band of Saivas with him on his return from the Chola expedition to North India
India
and settled them in Kanchipuram.[30] In about 1218, the Pandya king Maravarman Sundara Pandyan (1216–1238) invaded the Chola country, making deep inroads into the kingdom which was saved by the intervention of the Hoysala king Vira Narasimha II (1220–1235), who fought on the side of the Chola king Kulothunga Chola III.[31][32] Inscriptions indicate the presence of a powerful Hoysala garrison in Kanchipuram, which remained in the city until about 1230.[33]Shortly afterwards, Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
was conquered by the Telugu Cholas, from whom Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I took the city in 1258.[34] The city remained with the Pandyas until 1311 when the Sambuvarayars declared independence, taking advantage of the anarchy caused by Malik Kafur's invasion.[27][35] After short spells of occupation by Ravivarman Kulasekhara of Venad
Venad
(Quilon, Kerala) in 1313–1314 and the Kakatiya ruler Prataparudra II, Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
was conquered by the Vijayanagar general Kumara Kampana, who defeated the Madurai
Madurai
Sultanate in 1361.[13]

The Battle of Pollilur, fought near Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
in 1780

The Vijayanagar Empire
Vijayanagar Empire
ruled Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
from 1361 to 1645.[13] The earliest inscriptions attesting to Vijayanagar rule are those of Kumara Kampanna from 1364 and 1367, which were found in the precincts of the Kailasanathar Temple and Varadaraja Perumal Temple respectively.[13] His inscriptions record the re-institution of Hindu rituals in the Kailasanathar Temple that had been abandoned during the Muslim invasions.[13] Inscriptions of the Vijayanagar kings Harihara II, Deva Raya II, Krishna Deva Raya, Achyuta Deva Raya, Sriranga I, and Venkata II are found within the city.[13] Harihara II endowed grants in favour of the Varadaraja Perumal Temple.[13]In the 15th century, Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
was invaded by the Velama Nayaks in 1437, the Gajapati kingdom in 1463–1465 and 1474–75 and the Bahmani Sultanate in about 1480.[13] A 1467 inscription of Virupaksha Raya II mentions a cantonment in the vicinity of Kanchipuram.[13] In 1486, Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, the governor of the Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
region, overthrew the Sangama Dynasty of Vijayanagar and founded the Saluva Dynasty.[13] Like most of his predecessors, Narasimha donated generously to the Varadaraja Perumal Temple.[13] Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
was visited twice by the Vijayanagar king Krishna Deva Raya, considered to be the greatest of the Vijayanagar rulers, and 16 inscriptions of his time are found in the Varadaraja Perumal Temple.[13] The inscriptions in four languages – Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, and Sanskrit – record the genealogy of the Tuluva kings and their contributions, along with those of their nobles, towards the upkeep of the shrine.[13] His successor, Achyuta Deva Raya, reportedly had himself weighed against pearls in Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
and distributed the pearls amongst the poor.[13] Throughout the second half of the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, the Aravidu Dynasty tried to maintain a semblance of authority in the southern parts after losing their northern territories in the Battle of Talikota.[13] Venkata II (1586–1614) tried to revive the Vijayanagar Empire, but the kingdom relapsed into confusion after his death and rapidly fell apart after the Vijayanagar king Sriranga III's defeat by the Golconda and Bijapur sultanates in 1646.[13] After the fall of the Vijayanagar Empire, Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
endured over two decades of political turmoil.[13] The Golconda Sultanate gained control of the city in 1672, but lost it to Bijapur three years later.[13] In 1676, Shivaji arrived in Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
at the invitation of the Golconda Sultanate in order to drive out the Bijapur forces.[13] His campaign was successful and Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
was held by the Golconda Sultanate until its conquest by the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
led by Aurangazeb
Aurangazeb
in October 1687.[13]In the course of their southern campaign, the Mughals defeated the Marathas under Sambhaji, the elder son of Shivaji, in a battle near Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
in 1688[13] which caused considerable damage to the city but cemented Mughal rule. [13]Soon after, the priests at the Varadaraja Perumal, Ekambareshwarar and Kamakshi Amman temples, mindful of Aurangazeb's reputation for iconoclasm, transported the idols to southern Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and did not restore them until after Aurangazeb's death in 1707.[13] Under the Mughals, Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
was part of the viceroyalty of the Carnatic which, in the early 1700s, began to function independently, retaining only a nominal acknowledgement of Mughal rule.[13] The Marathas invaded Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
during the Carnatic period in 1724 and 1740, and the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1742.[36] Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
was a battlefront for the British East India
India
Company in the Carnatic Wars
Carnatic Wars
against the French East India
India
Company and in the Anglo-Mysore Wars
Anglo-Mysore Wars
with the Sultanate of Mysore.[37]The popular 1780 Battle of Pollilur of the Second Anglo-Mysore War, known for the use of rockets by Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
of Mysore, was fought in the village of Pullalur near Kanchipuram.[38] In 1763, the British East India
India
Company assumed indirect control from the Nawab of the Carnatic
Nawab of the Carnatic
over the erstwhile Chingleput District, comprising the present-day Kanchipuram and Tiruvallur
Tiruvallur
districts, in order to defray the expenses of the Carnatic wars.[13] The Company brought the territory under their direct control during the Second Anglo-Mysore War, and the Collectorate of Chingleput was created in 1794.[13] The district was split into two in 1997 and Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
made the capital of the newly created Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
district.[13] Geography[edit] Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
is located at 12°59′N 79°43′E / 12.98°N 79.71°E / 12.98; 79.71, 72 km (45 mi) south-west of Chennai
Chennai
on the banks of the Vegavathi River, a tributary of the Palar River.[39] The city covers an area of 11.6 km2 (4.5 sq mi) and has an elevation of 83.2 m (273 ft) above sea level.[39]The land around Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
is flat and slopes towards the south[39] and east.[40] The soil in the region is mostly clay,[40] with some loam, clay, and sand, which are suitable for use in construction.[39] The Chingleput District Manual (1879) describes the region's soils as "highly inferior" and "highly stony or mixed with lime, gravel, soda and laterite".[41] It has been postulated that the granite required for the Varadaraja Perumal Temple might have been obtained from the Sivaram Hills located 10 miles east of Kanchipuram.[40] The area is classified as a Seismic Zone II region,[42] and earthquakes of up to magnitude 6 on the Richter Scale may be expected.[43] Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
is subdivided into two divisions – Big Kanchi, also called Shiva
Shiva
Kanchi
Kanchi
occupies the western portion of the city and is the larger of the two divisions. Little Kanchi, also called Vishnu
Vishnu
Kanchi, is located on the eastern fringes of the city.[40][44] Most of the Shiva
Shiva
temples lie in Big Kanchi
Kanchi
while most of the Vishnu
Vishnu
temples lie in Little Kanchi.[40] Ground water is the major source of water supplies used for irrigation – the block of Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
has 24 canals, 2809 tanks, 1878 tube wells and 3206 ordinary wells.[45] The area is rich in medicinal plants, and historic inscriptions mention the medicinal value.[46] Dimeria acutipes and cyondon barberi are plants found only in Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
and Chennai.[47] Climate[edit] Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
generally experiences hot and humid climatic conditions throughout the year.[48] Temperatures reache an average maximum of 37.5 °C (99.5 °F) between April and July, and an average minimum of 20.5 °C (68.9 °F) between December and February.[48] The daytime heat during summer can be oppressive; temperatures can reach 43 °C (109 °F).[48] Relative humidities of between 58% and 84% prevail throughout the year.[48] The humidity reaches its peak during the morning and is lowest in the evening. Relative humidity is higher between November and January and is lowest throughout June.[48] The city receives an average of 1064 mm of rainfall annually, 68% of which falls during the northeast monsoon.[39] Most of the precipitation occurs in the form of cyclonic storms caused by depressions in the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
during the northeast monsoon.[48] The prevailing wind direction is south-westerly in the morning and south-easterly in the evening.[49]

Climate data for Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 29.1 (84.4) 31.2 (88.2) 33.4 (92.1) 35.6 (96.1) 38.2 (100.8) 37.2 (99) 35.2 (95.4) 34.7 (94.5) 34.1 (93.4) 32.1 (89.8) 29.3 (84.7) 28.5 (83.3) 33.22 (91.81)

Average low °C (°F) 19.2 (66.6) 19.8 (67.6) 22.0 (71.6) 25.4 (77.7) 27.3 (81.1) 27.0 (80.6) 25.9 (78.6) 25.4 (77.7) 24.8 (76.6) 23.7 (74.7) 21.6 (70.9) 19.9 (67.8) 23.5 (74.29)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 25 (0.98) 6 (0.24) 4 (0.16) 19 (0.75) 59 (2.32) 77 (3.03) 108 (4.25) 173 (6.81) 132 (5.2) 185 (7.28) 209 (8.23) 107 (4.21) 1,104 (43.46)

Source: Climate-Data.org[50]

Government and politics[edit]

Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
Loksabha constituency

Municipality
Municipality
Officials

Chairman T. Mythili.[51]

Commissioner N. Vimala[52]

Vice-Chairman R.T. Sekar[53]

Elected Members

Member of Legislative Assembly C.V.M.P.Ezhilarasan[54]

Member of Parliament K. Maragatham[55]

The Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
municipality was officially constituted in 1866,[20] covering 7.68 km2 (2.97 sq mi), and its affairs were administered by a municipal committee. It was upgraded to a grade I municipality in 1947, selection grade municipality in 1983 and special grade municipality in 2008.[56][12] As of 2011[update] the municipality occupies 11.6 km2 (4.5 sq mi), has 51 wards and is the biggest municipality in Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
district.[12] The functions of the municipality are devolved into six departments: General, Engineering, Revenue, Public Health, city Planning and the Computer Wing,[57] all of which are under the control of a Municipal Commissioner, who is the supreme executive head.[57] The legislative powers are vested in a body of 51 members, each representing one ward. The legislative body is headed by an elected Chairperson who is assisted by a Deputy Chairperson.[58] Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
comes under the Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
state assembly constituency. From the state delimitation after 1967, seven of the ten elections held between 1971 and 2011 were won by the Anna Dravida Muneetra Kazhagam (ADMK).[59] Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(DMK) won the seat during the 1971 and 1989 elections and its ally Pattali Makkal Katchi won the seat during the 2006 elections.[59] The current member of the legislative assembly is V. Somasundaram from the ADMK
ADMK
party.[59][54] Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituency is a newly formed constituency of the Parliament of India
India
after the 2008 delimitation.[60] The constituency originally existed for the 1951 election, and was formed in 2008 after merging the assembly segments of Chengalpattu, Thiruporur, Madurantakam (SC), Uthiramerur
Uthiramerur
and Kanchipuram, which were part of the now defunct Chengalpattu
Chengalpattu
constituency, and Alandur, which was part of the Chennai
Chennai
South constituency. This constituency is reserved for Scheduled Castes
Scheduled Castes
(SC) candidates. K. Maragatham from the All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
is the current Member of Parliament for the constituency.[55] Indian writer, politician and founder of the DMK, C. N. Annadurai, was born and raised in Kanchipuram.[61] He was the first member of a Dravidian party
Dravidian party
to hold that post and was the first non-Congress leader to form a majority government in post-colonial India.[62][63] Policing in the city is provided by the Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
sub-division of the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Police headed by a Deputy Superintendent of Police.[64] The force's special units include prohibition enforcement, district crime, social justice and human rights, district crime records and special branch that operate at the district level police division, which is headed by a Superintendent of Police.[64] Demographics[edit]

A house depicting old living style of Kanchipuram

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1871 37,275 —    

1881 37,312 +0.1%

1891 42,547 +14.0%

1901 46,164 +8.5%

1911 53,864 +16.7%

1921 61,376 +13.9%

1931 65,258 +6.3%

1941 74,685 +14.4%

1951 84,810 +13.6%

1961 92,714 +9.3%

1971 110,657 +19.4%

1981 131,013 +18.4%

1991 144,955 +10.6%

2001 153,140 +5.6%

2011 164,265 +7.3%

Sources:

1871: [65] 1901 – 1991:[66] 2001:[2] 2011:[67]

During the rule of King Narasimha Varma in the 7th century, the city covered about 10 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) and had a population of 10,000.[68] The population increased to 13,000 in subsequent years and the city developed cross patterned links with rectangular streets.[69] The settlements in the city were mostly caste based.[69] During the period of Nandivarma Pallavan II, houses were built on raised platforms and burnt bricks.[69] The concepts of the verandah in the front yard, garden in the backyard, ventilation facilities and drainage of rainwater were all introduced for the first time.[69] The centre of the city was occupied by Brahmins, while the Tiruvekka temple and houses of agricultural labourers were situated outside the city.[70] There were provisions in the city's outskirts for training the cavalry and infantry.[70] During the Chola era, Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
was not the capital, but the kings had a palace in the city and lot of development was extended eastwards.[69] During the Vijayanagara period, the population rose to 25,000.[69] There were no notable additions to the city's infrastructure during British rule.[69] The British census of 1901 recorded that Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
had a population of 46,164, consisting of 44,684 Hindus, 1,313 Muslims, 49 Christians
Christians
and 118 Jains.[20]

Religious census

Religion

Percent(%)

Hindu

93.38%

Muslim

5.24%

Christian

0.83%

Jain

0.4%

Sikh

0.01%

Buddhist

0.01%

Other

0.11%

No religion

0.01%

According to 2011 census, Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
had a population of 164,384 with a sex-ratio of 1,005 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.[71] A total of 15,955 were under the age of six, constituting 8,158 males and 7,797 females. Scheduled Castes
Scheduled Castes
and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 3.55% and .09% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the city was 79.51%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.[71] The city had a total of 41807 households. There were a total of 61,567 workers, comprising 320 cultivators, 317 main agricultural labourers, 8,865 in house hold industries, 47,608 other workers, 4,457 marginal workers, 61 marginal cultivators, 79 marginal agricultural labourers, 700 marginal workers in household industries and 3,617 other marginal workers.[72][67] About 800,000 (800,000) pilgrims visit the city every year as of 2001.[73] As per the religious census of 2011, Kancheepuram
Kancheepuram
had 93.38% Hindus, 5.24% Muslims, 0.83% Christians, 0.01% Sikhs, 0.01% Buddhists, 0.4% Jains, 0.11% following other religions and 0.01% following no religion or did not indicate any religious preference.[74] Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
has 416 hectares (1,030 acres) of residential properties, mostly around the temples. The commercial area covers 62 hectares (150 acres), constituting 6.58% of the city. Industrial developments occupy around 65 hectares (160 acres), where most of the handloom spinning, silk weaving, dyeing and rice production units are located. 89.06 hectares (220.1 acres) are used for transport and communications infrastructure, including bus stands, roads, streets and railways lines.[75] Economy[edit]

Silk Sari
Sari
Weaving at Kanchipuram

The major occupations of Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
are silk sari weaving and agriculture.[20] As of 2008, an estimated 5,000 families were involved in sari production.[76] The main industries are cotton production, light machinery and electrical goods manufacturing, and food processing.[77] There are 25 silk and cotton yarn industries, 60 dyeing units, 50 rice mills and 42 other industries in the Kanchipuram.[78] Another important occupation is tourism and service related segments like hotels, restaurants and local transportation.[78]

Agriculture in Kanchipuram

Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
is a traditional centre of silk weaving and handloom industries for producing Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
Saris. The industry is worth ₹ 100 cr (US$18.18 million), but the weaving community suffers from poor marketing techniques and duplicate market players.[76] In 2005, " Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
Silk Sarees" received the Geographical Indication tag, the first product in India
India
to carry this label.[79][80] The silk trade in Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
began when King Raja Raja Chola I
Raja Raja Chola I
(985–1014) invited weavers to migrate to Kanchi.[76] The craft increased with the mass migration from Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
in the 15th century during the Vijayanagara rule.[76] The city was razed during the French siege of 1757, but weaving re-emerged in the late 18th century.[76] All major nationalised banks such as Vijaya Bank, State Bank of India, Indian Bank, Canara Bank, Punjab National Bank, Dena Bank
Dena Bank
and private banks like ICICI Bank
ICICI Bank
have branches in Kanchipuram.[81] All these banks have their Automated teller machines located in various parts of the city.[81] Human rights[edit] Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
has more than the national average rate of child labour and bonded labour.[82][83] The local administration is accused of aiding child labour by opening night schools in Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
from 1999.[82] There is an estimated 40,000 to 50,000 child workers in Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
compared to 85,000 in the same industry in Varanasi.[83] Children are commonly traded for sums of between ₹ 10,000 and 15,000 (200 – $300) and there are cases where whole families are held in bondage.[83] Child labour is prohibited in India
India
by the Children (Pledging of Labour) Act and Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, but these laws are not strictly enforced.[84] Transport, communication and utility services[edit]

An intercity state bus to Kanchipuram

The railway station in Kanchipuram

Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
is most easily accessible by road. The Chennai – Bangalore
Bangalore
National Highway, NH 4 passes the outskirts of the city.[85] Daily bus services are provided by the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
State Transport Corporation to and from Chennai, Bangalore, Villupuram, Tirupathi, Thiruthani, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, Salem, Coimbatore, Tindivanam
Tindivanam
and Pondicherry.[86] There are two major bus routes to Chennai, one connecting via Poonamallee
Poonamallee
and the other via Tambaram.[86] Local bus services are provided by The Villupuram
Villupuram
division of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
State Transport Corporation.[87] As of 2006, there were a total of 403 buses for 191 routes operated out of the city.[88] The city is also connected to the railway network through the Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
railway station. The Chengalpet – Arakkonam
Arakkonam
railway line passes through Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
and travellers can access services to those destinations.[89] Daily trains are provided to Pondicherry and Tirupati, and there is a weekly express train to Madurai
Madurai
and a bi-weekly express train to Nagercoil.[90] Two passenger trains from both sides of Chengalpattu
Chengalpattu
and Arakkonam
Arakkonam
pass via Kanchipuram.[86][90] The nearest domestic as well as international airport is Chennai International Airport, located at a distance of 72 km from the city Telephone and broadband internet services are provided by Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider.[91] Electricity supply is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Electricity Board (TNEB).[92] Water supply is provided by the Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
municipality; supplies are drawn from subterranean springs of Vegavati river.[20] The head works is located at Orikkai, Thiruparkadal and St. Vegavathy, and distributed through overhead tanks with a total capacity of 9.8 litres (2.2 imperial gallons).[93] About 55 tonnes of solid waste are collected from the city daily at five collection points covering the whole of the city.[94] The sewage system in the city was implemented in 1975; Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
was identified as one of the hyper endemic cities in 1970. Underground drainage covers 82% of roads in the city, and is divided into east and west zones for internal administration.[95] Education[edit] See also: List of schools and colleges in Kancheepuram Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
is traditionally a centre of religious education for the Hindu,[4][5] Jainism[6] and Buddhism
Buddhism
faiths.[6] The Buddhist monasteries acted as nucleus of the Buddhist educational system. With the gradual resurrection of Hinduism
Hinduism
during the reign of Mahendra Varman I, the Hindu educational system gained prominence with Sanskrit emerging as the official language.[6] As of 2011[update] Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
has 49 registered schools, 16 of which are run by the city municipality.[96] The district administration opened night schools for educating children employed in the silk weaving industry – as of December 2001, these schools together were educating 127 people and 260 registered students from September 1999.[82] Larsen & Toubro inaugurated the first rail construction training centre in India
India
at Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
on 24 May 2012, that can train 300 technicians and 180 middle level managers and engineers each year.[97] Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Viswa Mahavidyalaya
Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Viswa Mahavidyalaya
and Chettinad Academy of Research and Education (CARE) are the two Deemed universities present in Kanchipuram.[98] Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
is home to one of the four Indian Institute of Information of Technology, a public private partnered institute, offering under graduate and post graduate programs in information technology.[99] The city has two medical colleges – Arignar Anna Memorial Cancer Institute and Hospital, established in 1969 is operated by the Department of Health, Government of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
[100] and the privately owned Meenakshi Medical College.[101] The city has 6 engineering colleges,[102] 3 polytechnic institutes and 6 arts and science colleges.[103] Religion[edit] Buddhism[edit]

Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
is believed to have spread Zen school of Buddhism
Buddhism
from India
India
to China

Buddhism
Buddhism
is believed to have flourished in Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
between the 1st and 5th centuries.[104] Some notable Buddhists
Buddhists
associated with Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
are Āryadeva (2nd–3rd centuries) – a successor of Nāgārjuna of Nalanda
Nalanda
University, Dignaga
Dignaga
and the Pali commentators Buddhaghosa
Buddhaghosa
and Dhammapala.[105] According to a popular tradition, Bodhidharma, a 5th/6th-century Buddhist monk and founder of Shaolin Kung Fu
Shaolin Kung Fu
was the third son of a Pallava king from Kanchipuram.[106] However, other traditions ascribe his origins to other places in Asia.[107] Buddhists
Buddhists
institutions from Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
were instrumental in spreading Theravada Buddhism
Buddhism
to the Mon people
Mon people
of Myanmar
Myanmar
and Thailand who in return spread the religion to the incoming Burmese and Thai people.[108] A number of bronzes unearthed at Kurkihar (Apanaka Vihara, near Gaya in Bihar) mention that the majority of the donors were from Kanchi, indicating that Kurkihar was a major center for the visitors from Kanchi
Kanchi
during 9th to 11th century, Jainism[edit] Main article: Trilokyanatha Temple

Trilokyanatha Temple

It is thought that Jainism
Jainism
was introduced into Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
by Kunda Kundacharya (1st century).[105] Jainism
Jainism
spread to the city by Akalanka (3rd century). Kalbhras, the rulers of Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
before the Pallavas, followed Jainism
Jainism
which gained popularity from royal patronage.[105] The Pallava kings, Simhavishnu, Mahendra Varman and Simhavarman (550–560) followed Jainism, until the advent of Nayanmars
Nayanmars
and Azhwars
Azhwars
during the 6th and 7th centuries.[105] Mahendravarman I
Mahendravarman I
converted from Jainism
Jainism
to Hinduism
Hinduism
under the influence of the Naynamar, Appar, was the turning point in the religious geography.[105] The two sects of Hinduism, Saivism
Saivism
and Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
were revived under the influence of Adi Sankara
Adi Sankara
and Ramanuja
Ramanuja
respectively.[70][109] Later Cholas
Later Cholas
and Vijayanagara kings tolerated Jainism, and the religion was still practised in Kanchi.[105]

Trilokyanatha/Chandraprabha temple is a twin Jain temple that has inscriptions from Pallava king, Narasimhavarman II
Narasimhavarman II
and the Chola kings Rajendra Chola I, Kulothunga Chola I
Kulothunga Chola I
and Vikrama Chola, and the Kanarese inscriptions of Krishnadevaraya. The temple is maintained by Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
archaeological department.[110] Hinduism[edit] Main article: List of temples in Kanchipuram

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Temples in Kanchipuram district.

Ekambareswarar temple
Ekambareswarar temple
– the largest temple in the city

Hindus
Hindus
regard Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
to be one of the seven holiest cities in India, the Sapta Puri.[18][111] According to Hinduism, a kṣetra is a sacred ground, a field of active power, and a place where final attainment, or moksha, can be obtained. The Garuda Purana
Garuda Purana
says that seven cities, including Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
are providers of moksha.[70] The city is a pilgrimage site for both Saivites
Saivites
and Vaishnavites.[70] It has close to 108 shiva temples.[112] Ekambareswarar Temple
Ekambareswarar Temple
in northern Kanchipuram, dedicated to Shiva, is the largest temple in the city.[113] Its gateway tower, or gopuram, is 59 metres (194 ft) tall, making it one the tallest temple towers in India. The temple is one of five called Pancha Bhoota Stalams, which represent the manifestation of the five prime elements of nature; land, water, air, sky, and fire.[114] Ekambareswarar temple represents earth.[114] Kailasanathar Temple, dedicated to Shiva
Shiva
and built by the Pallavas, is the oldest Hindu temple in existence and is declared an archaeological monument by the Archaeological Survey of India. It has a series of cells with sculptures inside.[115] In the Kamakshi Amman Temple, goddess Parvati
Parvati
is depicted in the form of a yantra, Chakra or peetam (basement). In this temple, the yantra is placed in front of the deity.[116] Adi Sankara
Adi Sankara
is closely associated with this temple and is believed to have established the Kanchi matha
Kanchi matha
after this temple.[117] Muktheeswarar Temple, built by Nandivarman Pallava II (720–796)[118] and Iravatanesvara Temple built by Narasimhavarman Pallava II (720–728) are the other Shiva
Shiva
temples from the Pallava period. Kachi Metrali – Karchapeswarar Temple,[115] Onakanthan Tali,[118] Kachi Anekatangapadam,[118] Kuranganilmuttam,[119] and Karaithirunathar Temple in Tirukalimedu are the Shiva
Shiva
temples in the city reverred in Tevaram, the Tamil Saiva canonical work of the 7th–8th centuries.

Sculpted pillars and stone chain in Varadharaja Perumal Temple

Kumarakottam Temple, dedicated to Muruga, is located between the Ekambareswarar temple
Ekambareswarar temple
and Kamakshi Amman temple, leading to the cult of Somaskanda
Somaskanda
(Skanda, the child between Shiva
Shiva
and Parvati). Kandapuranam, the Tamil religious work on Muruga, translated from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Skandapurana, was composed in 1625 by Kachiappa Shivacharya in the temple.[120] Varadharaja Perumal Temple, dedicated to Vishnu
Vishnu
and covering 23 acres (93,000 m2), is the largest Vishnu
Vishnu
temple in Kanchipuram. It was built by the Cholas
Cholas
in 1053 and was expanded during the reigns of Kulottunga Chola I
Kulottunga Chola I
(1079–1120) and Vikrama Chola
Vikrama Chola
(1118–1135). It is one of the divyadesams, the 108 holy abodes of Vishnu.[121] The temple features carved lizards, one platted with gold and another with silver, over the sanctum.[122]Clive of India
India
is said to have presented an emerald necklace to the temple. It is called the Clive Makarakandi and is still used to decorate the deity on ceremonial occasions.[13] Tiru Parameswara Vinnagaram
Tiru Parameswara Vinnagaram
is the birthplace of the azhwar saint, Poigai Alvar.[123] The central shrine has a three-tier shrine, one over the other, with Vishnu
Vishnu
depicted in each of them.[123] The corridor around the sanctum has a series of sculptures depicting the Pallava rule and conquest.[123] It is the oldest Vishnu
Vishnu
temple in the city and was built by the Pallava king Paramesvaravarman II (728–731).[123] Ashtabujakaram, Tiruvekkaa, Tiruththanka, Tiruvelukkai, Ulagalantha Perumal Temple, Tiru pavla vannam, Pandava Thoothar Perumal Temple
Pandava Thoothar Perumal Temple
are among the divyadesam, the 108 famous temples of Vishnu
Vishnu
in the city.[124] There are a five other divyadesams, three inside the Ulagalantha Perumal temple, one each in Kamakshi Amman Temple
Kamakshi Amman Temple
and Ekambareswarar Temple.[125] The Kanchi Matha
Kanchi Matha
is a Hindu monastic institution, whose official history states that it was founded by Adi Sankara
Adi Sankara
of Kaladi, tracing its history back to the 5th century BCE.[126][127][128] A related claim is that Adi Sankara
Adi Sankara
came to Kanchipuram, and that he established the Kanchi
Kanchi
mutt named "Dakshina Moolamnaya Sarvagnya Sri Kanchi Kamakoti Peetam" in a position of supremacy, namely Sarvagnya Peetha, over the other mathas (religious institutions) of the subcontinent, before his death there.[128][129] Other historical accounts state that the mutt was established probably in the 18th century in Kumbakonam, as a branch of the Sringeri
Sringeri
Matha, and that it declared itself independent.[127] Another mutt which was famous in ancient times was the Upanishad Bramham Mutt, located near Kailasanathar temple, Kanchipuram. It has the Mahasamadhi of Upanishad Brahmayogin, a saint who wrote commentaries on all the major upanishads in Hinduism. It is said that the great Sage, Sadasiva Brahmendra took to sanyasa at this mutt. Other religions[edit] The city has two mosques; one near the Ekambareswarar temple
Ekambareswarar temple
was built during the rule of Nawab of Arcot in the 17th century, and another near the Vaikunta Perumal temple shares a common tank with the Hindu temple. Muslims
Muslims
take part in the festivals of the Varadarajaswamy temple.[130] Christ Church is the oldest Christian church in the city. It was built by a British man named Mclean in 1921. The church is built in Scottish style brick structure with arches and pillars.[130] Notes[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ The official spelling, as per the municipality website is "Kancheepuram". However, the spelling Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
is the most widely used name.

Citations[edit]

^ a b Malalasekera 1973, pp. 112–13. ^ a b Kanchipuram : Census 2011. ^ a b  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Conjeeveram". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 943.  ^ a b Rao 2008, p. xviii. ^ a b K.V. 1975, p. 80. ^ a b c d Thapar 2001, pp. 344–345. ^ Jean Holm; John Bowker (2001). Sacred Place. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-62356-623-4.  ^ Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
Industrial profile 2012. ^ a b K.V. 1975, p. 6. ^ Gupta 2001, p. 56. ^ a b c d e Sharma 1978, p. 255. ^ a b c About municipality 2011. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab K.V. 1975, pp. 26–39. ^ Kamath 2000, p. 127. ^ Hoiberg 2000. ^ a b c Iyengar 1929, pp. 322–333. ^ Historical Importance of Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
2011. ^ a b Gopal 1990, p. 177. ^ Pochhammer 2005, p. 99. ^ a b c d e f Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
1908, pp. 544–546. ^ a b Keay 2001, p. 170. ^ Sastri 2008, p. 136. ^ Jouveau-Dubreuil 1994, p. 71. ^ Smith 1914, p. 473. ^ Sastri 1935, p. 113. ^ Aiyangar 2004, p. 60. ^ a b K.V. 1975, pp. 11–26. ^ a b Rao 2008, p. 126. ^ Rao 2008, p. 127. ^ Sastri 1935, p. 210. ^ Sastri 1935, p. 420. ^ Aiyangar 2004, p. 34. ^ Sastri 1935, p. 428. ^ Aiyangar 2004, p. 49. ^ Aiyangar 2004, p. 61. ^ K.V. 1975, p. 48. ^ Jaques 2007, p. 257. ^ R.G. 2011, p. 468. ^ a b c d e About City 2011. ^ a b c d e K.V. 1975, pp. 1–4. ^ Srinivasan 1979, p. 6. ^ Seismic Zoning map 2008. ^ Seismology glossary 2008. ^ Browne 1843, p. 228. ^ Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India
India
2007, p. 5. ^ The Hindu & 19 May 2012. ^ The Hindu & 18 June 2012. ^ a b c d e f Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India
India
2007, p. 6. ^ Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
local plan 2006, p. 1. ^ "CLIMATE: KANCHEEPURAM". Retrieved 19 February 2016.  ^ Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
Municipality
Municipality
– Chairman 2011. ^ Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
Municipality
Municipality
– Commissioner 2011. ^ Vice-Chairman of Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
municipality 2011. ^ a b MLA of Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
2011. ^ a b MP of Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
2014. ^ List of municipalities in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
2011. ^ a b Commissionerate of Municipal Administration 2011. ^ Economic and political weekly 1995, p. 2396. ^ a b c Election Report – Full Statistical Report 2011. ^ rediff & 7 May 2009. ^ Kannan 2010, p. 5. ^ Frontline & 23 April 2004. ^ Chakrabarty 2008, pp. 110–111. ^ a b Kanchipuram district
Kanchipuram district
police 2011. ^ Hunter 1885. ^ Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
Master Plan 2001. ^ a b Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
population 2012. ^ Rao 2008, p. 142. ^ a b c d e f g Rao 2008, p. 143. ^ a b c d e Ayyar 1991, p. 69. ^ a b National Sex Ratio 2011. ^ Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
2011 census. ^ Rao 2008, p. 145. ^ Population by religion 2013. ^ Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
local plan 2006, pp. 7–9. ^ a b c d e Rao 2008, pp. 134–135. ^ Husain 2011, p. 11.K.4. ^ a b Industries in Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
2011. ^ The Economic Times & 27 December 2011. ^ The Times of India
India
& 29 August 2010. ^ a b Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
City Banks 2011. ^ a b c Human Rights Watch 2003, p. 62. ^ a b c Human Rights Watch/Asia 1995, p. 82. ^ Human Rights Watch/Asia 1995, p. 88. ^ Rao 2008, p. 3. ^ a b c Bus routes, Train schedules, Air schedules 2011. ^ TNSTC Villupuram
Villupuram
2011. ^ Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
local plan 2006, p. 10. ^ Rao 2008, p. 4. ^ a b Train Running Information 2012. ^ BSNL 2011. ^ TNEB region details 2011. ^ Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
water supply 2011. ^ Waste management programme 2011. ^ Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
sewage and sanitation 2011. ^ Educational institutes of Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
2011. ^ The Businessline & 24 May 2012. ^ Deemed University list 2012. ^ The Indian Express & 29 May 2012. ^ TN Health Department – Arignar Anna Memorial Cancer Institute and Hospital 2012. ^ Meeenakshi Medical College and Research Institute 2012. ^ AICTE list of approved institutes 2012. ^ University of Madras
University of Madras
– affiliated colleges 2012. ^ Trainor 2001, p. 13. ^ a b c d e f Rao 2008, p. 20. ^ Zvelebil 1987, p. 125-126. ^ McRae 2000, p. 26. ^ Harvey 2000, p. 56. ^ Smith 1914, p. 468. ^ The Hindu & 23 June 2011. ^ Rajarajan, R.K.K. (2007) Early Historical Setting of Kañci and its Temples. Journal of the Institute of Asian Studies 25.1: 23-52. Regd. No. 156167/85/M2. https://www.academia.edu/12190831/Early_Historical_Setting_of_Ka%C3%B1ci_and_its_Temples ^ http://www.columbuslost.com/2013/12/108-shiva-temples-of-kanchipuram.html ^ Let's Go 2004, p. 584. ^ a b Ramaswamy 2007, pp. 301–302. ^ a b Ayyar 1991, p. 73. ^ Ayyar 1991, pp. 70–71. ^ Tourist places in Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
2012. ^ a b c Ayyar 1991, p. 86. ^ Soundara Rajan 2001, p. 27. ^ Rao 2008, p. 110. ^ "Divya Desams of Lord Vishnu".  ^ Gateway to Kanchipuram district
Kanchipuram district
– Varadaraja Temple 2011. ^ a b c d Ayyar 1991, p. 80. ^ Ayyar 1991, p. 539. ^ Rao 2008, p. 109. ^ Saraswati 2001, p. 492. ^ a b Dalal 2006, p. 186. ^ a b Kuttan & Arunachalam 2009, pp. 244–245. ^ Sharma 1987, pp. 44–46. ^ a b Religious places in Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
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India
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Kancheepuram
Kancheepuram
Municipality Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
HRIDAY city Kancheepuram
Kancheepuram
district administration website

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v t e

Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
district

District Headquarters

Kanchipuram

Country

India

State

Tamil Nadu

Region

Tondai Nadu

Taluks

Tambaram Chengalpattu Thiruporur Tirukalukundram Cheyyur Madurantakam Pallavaram Sriperumbudur Walajabad Kanchipuram Uthiramerur

Blocks

St. Thomas Mount Kattangulathur Thirupporur Tirukalukundram Lathur Chithamur Madurantakam Acharapakkam Kunnattur Sriperumbudur Walajabad Kanchipuram Uttiramerur

Municipal Corporations

Chennai
Chennai
Pallavaram
Pallavaram
Corporation (proposed) Chennai
Chennai
Tambaram
Tambaram
Corporation (proposed)

Municipalities

Pallavaram Pammal Anakaputhur Sembakkam Tambaram Maraimalai Nagar Chengalpattu Maduranthakam Kanchipuram

Town Panchayats

Acharapakkam Chitlapakkam Edaikazhinadu Karunguzhi Kunrathur Madambakkam Mamallapuram Mangadu Nandivaram-Guduvancheri Peerkankaranai Perungalathur Sriperumbudur Thirukalukundram Thiruneermalai Thirupporur Uthiramerur Walajabad

History

Pallavas Medieval Cholas Later Cholas Later Pandyas Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate Madurai
Madurai
Sultanate Vijayanagar Empire Carnatic Kingdom Company Raj British Raj

Places of interest

Arignar Anna Zoological Park Ashtabujakaram Cholamandal Artists' Village Dakshinchitra Descent of the Ganges Ekambareswarar Temple Kanchi
Kanchi
Kailasanathar Temple Kalyana Varadharaja Perumal Temple Kanchi
Kanchi
Kamakshi Amman Temple Mangadu
Mangadu
Kamakshi Amman Temple Kundrathur Murugan Temple Madras Atomic Power Station Madras Crocodile Bank Trust Neervalur Pancha Rathas Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Mamallapuram
Mamallapuram
Shore Temple Subrahmanya Temple Thirukadalmallai Thirukazhukundram Tirusoolanathar Temple Tiruththanka Tiruvekkaa Tiruvelukkai Varadharaja Perumal Temple Varaha Cave Temple Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary

Religious and monastic institutions

Kanchi
Kanchi
matha Roman Catholic Diocese of Chingleput

Universities

B. S. Abdur Rahman University Sathyabama University Chennai
Chennai
Mathematical Institute Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Viswa Mahavidyalaya SRM University Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design & Manufacturing Kancheepuram

Cities and Towns Villages People

v t e

 State of Tamil Nadu

Capital: Chennai

State symbols

Seal: Srivilliputhur Andal Temple
Srivilliputhur Andal Temple
Gopuram Animal: Nilgiri tahr Bird: Emerald dove Flower: Gloriosa lily Fruit: Jackfruit Tree: Palm tree

Governance

Governors Chief Ministers Legislative Assembly Political parties Raj Bhavan High Court Police

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Cinema Cuisine Economy Government History Language Literature Music People Education Politics Temples Protected areas Highest point Wildlife Sexual Minorities Tourism

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Ariyalur Chennai Coimbatore Cuddalore Dharmapuri Dindigul Erode Kanchipuram Kanyakumari Karur Krishnagiri Madurai Nagapattinam Namakkal Perambalur Pudukkottai Ramanathapuram Salem Sivaganga Thanjavur The Nilgiris Theni Thoothukudi Tiruchirapalli Tirunelveli Tiruppur Tiruvallur Tiruvannamalai Tiruvarur Vellore Viluppuram Virudhunagar

Major cities

Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirapalli Tiruppur

Tamil Nadu

v t e

Ancient Dharmic centres of higher learning

Early centres of learning

Taxila Nalanda Somapura Vikramashila

Further centres of learning

Bikrampur Vihara Jagaddala Mahavihara Kanchipuram Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics Manyakheta Nagarjunakonda Odantapuri Pandit Vihara Ratnagiri Shalban Vihara Sharada Peeth Sunethradevi Pirivena Vallabhi Varanasi Vidyalankara Pirivena Vidyodaya Pirivena Vikramashila

v t e

Hindu holy cities

India

Char Dham

Badrinath

Badrinath
Badrinath
Temple

Dwarka

Dwarkadhish Temple

Puri

Jagannath Temple

Rameswaram

Ramanathaswamy Temple

Chota Char Dham

Badrinath

Badrinath
Badrinath
Temple

Kedarnath

Kedarnath
Kedarnath
Temple

Gangotri Yamunotri

Yamunotri
Yamunotri
Temple

Panch Kedar

Kedarnath Tungnath Rudranath Madhyamaheshwar Kalpeshwar

Pancharama Kshetras

Amararama Draksharama Ksheerarama Kumararama Somarama

Six Abodes of Murugan

Palani Swamimalai Thiruttani Pazhamudircholai Thiruchendur Tirupparankunram

Trilinga Kshetras

Draksharama Srisailam Kaleshwaram

Ashtavinayaka

Morgaon

Moreshwar

Lenyadri

Girijatmaj

Pali

Ballaleshwar

Mahad

Varadvinayak

Ranjangaon

Mahaganapati

Siddhatek

Siddhivinayak

Ozar

Vighneswar

Theur

Chintamani

Jyotirlinga

Prabhas Patan

Somnath

Srisailam

Mallikājuna

Ujjain

Mahakaleshwar

Omkareshwar Kedarnath

Kedarnath

Shiradhon

Bhimashankar

Varanasi

Kashi Vishvanath

Trimbak

Trimbakeshwar

Deoghar

Vaidyanath

Dwarka

Nageshvara

Rameswaram

Ramanathaswamy

Ellora Caves

Grishneshwar

Panchabhuta Lingas

Srikalahasti
Srikalahasti
Temple

Srikalahasti

Thillai Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram

Chidambaram

Annamalaiyar Temple

Tiruvannamalai

Ekambareswarar Temple

Kanchi

Jambukeswarar Temple, Thiruvanaikaval

Others

Pushpagiri Temple Complex Shakti Peethas Ahobilam Ambaji Ambalappuzha Arunachala Annavaram Ayodhya Akshardham (Delhi) Akshardham (Gandhinagar) Basar Bhadrachalam Chidambaram Chitrakoot Chottanikkara Dakor Dharmasthala Dakshineswar Kali Temple Ettumanoor Gaya Gokul Guruvayur Haridwar Indraprastha Jageshwar Kalighat Kanchipuram Katra Vaishno Devi Khatu Kollur Kurukshetra Madurai Mangalagiri Mathura Mayapur Nashik Nathdwara Pandharpur Prayag
Prayag
(Triveni Sangam) Pushkar Rishikesh Ryali Sabarimala Sapta Puri Somnath Sringeri Shirdi Simhachalam Temple Sonamukhi Srirangam Sri Kurmam Tirumala Tirunavaya Tripunithura Udupi Jajpur Vrindavan Vijayawada Yadagirigutta

Indonesia

Prambanan Gebang Gedong Songo Dieng Plateau Sukuh Ceto Temple Penataran Gunung Kawi Cangkuang Penataran
Penataran
Temple Candi Jawi Candi Kidal Candi Singhasari Candi Surawana Balinese temple Tanah Lot Marga Tirtha Empul Temple Denpasar Gianyar Pura Penataran
Penataran
Sasih Pejeng Gianyar Pura Besakih Pura Ulun Danu Bratan Pura Luhur Ulu Watu Pura Ulun Danu Batur

Sri Lanka

Ati Konanayakar Koneswaram Pathirakali Amman Temple Kataragama Munneswaram temple Thambiluvil Sri Kannaki amman temple Thambiluvil Sri Sivalinga Pillayar Temple Thirukkovil Sithira Velayutha Swami Kovil Tenavaram temple

Nepal

Kathmandu Janakpurdham Chataradham

Cambodia

Angkor Wat

v t e

Municipalities of Tamil Nadu

Municipal Corporations

Greater Chennai · Coimbatore · Madurai · Erode · Salem · Thoothukudi · Tiruchirappalli  · Tirunelveli · Thanjavur  · Tiruppur
Tiruppur
 · Vellore
Vellore
 · Dindigul

Municipalities

Special
Special
grade

Avadi Cuddalore Hosur Kancheepuram Karaikudi Karur Kodaikanal Kovilpatti Kumbakonam Maraimalainagar Nagercoil Pallavapuram Pollachi Rajapalayam Sivakasi Tambaram Thiruvannamalai Udhagamandalam

Selection grade

Ambur Alandur Attur Chidambaram Coonoor Dharmapuri Gobichettipalayam Mannargudi Mayiladuthurai Mettupalayam Mettur Nagapattinam Namakkal Palani Pammal Pattukkottai Pudukkottai Ranipet Theni Allinagaram Thiruverkadu Thuraiyur Tindivanam Tiruchengode Tiruppattur Udumalaipettai Valparai Vaniyambadi Viluppuram Virudhunagar

First grade

Arakkonam Arani Aranthangi Arcot Aruppukkottai Bodinayakanur Chengalpattu Colachel Cumbum Devakottai Dharapuram Edappadi Gudiyatham Kadayanallur Kallakurichi Komarapalayam Krishnagiri Manapparai Palladam Panruti Paramakudi Poonamallee Ramanathapuram Rasipuram Sankarankovil Sembakkam Sathyamangalam Sivagangai Srivilliputhur Thiruthangal Tiruvallur tenkasi Tiruvarur Virudhachalam

Second grade

Ambasamudram Anakaputhur Ariyalur Bhavani Chinnamanur Gudalur (Nilgiris district) Gudalur (Theni district) Jayankondam Jolarpet Kangeyam Kayalpattinam Keelakarai Koothanallur Kulithalai Kuzhithurai Maduranthakam Melur Melvisharam Nellikuppam Nelliyalam Oddanchatram Padmanabhapuram Pallipalayam Perambalur Periyakulam Pernampattu Puliyankudi Punjai Puliampatti Rameswaram Sattur Sengottai Sirkazhi Thiruthani Thiruthuraipoondi Thiruvathipuram Thuvakudi Tirumangalam Usilampatti Vandavasi Vedaranyam Vellakoil Vikramasi

.