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Kannauj
Kannauj
also spelt Kanauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj
Kannauj
yoo district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city's name is a modern form of the classical name Kanyakubja[1] (The city of the hunchbacked maidens). It was also known as Mahodaya during the time of Mihira Bhoja. Kannauj
Kannauj
is an ancient city, in earlier times the capital of the Empire of Harsha
Empire of Harsha
under Emperor Harsha. It is said that Kanyakubja Brahmin's of which Shandilya's (Rishi Bharadwaj was one of the disciple of Rishi Sandilya) held to have constituted one of the three prominent families of Kanyakubja Brahmins.[3]are originally from Kannauj. Kannauj
Kannauj
is known for the distilling of scents[2] and is a market center for tobacco, perfume, and rose water.[citation needed] It has given its name to a distinct dialect of the Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu language known as Kanauji, which has two different codes or registers.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early History 1.2 The Kannauj
Kannauj
Triangle 1.3 Medieval times

2 Geography 3 Demographics 4 Colleges

4.1 Medical College 4.2 Engineering College

5 Transportation 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] Early History[edit] Archaeological discoveries show that Kannauj
Kannauj
was inhabited by the Painted Grey Ware
Painted Grey Ware
and Northern Black Polished Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware
cultures,[3] ca. 1200-600 BCE and ca. 700-200 BCE, respectively. Under the name of Kanyakubja, it is mentioned as a well-known town in the Hindu Epics, the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Ramayana, and by the grammarian Patanjali (ca. 150 BCE).[4] The early Buddhist literature mentions Kannauj
Kannauj
as Kannakujja, and refers to its location on the trade route from Mathura to Varanasi
Varanasi
and Rajgir.[5] Kannauj
Kannauj
may have been known to the Greco-Roman civilization under the name of Kanagora or Kanogiza, which appears in Geography by Ptolemy (ca. 140 CE), but this identification is not confirmed. It was also visited by the Chinese Buddhist travelers Faxian
Faxian
and Xuanzang
Xuanzang
in the fifth and seventh centuries CE, respectively.[6] Kannauj
Kannauj
formed part of the Gupta Empire. During the decline of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
in the 6th century, the Maukhari
Maukhari
Dynasty of Kannauj
Kannauj
- who had served as vassal rulers under the Guptas - took advantage of the weakening of central authority, broke away and established control over large areas of northern India.[7] Under the Maukharis, Kannauj
Kannauj
continued to grow in importance and prosperity. It became the greatest city of Northern India
India
under Emperor Harsha
Harsha
(r. 606 to 647 CE), who conquered it and made it his capital.[8][9] Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang
Xuanzang
visited India
India
during the reign of Harsha, and described Kannauj
Kannauj
as a large, prosperous city with many Buddhist monasteries.[10] Harsha
Harsha
died with no heir, resulting in a power vacuum until Yashovarman seized power as the ruler of Kannauj.[11] The Kannauj
Kannauj
Triangle[edit] Kannauj
Kannauj
remained a focal point for the three powerful dynasties, namely the Gurjara Pratiharas, Palas and Rashtrakutas, between the 8th and 10th centuries. The conflict between the three dynasties has been referred to as the Tripartite struggle
Tripartite struggle
by many historians.[12][13]

The Kanauj
Kanauj
Triangle was the focal point of three empires: the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
of Deccan, the Gurjara Pratiharas of Malwa, and the Palas of Bengal.

Coin of the Maukharis of Kanauj. King Isanavarman. Circa 535-553 CE.

There were initial struggles but ultimately the Gurjara Pratiharas succeeded in retaining the city.[12] The Gurjara-Pratiharas ruled Avanti (based at Ujjain), which was bounded to the South by the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Empire, and the Pala dynasty to the East. The Tripartite Struggle began with the defeat of Indrayudh at the hands of Gurjara-Pratihara ruler Vatsaraja.[12] The Pala ruler Dharampala was also keen to establish his authority at Kannauj, giving rise to a struggle between Vatsaraja and Dharampala. Dharampala was however defeated.[14] Taking advantage of the chaos, the Rastrakuta ruler Dhruva surged northwards, defeated Vatsaraja, and took Kannauj
Kannauj
for himself, completing the furthest northern expansion by a South Indian ruler.[13][15] When the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
ruler advanced back to south, Dharampala was left in control of Kannauj
Kannauj
for some time. The struggle between the two northern dynasties continued: the Pala Chakrayudh was defeated by the Pratihara Nagabhata II, and Kannauj
Kannauj
was again occupied by the Gurjara Pratiharas. Dharampala tried to take control of Kannauj
Kannauj
but was defeated badly at Moongher by the Gurjara Pratiharas.[12] However, Nagabhata II was in turn soon defeated by the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Govinda III, who had initiated a second northern surge. An inscription states that Chakrayudh and Dharampala invited Govinda III
Govinda III
to war against the Gurjara Pratiharas, but Dharampala and Chakrayudh both submitted to the Govinda III, in order to win his sympathy. After this defeat Pratihara power degenerated for some time. After the death of Dharampala, Nagabhata II regained hold over Kannuaj and made it the capital of the Gurjara Pratihara
Gurjara Pratihara
Empire. During this period the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
were facing some internal conflicts, and so they, as well as the Palas, did not contest this.[12] Thus Gurjara Pratiharas became the greatest power in Northern India
India
after occupying Kannauj.[12] Medieval times[edit] Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznavi
Mahmud of Ghaznavi
captured Kanauj
Kanauj
in 1018. Chandradeva
Chandradeva
founded the Gahadvala
Gahadvala
dynasty with its capital at Kanauj
Kanauj
around 1090. His grandson Govindachandra "raised Kanauj
Kanauj
to unprecedented glory." Muhammad Ghori
Muhammad Ghori
advanced against the city, and in the Battle of Chandwar of 1193, killed Jayachandra. The "glory of Imperial Kanauj" ended with Iltutmish's conquest.[16]:21,32–33 Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
defeated Humayun
Humayun
at the battle of Kannauj
Kannauj
on 17 May 1540. During early English rule in India, the city was spelled Cannodge by them. Geography[edit] Kannauj
Kannauj
is located at 27°04′N 79°55′E / 27.07°N 79.92°E / 27.07; 79.92.[17] It has an average elevation of 139 metres (456 feet). Demographics[edit] As of 2001[update] India
India
Census,[18] Kannauj
Kannauj
had a population of 71,530. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Kannauj
Kannauj
has an average literacy rate of 58%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 64%, and female literacy is 52%. In Kannauj, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. Colleges[edit] Medical College[edit] Government Medical College, Kannauj
Government Medical College, Kannauj
is a government medical college located in Tirwa of Kannauj, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is affiliated to King George's Medical University, Lucknow. In 2012, the institute become recognized for 100 M.B.B.S. seats by Medical Council of India (MCI).[citation needed] Engineering College[edit] Government Engineering College, Kannauj
Government Engineering College, Kannauj
is a government engineering college in Kannauj. It is a constituent college of Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University (formerly Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Technical University) in Lucknow, and has its temporary campus at Harcourt Butler Technical University in Kanpur. Transportation[edit] The city is served by two major railway station Kannauj
Kannauj
railway station and Kannauj
Kannauj
City railway station. 22443/ Kanpur
Kanpur
- Mumbai Bandra (T.) (Weekly) SF Express passes through Kannauj railway station on the way from Kanpur
Kanpur
Central railway station to Farrukhabad Junction railway station at evening 7:30 PM every Wednesday . Return train reaches at 5:52 AM . See also[edit]

Thakkar Pheru

References[edit]

^ Rama Shankar Tripathi (1989). History of Kanauj: To the Moslem Conquest. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 2. ISBN 978-81-208-0404-3, ISBN 978-81-208-0404-3.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Kanauj". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 648.  ^ Dilip K. Chakrabarti (2007), Archaeological geography of the Ganga plain: the upper Ganga (Oudh, Rohilkhand, and the Doab), p.47 ^ Rama S. Tripathi, History of Kanauj: To the Moslem Conquest (Motilal Banarsidass, 1964), pp.2,15-16 ^ Moti Chandra (1977), Trade Routes in Ancient India
India
pp.16-18 ^ Tripathi, History of Kanauj, pp.17-19 ^ Tripathi, History of Kanauj, pp.22-24 ^ Tripathi, History of Kanauj, p.147 ^ James Heitzman, The City in South Asia (Routledge, 2008), p.36 ^ Heizman, The City in South Asia, pp.36-37 ^ Tripathi, History of Kanauj, p.192 ^ a b c d e f Pratiyogita Darpan. Upkar Prakashan. p. 9.  ^ a b R.C. Majumdar (1994). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 282–285. ISBN 978-81-208-0436-4, ISBN 978-81-208-0436-4.  ^ Kumar Sundram (2007). Compendium General Knowledge. Upkar Prakashan. p. 195. ISBN 978-81-7482-181-2, ISBN 978-81-7482-181-2.  ^ Pratiyogita Darpan. Upkar Prakashan.  ^ Sen, S.N., 2013, A Textbook of Medieval Indian History, Delhi: Primus Books, ISBN 9789380607344 ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Kannauj ^ " Census
Census
of India
India
2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census
Census
Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 

https://web.archive.org/web/20121231082513/http://www.jnvkannauj.org/history.php Further reading[edit]

Majumdar, R. C., In Pusalker, A. D., In Majumdar, A. K., & Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan,. (1993). The age of imperial Kanauj.

External links[edit]

District Kannauj
Kannauj
Website. [1] History of Kanauj: To the Moslem Conquest By Rama Shankar Tripathi PincodeDirectory.net

v t e

Cities and towns in Kannauj
Kannauj
district

Kannauj

Chhibramau Gursahaiganj Kannauj Samdhan Saurikh Sikanderpur Talgram Tirwa

Other districts

Agra Aligarh Allahabad Ambedkar Nagar Amethi Amroha Auraiya Azamgarh Badaun Bagpat Bahraich Ballia Balrampur Banda Barabanki Bareilly Basti Bhimnagar Bijnor Bulandshahr Chandauli Chitrakoot Deoria Etah Etawah Faizabad Farrukhabad Fatehpur Firozabad Gautam Buddha Nagar Ghaziabad Ghazipur Gonda Gorakhpur Hamirpur Hardoi Hathras Jalaun Jaunpur Jhansi Kanpur
Kanpur
Nagar Kanshi Ram Nagar Kaushambi Kushinagar Lakhimpur Kheri Lalitpur Lucknow Maharajganj Mahoba Mainpuri Mathura Mau Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Muzaffarnagar Panchsheel Nagar Pilibhit Prabuddhanagar Pratapgarh Raebareli Ramabai Nagar Rampur Saharanpur Sant Kabir Nagar Sant Ravidas Nagar Shahjahanpur Shravasti Siddharthnagar Sitapur Sonbhadra Sultanpur Unnao Varanasi

v t e

Historical places of Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
dynasty

Achalpur Baroda Bhadgaon Elephanta Caves Ellora Caves Jura near Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh Kailasa temple, Ellora Kamthana Kannauj Kuknur Latur Malwa Mandore Manpur, Indore Manyakheta Mayuragiri Naregal Pataleshwar, Pune Pattadakal Rajputana Satara Saundatti Tardavadi province in modern Bijapur district

v t e

Kanpur
Kanpur
division topics

General

Doab Dainik Jagran National Chambal Sanctuary Lakh Bahosi Sanctuary

Mythology, history

Panchala Panchala
Panchala
Kingdom Siege of Cawnpore Second Battle of Cawnpore

Districts

Auraiya Etawah Farrukhabad Kannauj Kanpur
Kanpur
Negar Kanpur
Kanpur
Dehat

Tehsils

Saifai

Rivers, dams, lakes

Chambal Ganges Kali Ramganga Sindh Yamuna Ganges
Ganges
Barrage Moti Jheel

Languages, people

Awadhi Braj Bhasha Hindustani Kannauji Khariboli Standard Hindi Urdu

Transport

NH 2 Grand Trunk Road NH 26 NH 86 NH 96 SMSKBT Kanpur
Kanpur
over-bridge Kanpur
Kanpur
Airport IIT Kanpur
Kanpur
Airport Kanpur
Kanpur
Civil Airport Kanpur
Kanpur
Central railway station Kanpur
Kanpur
Anwarganj railway station Govind Nagar Panki Chandari Junction railway station Chakeri Shuklaganj Rawatpur Kalianpur Mandhana Bithoor Chobepur Maharajpur Saifai
Saifai
Airport Sarsaul Bhaupur Gangaghat Magarwara Howrah–Delhi main line Lucknow– Kanpur
Kanpur
Suburban Railway Kanpur
Kanpur
Monorail Kanpur
Kanpur
Metro Kanpur
Kanpur
Metropolitan Bus Service

Industries

Panki Thermal Power Station Lohia Machinery Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation of India British India
India
Corporation Rupani Footwear

Institutes of higher learning

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology Harcourt Butler Technological Institute Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Textile Technology Institute University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kanpur List of engineering colleges in Kanpur Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Memorial Medical College U.P. Rural Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Medical Sciences University

Lok Sabha constituencies in Megapolitan Region

Kanpur Akbarpur Ghatampur Bilhaur Unnao Auraiya Fatehpur Sikandra

See also

Cities and towns in Auraiya district Cities and towns in Etawah district Cities and towns in Farrukhabad district Cities and towns in Kannauj
Kannauj
district Cities and towns in Kanpur
Kanpur
district Cities and towns in Ramabai Nagar district Villages in Auraiya district Villages in Etawah district Villages in Farrukhabad district Villages in Kannauj
Kannauj
district Villages in Kanpur
Kanpur
district Villages in Ramabai Nagar district People from Etawah People from Farrukhabad People from Kanpur People from Ramabai Nagar district Kanpur
Kanpur
topics

Other Divisions

Agra Aligarh Allahabad Azamgarh Bareilly Basti Chitrakoot Devipatan Faizabad Gorakhpur Jhansi Lucknow Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad S

.