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Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast (Russian: Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. As an oblast, its constitutional status is equal to each of the other 84 federal subjects. Its administrative center is the city of Kaliningrad, formerly known as Königsberg. It is the only Baltic port in the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
that remains ice-free in winter. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 941,873.[10] The oblast is an exclave, bordered by Poland
Poland
to the south and Lithuania
Lithuania
to the east and north, so visa-free travel to the main part of Russia
Russia
is possible only by sea or air. The territory was formerly part of East Prussia. With the defeat of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in 1945, the territory was annexed by the Soviet Union. Following the post-war migration and expulsion of the German-speaking
German-speaking
population, the territory was populated with citizens from the Soviet Union. Today virtually no ethnic Germans
Germans
remain; most of the several thousand that live there are recent immigrants from other parts of the former Soviet Union. Early in the 21st century, the hitherto flagging economy of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast became one of the best performing economies in Russia. This was helped by a low manufacturing tax rate related to its " Special
Special
Economic Zone" (SEZ) status. As of 2006[update], one in three televisions manufactured in Russia
Russia
came from Kaliningrad. The territory's population was one of the few in Russia
Russia
that was expected to show strong growth after the collapse of the USSR.[15]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Middle Ages 1.2 Pre-Modern Period

1.2.1 German culture and Germanization 1.2.2 Conquest by the Soviet Union 1.2.3 Cold War
Cold War
period

1.3 Today

2 Geography 3 Politics 4 Administrative divisions 5 Demographics

5.1 Population 5.2 Ethnic groups 5.3 Religion

6 Military 7 Economy

7.1 Industry 7.2 Natural resources 7.3 Fishing 7.4 Power generation

8 See also 9 References

9.1 Notes 9.2 Sources

10 External links

History[edit] Middle Ages[edit]

Königsberg
Königsberg
Cathedral

During the Middle Ages, the territory of what is now Kaliningrad Oblast was inhabited by tribes of Old Prussians
Old Prussians
(Sambians) in the western part and by Lithuanians
Lithuanians
in the eastern part. The tribes were divided by the rivers Pregolya and Alna. The Teutonic Knights conquered the region and established a monastic state. On the foundations of a destroyed Prussian settlement known as Tvanksta, the Order founded the city of Königsberg
Königsberg
(modern Kaliningrad). Germans resettled the territory and assimilated the indigenous Old Prussians. The Lithuanian-inhabited areas became known as Lithuania
Lithuania
Minor. Speakers of the old Baltic languages became extinct around the 17th century, having been assimilated and Germanised. Pre-Modern Period[edit] Main article: East Prussia

History of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and Prussia

Northern March pre–12th century Old Prussians pre–13th century

Margraviate of Brandenburg 1157–1618 (1806) Teutonic Order 1224–1525

Duchy of Prussia 1525–1618 Royal (Polish) Prussia 1466–1772

Brandenburg-Prussia 1618–1701

Kingdom in Prussia 1701–1772

Kingdom of Prussia 1772–1918

Free State of Prussia 1918–1947 Klaipėda
Klaipėda
Region (Lithuania) 1920–1939 / 1945–present

Brandenburg (Germany) 1947–1952 / 1990–present Recovered Territories (Poland) 1918/1945–present Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast (Russia) 1945–present

In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
secularized the Prussian branch of the Teutonic Order and established himself as the sovereign of the Duchy of Prussia. The duchy was nominally a fief of the Polish crown. It later merged with the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Königsberg
Königsberg
was the duchy's capital from 1525 until 1701. As the centre of Prussia moved westward, the position of the capital became too peripheral and Berlin
Berlin
became the new Prussian capital city. During the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
it was occupied by the Russian Empire. The region was reorganized into the Province of East Prussia
East Prussia
within the Kingdom of Prussia in 1773. The territory of the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast lies in the northern part of East Prussia. The annexation of the territory, while supposedly on a temporary basis, was approved by the "Big Three" allied leaders of World War II
World War II
in the Potsdam Agreement
Potsdam Agreement
in 1945. Three years after the annexation by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the remaining two-thirds of East Prussia
East Prussia
was annexed by Poland
Poland
and is today organised into the Warmian-Masurian province. German culture and Germanization[edit] East Prussia
East Prussia
was an important centre of German culture. Many important figures, such as Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
and E. T. A. Hoffmann, came from this region. Despite being heavily damaged during World War II
World War II
and thereafter, the cities of the oblast still contain examples of German architecture. The Jugendstil
Jugendstil
style showcases the rich German history and cultural importance of the area. By the early 20th century, Lithuanians
Lithuanians
formed a majority only in rural parts of the north-eastern corner of East Prussia
East Prussia
( Memelland
Memelland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
Minor). A similar fate befell the Latvian-speaking Kursenieki
Kursenieki
who had settled the coast of East Prussia
East Prussia
between Gdańsk and Klaipėda. The rest of the area, with the exception of the Slavic Masurians
Masurians
in southern Prussia, was overwhelmingly German-speaking. The Memel Territory ( Klaipėda
Klaipėda
region), formerly part of north-eastern East Prussia
East Prussia
as well as Lithuania
Lithuania
Minor, was annexed by Lithuania
Lithuania
in 1923. In 1938, Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
radically altered about a third of the place names of this area, replacing Old Prussian and Lithuanian names with newly invented German names. Slavic and Jewish populations under Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
were classified as subhuman and were the target of a campaign of genocide by the German state, with the eventual goal of their extermination.

Historical Lithuania Minor
Lithuania Minor
comprises a sizeable part of Prussian region that is now the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast.

The Latvian-speaking Kursenieki
Kursenieki
spit in 1649.

The East Prussian resort town of Cranz ( Zelenogradsk
Zelenogradsk
today) as it looked ca. 1900. It was a destination for German artists and intelligentsia.

Conquest by the Soviet Union[edit] On August 29, 1944, Soviet troops reached the border of East Prussia. By January 1945, they had overrun all East Prussia
East Prussia
except for the area around Königsberg. Many inhabitants fled west at this time. During the last days of the war, over two million people fled before the Red Army
Red Army
and were evacuated by sea. The remaining population of 300,000 people were condemned to forced labour. Per the terms of the Potsdam Agreement, the city became part of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
pending the final determination of territorial questions at a peace settlement. This final determination never took place. The excerpt pertaining to the partition of East Prussia
East Prussia
including the area surrounding Königsberg
Königsberg
is as follows (note that Königsberg
Königsberg
is spelt "Koenigsberg" in the original document):

VI. CITY OF KOENIGSBERG AND THE ADJACENT AREA The Conference examined a proposal by the Soviet Government that pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement the section of the western frontier of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which is adjacent to the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
should pass from a point on the eastern shore of the Bay of Danzig to the east, north of Braunsberg and Goldap, to the meeting point of the frontiers of Lithuania, the Polish Republic and East Prussia. The Conference has agreed in principle to the proposal of the Soviet Government concerning the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
of the city of Koenigsberg and the area adjacent to it as described above, subject to expert examination of the actual frontier. The President of the United States and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom have declared that they will support the proposal of the Conference at the forthcoming peace settlement.[16]

Ruins of Königsberg
Königsberg
Castle in the 1950s

Königsberg
Königsberg
was renamed Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
in 1946 in memory of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR
USSR
Mikhail Kalinin. The remaining German population was forcibly expelled between 1947 and 1948. The conquered territory was populated with citizens of the Soviet Union, mostly ethnic Russians
Russians
but to a lesser extent by Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Belarusians.[17] The German language was replaced with the Russian language. In 1950, there were 1,165,000 inhabitants, which was only half the number of the pre-war population. Cold War
Cold War
period[edit] The city was rebuilt during the Cold War. The territory became strategically important as the headquarters of the Soviet Baltic Fleet. Consequently, the city was closed to foreign visitors. In 1957, an agreement was signed and later came into force which delimited the border between Poland
Poland
and the Soviet Union.[18][19] The region was added as an exclave to the Russian SFSR; since 1946 it has been known as the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast. According to some historians, Stalin created it as an oblast separate from the Lithuanian SSR
Lithuanian SSR
because it further separated the Baltic states from the West.[20] The names of the cities, towns, rivers and other geographical features were changed to Russian names. The area was administered by the planning committee of the Lithuanian SSR, although it had its own Communist Party committee.[citation needed] However, the leadership of the Lithuanian SSR
Lithuanian SSR
(especially Antanas Sniečkus) refused to annex the territory.[17] In 2010, the German magazine Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
published a report claiming that Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
had been offered to Germany in 1990 (against payment), but this was denied by Mikhail Gorbachev.[21] Today[edit] See also: Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
question

The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
is the largest church of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast. The Russian Orthodox
Russian Orthodox
cathedral is 70 metres high, and it is the dominant building of the inner city on Ploshchad Pobedy.

The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Kaliningrad. The church's architect is Oleg Kopylov, and it was completed in September 2006.

Kaliningrad's isolation was enhanced by the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 when Lithuania
Lithuania
became an independent country and even more when both Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
became members of NATO and subsequently the European Union
European Union
in 2004. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the independence of the Baltic states, Kaliningrad Oblast has been separated from the rest of Russia
Russia
by other countries instead of by other Soviet republics. Neighboring nations imposed strict border controls when they joined the European Union. All military and civilian land links between the region and the rest of Russia
Russia
have to pass through members of NATO and the EU. Russian proposals for visa-free travel between the EU and Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
have so far been rejected by the EU. Travel arrangements, based on the Facilitated Transit Document (FTD) and Facilitated Rail Transit Document (FRTD)[22][23] have been made.[22][23] The territory's economic situation was badly affected by its geographic isolation and the significant reduction in the size of the Russian military garrison, which had previously been one of the major employers and helped the local economy. After 1991, some ethnic Germans
Germans
began to return to the area, such as Volga Germans
Germans
from other parts of Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan, especially after Germany raised the requirements for people from the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to be accepted as ethnic Germans
Germans
and have a "right of return".[citation needed] A similar migration by Poles
Poles
from the lands of the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast occurred at this time as well. The situation has begun to change, albeit slowly. Germany, Lithuania, and Poland
Poland
have renewed contact with Kaliningrad Oblast, through town twinning and other projects. This has helped to promote interest in the history and culture of the East Prussian and Lietuvininkai communities. In July 2005, the 750-year jubilee of the city was widely celebrated. In July 2007, Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov declared that if US-controlled missile defense systems were deployed in Poland, then nuclear weapons might be deployed in Kaliningrad. On November 5, 2008, Russian leader Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
said that installing missiles in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
was almost a certainty.[24] These plans were suspended in January 2009,[25] but implemented in October 2016.[26] In 2011, a long range Voronezh radar
Voronezh radar
was commissioned to monitor missile launches within about 6,000 km. It is situated in the settlement of Pionersky (formerly German Neukuhren) in Kaliningrad Oblast.[27] Geography[edit]

Map of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast

Angrapa
Angrapa
River, Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast

Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
is the only Russian Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
port that is ice-free all year round and hence plays an important role in maintenance of the Baltic Fleet. As an exclave of Russia
Russia
proper, it is surrounded by Poland, Lithuania
Lithuania
and the Baltic Sea. Its largest river is the Pregolya. It starts as a confluence of the Instruch and the Angrapa and drains into the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
through the Vistula Lagoon. Its length under the name of Pregolya is 123 km (76 mi), 292 km (181 mi), including the Angrapa. Notable geographical features include:

Curonian Lagoon
Curonian Lagoon
(shared with Lithuania) Vistula Lagoon
Vistula Lagoon
(shared with Poland)

Major cities and towns:

Russian German † Lithuanian † Polish †

Baltiysk Балтийск Pillau Piliava Piława

Chernyakhovsk Черняховск Insterburg Įsrutis Wystruć

Gusev Гусев Gumbinnen Gumbinė Gąbin

Kaliningrad Калининград Königsberg Karaliaučius Królewiec

Sovetsk Советск Tilsit Tilžė Tylża

† Pre-1946 (the German-language names were also used in English in this period) Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast The current governor (since 2017) of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast is Anton Alikhanov. The latest elections to the region's legislative body, the 40-seat Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast Duma, were held in September 2016. Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: Administrative divisions of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast and List of inhabited localities in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast Demographics[edit] Population[edit]

Local residents in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
at «Immortal regiment», carrying portraits of their ancestors who fought in World War II

Epiphany bathing in Kaliningrad

People on the beach near Baltiysk

According to the 2010 Census, the oblast population was 941,873;[10] down from 955,281 recorded in the 2002 Census.[28] The 1989 Census recorded 871,283 inhabitants.[29] Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast was the fourth most densely populated federal subject in Russia, with 62.5 persons/km2 (162 persons/sq mi).[citation needed] Population-wise, the oblast is thoroughly Russian and Russophone
Russophone
in character, with almost none of the pre– World War II
World War II
German, Lithuanian (Lietuvininks), Latvian-speaking Kursenieki, or Polish population remaining in today's Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast. However, after 1991, some ethnic Germans
Germans
and Poles
Poles
began to return to the area, from Kazakhstan, Russia, and other sites in the former Soviet Union.[citation needed] Ethnic groups[edit] According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition of the oblast was as follows:[10]

772,534 Russians
Russians
(86.4%) 32,771 Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(3.7%) 32,497 Belarusians
Belarusians
(3.6%) 9,769 Lithuanians
Lithuanians
(1.1%) 9,226 Armenians
Armenians
(1%) 7,349 Germans
Germans
(0.8%) 4,534 Tatars
Tatars
(0.5%) 3,282 Azeris (0.4%) 2,788 Poles
Poles
(0.3%) 2,245 Uzbeks
Uzbeks
(0.3%) 16,857 others (1.9%) 48,021 people were registered from administrative databases and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[30]

Census[31] 1959 1970 1979 1989 2002 2010

Russians 473,861 (77.6%) 564,469 (77.1%) 632,717 (78.3%) 683,563 (78.5%) 786,885 (82.4%) 772,534 (86.4%)

Ukrainians 35,717 (5.8%) 48 044 (6.6%) 54,656 (6.8%) 62,750 (7.2%) 47,229 (4.9%) 32,771 (3.7%)

Belarusians 57,178 (9.4%) 68,808 (9.4%) 72,465 (9.0%) 73,926 (8.5%) 50,748 (5.3%) 32,497 (3.6%)

Lithuanians 21,262 (3.5%) 23,376 (3.2%) 19,647 (2.4%) 18,116 (2.1%) 13,937 (1.5%) 9,769 (1.1%)

Total fertility rate [32]

Year Rate

2000 1.11

2005 1.16

2010 1.46

2013 1.64

2014 1.70

2015 1.75

2016 1.74(e)

Religion[edit]

Religion in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[33][34]

Russian Orthodoxy

30.9%

Other Orthodox

0.5%

Roman Catholic

1%

Other Christians

1.7%

Spiritual but not religious

34%

Atheism
Atheism
and irreligion

21.6%

Other and undeclared

10.3%

According to a 2012 survey[33] 34% of the population of Kaliningrad Oblast declare themselves to be "spiritual but not religious", 30.9% adhere to the Russian Orthodox
Russian Orthodox
Church, 22% are atheist and 11.1% follow other religions or did not give an answer to the question, 1% are unaffiliated generic Christians and 1% adhere to the Catholic Church.[33] Until 1945, the region was overwhelmingly Lutheran, with a small number of Catholics and Jews. The state church of Prussia was dominant in the region. Although it was both Reformed
Reformed
and Lutheran
Lutheran
since 1817, there was an overwhelming Lutheran
Lutheran
majority and very few Reformed adherents in East Prussia.

Military[edit]

Victory Day in Kaliningrad

For some years after the fall of the Soviet Union, Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast was one of the most militarized areas of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
and the density of military installations was the highest in Europe, as much of the Soviet equipment pulled out of Eastern Europe was left there. As of 2009, there were 11,600 Russian ground troops based in the oblast, plus additional naval and air force personnel.[35] Thus military troops amount to less than 2% of the oblast's population. Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
is the headquarters of the Russian Baltic Fleet
Baltic Fleet
together with Chernyakhovsk
Chernyakhovsk
(air base), Donskoye (air base)
Donskoye (air base)
and Kaliningrad Chkalovsk (naval air base). The Washington Times
The Washington Times
wrote on January 3, 2001, citing anonymous intelligence reports, that Russia
Russia
had transferred tactical nuclear weapons into a military base in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
for the first time since the end of the Cold War. Russian top-level military leaders denied those claims.[36] A Pentagon spokesperson said that such deployment would violate the Russian pledge to remove nuclear weapons from the Baltics. Russia
Russia
and the United States announced in 1991 and 1992 a non-binding agreement to reduce arsenals of tactical nuclear weapons. On November 5, 2008, Russian President Dimitry Medvedev
Dimitry Medvedev
said that Russia
Russia
would deploy Iskander missiles in the oblast as a response to U.S. plans for basing missile defense missiles in Poland.[37] Equipment to electronically hamper the operation of future U.S. missile facilities in Poland
Poland
and the Czech Republic would also be deployed, he said. However, on January 28, 2009, a Russian defense official stated that the deployment of short-range missiles in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast would cease, due to perceived changes in the attitude of the United States government towards the Russian Federation, following the election of United States President Barack Obama.[38] In September 2009, Russia fully scrapped plans to send short-range missiles into the Kaliningrad Oblast in response to Obama's decision to cancel the missile defense system. In November 2011, Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
issued another stern warning that Russia
Russia
would deploy new missiles aimed at U.S. missile defense sites in Europe if Washington went ahead with the planned shield.[39] Then in 2012, Russia
Russia
chose Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
as the second region (after Moscow) to deploy the S-400 (SAM)
S-400 (SAM)
missile system.[40][41] Subsequently, Russian newspaper Izvestia reported in Dec 2013 that the short range Iskander-M 9K720
9K720
operational-tactical missile systems had been commissioned by the Western Military District's missile and artillery forces at about the same time.[42] Economy[edit]

Curonian Spit
Curonian Spit
in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast

Kaliningrad

According to statistics in 2016 Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
had Nominal GDP of US$6.7 billion and US$7,000 per capita.[43] Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast's economy is positively influenced by several factors, such as ice-free ports, the world's largest amber deposits and proximity to European countries. The region also has a developed tourist infrastructure, unique museums and monuments, and tourist attractions. One of these is the Curonian Spit.[44] To combat the oblast's economic problems such as high unemployment, in 1996 the Russian authorities granted Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
special economic status and tax advantages intended to attract investors. The oblast's economy has since benefited substantially and in recent years[when?] experienced a boom. A US$45 million airport terminal has been opened and the European Commission provides funds for business projects under its special program for the region. The oblast has begun to see increasing trade with the countries of the EU as well as increasing economic growth and rising industrial output.[45] According to official statistics, the Gross Regional Product in 2006 was 115 billion roubles.[46] GRP per capita in 2007 was 155,669 roubles.[47] Industry[edit] Car and truck assembly (GM, BMW, Kia, Yuejin), and production of auto parts, are major industries in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast. There are shipbuilding facilities in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
and Sovetsk. Food processing is a mature industry in the region. OKB Fakel, a world leader in the field of Hall thruster
Hall thruster
development, as well as a leading Russian developer and manufacturer of electric propulsion systems, is based in Neman. The company employs 960 people.[48][49] General Satellite (GS) is the biggest employer in Gusev city producing satellite receivers, cardboard packaging, nanomaterials etc. Natural resources[edit] Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast possesses more than 90% of the world's amber deposits.[50] Until recently raw amber was exported for processing to other countries, but in 2013 the Russian government banned the export of raw amber in order to boost the amber processing industry in Russia.[51] There are small oil reservoirs beneath the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
not far from Kaliningrad's shore. Small-scale offshore exploration started in 2004. Poland, Lithuania, and some local NGOs, voiced concerns about possible environmental effects. Fishing[edit] Fishing is an important regional industry, with big fishing ports in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
and Pionersky (formerly Neukuhren) and smaller ones in Svetly and Rybachy. Power generation[edit] Average yearly power consumption in the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast was 3.5 terawatt-hours in 2004 with local power generation providing just 0.235 terawatt-hours. The balance of energy needs was imported from neighboring countries. A new Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
power station was built in 2005, covering 50% of the oblast's energy needs. A second part of this station was built in 2010, making the oblast independent from electricity imports. As of 2014[update], there are plans to build two nuclear power reactors in the eastern part of the region. See also[edit]

Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast election, 2011 Baltic Republican Party List of rural localities in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Special
Special
Region Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
(Königsberg) dispute

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Article 5 of the Charter of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast states that the oblast may have an anthem, providing a law is adopted to that effect. As of 2015, no such law is in place. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.). ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. ( Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ). ^ Charter of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast, Article 3 ^ Law #463 ^ " Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast in Russia
Russia
By Russia
Russia
Channel". Russia-channel.com. Retrieved February 27, 2015.  ^ Charter of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast, Article 28 ^ Charter of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast, Article 17 ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All- Russia
Russia
Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.  ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All- Russia
Russia
Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population. ^ Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Оценка численности населения Калининградской области по состоянию на 1 января 2014 года (in Russian) ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.). ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia. ^ Sheeter, Laura (October 16, 2006). " Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
erases stains of past". BBC News. Retrieved May 7, 2010.  ^ "THE POTSDAM DECLARATION". Retrieved 2009-04-02.  ^ a b Milan Bufon. The New European Frontiers: Social and Spatial (Re)Integration Issues in Multicultural and Border Regions. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 98.  ^ " Russia
Russia
(USSR) / Poland
Poland
Treaty (with annexed maps) concerning the Demarcation of the Existing Soviet-Polish State Frontier in the Sector Adjoining the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
5 March 1957" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-04-02.  ^ For other issues of the frontier delimitation see "Maritime boundary delimitation agreements and other material". Retrieved 2009-04-02.  ^ Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2005). Visions of Victory: The hopes of eight World War II
World War II
leaders. Cambridge University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-521-85254-8.  ^ Should Kant's home once again be German?, The Guardian, 31 July 2010 ^ a b Transit from/to Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Region, www.euro.lt Archived November 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "The requested document does not exist. - EUR-Lex". eur-lex.europa.eu.  ^ "Medvedev Says Russia
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to Deploy Missiles Near Poland" Associated Press via Yahoo News[dead link] ^ Harding, Luke (January 28, 2009). " Russia
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scraps plan to deploy nuclear-capable missiles in Kaliningrad" – via www.theguardian.com.  ^ " Russia
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moves missiles to Kaliningrad". October 9, 2016 – via www.bbc.com.  ^ Sudakov, Dmitry (November 28, 2011). "Russia's new radar to monitor all Europe including Britain".  ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ "ВПН-2010". www.perepis-2010.ru.  ^ Переписи населения Российской Империи, СССР, 15 новых независимых государств Census of the Russian Empire, Soviet Union, 15 new independent states Archived May 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://kaliningrad.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/kaliningrad/resources/4444fd004ee286c58269833467c8ff84/%D0%92%D0%BE%D0%B7%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B5+%D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%8D%D1%84%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%86%D0%B8%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D1%8B+%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B6%D0%B4%D0%B0%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B8.pdf ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived. ^ "IISS".  ^ "Archive Search Results". nl.newsbank.com.  ^ " Russia
Russia
to move missiles to Baltic". bbc.co.uk. BBC. 2008-11-05. Retrieved 12 November 2008.  ^ " Russia
Russia
'halts missile deployment'". bbc.co.uk. BBC. 2009-01-28. Retrieved 2009-01-28.  ^ "Dmitry Medvedev, Russia
Russia
President, Says Missiles May Target U.S. Missile Defense Sites". Huffington Post. 2011-11-23.  ^ "S-400 Missiles Deployed in Russia's Baltic Fleet." RIA Novosti, April 9, 2012. ^ " Russia
Russia
launches new missile defense to cover Atlantic." RT. November 29, 2011 ^ " Russia
Russia
has stationed Iskander missiles in western region" RT. Dec 16, 2013 ^ http://mrd.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/mrd/ru/statistics/grp/ ^ " Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Region - Introduction". Russia: All Regions Trade & Investment Guide. CTEC Publishing LLC. 2008.  ^ "Regions and territories: Kaliningrad". BBC News. 2009-05-15. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  ^ Regional administration's website (Russian) Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Валовой региональный продукт на душу населения Федеральная служба государственной статистики ^ "EDB Fakel". OKB Fakel. Archived from the original on October 12, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-04.  ^ " OKB Fakel (Russian Federation)". Jane's Space Systems and Industry. 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2009-06-04.  ^ How Products Are Made: Amber
Amber
Archived August 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The History of Russian Amber, Part 2: From USSR
USSR
to Russia", Leta.st

Sources[edit]

Областная Дума Калининградской области. Закон №30 от 18 января 1996 г. «О вступлении в действие Устава (Основного Закона) Калининградской области», в ред. Закона №483 от 2 декабря 2015 г «О внесении изменения в Устав (Основной Закон) Калининградской области». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального публикования, за исключением пункта 5 статьи 15 и подпункта "б" статьи 22 в части подписания постановлений областной Думы председателем областной Думы, которые введены в действие одновременно со вступлением в силу Федерального закона от 06.10.1999 №184-ФЗ "Об общих принципах организации законодательных (представительных) и исполнительных органов государственной власти субъектов Российской Федерации". Опубликован: "Янтарный край", №20, 26 января 1996 г. (Oblast Duma of Kaliningrad Oblast. Law #30 of January 18, 1996 On the Charter (Basic Law) of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast Taking Effect, as amended by the Law #483 of December 2, 2015 On Amending the Charter (Basic Law) of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast. Effective as of the date ten days after the official publication date, with the exception of item 5 of Article 15 and the portion of subitem "b" of Article 22 dealing with the signing of the resolutions of the Oblast Duma by the Chair of the Oblast Duma, which take effect simultaneously with the Federal Law #184-FZ of October 6, 1999 "On the General Principles of the Organization of the Legislative (Representative) and Executive Organs of the State Power in the Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation".). Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №463 от 27 мая 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области», в ред. Закона №450 от 3 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Калининградской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Ведомости Правительства Калининградской области"), №112, 26 июня 2010 г. ( Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast Duma. Law #463 of May 27, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast, as amended by the Law #450 of July 3, 2015 On Amending the Law of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.). Simon Grunau, Preußische Chronik. Hrsg. von M. Perlbach etc., Leipzig, 1875. A. Bezzenberger, Geographie von Preußen, Gotha, 1959 Областная Дума Калининградской области. Закон №30 от 18 января 1996 г. «О вступлении в действие Устава (Основного Закона) Калининградской области», в ред. Закона №483 от 2 декабря 2015 г «О внесении изменения в Устав (Основной Закон) Калининградской области». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального публикования, за исключением пункта 5 статьи 15 и подпункта "б" статьи 22 в части подписания постановлений областной Думы председателем областной Думы, которые введены в действие одновременно со вступлением в силу Федерального закона от 06.10.1999 №184-ФЗ "Об общих принципах организации законодательных (представительных) и исполнительных органов государственной власти субъектов Российской Федерации". Опубликован: "Янтарный край", №20, 26 января 1996 г. (Oblast Duma of Kaliningrad Oblast. Law #30 of January 18, 1996 On the Charter (Basic Law) of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast Taking Effect, as amended by the Law #483 of December 2, 2015 On Amending the Charter (Basic Law) of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast. Effective as of the date ten days after the official publication date, with the exception of item 5 of Article 15 and the portion of subitem "b" of Article 22 dealing with the signing of the resolutions of the Oblast Duma by the Chair of the Oblast Duma, which take effect simultaneously with the Federal Law #184-FZ of October 6, 1999 "On the General Principles of the Organization of the Legislative (Representative) and Executive Organs of the State Power in the Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation".).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast.

Official website of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast (in Russian) A. Liucija Arbusauskaité "The Soviet Policy Towards the "Kaliningrad Germans" 1945-1951" chapter in "Themenheft: Eingliederung und Ausgrenzung. Beiträge aus der Historischen Migrationsforschung. Hrsg.: Jochen Oltmer Osnabrück: IMIS, 1999. ISSN 0949-4723 Master's thesis by Sergey Naumkin on the possibility of Kaliningrad integrating with the EU as a special economic zone Life in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast (in Russian) Spuren der Vergangenheit / Следы Пρошлого (Traces of the past) This site by W.A. Milowskij, a Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
resident, contains hundreds of interesting photos, often with text explanations, of architectural and infrastructural artifacts of the territory's long German past. (in German) (in Russian) City and Reagen News

v t e

Subdivisions of Russia

Federal subjects

Republics

Adygea Altai Bashkortostan Buryatia Chechnya Chuvashia Crimea1 Dagestan Ingushetia Kabardino-Balkaria Kalmykia Karachay-Cherkessia Karelia Khakassia Komi Mari El Mordovia North Ossetia-Alania Sakha Tatarstan Tuva Udmurtia

Krais

Altai Kamchatka Khabarovsk Krasnodar Krasnoyarsk Perm Primorsky Stavropol Zabaykalsky

Oblasts

Amur Arkhangelsk Astrakhan Belgorod Bryansk Chelyabinsk Irkutsk Ivanovo Kaliningrad Kaluga Kemerovo Kirov Kostroma Kurgan Kursk Leningrad Lipetsk Magadan Moscow Murmansk Nizhny Novgorod Novgorod Novosibirsk Omsk Orenburg Oryol Penza Pskov Rostov Ryazan Sakhalin Samara Saratov Smolensk Sverdlovsk Tambov Tomsk Tula Tver Tyumen Ulyanovsk Vladimir Volgograd Vologda Voronezh Yaroslavl

Federal cities

Moscow St. Petersburg Sevastopol1

Autonomous oblast

Jewish

Autonomous okrugs

Chukotka Khanty-Mansi2 Nenets3 Yamalo-Nenets2

1Claimed by Ukraine
Ukraine
and considered by most of the international community to be part of Ukraine 2Administratively subordinated to Tyumen Oblast 3Administratively subordinated to Arkhangelsk Oblast

Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different institutions

Economic regions (by Ministry of Economic Development) Military districts (by Ministry of Defence) Federal districts (by President) Judicial districts (by law "On arbitration courts")

v t e

Administrative divisions of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast (former German names are given in parentheses and italicized)

Administrative center: Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
(Königsberg)

Cities and towns

Bagrationovsk
Bagrationovsk
(Preußisch Eylau) Baltiysk
Baltiysk
(Pillau) Chernyakhovsk
Chernyakhovsk
(Insterburg) Guryevsk (Neuhausen) Gusev (Gumbinnen) Gvardeysk
Gvardeysk
(Tapiau) Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
(Königsberg) Krasnoznamensk (Lasdehnen) Ladushkin
Ladushkin
(Ludwigsort) Mamonovo
Mamonovo
(Heiligenbeil) Neman (Ragnit) Nesterov
Nesterov
(Stallupönen) Ozyorsk (Darkehmen) Pionersky (Neukuhren) Polessk
Polessk
(Labiau) Pravdinsk
Pravdinsk
(Friedland in Ostpreußen) Primorsk (Fischhausen) Slavsk
Slavsk
(Heinrichswalde) Sovetsk (Tilsit) Svetlogorsk (Rauschen) Svetly (Zimmerbude) Zelenogradsk
Zelenogradsk
(Cranz)

Urban-type settlements of oblast significance

Yantarny (Palmnicken)

Districts

Bagrationovsky Baltiysky Chernyakhovsky Guryevsky Gusevsky Gvardeysky Krasnoznamensky Nemansky Nesterovsky Ozyorsky Polessky Pravdinsky Slavsky Svetlogorsky Zelenogradsky

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312798342 LCCN: n80087726 GND: 4400718-8 BNF:

.