Kalmar is a city in the southeast of Sweden, situated by the Baltic
Sea. It had 36,392 inhabitants in 2010 and is the seat of Kalmar
Municipality. It is also the capital of
Kalmar County, which comprises
12 municipalities with a total of 236,399 inhabitants (2015).
From the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries,
Kalmar was one of
Sweden's most important cities. Between 1602 and 1913 it was the
episcopal see of
Kalmar Diocese, with a bishop, and the Kalmar
Cathedral from 1702 is still a fine example of classicistic
architecture. It became a fortified city, with the
Kalmar Castle as
the center. After the
Treaty of Roskilde
Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, Kalmar's importance
diminished, until the industry sector was initiated in the 19th
century. The city is home to parts of Linnaeus University.
Kalmar is adjacent to the main route to the island of
Öland over the
3.2 Main sights
3.3 General views
5 Notable natives
6 Twin towns – sister cities
7 See also
10 External links
The area around
Kalmar has been inhabited since ancient times.
Excavations have found traces of stone age gravefields. However, the
oldest evidence for there being a town is from the 11th century.
According to a medieval folk tale, the Norwegian king
Saint Olav had
his ships moved to Kalmar. The oldest city seal of
Kalmar is from
somewhere between 1255 and 1267, making it the oldest known city seal
in Scandinavia.
In the 12th century the first foundations of a castle were
established, with the construction of a round tower for guard and
lookout. The tower was continuously expanded in the 13th century, and
as such, Queen Margaret called an assembly there between the heads of
Sweden and Norway, and on 13 July 1397, the
treaty was signed, which would last until 1523. Kalmar's strategic
location, near the Danish border (at the time the Scanian lands, i.e.
the provinces of Blekinge,
Halland and Scania, were part of Denmark),
and its harbour and trade, also involved it in several feuds. There
are two events independently labelled the
Kalmar Bloodbath, 1505: the
first in 1505, when King John of Denmark, Norway, and
Sweden had the
mayor and city council of
Kalmar executed; the second in 1599 by
command of Duke Charles, later to become King Charles IX of Sweden.
Kalmar Castle today
In the 1540s, first King Gustav Vasa, and later his sons Erik XIV of
Sweden and John III of
Sweden would organize a rebuilding of the
castle into the magnificent
Renaissance castle it is today.
Kalmar became a diocese in 1603, a position it held until 1915. In
Kalmar County was founded, with
Kalmar as the natural capital.
In 1660, the
Kalmar Cathedral was begun by drawings of Nicodemus
Tessin the Elder. It would be inaugurated in 1703.
In 1611–1613, it suffered in the
Kalmar War, which began with a
Danish siege of
Kalmar Castle. 1611 is mentioned as the darkest year
of Kalmar's history, but by no means the only dark year; much blood
has been shed in the vicinity of the castle. The last was during the
Scanian War in the 1670s, so there have been 22 sieges altogether;
however the castle was never taken.
Treaty of Roskilde
Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, the strategic importance of
Kalmar gradually diminished as the borders were redrawn further south.
In 1689, the King established his main naval base further south in
Kalmar lost its status as one of Sweden's main military
Kalmar Cathedral today
The new city of
Kalmar built on Kvarnholmen around the mid-1600s. The
transfer from the old town was largely completed 1658th The new,
fortified town was planned after the current renaissance ideals.
According to this pattern were placed church and town hall across from
each other at a major square Stortorget Kalmar. The cathedral was
built, designed by
Nicodemus Tessin the Elder
Nicodemus Tessin the Elder and is one of the
foremost examples of baroque classicism in Sweden.
drawing series reflects the complex interaction between the new style,
liturgical considerations, tradition and the fortress-city
requirements. The work began in 1660, but it was interrupted on
several occasions, including when the
Scanian War (1675–1679) raged.
Construction resumed, and
Kalmar Cathedral stood finished in 1703.
In more recent times,
Kalmar has been an industrial city with Kalmar
Verkstad making steam engines, trains and large machinery, later
bought by Bombardier who closed the factory in 2005. A shipyard,
Kalmar Varv, was founded in 1679 and closed 1981.
Volvo opened their
Kalmar factory for building cars i.e. 264, 740, 760, 960 in 1974, but
closed it 1994 and due to further relocation of industry jobs in the
1990s and 2000s around 2000 industrial jobs were lost.
Kalmar has a
university with over 9,000 students and a research facility for Telia
Kalmar has embarked on a comprehensive program to reduce fossil fuel
use. A local trucking firm, which employs nearly 450 people, has
installed computers that track fuel efficiency and have cut diesel use
by 10 percent, paying off the cost of the devices in just a year. The
company is now looking to fuel its future fleet with biodiesel.
A large wood pulp plant harnesses the steam and hot water it once
released as waste to provide heating, through below-ground pipes, and
generates enough electricity to power its own operations and 20,000
Bicycle lanes are common; for example, the Kalmarsundsleden, and
cars line up at
Kalmar city's public biogas pump. Building codes now
require thermal insulation and efficient windows for new construction
or retrofits. Street lights use low-energy sodium bulbs, and car
dealers promote fuel-efficient and hybrid vehicles.
In 2011 Guldfågeln Arena was initiated. It is the new stadium of the
football team of the city,
Kalmar FF. The capacity of the stadium is
12,000 people and it is currently one of the newest stadiums in
Sweden. The stadium was also built to host concerts and did so in the
summer of 2011 when Swedish artists Håkan Hellström and The Ark
Kalmar has a cold oceanic climate. It is somewhat continental with
warm summers and cold winters which normally averages just above the
freezing point during days and goes somewhat below it at night. It has
some of the hottest temperatures recorded by Swedish cities for most
months, with an all-time record of 35.2 °C (95.4 °F).
The average summer temperatures however are quite normal for southern
Climate data for
Kalmar (2002-2016); precipitation 1961-1990; extremes
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Source #1: SMHI
Source #2: SMHI Monthly Data 2002-2016
The seal of Kalmar, 13th century
Engraving from Suecia antiqua et hodierna, circa 1700
Town plan, 1906
In 1972, the 6 km (4 mi) long
Öland bridge was built from
Kalmar to the town of
Färjestaden on Öland
Kalmar County Museum
Houses on the main square
Street in Kalmar
Square in Kalmar
Scenic photograph of
Kalmar Castle in the summer sun
Mermaid sculpture Kalmar
The following sports clubs are located in Kalmar:
Kalmar Södra IF
Mikael Adolphson – historian
Helena Josefsson – musician, lead singer in Sandy Mouche
Ivar Kreuger – civil engineer and industrialist
Jangir Maddadi – designer living in Kalmar
Carl Gustaf Mosander
Carl Gustaf Mosander – chemist who discovered lanthanum, erbium,
Jenny Nyström – painter and illustrator
Henrik Strindberg – composer
Hans Villius – historian
Twin towns – sister cities
Kalmar is twinned with nine cities:
Wilmington, United States
Spawn of Possession
Kalmar Nyckel, historical ship named after the city of Kalmar
Kalmar FF, premier division football club from the city
^ a b c "Tätorternas landareal, folkmängd och invånare per km2 2005
och 2010" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 14 December 2011. Archived
from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
^ a b c Going green: Entire Swedish city switches to biofuels to
become environmentally friendly Archived 6 March 2009 at the Wayback
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20
September 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
Sweden Climate Summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 21 April
^ "Monthly Weather Data - July 2014 (all-time records section)" (PDF).
SMHI. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
Precipitation Normals 1961-1990" (in Swedish). Swedish
Metereological and Hydrological Institute (
Kalmar code 6641).
^ "Yearly and Monthly Statistics" (in Swedish). SMHI. 14 April
^ "Våra vänorter". kalmar.se. Archived from the original on 27 April
2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
(in Swedish) Article Kalmar, Nordisk familjebok,
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kalmar.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kalmar.
Kalmar Municipality – Official site
Kalmar – a social network for citizens of Kalmar
Kalmar City – pictures from nightlife in Kalmar
University of Kalmar
Barometern Oskarshamns-Tidningen – daily newspaper from
Kalmar County, Sweden
Municipalities and seats of
Counties of Sweden
Administrative seats of Swedish counties (län)
30 most populous cities of Sweden
as of 2010, according to Statistics