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Davaka Kamarupa

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People

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Bodos
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Script

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Zikir

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Assam
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portal

v t e

The findspots of inscriptions[4] associated with the Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom give an estimate of its geographical location and extent.

Kāmarūpa (/ˈkɑːməˌruːpə/; also called Pragjyotisha), was a power during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent; and along with Davaka, the first historical kingdom of Assam.[5] Though Kamarupa
Kamarupa
existed from 350 CE to 1140 CE, Davaka
Davaka
was absorbed by Kamarupa
Kamarupa
in the 5th century CE.[6][7] Ruled by three dynasties from their capitals in present-day Guwahati, North Guwahati
Guwahati
and Tezpur, Kamarupa
Kamarupa
at its height covered the entire Brahmaputra Valley, North Bengal,[8] Bhutan
Bhutan
and northern part of Bangladesh, and at times portions of West Bengal
Bengal
and Bihar.[2] Though the historical kingdom disappeared by 12th century to be replaced by smaller political entities, the notion of Kamarupa persisted and ancient and medieval chroniclers continued to call this region by this name.[9] In the 16th century the Ahom kingdom
Ahom kingdom
came into prominence and assumed for itself the political and territorial legacy of the Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom.[10]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Antecedents 3 Boundaries 4 State 5 Political history

5.1 Varman dynasty
Varman dynasty
(c. 350–c. 650) 5.2 Mlechchha dynasty
Mlechchha dynasty
(c. 655–c. 900 CE) 5.3 Pala dynasty (c. 900–c. 1100) 5.4 Non-dynastic Independent Kings 5.5 Lunar dynasty 5.6 End of Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom and the beginning of Kamata

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References

Etymology[edit] The kingdom derived its name from region it constitutes. The origin of name attributed to a legend in epic, the Kalika Purana
Kalika Purana
mentioned that country got its name from cupid Kamadeva
Kamadeva
(Kama), who regain his form (Rupa) back from ashes here. Antecedents[edit] Kamarupa
Kamarupa
and the northeast Indian region find no mention in the Ashokan records (3rd century BCE).[11] The first dated mention comes from the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
(1st century) where it describes a people called Sêsatai,[12] and the second mention comes from Ptolemy's Geographia (2nd century) calls the region Kirrhadia after the Kirata population.[13] Arthashastra
Arthashastra
(early centuries of the Christian era[14]) mentions "Lauhitya",[15] which is identified with Brahmaptra valley by a later commentator.[16] The earliest mention of a kingdom comes from the 4th-century Allahabad inscription of Samudragupta
Samudragupta
that calls the kings of Kamarupa
Kamarupa
(Western Assam) and Davaka
Davaka
(now in Nagaon district) frontier rulers (pratyanta nripati).[17] The Chinese traveler Xuanzang
Xuanzang
visited the kingdom in the 7th century, then ruled by Bhaskaravarman.[18] The corpus of Kamarupa inscriptions left by the rulers of Kamarupa, including Bhaskaravarman, at various places in Assam
Assam
and present-day Bangladesh
Bangladesh
are important sources of information. Nevertheless, local grants completely eschew the name Kamarupa; instead they use the name Pragjyotisha, with the kings called Pragjyotishadhipati.[19] Boundaries[edit] The kingdom in the fourth century was small, located to the west of Nagaon that soon engulfed the entire Brahmaputra valley and beyond.[20] According to the 10th century Kalika Purana
Kalika Purana
and the 7th century Xuanzang, the western boundary was the historical Karatoya River. The eastern border was the temple of the goddess Tamreshvari (Pūrvāte Kāmarūpasya devī Dikkaravasini, given in Kalika Purana) near present-day Sadiya,[21] in the eastern most corner of Assam, which too agrees with Xuanzang.[22] The people of Kamarupa
Kamarupa
were aware of Sichuan
Sichuan
which lay two months' journey away from its eastern borders.[23] The southern boundary was near the border between the Dhaka and Mymensingh districts in Bangladesh. Thus it spanned the entire Brahmaputra valley and at various times included present-day Bhutan and parts of Bangladesh. This is supported by the various epigraphic records found scattered over these regions.[1] The kingdom appears to have broken up entirely by the 13th century into smaller kingdoms and from among them rose the Kamata kingdom
Kamata kingdom
in the west and the Ahom kingdom in the east as the main successor kingdoms. State[edit] The extent of state structures can be culled from the numerous Kamarupa inscriptions
Kamarupa inscriptions
left behind by the Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kings as well as accounts left by travellers such as those from Xuanzang.[24] Governance followed the classical saptanga structure of state.[25] Kings and courts: The king was considered to be of divine origin. Succession was primogeniture, but two major breaks resulted in different dynasties. In the second, the high officials of the state elected a king, Brahmapala, after the previous king died without leaving an heir. The royal court consisted of a Rajaguru, poets, learned men and physicians. Different epigraphic records mention different officials of the palace: Mahavaradhipati, Mahapratihara, Mahallakapraudhika, etc. Council of Ministers: The king was advised by a council of ministers (Mantriparisada), and Xuanzang
Xuanzang
mentions a meeting Bhaskaravarman
Bhaskaravarman
had with his ministers. According to the Kamauli grant, these positions were filled by Brahmanas and were hereditary. State functions were specialized and there were different groups of officers looking after different departments. Revenue: Land revenue (kara) was collected by special tax-collectors from cultivators. Cultivators who had no proprietary rights on the lands they tilled paid uparikara. Duties (sulka) were collected by toll collectors (kaivarta) from merchants who plied keeled boats. The state maintained a monopoly on copper mines (kamalakara). The state maintained its stores and treasury via officials: Bhandagaradhikrita and Koshthagarika. Grants: The king occasionally gave Brahmanas grants (brahmadeya), which consisted generally of villages, water resources, wastelands etc. (agraharas). Such grants conferred on the donee the right to collect revenue and the right to be free of any regular tax himself and immunity from other harassments. Sometimes, the Brahmanas were relocated from North India, with a view to establish varnashramdharma. Nevertheless, the existence of donees indicate the existence of a feudal class. Grants made to temples and religious institutions were called dharmottara and devottara respectively. Land survey: The land was surveyed and classified. Arable lands (kshetra) were held individually or by families, whereas wastelands (khila) and forests were held collectively. There were lands called bhucchidranyaya that were left unsurveyed by the state on which no tax was levied. Administration: The entire kingdom was divided into a hierarchy of administrative divisions. From the highest to the lowest, they were bhukti, mandala, vishaya, pura (towns), agrahara (collection of villages) and grama (village). These units were administered by headed by rajanya, rajavallabha, vishayapati etc.[25] Some other offices were nyayakaranika, vyavaharika, kayastha etc., led by the adhikara. They dispensed judicial duties too, though the ultimate authority lay with the king. Law enforcement and punishments were made by officers called dandika, (magistrate) and dandapashika (one who executed the orders of a dandika). Political history[edit] Main article: Early Period of Kamarupa

Part of a series on the

History of Kamarupa

Ruling dynasties

Varman dynasty
Varman dynasty
(350–650 CE)

Pushyavarman 350–374

Samudravarman 374–398

Balavarman 398–422

Kalyanavarman 422–446

Ganapativarman 446–470

Mahendravarman 470–494

Narayanavarman 494–518

Bhutivarman 518–542

Chandramukhavarman 542–566

Sthitavarman 566–590

Susthitavarman 590–595

Supratisthitavarman 595–600

Bhaskaravarman 600–650

Avantivarman Unknown

Mlechchha dynasty
Mlechchha dynasty
(650–900 CE)

Salasthamba 650–670

Vigrahastambha 670–680

Palaka 680–695

Kumara 695–710

Vajra 710–725

Harshavarman 725–745

Balavarman
Balavarman
II 745–760

Salambha 795–815

Harjjaravarman 815–832

Vanamalavarman 832–855

Jayamala 855–860

Balavarman
Balavarman
III 860–880

Tyagasimha 890–900

Pala Dynasty (900–1100 CE)

Brahma Pala 900–920

Ratna Pala 920–960

Indra Pala 960–990

Go Pala 990–1015

Harsha Pala 1015–1035

Dharma Pala 1035–1060

Jaya Pala 1075–1100

v t e

Kamarupa, first mentioned on Samudragupta's Allahabad rock pillar as a frontier kingdom, began as a subordinate but sovereign ally of the Gupta empire
Gupta empire
around present-day Guwahati
Guwahati
in the 4th century. It finds mention along with Davaka, a kingdom to the east of Kamarupa
Kamarupa
in the Kapili river valley in present-day Nagaon district, but which is never mentioned again as an independent political entity in later historical records. Kamarupa, which was probably one among many such state structures, grew territorially to encompass the entire Brahmaputra valley and beyond. The kingdom was ruled by three major dynasties, all of which drew their lineage from the legendary king Naraka, who is said to have established his line by defeating the aboriginal king Ghatakasura of the Danava dynasty. Varman dynasty
Varman dynasty
(c. 350–c. 650)[edit] Main article: Varman dynasty Pushyavarman
Pushyavarman
(350–374) established the Varman Dynasty, by fighting many enemies from within and without his kingdom; but his son Samudravarman
Samudravarman
(374–398), named after Samudragupta, was accepted as an overlord by many local rulers.[26] Nevertheless, subsequent kings continued their attempts to stabilise and expand the kingdom.[27] The Nagajari Khanikargaon rock inscription of 5th century found in Sarupathar in Golaghat district of Assam
Assam
adduces the fact that the kingdom spread to the east very quickly. Kalyanavarman (422-446) occupied Davaka
Davaka
and Mahendravarman (470-494) further eastern areas.[6] Narayanavarma (494–518) and his son Bhutivarman
Bhutivarman
(518–542) offered the ashwamedha (horse sacrifice);[28] and as the Nidhanpur inscription of Bhaskarvarman avers, these expansions included the region of Chandrapuri visaya, identified with present-day Sylhet division. Thus, the small but powerful kingdom that Pushyavarman
Pushyavarman
established grew in fits and starts over many generations of kings and expanded to include adjoining possibly smaller kingdoms and parts of Bangladesh. After the initial expansion till the beginning of Bhutivarman's reign, the kingdom came under attack from Yasodharman
Yasodharman
(525–535) of Malwa, the first major assault from the west.[29] Though it is unclear what the effect of this invasion was on the kingdom; that Bhutivarman's grandson, Sthitavarman
Sthitavarman
(566–590), enjoyed victories over the Gauda of Karnasuvarna
Karnasuvarna
and performed two aswamedha ceremonies suggests that the Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom had recovered nearly in full. His son, Susthitavarman
Susthitavarman
(590–600) came under the attack of Mahasenagupta of East Malwa. These back and forth invasions were a result of a system of alliances that pitted the Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kings (allied to the Maukharis) against the Gaur kings (allied with the East Malwa
Malwa
kings).[30] Susthitavarman
Susthitavarman
died as the Gaur invasion was on, and his two sons, Suprathisthitavarman and Bhaskarvarman fought against an elephant force and were captured and taken to Gaur. They were able to regain their kingdom due probably to a promise of allegiance.[31] Suprathisthitavarman's reign is given as 595–600, a very short period, at the end of which he died without an heir. Supratisthitavarman
Supratisthitavarman
was succeeded by his brother, Bhaskarvarman (600–650), the most illustrious of the Varman kings who succeeded in turning his kingdom and invading the very kingdom that had taken him captive. Bhaskarvarman had become strong enough to offer his alliance with Harshavardhana
Harshavardhana
just as the Thanesar
Thanesar
king ascended the throne in 606 after the murder of his brother, the previous king, by Shashanka of Gaur. Harshavardhana
Harshavardhana
finally took control over the kingless Maukhari
Maukhari
kingdom and moved his capital to Kanauj.[32] The alliance between Harshavardhana
Harshavardhana
and Bhaskarvarman squeezed Shashanka
Shashanka
from either side and reduced his kingdom, though it is unclear whether this alliance resulted in his complete defeat. Nevertheless, Bhaskarvarman did issue the Nidhanpur copper-plate inscription from his victory camp in the Gaur capital Karnasuvarna
Karnasuvarna
(present-day Murshidabad, West Bengal) to replace a grant issued earlier by Bhutivarman
Bhutivarman
for a settlement in the Sylhet region of present-day Bangladesh.[33] Mlechchha dynasty
Mlechchha dynasty
(c. 655–c. 900 CE)[edit] Main article: Mlechchha dynasty After Bhaskaravarman's death without an heir, the kingdom passed into the hands of Salasthambha (655–670), an erstwhile local governor[34] and a member of an aboriginal group called Mlechchha (or Mech), after a period of civil and political strife. This dynasty too drew its lineage from the Naraka dynasty, though it had no dynastic relationship with the previous Varman dynasty. The capital of this dynasty was Haruppeshvara, now identified with modern Dah Parbatiya near Tezpur. The kingdom took on feudal characteristics[35] with political power shared between the king and second and third tier rulers called mahasamanta and samanta who enjoyed considerable autonomy.[36] The last ruler in this line was Tyāga Singha (890–900). Pala dynasty (c. 900–c. 1100)[edit] Main article: Pala dynasty (Kamarupa) After the death of Tyāgasimha without an heir, a member of the Bhauma family, Brahmapala (900–920), was elected as king by the ruling chieftains, just as Gopala of the Pala dynasty of Bengal
Bengal
was elected. The original capital of this dynasty was Hadapeshvara, and was shifted to Durjaya
Durjaya
built by Ratnapala (920–960), near modern Guwahati. The greatest of the Pala kings, Dharmapala (1035–1060) had his capital at Kamarupanagara, now identified with North Guwahati. The last Pala king was Jayapala (1075–1100). Around this time, Kamarupa
Kamarupa
was attacked and the western portion was conquered by the Pala king Ramapala. Non-dynastic Independent Kings[edit] The Gaur king could not hold Kamarupa
Kamarupa
for long, and Timgyadeva (1110–1126) ruled Kamarupa
Kamarupa
independently for sometime. Vaidyadeva, a minister of the Gaur king Kumarapala (the son of Ramapala) began an expedition against Timgyadeva and installed himself as a ruler at Hamshkonchi in the Kamrup region. Though he maintained friendly relationships with Kumarapala, he styled himself after the Kamarupa kings issuing grants under the elephant seal of erstwhile Kamarupa kings and assuming the title of Maharajadhiraja. Lunar dynasty[edit] Not much is known about dynastic kings from this period. Nevertheless, a single inscription (1185) gives a list of four rulers that have been called the Lunar dynasty—Bhaskara, Rayarideva, Udayakarna and Vallabhadeva, dated to 1120-1200.[37] The period saw a waning of the Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom, and in 1206 the Afghan Muhammad-i-Bakhtiyar passed through Kamarupa
Kamarupa
against Tibet which ended in disaster, the first of many Turko-Afghan invasions. The ruler of Kamarupa
Kamarupa
at this point was Prithu (-1228, called Britu in Tabaqat-i Nasiri), who is sometimes identified with Visvasundara, the son of Vallabhadeva of the Lunar dynasty, mentioned in the Gachtal inscription of 1232 A.D.[38] Prithu withstood invasions (1226-27) from Ghiyasuddin Iwaj Shah of Gauda who retreated, but was killed in the sunsequent invasion by Nasir ud din Mahmud
Nasir ud din Mahmud
in 1228.[39] Nasir-ud-din installed a tributary king but after his death in 1229 there was much civil strife. End of Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom and the beginning of Kamata[edit] There emerged a strong ruler named Sandhya (c. 1250-1270), the Rai of Kamrup, with his capital at Kamarupanagara in present-day North Guwahati. Malik Ikhtiyaruddin Iuzbak, a governor of Gaur for the Mameluk rulers of Delhi, attempted an invasive attack on Sandhya's domain in 1257; and Sandhya, with the help of the spring floods that same year, captured and killed the Sultan.[40] Subsequent to this attack, Sandhya moved his capital from Kamarupanagara to Kamatapur (North Bengal) and established a new kingdom, that came to be called Kamata.[41] At that time, western Kamarupa
Kamarupa
was being ruled by the chiefs of the Bodo people, Koch and Mech tribes. In parts of the erstwhile Kamarupa
Kamarupa
the Kachari kingdom
Kachari kingdom
(central Assam, South bank), Baro Bhuyans
Baro Bhuyans
(central Assam, North bank), and the Chutiya kingdom (east) were emerging. The Ahoms, who would establish a strong and independent kingdom later, began building their state structures in the region between the Kachari and the Chutiya kingdoms in 1228. See also[edit]

Kamrup (other) History of Assam

Notes[edit]

^ a b (Dutta 2008:281), reproduced from (Acharya 1968). ^ a b Sircar (1990a), pp. 63–68. ^ "Meet the Axomiya Sikhs". The Tribune. Chandigarh. 24 March 2013.  ^ Lahiri (1991), pp. 26–28. ^ Suresh Kant Sharma, Usha Sharma - 2005,"Discovery of North-East India: Geography, History, Culture, ... - Volume 3", Page 248, Davaka (Nowgong) and Kamarupa
Kamarupa
as separate and submissive friendly kingdoms. ^ a b "As regards the eastern limits of the kingdom, Davaka
Davaka
was absorbed within Kamarupa
Kamarupa
under Kalyanavarman and the outlying regions were brought under subjugation by Mahendravarman." (Choudhury 1959, p. 47) ^ "It is presumed that (Kalyanavarman) conquered Davaka, incorporating it within the kingdom of Kamarupa" (Puri 1968, p. 11) ^ "According to the Kalika Purana
Kalika Purana
and the Yogonitantra, the ancient Kamarupa
Kamarupa
included, besides the districts of modern Assam, Cooch-Behar, Rang-pura, Jalpaiguri and Dinajpur within its territory." (Saikia 1997, p. 3) ^ In the medieval times the region between the Sankosh river and the Barnadi river on the northern bank of the Brahmaputra river was defined as Kamrup (or Koch Hajo in Persian chronicles)(Sarkar 1990:95) ^ "They also looked upon themselves as the heirs of the glory that was ancient Kamarupa
Kamarupa
by right of conquest, and they long cherished infructuously their unfulfilled hopes of expandling up to that frontier." (Guha 1983:24). 'An Ahom force reached the banks of the Karatoya in hot pursuit of an invading Truko-Afghan army in the 1530's. Since then "the washing of the sword in the Karatoya" became a symbol of the Assamese aspirations, repeatedly evoked in the Bar-Mels and mentioned in the chronicles." (Guha 1983:33) ^ (Puri 1968, p. 4) ^ Besatae in the Schoff translation and also sometimes used by Ptolemy, they are a people similar to Kirradai and they lived in the region between " Assam
Assam
and Sichuan" (Casson 1989, pp. 241–243) ^ "The Periplus of the Erythraen Sea (last quarter of the first century A.D) and Ptolemy's Geography (middle of the second century A.D) appear to call the land including Assam
Assam
Kirrhadia after its Kirata population." (Sircar 1990:60-61) ^ "...the Arthashastra
Arthashastra
in its present form has to be assigned to the early centuries of the Christian era and the commentaries to much later dates." (Sircar 1990, p. 61) ^ Niśipada Caudhurī (1985), Historical archaeology of central Assam, p.2 ^ "If we go by Bhattaswamin's commentary on Arthashastra
Arthashastra
Magadha was already importing certain items of trade from this [Brahmaputra] Valley in Kautilya's days" (Guha 1984, p. 76) ^ (Sharma 1978, p. xv) ^ Bhushan 2005, p. 21. ^ "The name Kamarupa
Kamarupa
does not appear in local grants where Pragjyotisha alone figures with the local rulers called Pragjyotishadhipati." (Puri 1968, p. 3) ^ Sailendra Nath Sen (1999), Ancient Indian History and Civilization, p.303 Kamarupa
Kamarupa
at that time did not comprise the whole of the Assam valley as Davaka
Davaka
mentioned along with Kamarupa
Kamarupa
in the Allahabad Inscription, has been located in modern Nowgong district. ^ "...the temple of the goddess Tameshwari (Dikkaravasini) is now located at modern Sadiya
Sadiya
about 100 miles to the northeast of Sibsagar" (Sircar 1990a:63–64) ^ "To the east of Kamarupa, the description continues, the country was a series of hills and hillocks without any principal city, and it reached the to the southwest Barbarians [of China]"(Watters 1905:186) Therefore, the hills to the east of Kamarupa
Kamarupa
could not have been the Karbi Hills because they do not reach to the southwest of China. ^ "The pilgrim learned from the people [of Kamarupa] that the southwest borders of Szuchuan were distant about 2 months' journey, but the mountains and rivers were hard to pass, there were pestinential vapurs and poisonous snakes and herbs."(Watters 1905:186) ^ Choudhury, P. C., (1959) The History of Civilization of the People of Assam, Guwahati ^ a b Puri (1968), p. 56. ^ Lahiri (1991), p. 68. ^ Lahiri (1991), p. 72. ^ (Sircar 1990b:101) ^ (Lahiri 1991:70). Though the first evidence is from the Mansador stone pillar inscription of Yasodharman, there is no reference to this invasion in the Kamarupa
Kamarupa
inscriptions. ^ (Sircar 1990b:106–107) ^ (Sircar 1990b:109) ^ (Sircar 1990b:113) ^ Sircar (1990b), p. 115. ^ (Lahiri 1991:76) ^ Lahiri (1991), pp. 77–79. ^ Lahiri (1991), p. 78. ^ (Sircar 1992:166) ^ "Visvasundara (son and successor of Vallabhadeva), (?) was perhaps to be identified with Prithu or Bartu of Minhaj." (Sarkar 1992:37-38) (Note:11) ^ (Sarkar 1992:38) ^ (Sarkar 1992, pp. 39–40) ^ (Kamarupa) was reorganized as a new state, 'Kamata' by name with Kamatapur as capital. The exact time when the change was made is uncertain. But possibly it had been made by Sandhya (c1250-1270) as a safeguard against mounting dangers from the east and the west. Its control on the eastern regions beyond the Manah (Manas river) was lax."(Sarkar 1992, pp. 40–41)

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kamarupa
Kamarupa
Kingdom.

Acharya, N. N. (1968), Asama Aitihashik Bhuchitravali (Maps of Ancient Assam), Bina Library, Gauhati, Assam  Casson, Lionel (1989). The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text With Introduction, Translation, and Commentary. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04060-5.  Choudhury, P. C. (1959), The History of Civilization of the People of Assam
Assam
to the Twelfth Century AD, Department of History and Antiquarian Studies, Gauhati, Assam  Dutta, Anima (2008). Political geography of Pragjyotisa Kamarupa (Ph.D.). Gauhati University.  Guha, Amalendu (December 1983), "The Ahom Political System: An Enquiry into the State Formation Process in Medieval Assam
Assam
(1228–1714)", Social Scientist, 11 (12): 3–34, doi:10.2307/3516963  Guha, Amalendu (1984). "Pre-Ahom Roots and the Medieval State in Assam: A Reply". Social Scientist. Social Scientist. 12 (6): 70–77. JSTOR 3517005.  Lahiri, Nayanjot (1991), Pre-Ahom Assam: Studies in the Inscriptions of Assam
Assam
between the Fifth and the Thirteenth Centuries AD, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd  Puri, Baij Nath (1968), Studies in Early History and Administration in Assam, Gauhati University  Saikia, Nagen (1997). "Medieval Assamese Literature". In Ayyappa Panicker, K. Medieval Indian Literature: Assamese, Bengali and Dogri. 1. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. pp. 3–20.  Sarkar, J N (1990), "Koch Bihar, Kamrup and the Mughals, 1576–1613", in Barpujari, H K, The Comprehensive History of Assam: Mediebal Period, Political, II, Guwahati: Publication Board, Assam, pp. 92–103  Sarkar, J. N. (1992), "Chapter II The Turko-Afghan Invasions", in Barpujari, H. K., The Comprehensive History of Assam, 2, Guwahati: Assam
Assam
Publication Board, pp. 35–48  Sircar, D C (1990a), "Pragjyotisha-Kamarupa", in Barpujari, H K, The Comprehensive History of Assam, I, Guwahati: Publication Board, Assam, pp. 59–78  Sircar, D C (1990b), "Political History", in Barpujari, H K, The Comprehensive History of Assam, I, Guwahati: Publication Board, Assam, pp. 94–171  Sharma, Mukunda Madhava (1978), Inscriptions of Ancient Assam, Gauhati University, Assam  Watters, Thomas (1905). Davids, T. W. Rhys; Bushell, S. W, eds. On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India. 2. London: Royal Asiatic Society. Retrieved January 29, 2013. 

v t e

History of Assam

Timeline of Assam
Assam
History

Protohistoric Assam

Danava dynasty Pragjyotisha Kingdom Naraka dynasty Sonitpura Kingdom

Ancient Assam

Davaka Kamarupa

Medieval Assam

Ahom kingdom Sutiya Kingdom Kachari Kingdom Kamata Kingdom Baro-Bhuyan

Colonial Assam

Colonial Assam

Contemporary Assam

Assam
Assam
separatist movements Assam
Assam
Movement 2012 Assam
Assam
violence December 2014 Assam
Assam
viole

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