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German Cameroon
Cameroon
(German: Kamerun) was an African colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1916 in the region of today's Republic of Cameroon. German Cameroon
Cameroon
also included northern parts of Gabon
Gabon
and the Congo with western parts of the Central African Republic, southwestern parts of Chad
Chad
and far eastern parts of Nigeria.

Contents

1 History

1.1 19th century

1.1.1 Protectorate of Kamerun

1.2 20th century

1.2.1 German losses

1.2.1.1 Gallery

2 Governors 3 See also 4 Footnotes 5 Bibliography and references 6 External links

History[edit]

Cameroon
Cameroon
1901–1972   German Kamerun   British Cameroons   French Cameroun   Republic of Cameroon

19th century[edit] The first German trading post in the Duala area (present day Douala) on the Kamerun
Kamerun
River delta
River delta
(present day Wouri River
Wouri River
delta) was established in 1868 by the Hamburg
Hamburg
trading company C. Woermann (de). The firm’s agent in Gabon, Johannes Thormählen, expanded activities to the Kamerun
Kamerun
River delta. In 1874, together with the Woermann agent in Liberia, Wilhelm Jantzen, the two merchants founded their own company, Jantzen & Thormählen there. Both of these West Africa
West Africa
houses expanded into shipping with their own sailing ships and steamers and inaugurated scheduled passenger and freight service between Hamburg, Germany and Duala.[1] These companies and others obtained extensive acreage from local chiefs and began systematic plantation operations, including bananas. By 1884, Adolph Woermann, representing all West African companies as their spokesman, petitioned the imperial foreign office for "protection" by the German Empire. Bismarck, the Imperial Chancellor, sought to utilize the traders on site in governing the region via "chartered companies". However, in response to Bismarck’s proposal, the companies withdrew their petition.[2] At the core of the commercial interests was pursuit of profitable trading activities under the protection of the Reich, but these entities were determined to stay away from political engagements. Eventually Bismarck yielded to the Woermann position and instructed the admiralty to dispatch a gunboat. As a show of German interest, the small gunboat SMS Möwe arrived in West Africa.[3] Protectorate of Kamerun[edit] The protectorate of Kamerun
Kamerun
was established during the period generally known as Europe’s imperialist "Scramble for Africa". The German explorer, medical doctor, imperial consul and commissioner for West Africa, Gustav Nachtigal, was the driving force toward the colony’s establishment. By then well over a dozen German companies, based in Hamburg
Hamburg
and Bremen, conducted trading and plantation activities in Kamerun.[4] 20th century[edit] With imperial treasury subsidies, the colony built two rail lines from the port city of Duala to bring agricultural products to market: the Northern line of 160-kilometre (99 mi) to the Manenguba mountains, and the 300-kilometre (190 mi) long mainline to Makak on the river Nyong.[5] An extensive postal and telegraph system and a river navigation network with government ships connected the coast to the interior. The Kamerun
Kamerun
protectorate was enlarged with Neukamerun
Neukamerun
(German: New Cameroon) in 1911 as part of the settlement of the Agadir Crisis, resolved by the Treaty of Fez. German losses[edit] At the outbreak of World War I, French, Belgian and British troops invaded the German colony in 1914 and fully occupied it during the Kamerun
Kamerun
campaign. The last German fort to surrender was the one at Mora in the north of the colony in 1916. Following Germany's defeat, the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
divided the territory into two League of Nations mandates (Class B) under the administration of Great Britain
Great Britain
and France. French Cameroun
French Cameroun
and part of British Cameroons
Cameroons
reunified in 1961 as Cameroon. Gallery[edit]

German surveyor in Kamerun, 1884

Police force at Duala on the Kaiser's birthday, 1901

Loading of bananas for export to Germany, 1912

Governors[edit] Main article: List of colonial governors of Cameroon
Cameroon
§ Kamerun See also[edit]

Cameroon
Cameroon
portal German Empire
German Empire
portal Colonialism portal

German West African Company History of Cameroon Neukamerun Index: German colonisation in Africa German South West Africa Togoland German East Africa Elo Sambo Kamerun
Kamerun
Campaign

Footnotes[edit]

Proposed flag for Kamerun.

^ Washausen, Hamburg
Hamburg
und die Kolonialpolitik, p. 68 ^ Washausen, p. 116 ^ Haupt, Deutschlands Schutzgebiete, p. 57 ^ By 1911 the total volume of trade reached over 50 million gold marks [Haupt, p. 64]. ^ This line was later extended to the current Cameroon
Cameroon
capital of Yaoundé.

Bibliography and references[edit]

DeLancey, Mark W.; DeLancey, Mark D. (2000). Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon
Cameroon
(3rd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3775-7. OCLC 43324271.  Gorges, E. Howard (1923). The Great War in West Africa. London: Hutchinson & Co. Haupt, Werner (1984). Deutschlands Schutzgebiete in Übersee 1884–1918 [Germany’s Overseas Protectorates 1884–1918]. Friedberg: Podzun-Pallas Verlag. ISBN 3-7909-0204-7.  Hoffmann, Florian (2007). Okkupation und Militärverwaltung in Kamerun. Etablierung und Institutionalisierung des kolonialen Gewaltmonopols. Göttingen: Cuvillier Verlag. ISBN 9783867274722.  "German Cameroons
Cameroons
1914". UniMaps. 2004. Archived from the original on 4 April 2013.  Map of the territories exchanged between France and Germany at the Treaty of Fez. Schaper, Ulrike (2012). Koloniale Verhandlungen. Gerichtsbarkeit, Verwaltung und Herrschaft in Kamerun
Kamerun
1884-1916. Frankfurt am Main 2012: Campus Verlag. ISBN 3-593-39639-4.  Washausen, Helmut (1968). Hamburg
Hamburg
und die Kolonialpolitik des Deutschen Reiches 1880 bis 1890 [ Hamburg
Hamburg
and Colonial Politics of the German Empire]. Hamburg: Hans Christians Verlag. OCLC 186017338. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to German colony of Cameroon.

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Former German colonies and protectorates

Colonies

Africa

East Africa

Kionga Triangle Wituland

South-West Africa West Africa

Kamerun

Neukamerun

Togoland

Pacific

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Tientsin

Unrecognised

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New Swabia
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