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Kalmar
Kalmar
is a city in the southeast of Sweden, situated by the Baltic Sea. It had 36,392 inhabitants in 2010[1] and is the seat of Kalmar Municipality. It is also the capital of Kalmar
Kalmar
County, which comprises 12 municipalities with a total of 236,399 inhabitants (2015). From the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries, Kalmar
Kalmar
was one of Sweden's most important cities. Between 1602 and 1913 it was the episcopal see of Kalmar
Kalmar
Diocese, with a bishop, and the Kalmar Cathedral from 1702 is still a fine example of classicistic architecture. It became a fortified city, with the Kalmar Castle
Kalmar Castle
as the center. After the Treaty of Roskilde
Treaty of Roskilde
in 1658, Kalmar's importance diminished, until the industry sector was initiated in the 19th century. The city is home to parts of Linnaeus University. Kalmar
Kalmar
is adjacent to the main route to the island of Öland
Öland
over the Öland
Öland
Bridge.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Kalmar
Kalmar
Cathedral 1.2 Today

2 Climate 3 Gallery

3.1 History 3.2 Main sights 3.3 General views

4 Sports 5 Notable natives 6 Twin towns – sister cities 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] The area around Kalmar
Kalmar
has been inhabited since ancient times. Excavations have found traces of stone age gravefields. However, the oldest evidence for there being a town is from the 11th century. According to a medieval folk tale, the Norwegian king Saint Olav
Saint Olav
had his ships moved to Kalmar. The oldest city seal of Kalmar
Kalmar
is from somewhere between 1255 and 1267, making it the oldest known city seal in Scandinavia.[citation needed] In the 12th century the first foundations of a castle were established, with the construction of a round tower for guard and lookout. The tower was continuously expanded in the 13th century, and as such, Queen Margaret called an assembly there between the heads of state of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway, and on 13 July 1397, the Kalmar
Kalmar
Union treaty was signed, which would last until 1523. Kalmar's strategic location, near the Danish border (at the time the Scanian lands, i.e. the provinces of Blekinge, Halland
Halland
and Scania, were part of Denmark), and its harbour and trade, also involved it in several feuds. There are two events independently labelled the Kalmar
Kalmar
Bloodbath, 1505: the first in 1505, when King John of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden
Sweden
had the mayor and city council of Kalmar
Kalmar
executed; the second in 1599 by command of Duke Charles, later to become King Charles IX of Sweden.

Kalmar Castle
Kalmar Castle
today

In the 1540s, first King Gustav Vasa, and later his sons Erik XIV of Sweden
Sweden
and John III of Sweden
Sweden
would organize a rebuilding of the castle into the magnificent Renaissance
Renaissance
castle it is today. Kalmar
Kalmar
became a diocese in 1603, a position it held until 1915. In 1634, Kalmar County
Kalmar County
was founded, with Kalmar
Kalmar
as the natural capital. In 1660, the Kalmar Cathedral
Kalmar Cathedral
was begun by drawings of Nicodemus Tessin the Elder. It would be inaugurated in 1703. In 1611–1613, it suffered in the Kalmar
Kalmar
War, which began with a Danish siege of Kalmar
Kalmar
Castle. 1611 is mentioned as the darkest year of Kalmar's history, but by no means the only dark year; much blood has been shed in the vicinity of the castle. The last was during the Scanian War
Scanian War
in the 1670s, so there have been 22 sieges altogether; however the castle was never taken. After the Treaty of Roskilde
Treaty of Roskilde
in 1658, the strategic importance of Kalmar
Kalmar
gradually diminished as the borders were redrawn further south. In 1689, the King established his main naval base further south in Karlskrona
Karlskrona
and Kalmar
Kalmar
lost its status as one of Sweden's main military outposts. Kalmar
Kalmar
Cathedral[edit]

Kalmar Cathedral
Kalmar Cathedral
today

The new city of Kalmar
Kalmar
built on Kvarnholmen around the mid-1600s. The transfer from the old town was largely completed 1658th The new, fortified town was planned after the current renaissance ideals. According to this pattern were placed church and town hall across from each other at a major square Stortorget Kalmar. The cathedral was built, designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Elder
Nicodemus Tessin the Elder
and is one of the foremost examples of baroque classicism in Sweden. Kalmar
Kalmar
Cathedral drawing series reflects the complex interaction between the new style, liturgical considerations, tradition and the fortress-city requirements. The work began in 1660, but it was interrupted on several occasions, including when the Scanian War
Scanian War
(1675–1679) raged. Construction resumed, and Kalmar Cathedral
Kalmar Cathedral
stood finished in 1703. Today[edit] In more recent times, Kalmar
Kalmar
has been an industrial city with Kalmar Verkstad making steam engines, trains and large machinery, later bought by Bombardier who closed the factory in 2005. A shipyard, Kalmar
Kalmar
Varv, was founded in 1679 and closed 1981. Volvo
Volvo
opened their Kalmar
Kalmar
factory for building cars i.e. 264, 740, 760, 960 in 1974, but closed it 1994 and due to further relocation of industry jobs in the 1990s and 2000s around 2000 industrial jobs were lost. Kalmar
Kalmar
has a university with over 9,000 students and a research facility for Telia Sonera. Kalmar
Kalmar
has embarked on a comprehensive program to reduce fossil fuel use. A local trucking firm, which employs nearly 450 people, has installed computers that track fuel efficiency and have cut diesel use by 10 percent, paying off the cost of the devices in just a year. The company is now looking to fuel its future fleet with biodiesel.[2] A large wood pulp plant harnesses the steam and hot water it once released as waste to provide heating, through below-ground pipes, and generates enough electricity to power its own operations and 20,000 homes.[2] Bicycle lanes are common; for example, the Kalmarsundsleden,[3] and cars line up at Kalmar
Kalmar
city's public biogas pump. Building codes now require thermal insulation and efficient windows for new construction or retrofits. Street lights use low-energy sodium bulbs, and car dealers promote fuel-efficient and hybrid vehicles.[2] In 2011 Guldfågeln Arena was initiated. It is the new stadium of the football team of the city, Kalmar
Kalmar
FF. The capacity of the stadium is 12,000 people and it is currently one of the newest stadiums in Sweden. The stadium was also built to host concerts and did so in the summer of 2011 when Swedish artists Håkan Hellström and The Ark performed. Climate[edit] Kalmar
Kalmar
has a cold oceanic climate.[4] It is somewhat continental with warm summers and cold winters which normally averages just above the freezing point during days and goes somewhat below it at night. It has some of the hottest temperatures recorded by Swedish cities for most months, with an all-time record of 35.2 °C (95.4 °F).[5] The average summer temperatures however are quite normal for southern Sweden.

Climate data for Kalmar
Kalmar
(2002-2016); precipitation 1961-1990; extremes since 1901

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 11.6 (52.9) 15.6 (60.1) 20.6 (69.1) 25.7 (78.3) 32.5 (90.5) 33.0 (91.4) 35.2 (95.4) 33.1 (91.6) 28.2 (82.8) 23.5 (74.3) 15.4 (59.7) 13.2 (55.8) 35.2 (95.4)

Average high °C (°F) 1.9 (35.4) 2.3 (36.1) 6.3 (43.3) 11.2 (52.2) 16.1 (61) 20.2 (68.4) 22.5 (72.5) 21.8 (71.2) 17.9 (64.2) 11.5 (52.7) 7.0 (44.6) 3.5 (38.3) 11.8 (53.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.8 (30.6) −0.6 (30.9) 2.1 (35.8) 6.1 (43) 10.7 (51.3) 14.7 (58.5) 17.5 (63.5) 16.7 (62.1) 13.1 (55.6) 7.9 (46.2) 4.3 (39.7) 0.9 (33.6) 7.7 (45.9)

Average low °C (°F) −3.5 (25.7) −3.5 (25.7) −2.0 (28.4) 0.9 (33.6) 5.3 (41.5) 9.3 (48.7) 12.4 (54.3) 11.6 (52.9) 8.3 (46.9) 4.3 (39.7) 1.7 (35.1) −1.7 (28.9) 3.5 (38.3)

Record low °C (°F) −31.0 (−23.8) −26.5 (−15.7) −27.6 (−17.7) −12.7 (9.1) −5.8 (21.6) −1.2 (29.8) 2.6 (36.7) 0.4 (32.7) −5.7 (21.7) −8.8 (16.2) −17.3 (0.9) −25.3 (−13.5) −31.0 (−23.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 37.0 (1.457) 28.9 (1.138) 29.5 (1.161) 29.0 (1.142) 34.7 (1.366) 38.9 (1.531) 59.5 (2.343) 49.5 (1.949) 50.1 (1.972) 38.5 (1.516) 46.5 (1.831) 41.2 (1.622) 484.0 (19.055)

Source #1: SMHI[6]

Source #2: SMHI Monthly Data 2002-2016[7]

Gallery[edit] History[edit]

The seal of Kalmar, 13th century

Engraving from Suecia antiqua et hodierna, circa 1700

Town plan, 1906

Main sights[edit]

Kalmar
Kalmar
Castle

Kalmar
Kalmar
Cathedral

Town hall

In 1972, the 6 km (4 mi) long Öland
Öland
bridge was built from Kalmar
Kalmar
to the town of Färjestaden
Färjestaden
on Öland

Kalmar County
Kalmar County
Museum

General views[edit]

Main square

Houses on the main square

Street in Kalmar

Square in Kalmar

Scenic photograph of Kalmar Castle
Kalmar Castle
in the summer sun

Mermaid sculpture Kalmar

Sports[edit] The following sports clubs are located in Kalmar:

Kalmar
Kalmar
FF Lindsdals IF Kalmar
Kalmar
AIK IFK Berga Kalmar
Kalmar
Södra IF

Notable natives[edit]

Mikael Adolphson – historian Helena Josefsson
Helena Josefsson
– musician, lead singer in Sandy Mouche Ivar Kreuger
Ivar Kreuger
– civil engineer and industrialist Jangir Maddadi – designer living in Kalmar Carl Gustaf Mosander
Carl Gustaf Mosander
– chemist who discovered lanthanum, erbium, terbium Jenny Nyström
Jenny Nyström
– painter and illustrator Henrik Strindberg – composer Hans Villius
Hans Villius
– historian

Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Kalmar
Kalmar
is twinned with nine cities:[8]

Árborg, Iceland Arendal, Norway Entebbe, Uganda Gdańsk, Poland Kaliningrad, Russia Panevėžys, Lithuania Savonlinna, Finland Wilmington, United States Wismar, Germany

See also[edit]

Kalmar
Kalmar
Municipality Kalmar
Kalmar
Airport Kalmar
Kalmar
Verkstad Spawn of Possession Linnaeus University Kalmar
Kalmar
Nyckel, historical ship named after the city of Kalmar Kalmar
Kalmar
FF, premier division football club from the city Ragnarök

Notes[edit]

^ a b c "Tätorternas landareal, folkmängd och invånare per km2 2005 och 2010" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012.  ^ a b c Going green: Entire Swedish city switches to biofuels to become environmentally friendly Archived 6 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.  ^ "Kalmar, Sweden
Sweden
Climate Summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 21 April 2015.  ^ "Monthly Weather Data - July 2014 (all-time records section)" (PDF). SMHI. Retrieved 21 April 2015.  ^ " Precipitation
Precipitation
Normals 1961-1990" (in Swedish). Swedish Metereological and Hydrological Institute ( Kalmar
Kalmar
code 6641).  ^ "Yearly and Monthly Statistics" (in Swedish). SMHI. 14 April 2017.  ^ "Våra vänorter". kalmar.se. Archived from the original on 27 April 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 

References[edit]

(in Swedish) Article Kalmar, Nordisk familjebok, Kalmar
Kalmar
domkyrkas historia

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kalmar.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kalmar.

Kalmar Municipality
Kalmar Municipality
– Official site i Kalmar
Kalmar
– a social network for citizens of Kalmar Kalmar
Kalmar
Castle Kalmar
Kalmar
City – pictures from nightlife in Kalmar University of Kalmar Barometern Oskarshamns-Tidningen – daily newspaper from Kalmar
Kalmar
and Oskarshamn

v t e

Localities in Kalmar
Kalmar
Municipality, Kalmar
Kalmar
County, Sweden

Localities

Boholmarna Drag Dunö Hagby Halltorp Kalmar
Kalmar
(seat) Läckeby Lindsdal Ljungbyholm Påryd Rinkabyholm Rockneby Smedby Trekanten Tvärskog Vassmolösa

v t e

Municipalities and seats of Kalmar
Kalmar
County

Municipalities

Borgholm Emmaboda Högsby Hultsfred Kalmar Mönsterås Mörbylånga Nybro Oskarshamn Torsås Västervik Vimmerby

Municipal seats

Borgholm Emmaboda Högsby Hultsfred Kalmar Mönsterås Mörbylånga Nybro Oskarshamn Torsås Västervik Vimmerby

Counties of Sweden Sweden

v t e

Administrative seats of Swedish counties (län)

Falun (Dalarna) Gävle (Gävleborg) Gothenburg (Västra Götaland) Halmstad (Halland) Härnösand (Västernorrland) Jönköping (Jönköping) Kalmar (Kalmar) Karlskrona (Blekinge) Karlstad (Värmland) Linköping (Östergötland) Luleå (Norrbotten) Malmö (Skåne) Nyköping (Södermanland) Örebro (Örebro) Östersund (Jämtland) Stockholm (Stockholm) Umeå (Västerbotten) Uppsala (Uppsala) Västerås (Västmanland) Växjö (Kronoberg) Visby (Gotland)

v t e

30 most populous cities of Sweden

as of 2010, according to Statistics Sweden
Sweden
[1]

1. Stockholm 1,372,565

2. Gothenburg 549,839

3. Malmö 280,415

4. Uppsala 140,454

5. Västerås 110,877

6. Örebro 107,038

7. Linköping 104,232

8. Helsingborg 97,122

9. Jönköping 89,396

10. Norrköping 87,247

11. Lund 82,800

12. Umeå 79,594

13. Gävle 71,033

14. Borås 66,273

15. Eskilstuna 64,679

16. Södertälje 64,619

17. Karlstad 61,685

18. Täby 61,272

19. Växjö 60,887

20. Halmstad 58,577

21. Sundsvall 50,712

22. Luleå 46,607

23. Trollhättan 46,457

24. Östersund 44,327

25. Borlänge 41,734

26. Tumba 37,852

27. Upplands Väsby 37,594

28. Falun 37,291

29. Kalmar 36,392

30. Kristianstad 35,711

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 155926

.