The Info List - Kamala Harris

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Kamala Devi Harris (/ˈkɑːmələ/, KAH-mə-lə;[1] born October 20, 1964) is an American politician and lawyer of the Democratic Party serving as the junior United States Senator from California
since 2017. She previously was the 32nd Attorney General of California
from 2011 to 2017. Harris graduated from Howard University
Howard University
and UC Hastings. After working in the San Francisco District Attorney's Office
San Francisco District Attorney's Office
and City Attorney's Office Harris was elected District Attorney of San Francisco. Harris was elected California's Attorney General in 2010 and reelected in 2014.[2][3] On November 8, 2016, she defeated Loretta Sanchez
Loretta Sanchez
in the 2016 Senate election to succeed outgoing Senator Barbara Boxer, becoming California's third female U.S. Senator and the first of Jamaican or Indian descent.[4][5] During her tenure, she has generally opposed President Donald Trump's policies.[6]


1 Early life and education 2 Early career

2.1 District Attorney of the City and County of San Francisco

2.1.1 Violent crimes, felons, incarceration, and conviction rate 2.1.2 Hate crimes and civil rights

3 Attorney General of California

3.1 2010 election 3.2 2014 election 3.3 Tenure as California
Attorney General

3.3.1 Housing 3.3.2 Prison conditions and sentencing reform 3.3.3 Daniel Larsen case 3.3.4 Michelle-Lael Norsworthy case 3.3.5 Financial crimes 3.3.6 County prosecutors' misconduct 3.3.7 Bureau of Children's Justice 3.3.8 Mitrice Richardson
Mitrice Richardson
case 3.3.9 Backpage cases

4 U.S. Senate

4.1 2016 election 4.2 Tenure 4.3 Committee assignments 4.4 Caucus memberships

5 Political positions

5.1 Abortion 5.2 Death penalty 5.3 Education 5.4 Environment 5.5 Gun law 5.6 Health care 5.7 Immigration

6 Personal life 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Early life and education[edit] Harris was born on October 20, 1964 in Oakland, California
to a Tamil Indian mother, Shyamala Gopalan Harris (1938–2009), and a Jamaican father, Donald Harris. Her mother was a prominent breast cancer researcher, who emigrated from Chennai
(then Madras), Tamil Nadu, India, in 1960,[7][8] and her father a Stanford University
Stanford University
economics professor, who emigrated from Jamaica
in 1961 for graduate study in economics at University of California, Berkeley.[13] Her name, Kamalā, comes from the Sanskrit
word Kamala ("Lotus"), another name of Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess of prosperity, whose seat is a lotus flower. She was extremely close to her maternal grandfather, P. V. Gopalan, an Indian diplomat,[8][14] and as a child she frequently visited her family in Besant Nagar, in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.[15] She has one younger sister, Maya, a lawyer and public policy advocate, who married Tony West, a former Associate Attorney General of the United States and current General Counsel at Uber.[16][17] The family lived in Berkeley, California, where both of Harris' parents attended graduate school.[18] Harris' parents divorced when she was 7 and her mother was granted custody of the children by court-ordered settlement.[18] After the divorce, her mother moved with the children to Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where Shyamala took a position doing research at the Jewish General Hospital
Jewish General Hospital
and teaching at McGill University.[19][20] After graduating from Montreal's Westmount High School in Quebec, Harris attended Howard University
Howard University
in Washington, D.C., where she majored in political science and economics.[21][22] At Howard, Harris was elected to the liberal arts student council as freshman class representative, a member of the debate team, and joined the Alpha Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha
Alpha Kappa Alpha
sorority.[21] Harris then returned to California, earning her Juris Doctor
Juris Doctor
(J.D.) from University of California, Hastings
University of California, Hastings
College of the Law, in 1989.[23] Harris failed the California
bar exam her first time, later saying, "it's not a measure of your capacity."[12] She was admitted to the State Bar of California
in 1990.[24] Early career[edit] Main article: Electoral history of Kamala Harris

Harris (back, second from the left) celebrating the 90th anniversary of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Harris served as a deputy district attorney in Alameda County, California, from 1990 to 1998. Harris says she sought a career in law enforcement because she wanted to be "at the table where decisions are made."[12] In 1993, she started dating California
Speaker of the Assembly, Willie Brown, who introduced her to many powerful individuals in the California
and Sacramento political and campaign management establishment.[25] She was highly active in Brown's 1995 campaign for Mayor of San Francisco
San Francisco
and introduced publicly as Brown's girlfriend, even though Brown was married. Two weeks following the election, Brown broke off the relationship. After 1998, while Willie Brown was San Francisco's mayor, she became managing attorney of the Career Criminal Unit in the San Francisco
San Francisco
District Attorney's Office, a small unit with a staff of three.[26] In 2000, San Francisco's elected City Attorney Louise Renne recruited Harris to join her office, where she was chief of the Community and Neighborhood Division, which oversees civil code enforcement matters.[27] District Attorney of the City and County of San Francisco[edit]

Harris meets with Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
in 2004

After the Fajitagate scandal, Harris defeated two-term incumbent Terence Hallinan
Terence Hallinan
in the 2003 election to become District Attorney of the City and County of San Francisco.[28] In April 2004, San Francisco
San Francisco
Police Department Officer Isaac Espinoza was shot and killed in the line of duty.[12] Three days later D.A. Harris announced she would not seek the death penalty, infuriating the San Francisco
San Francisco
Police Officers Association.[12] During Officer Espinoza's funeral at St. Mary's Cathedral U.S. Senator and former San Francisco mayor Dianne Feinstein
Dianne Feinstein
rose to the pulpit and called on Harris, who was sitting in the front pew, to secure the death penalty, prompting a standing ovation from the 2,000 uniformed police officers in attendance.[12] Harris still refused.[12] Officer Espinoza's killer was convicted of the murder and sentenced to life in prison.[12] Shortly thereafter, Harris demoted veteran career prosecutor Paul Cummins, chief assistant to her predecessor, from the 80-prosecutor felony prosecution unit to Harris's former low position in the DA's office.[29] Cummins was widely regarded by the police department, further hurting its relationship with Harris. As D.A., Harris started a program that gives first-time drug dealers the chance to earn a high school diploma and find employment.[12] Over eight years the program produced fewer than 300 graduates, but achieved a very low recidivism rate.[12] She was re-elected when she ran unopposed, in 2007.[30] In 2009, Harris wrote Smart on Crime: A Career Prosecutor's Plan to Make Us Safer,[31] in which she looked at criminal justice from an economic perspective and attempted to reduce temptation and access for criminals.[32] The book discusses a series of "myths" surrounding the criminal justice system, and presents proposals to reduce and prevent crime.[32] Recognized by The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Daily Journal as one of the top 100 lawyers in California, she served on the board of the California
District Attorney's Association and was vice president of the National District Attorneys Association.[33] She has been outspoken on the need for innovation in public safety, particularly with respect to reducing the recidivism rate in San Francisco.[34] One such program, "Back on Track", was signed into law by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
Arnold Schwarzenegger
as a model program for the state.[35][36] Initially, there were issues with removing illegal immigrants from the program, such as an incident involving Alexander Izaguirre, who was later arrested for assault.[37] The program was revised to address that concern, barring anyone who could not legally be employed in the United States.[38] Harris also protected informants with the Nuestra Familia prison gang who were engaged in illegal activities including drug trafficking and weapon possession.[39] Violent crimes, felons, incarceration, and conviction rate[edit]

Harris holding a press conference with law enforcement agents

While Harris was the San Francisco
San Francisco
District Attorney, the overall felony conviction rate rose from 52% in 2003 to 67% in 2006, the highest in a decade; there was an 85% conviction rate for homicides, and convictions of drug dealers increased from 56% in 2003 to 74% in 2006.[40] While these statistics represent only trial convictions, she also closed many cases via plea bargains.[41] When she took office, she took a special interest in clearing part of the murder caseload from the previous administration. Harris claimed that the records were less than optimal from the previous administration, and worked to get convictions on what she could. That meant that out of the 73 homicide cases backlogged, 32 cases took deals for lesser charges such as manslaughter or took pleas to other crimes such as assault or burglary while the murder charges were dismissed.[42] However, critics argue that San Francisco
San Francisco
sends fewer people to jail per arrest than other counties throughout the state. The San Francisco DA's incarceration rates were among the lowest in the entire state of California—fully ten times lower than in San Diego County, for example. According to the San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle, "roughly 4 of every 100 arrests resulted in prison terms in San Francisco, compared with 12.8 out of 100 in Alameda County, 14.4 of 100 in Sacramento County, 21 of 100 in San Mateo and Santa Clara counties, 26.6 of 100 in Fresno County, 38.7 of 100 in Los Angeles County
Los Angeles County
and 41 of 100 in San Diego County."[43] Police also noted that lenient sentencing from San Francisco judges also played a role in this.[43] While officers within the SFPD credited Harris with tightening loopholes in bail and drug programs that defendants had exploited in the past, they also accused her of being too deliberate in her prosecution of murder suspects.[44] Additionally, in 2009 San Francisco prosecutors won a lower percentage of their felony jury trials than their counterparts at district attorneys' offices covering the 10 largest cities in California, according to data on case outcomes compiled by officials at the San Francisco
San Francisco
Superior Court as well as by other county courts and prosecutors. (Officials in Sacramento, the sixth-largest city in California, did not provide data.) Harris's at-trial felony conviction rate that year was 76%, down 12 points from the previous year. By contrast, the then-most recent recorded statewide average was 83%, according to statistics from the California
Judicial Council.[45] In a small sample, a report computed that the conviction rate for felony trials in San Francisco County in the first three months of 2010 was just 53%.[45] San Francisco has historically had one of the lowest conviction rates in the state; the county is known for a defendant-friendly jury pool.[46][45] In 2012, Superior Court Judge Anne-Christine Massullo ruled that San Francisco District Attorney Harris' office violated defendants' rights by hiding damaging information about a police crime lab technician, and was indifferent to demands that it account for its failings.[47] Hate crimes and civil rights[edit] Harris created a special Hate Crimes Unit as San Francisco
San Francisco
District Attorney. She focused on hate crimes against LGBT
children and teens in schools. She convened a national conference to confront the "gay-transgender panic defense", which has been used to justify violent hate crimes.[48] Harris supports same-sex marriage in California
and opposed both Proposition 22
Proposition 22
and Proposition 8.[49] In 2004, The National Urban League
National Urban League
honored Harris as a "Woman of Power", and she received the Thurgood Marshall Award from the National Black Prosecutors Association in 2005. In her campaign for California Attorney General, she received the endorsements of numerous groups, including EMILY's List, California
Legislative Black Caucus, Asian American Action Fund, Black Women Organized for Political Action, the National Women's Political Caucus, Mexican American Bar Association, and South Asians for Opportunity.[50] Attorney General of California[edit] 2010 election[edit] Main article: California
Attorney General election, 2010

Harris being sworn-in as Attorney General

On November 12, 2008, Harris announced her candidacy for California Attorney General. Both of California's United States Senators, Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer, as well as House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, endorsed Harris during the Democratic Party primary.[51] In the primary, she faced Chris Kelly, former Chief Privacy
Officer of Facebook; Assemblyman Alberto Torrico; Assemblyman and former military prosecutor Ted Lieu; Assemblyman Pedro Nava; Rocky Delgadillo, former City Attorney of Los Angeles; and Mike Schmier.[52][citation needed] In the June 8, 2010, primary, she was nominated with 33.6% of the vote. Her closest competitors, Torrico and Kelly, had 15.6% and 15.5% respectively.[52][53] In her campaign for California
Attorney General, Harris received the endorsements of United Farm Workers
United Farm Workers
cofounder Dolores Huerta, United Educators of San Francisco, and San Francisco
San Francisco
Firefighters Local 798.[50] She also received the endorsement of Antonio Villaraigosa, Mayor of Los Angeles.[54] In the general election, she faced Los Angeles County District Attorney Steve Cooley. On election night, November 2, 2010, Cooley prematurely declared victory, but many ballots remained uncounted. On November 24, as the count advanced, Harris was leading by more than 55,000 votes, and Cooley conceded.[55] On January 3, 2011, Harris became the first female,[33] Jamaican American,[54][56] and Indian American
Indian American
attorney general in California.[57][58]

Harris speaking at a US Department of Justice event

In 2012, she sent a letter to 100 mobile app developers asking them to comply with California
law with respect to privacy issues.[59] If any developer of an application that could be used by a Californian does not display a privacy policy statement when the application is installed, California
law is broken, with a possible fine $2500 for every download. The law affects any developer anywhere in the world if the app is used by a Californian.[60] At the 2012 Democratic National Convention
2012 Democratic National Convention
Harris gave a prime-time speech attacking Mitt Romney.[12] During the second Obama administration, Harris was mentioned as a possible nominee for a seat on the United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court
if a seat on that court became vacant.[61] In February 2016, The New York Times
The New York Times
identified her as a potential US Supreme Court nominee to replace Justice Antonin Scalia.[62] 2014 election[edit] Main article: California
Attorney General election, 2014

Harris right, with her sister, Maya, at San Francisco
San Francisco
City Hall in February 2014.

Harris announced her intention to run for re-election in February 2014, and filed paperwork to run on February 12. According to the office of California
Secretary of State Debra Bowen, Harris had raised the money for her campaign during the previous year in 2013.[63] On August 13, 2014, Harris announced her endorsement of Betty Yee
Betty Yee
for California
State Controller, called her one of the state's "most knowledgeable and responsible money managers," and said she was proud to endorse her. Yee, in return, sang Harris's praises and called her an "outstanding elected leader."[64] Harris also endorsed Bonnie Dumanis[65] and Sandra Fluke.[66] Harris herself was endorsed by The Sacramento Bee,[67] Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Daily News,[68] and The Los Angeles Times.[69] On November 4, 2014, Harris was re-elected against Republican Ronald Gold.[70] In September 2014, when US Attorney General
US Attorney General
Eric Holder
Eric Holder
announced his intention to step down, Harris was speculated as being a potential candidate as the next US Attorney General.[71] Harris addressed the speculation in a statement, days after Holder's resignation, declining an intent to take the office and asserted she was staying in her position as Attorney General of California.[72] Two months later, in November 2014, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
nominated Loretta Lynch
Loretta Lynch
to succeed Holder.[73] On November 10, Harris issued a statement regarding the nomination that approved of Obama's decision, praised Lynch, and reaffirmed her choice to remain working with the California Department of Justice.[74] Tenure as California
Attorney General[edit]

Harris' official portrait as Attorney General

Housing[edit] When Harris took office, California
was still reeling from the effects of the subprime mortgage crisis. Harris participated in the National Mortgage Settlement against five banks: Ally Financial, Wells Fargo, Bank of America, Citibank, and Chase. She originally walked off the talks because she believed the deal was too lenient. She later rejoined the talks, securing $12 billion of debt reduction for the state's homeowners and $26 billion overall.[75] Other parts of the funding would go to state housing counseling services and legal help for struggling homeowners and forgiving the debt of over 23,000 homeowners who agreed to sell their homes for less than the mortgage loan.[76] Later, she introduced the California
Homeowner's Bill of Rights in the California
State Legislature, a package of several bills that would give homeowners more "options when fighting to keep their home". The Bill, which took effect on January 1, 2013, banned the practices of "dual-tracking" (processing a modification and foreclosure at the same time) and robo-signing, and provided homeowners with a single point of contact at their lending institution. It also gave the California Attorney General more power to investigate and prosecute financial fraud and to convene special grand juries to prosecute multi-county crimes instead of prosecuting a single crime county-by-county.[77][78] The Sacramento Bee
The Sacramento Bee
reported on one of the first cases of a homeowner using the bill to stop Bank of America
Bank of America
from foreclosing on his home.[79] Prison conditions and sentencing reform[edit] After the United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court
in Brown v. Plata
Brown v. Plata
(2011) declared California's prisons so overcrowded they inflicted cruel and unusual punishment, Harris fought federal court supervision, explaining "I have a client, and I don't get to choose my client."[12] After California
failed to fully implement the court's order to reduce crowding, and was ordered to implement new parole programs, lawyers for Harris appealed the decision on grounds that if forced to release these inmates early, prisons would lose an important labor pool.[80] Harris refused to take any position on criminal sentencing-reform initiatives Proposition 36 (2012) and Proposition 47 (2014), arguing it would be improper because her office prepares the ballot booklets.[12] Former California
Attorney General John Van de Kamp considered her explanation "baloney".[12] Daniel Larsen case[edit] On August 24, 2012, the Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
published an editorial calling on Harris to release Daniel Larsen from prison.[81] Larsen, who was sentenced to 28 years to life under California's three strikes laws for possession of a concealed weapon in 1999, was declared "actually innocent" by a federal judge in 2009 and ordered released. Evidence in favor of Larsen included that of a former chief of police and the actual owner of the knife; Larsen's original lawyer, who failed to call a single witness, has since been disbarred.[82] Larsen remained in prison because Harris's office objected to his release on the grounds that he missed the deadline to file his writ of habeas corpus. The California
Innocence Project, which had taken up Larsen's case, said this amounted to a paperwork technicality. The Times editorial stated that if Harris was not willing to release Larsen, Governor Jerry Brown
Jerry Brown
should pardon him. In March 2013, Larsen was released on bond with the case on appeal by order of Attorney General Harris "on technical grounds".[82] In September 2013, the Ninth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals upheld the ruling, and on January 27, 2014, the Los Angeles County
Los Angeles County
District Attorney's Office dismissed the charge.[83] Michelle-Lael Norsworthy case[edit] In February 2014, Michelle-Lael Norsworthy, a transgender woman incarcerated at California's Mule Creek State Prison, filed a federal lawsuit based on the state's failure to provide her with what she argued was medically necessary sex reassignment surgery (SRS).[84] In April 2015, a federal judge ordered the California
Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) to provide Norsworthy with SRS, finding that prison officials had been "deliberately indifferent to her serious medical need."[85][86] California
Attorney General Harris, representing CDCR, challenged the order in the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals.[87] Harris argued that "Norsworthy has been receiving hormone therapy for her gender dysphoria since 2000, and continues to receive hormone therapy and other forms of treatment" and that "there is no evidence that Norsworthy is in serious, immediate physical or emotional danger."[88] In August 2015, while the state's appeal was pending, Norsworthy was released on parole, obviating the state's duty to provide her with inmate medical care.[89] AG Harris maintained that the parole review process was independent of Norsworthy's legal case against CDCR.[90] The appeals court, though, was unconvinced. "Before Norsworthy filed this suit," the court commented, "a panel of the parole board had on several prior occasions denied her parole. … Four months after Norsworthy filed this suit in February 2014, however, the parole board decided to advance the date of her next parole hearing. … [On May 21] Norsworthy finally had a parole hearing, at which point a parole board panel approved her application." The court concluded that "these coincidences indicate that there is at least some chance that defendants influenced the parole process."[91] Financial crimes[edit] Harris has prosecuted numerous financial crimes, such as predatory lending.[92] In 2011 while serving as Attorney General of California, she created the Mortgage Fraud Strike Force which had a mandate to eliminate mortgage foreclosure fraud. The task force has been criticized for not filing as many foreclosure cases as in states with smaller populations.[93]

Harris on August 18, 2011 announcing a lawsuit against entities involved in alleged mortgage fraud

In 2013, Harris did not prosecute Steve Mnuchin's bank OneWest
despite evidence "suggestive of widespread misconduct" according to a leaked memo from the Department of Justice.[94] In 2017, Harris said that her office's decision to not prosecute Mnuchin was based on "following the facts and the evidence...like any other case."[95] In 2016, Mnuchin donated $2,000 to Harris's campaign,[96] making her the only 2016 Senate Democratic candidate to get cash from Mnuchin,[97] but as senator, Harris voted against the confirmation of Mnuchin as Secretary of the Treasury.[97][98] County prosecutors' misconduct[edit] In 2015, Harris defended convictions obtained by county prosecutors who had inserted a false confession into an interrogation transcript, committed perjury, and withheld evidence.[12] Federal appeals court Judge Alex Kozinski
Alex Kozinski
threw out the convictions, telling Harris's lawyers, " Talk
to the attorney general and make sure she understands the gravity of the situation."[12] In March 2015 a California
superior courts judge ordered Harris to take over a criminal case after Orange County District Attorney Tony Rackauckas was revealed to have illegally employed jailhouse informants and concealed evidence.[12] Harris refused, appealing the order and defending Rackauckas.[12] Harris appealed the dismissal of an indictment when it was discovered a Kern County prosecutor perjured in submitting a falsified confession as court evidence. Harris asserted that prosecutorial perjury was not sufficient to demonstrate prosecutorial misconduct. In the case,[99] Harris argued that only abject physical brutality would warrant a finding of prosecutorial misconduct and the dismissal of an indictment, and that perjury was not sufficient.[100] Bureau of Children's Justice[edit] On February 12, 2015, Harris announced that she would start a new agency called the Bureau of Children's Justice. The bureau would work on issues such as foster care, the juvenile justice system, school truancy, and childhood trauma. Harris appointed special assistant attorney general Jill Habig to head the agency.[101] Mitrice Richardson
Mitrice Richardson
case[edit] In February 2016 it was revealed that the Attorney General would open a criminal investigation into the Los Angeles County
Los Angeles County
Sheriff's Department handling of the Mitrice Richardson
Mitrice Richardson
case. The decision by Harris came about after her initial refusal to look into the case[102][103] resulted in public outcry and the Richardson's family and supporters submitting over 500 pages of evidence.[102] Mitrice Richardson was a 24-year old African American woman who was released from the Los Angeles County
Los Angeles County
Sheriff Department in the middle of the night without any means of fending for herself. Her body was later found in an isolated canyon, leaving the family with many unanswered questions.[104] On December 30, 2016, results of the criminal investigation into the Los Angeles County
Los Angeles County
Sheriff's Department handling of the Richardson case concluded that there was insufficient evidence to support criminal prosecution of anyone involved in the handling of the case.[105] Backpage cases[edit] On October 6, 2016, Harris announced the arrest of Backpage CEO Carl Ferrer on felony charges of pimping a minor, pimping, and conspiracy to commit pimping. The arrest warrant alleged that 99% of Backpage's revenue was directly attributable to prostitution-related ads, many of which involved victims of sex trafficking, including children under the age of 18.[106] On December 9, 2016, a superior court judge dismissed all charges in the complaint.[107] On December 23, 2016, Harris filed new charges against Ferrer and former Backpage owners Mike Lacey and Jim Larkin for pimping and money laundering.[108] In January 2017, Backpage announced that it was removing its adult section from all of its sites in the United States due to many years of harassment and extralegal tactics.[109][110] U.S. Senate[edit]

Harris' campaign logo during the United States Senate
United States Senate
election in California, 2016

2016 election[edit] Main article: United States Senate
United States Senate
election in California, 2016 After Democratic United States Senator Barbara Boxer
Barbara Boxer
announced that she intended to retire from the United States Senate
United States Senate
at the end of her term in 2016, after which she would have been California's junior senator for 24 years, Harris was the first candidate to declare her intention to run for Boxer's Senate seat. Media outlets reported that Harris would run for Senate on the same day that Gavin Newsom, California's Lieutenant Governor and a close political ally of Harris, announced he would not seek to succeed Boxer.[111] She officially announced the launch of her campaign on January 13, 2015.[112] After holding a flurry of fundraisers in both California
and Washington, D.C., Harris was reported to have raised $2.5 million for her campaign.[113] In December, the National Journal released a story describing Harris' use of funds on hotels, the laying off of campaign staff and the inordinate totals, which had contributed to her money on hand being closer to that of another candidate, Loretta Sanchez, who had $1.6 million.[114][115] Harris was a frontrunner from the beginning of her campaign. In January 2015, weeks after Harris announced her campaign, a survey by Public Policy Polling showed Harris leading by 41% to former Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa's 16%, who was seen as a potential candidate.[116] In May, a Field Poll was released, showing that although 58% of likely voters did not have a favored candidate, Harris was most preferred out of the field, with 19%.[117] October saw the release of a Field Poll with Harris at 30%, fellow Democratic candidate Loretta Sanchez
Loretta Sanchez
in second place at 17%, the former having increased her support by 11% since the Field Poll in May despite being noted by The Sacramento Bee
The Sacramento Bee
as not being active in campaigning since appearing at the California
Democratic Party's convention.[118] In late February 2016, the California
Democratic Party voted at its state convention to endorse Harris, who received 78% of the vote, 18% more than the 60% needed to secure the endorsement.[119][120] The party endorsement did not secure any candidate a place in the general election, as all candidates would participate in one primary election in June with the top 2 candidates from any party would advance to the general election.[120] Harris participated in debates with the other major candidates for the seat, her front-runner status causing her to be at the center of discussion.[121][122] Governor Jerry Brown endorsed Harris on May 23.[123] Harris came in first place on primary day, June 7, with 40% of the votes, entering runoff with fellow Democratic candidate Loretta Sanchez.[124] On July 19, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and Vice President Joe Biden
Joe Biden
endorsed Harris.[125] In the June 2016 primary election, with results detailed at the county level, Harris won 48 of 58 counties. Harris won seven counties with more than 50% of the vote: Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Sonoma. The highest percentage was San Francisco, with 70.4% of the vote.[126][127] She faced Congresswoman Loretta Sanchez, also a Democrat, in the general election. This assured that the seat would stay in Democratic hands; it was the first time a Republican did not appear in a general election for the Senate since California
began directly electing Senators in 1914.[128] In the November 2016 election, Harris defeated Sanchez with 62 percent of the vote, carrying all but four counties.[129] Following her victory, Harris promised to protect immigrants from the policies of President-elect Donald Trump.[130] Following her election to the United States Senate, Harris announced her intention to remain California's Attorney General through the end of 2016 and resign shortly before being sworn in as Senator on January 3, 2017.[131] Governor Jerry Brown
Jerry Brown
announced his intention to nominate Congressman Xavier Becerra
Xavier Becerra
as her successor.[132] Tenure[edit] On January 21, 2017, a day after President Trump was sworn into office, Harris called the message of Trump's inaugural address "dark" when speaking during the Women's March on Washington.[133] On January 28, following Trump signing the Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States executive order, which saw terror-prone countries' denizens barred from entering the US for 90 days, Harris dubbed it a "Muslim ban".[134] In early February, Harris spoke in opposition to Trump's cabinet picks Betsy DeVos, for Secretary of Education,[135] and Jeff Sessions, for United States Attorney General.[136] Later that month, in her first speech on the senate floor, Harris spent 12 minutes critiquing Trump's immigration policies.[137] In early March, Harris called on Attorney General Sessions to resign, after it was reported that Sessions spoke twice with Russian Ambassador to the United States
Russian Ambassador to the United States
Sergey Kislyak.[138] On March 14, Harris claimed repealing the Affordable Care Act
Affordable Care Act
would send the message of health care being a "privilege" rather than a "civil right".[139] In a May 2017 interview, Harris criticized Republican representative Raul Labrador
Raul Labrador
for saying that no one dies due to lack of access to health care.[140] On June 7, 2017, Harris garnered media attention for her questioning of Rod Rosenstein, the Deputy Attorney General, over the role he played in the May 2017 firing of James Comey, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.[141] The prosecutorial nature of her questioning caused Senator John McCain, an ex officio member of the Intelligence Committee, and Senator Richard Burr, the committee chairman, to interrupt Harris and request that she be more respectful of the witness;[142] other Democrats on the committee pointed out that they had asked similarly tough questions, but had not been interrupted.[142] On June 13, Harris questioned Jeff Sessions, the Attorney General, on the same topic;[143] Harris was again interrupted by McCain and Burr.[144] Sessions stated that Harris' mode of questioning "makes me nervous";[144] other Democratic members of the committee again pointed out that Harris was the only senator whose questioning was interrupted with an admonishment from the chairman.[144] Burr's singling out of Harris sparked suggestion in the news media that his behavior was sexist, with commentators arguing that Burr would not treat a male Senate colleague in a similar manner.[145] Other commentators suggested that treating Harris differently than other members of the Intelligence Committee is evidence of racism.[146] In addition, when CNN pundit Jason Miller described Harris as "hysterical", Kirsten Powers, who was taking part in the same on-air segment, told Miller that his use of the term to describe Harris was sexist, and that he would not describe male Senators in the same manner.[147] Kamala Harris
Kamala Harris
was named as part of the "Hell-No Caucus" by Politico
in 2018, along with Senators Cory Booker, Kirsten Gillibrand, Elizabeth Warren, and Bernie Sanders, given she voted "overwhelmingly to thwart his [Trump's] nominees for administration jobs", such as with Rex Tillerson, Betsy De Vos, and Mike Pompeo; all were considered potential 2020 presidential contenders at this point in time.[148] Committee assignments[edit]

Committee on the Budget Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

Subcommittee on Federal Spending Oversight and Emergency Management Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs and Federal Management

Select Committee on Intelligence Committee on the Judiciary[149]

Subcommittee on the Constitution Subcommittee on Oversight, Agency Action, Federal Rights and Federal Courts Subcommittee on Privacy, Technology and the Law

Source: Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times Caucus memberships[edit]

Congressional Black Caucus[150] Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus Congressional Caucus for Women's Issues

Political positions[edit] Abortion[edit] Prior to joining the United States Senate, Harris had a 100 percent rating from pro-choice group NARAL.[151] In 2016, after altered hidden-camera videos were released accusing healthcare provider Planned Parenthood
Planned Parenthood
of illegally selling fetal tissue, Harris authorized the Department of Justice to seize the laptop, ID cards, and other property belonging to anti-abortion activist David Daleiden.[151][152][clarification needed] Death penalty[edit] Harris is opposed to the death penalty, but has said that she would review each case individually.[153] Her position was tested in April 2004, when SFPD Officer Isaac Espinoza was murdered in the Bayview district. Harris announced that she would not seek the death penalty for the man accused of his killing. The decision evoked protests from the San Francisco
San Francisco
Police Officers Association, Senator Dianne Feinstein, and others.[12] Those who supported her decision not to seek the death penalty included San Francisco
San Francisco
Supervisors Tom Ammiano and Sophie Maxwell, in whose district the murder occurred.[154] The jury found the convicted killer, David Hill, guilty of second-degree murder, although the prosecutor, Harry Dorfman, had sought a first-degree murder conviction.[155] The defense had argued that Hill thought Espinoza was a member of a rival gang, and that the murder was not premeditated. Hill was given the maximum sentence for the conviction, life without the possibility of parole.[155] Harris's position against the death penalty was tested again in the case of Edwin Ramos, an illegal immigrant and alleged MS-13
gang member who was accused of murdering Tony Bologna and his sons Michael and Matthew.[37] On September 10, 2009, Harris announced she would seek life in prison without the possibility of parole rather than the death penalty in the Ramos case.[156] Harris has expressed the belief that life without possibility of parole is a better, and more cost-effective, punishment.[157] According to the California
Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice, the death penalty costs $137 million per year.[158] If the system were changed to life without possibility of parole, the annual costs would be approximately $12 million per year.[158] Harris noted that the resulting surplus could put 1,000 more police officers into service in San Francisco
San Francisco
alone.[157] When in 2014, U.S. District Judge Cormac J. Carney declared capital punishment in California
unconstitutional, Harris reviewed the case.[12] Education[edit] In interviews with Matt Lauer
Matt Lauer
on The Today Show
The Today Show
and local KGO-TV, Harris argued for treating "habitual and chronic truancy" among children in elementary school as a crime committed by the parents of truant children. She argues that there is a direct connection between habitual truancy in elementary school and crime later in life.[159][160] She has received the endorsement of the California Federation of Teachers.[50] Environment[edit] During her time as San Francisco
San Francisco
District Attorney, Harris created the Environmental Justice Unit in the San Francisco
San Francisco
District Attorney's Office[161] and prosecuted several industries and individuals for pollution, most notably U-Haul, Alameda Publishing Corporation, and the Cosco Busan oil spill. She also advocated for strong enforcement of environmental protection laws.[162] Gun law[edit] Harris has an F rating from the National Rifle Association
National Rifle Association
for her consistent efforts supporting gun control.[163] While serving as district attorney in San Francisco, Harris, along with other district attorneys, filed an amicus brief in District of Columbia v. Heller, arguing that the Washington, D.C., gun law at issue did not violate the Second Amendment.[164] In her second term as district attorney, she said that getting guns off the streets was a priority.[165] During her run for Senate, she was endorsed by former U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords, shot in Tucson in 2011. She was also endorsed by the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence.[166] In response to the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, Harris supported the call for more gun control. Believing that thoughts and prayers are inadequate answers to the shooting, she stated that "...we must also commit ourselves to action. Another moment of silence won't suffice."[167] Health care[edit] On August 30, 2017, Harris announced at a town hall in Oakland that she would co-sponsor fellow Senator Bernie Sanders' "Medicare for All" bill, supporting single-payer healthcare.[168] Immigration[edit] Harris has expressed support for San Francisco's immigration policy of not inquiring about immigration status in the process of a criminal investigation.[169] Harris argues that it is important that immigrants be able to talk with law enforcement without fear.[170] On October 25, 2017, during a news conference, Harris stated she would not support a spending bill until Congress addressed the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program in a way that clarified "what we are going to do to protect and take care of our DACA young people in this country."[171] In a January 2018 interview, when asked by Hiram Soto about her ideal version of a bipartisan deal on the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, Harris stated the need to focus on comprehensive immigration reform and "pass a clean Dream Act."[172] Personal life[edit]

Kamala Harris
Kamala Harris
in 2017 signing the guestbook at Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
as her husband looks on

While she was an Alameda County Deputy District Attorney in the 1990s, she dated Willie Brown, then Speaker of the California
State Assembly. They broke up shortly after he was elected Mayor of San Francisco.[173] On April 7, 2014, Harris announced that she was engaged to be married to California
attorney Douglas Emhoff,[174] the partner-in-charge at Venable LLP's Los Angeles
Los Angeles
office.[175] They married on August 22, 2014, in Santa Barbara, California.[176] Harris's sister is Maya Harris, MSNBC political analyst, and her brother-in-law is Tony West, General Counsel of Uber and former U.S. Justice Department
U.S. Justice Department
senior official. Harris has one niece, as well as two stepchildren, one in college and one in high school.[177] See also[edit]

List of politicians of Indian descent#United States List of Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans in the United States Congress List of African-American United States Senators List of female state attorneys-general in the United States Women in the United States Senate


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talks DACA amid heated negotiations". The San Diego Union-Tribune.  ^ Richardson, James (1997). Willie Brown: A Biography. Berkeley: University of California
Press. ISBN 0-585-24985-7.  ^ Garchik, Leah (April 7, 2010). " California
Attorney General Kamala Harris engaged". SF Gate. Retrieved April 17, 2014.  ^ "Douglas C. Emhoff". Venable LLP.  ^ David Siders (August 25, 2014). " Kamala Harris
Kamala Harris
grew up idolizing lawyers". The Sacramento Bee.  ^ " California
Attorney General Kamala Harris
Kamala Harris
marries fellow lawyer". The Mercury News. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kamala Harris.

Kamala Harris
Kamala Harris
official U.S. Senate website Campaign website Kamala Harris
Kamala Harris
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Profile at Project Vote Smart Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress Works by or about Kamala D. Harris in libraries ( WorldCat
catalog) Appearances on C-SPAN

Legal offices

Preceded by Terence Hallinan District Attorney of San Francisco 2004–2011 Succeeded by George Gascón

Preceded by Jerry Brown Attorney General of California 2011–2017 Succeeded by Kathleen Kenealy Acting

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Barbara Boxer U.S. Senator (Class 3) from California 2017–present Served alongside: Dianne Feinstein Incumbent

Current U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)

Preceded by Maggie Hassan United States Senators by seniority 95th Succeeded by John N. Kennedy

v t e

California's current delegation to the United States Congress


Dianne Feinstein
Dianne Feinstein
(D) Kamala Harris
Kamala Harris

Representatives (ordered by district)

Doug LaMalfa
Doug LaMalfa
(R) Jared Huffman
Jared Huffman
(D) John Garamendi
John Garamendi
(D) Tom McClintock
Tom McClintock
(R) Mike Thompson (D) Doris Matsui
Doris Matsui
(D) Ami Bera
Ami Bera
(D) Paul Cook (R) Jerry McNerney
Jerry McNerney
(D) Jeff Denham
Jeff Denham
(R) Mark DeSaulnier
Mark DeSaulnier
(D) Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D) Barbara Lee
Barbara Lee
(D) Jackie Speier
Jackie Speier
(D) Eric Swalwell
Eric Swalwell
(D) Jim Costa
Jim Costa
(D) Ro Khanna
Ro Khanna
(D) Anna Eshoo
Anna Eshoo
(D) Zoe Lofgren
Zoe Lofgren
(D) Jimmy Panetta
Jimmy Panetta
(D) David Valadao
David Valadao
(R) Devin Nunes
Devin Nunes
(R) Kevin McCarthy (R) Salud Carbajal
Salud Carbajal
(D) Steve Knight (R) Julia Brownley
Julia Brownley
(D) Judy Chu
Judy Chu
(D) Adam Schiff
Adam Schiff
(D) Tony Cárdenas
Tony Cárdenas
(D) Brad Sherman
Brad Sherman
(D) Pete Aguilar
Pete Aguilar
(D) Grace Napolitano
Grace Napolitano
(D) Ted Lieu
Ted Lieu
(D) Jimmy Gomez
Jimmy Gomez
(D) Norma Torres
Norma Torres
(D) Raul Ruiz (D) Karen Bass
Karen Bass
(D) Linda Sánchez
Linda Sánchez
(D) Ed Royce
Ed Royce
(R) Lucille Roybal-Allard
Lucille Roybal-Allard
(D) Mark Takano
Mark Takano
(D) Ken Calvert
Ken Calvert
(R) Maxine Waters
Maxine Waters
(D) Nanette Barragán
Nanette Barragán
(D) Mimi Walters
Mimi Walters
(R) Lou Correa
Lou Correa
(D) Alan Lowenthal
Alan Lowenthal
(D) Dana Rohrabacher
Dana Rohrabacher
(R) Darrell Issa
Darrell Issa
(R) Duncan D. Hunter
Duncan D. Hunter
(R) Juan Vargas
Juan Vargas
(D) Scott Peters (D) Susan Davis (D)

Other states' delegations

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Non-voting delegations

American Samoa District of Columbia Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

v t e

Current United States Senators

President: Pence (R) — President Pro Tempore: Hatch (R)


AL:    Shelby (R)    Jones (D)

AK:    Murkowski (R)    Sullivan (R)

AZ:    McCain (R)    Flake (R)

AR:    Boozman (R)    Cotton (R)

CA:    Feinstein (D)    Harris (D)

CO:    Bennet (D)    Gardner (R)

CT:    Blumenthal (D)    Murphy (D)

DE:    Carper (D)    Coons (D)

FL:    Nelson (D)    Rubio (R)

GA:    Isakson (R)    Perdue (R)

HI:    Schatz (D)    Hirono (D)

ID:    Crapo (R)    Risch (R)

IL:    Durbin (D)    Duckworth (D)

IN:    Donnelly (D)    Young (R)

IA:    Grassley (R)    Ernst (R)

KS:    Roberts (R)    Moran (R)

KY:    McConnell (R)    Paul (R)

LA:    Cassidy (R)    Kennedy (R)

ME:    Collins (R)    King (I)

MD:    Cardin (D)    Van Hollen (D)

MA:    Warren (D)    Markey (D)

MI:    Stabenow (D)    Peters (D)

MN:    Klobuchar (D)    Smith (D)

MS:    Wicker (R)    Vacant

MO:    McCaskill (D)    Blunt (R)

MT:    Tester (D)    Daines (R)

NE:    Fischer (R)    Sasse (R)

NV:    Heller (R)    Cortez Masto (D)

NH:    Shaheen (D)    Hassan (D)

NJ:    Menendez (D)    Booker (D)

NM:    Udall (D)    Heinrich (D)

NY:    Schumer (D)    Gillibrand (D)

NC:    Burr (R)    Tillis (R)

ND:    Hoeven (R)    Heitkamp (D)

OH:    Brown (D)    Portman (R)

OK:    Inhofe (R)    Lankford (R)

OR:    Wyden (D)    Merkley (D)

PA:    Casey (D)    Toomey (R)

RI:    Reed (D)    Whitehouse (D)

SC:    Graham (R)    Scott (R)

SD:    Thune (R)    Rounds (R)

TN:    Alexander (R)    Corker (R)

TX:    Cornyn (R)    Cruz (R)

UT:    Hatch (R)    Lee (R)

VT:    Leahy (D)    Sanders (I)

VA:    Warner (D)    Kaine (D)

WA:    Murray (D)    Cantwell (D)

WV:    Manchin (D)    Moore Capito (R)

WI:    Johnson (R)    Baldwin (D)

WY:    Enzi (R)    Barrasso (R)

   Republican (50)    Democratic (47)    Independent (2)

v t e

United States Senators from California

Class 1

Frémont Weller Broderick Haun Latham Conness Casserly Hager Booth Miller Hearst Williams Hearst Felton White Bard Flint Works Johnson Knowland Engle Salinger Murphy Tunney Hayakawa Wilson Seymour Feinstein

Class 3

Gwin McDougall Cole Sargent Farley Stanford Perkins Phelan Shortridge McAdoo Storke Downey Nixon Kuchel Cranston Boxer Harris

v t e

Current statewide elected officials and legislative leaders of California

U.S. Senators

Dianne Feinstein Kamala Harris

State government

Jerry Brown, Governor Gavin Newsom, Lieutenant Governor Xavier Becerra, Attorney General Alex Padilla, Secretary of State Betty Yee, Controller John Chiang, Treasurer Dave Jones, Insurance Commissioner Tom Torlakson, Superintendent of Public Instruction


Toni Atkins, President pro tempore Patricia Bates, Minority Leader


Anthony Rendon, Speaker Kevin Mullin, Speaker pro tempore Ian Calderon, Majority Leader Brian Dahle, Minority Leader

Supreme Court (appointed, retained by election)

Tani Cantil-Sakauye, Chief Justice Ming Chin Carol Corrigan Goodwin Liu Tino Cuéllar Leondra Kruger 1 seat vacant, Associate Justices

Politics portal United States portal

Authority control

Identities VIAF: 91053810 LCCN: n2009045056 ISNI: 0000 0000 6582 6859 US Congress: H001


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