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The Kabul
Kabul
Shahi
Shahi
dynasties[2][3] also called Shahiya[4][5] ruled the Kabul
Kabul
Valley (in eastern Afghanistan) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan) during the Classical Period of India[6] from the decline of the Kushan Empire[7] in the 3rd century to the early 11th century.[6] They are split into two eras: the Buddhist
Buddhist
Turk Shahi
Turk Shahi
and the later Hindu-Shahis with the change-over occurring around 870 CE.[5] When Xuanzang
Xuanzang
visited the region early in the 7th century, the Kabul region was ruled by a Kshatriya
Kshatriya
king, who is identified as the Shahi Khingal, and whose name has been found in an inscription found in Gardez. These Hindu
Hindu
kings of Kabul
Kabul
and Gandhara
Gandhara
may have had links to some ruling families in neighboring Kashmir, Punjab
Punjab
and other areas to the east. The Shahis were rulers of predominantly Buddhist
Buddhist
and Hindu populations and were thus patrons of numerous faiths, and various artifacts and coins from their rule have been found that display their multicultural domain. Kabul
Kabul
shahi opposes the ummiyad attacks until 7th century .At the end period the last Shahi
Shahi
emperors Jayapala, Anandapala and Tirlochanpala fought the Muslim Turk Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
of Ghazna
Ghazna
and were gradually defeated. Their remaining army were eventually exiled into northern India.

Contents

1 Origin 2 Hindu
Hindu
origins and Turkic influences

2.1 The title of "Shahi"

3 Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist
Buddhist
culture 4 Invasions from the 7th century 5 Move to Kabul; dynastic continuity 6 Retreat and dependence on Kashmir

6.1 Jayapal 6.2 Anandpal 6.3 Trilochanpal 6.4 Bheempal 6.5 After the loss of empire

7 Shahi
Shahi
rulers 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References

Origin[edit]

Coins of the Shahis, 8th century

Coin of Shahi
Shahi
Kings of Kabul
Kabul
and Gandhara: Samanta Deva, c. 850–1000 CE. Obv: Rider bearing lance on caparisoned horse facing right. Devnagari Legends: "bhi" Rev: Recumbent bull facing left, trishula on bull's rump, Devnagari Legends: Sri Samanta Deva.

The Amb Temples
Amb Temples
in Pakistan’s Salt Range
Salt Range
mountains were built between the 7th and 9th centuries CE.

Xuanzang
Xuanzang
describes the ruler of Kapisa/Kabul, whom he had personally met, as a devout Buddhist
Buddhist
and a Kshatriya. The 11th-century Persian Muslim scholar Alberuni
Alberuni
recorded folklore concerning the early history of the Kabul
Kabul
Shahi
Shahi
rulers,[8] including beliefs that:

the kings residing in Kabul, while they practised Hinduism, also belonged to a Turkic culture; they were also, however, Tibetan in origin, including the founder of the dynasty, Barahatakin; when Barahatakin migrated from Tibet, he took up residence in a cave near Kabul
Kabul
and did not venture out in public for a few days, at which point local people regarded him and his Turkic clothing with curiosity, like a "new born baby", and honoured him as a being of miraculous birth, who was destined to be a king; in his lifetime Barahatakin came to rule the country, under the title "Shahiya of Kabul"; the title remained among his descendants for about 60 generations and; the descendants of Barahatakin include one was Kanik (possibly the Kushan ruler Kanishka), who is said to have built a vihara called Kanika Caitya in Purushapura
Purushapura
(Peshawar).[9]

Thus the folklore accounts recorded by Alberuni
Alberuni
connect the earlier Shahis of Kabul/ Kapisa
Kapisa
to Turkish extraction and also claim their descent from Kanik (or Kanishaka of Kushana
Kushana
lineage). At the same time it is also claimed that 'their first king Barahatigin (Vrahitigin?) had originally come from Tibet and concealed in a narrow cave in Kabul area (and here is given a strange legend which we omit).' One can easily see the above account of Shahi
Shahi
origin as totally fanciful and fairy tale-like. These statements taken together are very confusing, inconsistent and bear the express marks of a folklore and vulgar tradition, hence unworthy of inspiring any confidence in the early history of Shahis. The allegation that the first dynasty of Kabul
Kabul
was Turki is plainly based on the vulgar tradition, which Alberuni
Alberuni
himself remarked was clearly absurd. The historian V. A. Smith speculates – based on Alberuni
Alberuni
– that the earlier Shahis were a cadet branch of the Kushanas who ruled both over Kabul
Kabul
and Gandhara
Gandhara
until the rise of the Saffarids. H. M. Elliot relates the early Kabul
Kabul
Shahis to the Kators and further connects the Kators with the Kushanas. Charles Frederick Oldham also traces the Kabul
Kabul
Shahi
Shahi
lineage to the Kators—whom he identifies with the Kathas orTakkhas—Naga worshipping collective groups of Hinduism (chandravanshi group) lineage. He further speaks of the Urasas, Abhisaras, Daradas, Gandharas, Kambojas, et al. as allied tribal groups of the Takkhas belonging to the Sun-worshiping races of the north-west frontier.[10][11] D. B. Pandey traces the affinities of the early Kabul
Kabul
Shahis to the Hunas. Other accounts suggest Punjabi Kshatriya
Kshatriya
origins for the Shahi dynasty. Xuanzang
Xuanzang
clearly describes the ruler of Kapisa/Kabul, whom he had personally met, as a devout Buddhist
Buddhist
and a Kshatriya
Kshatriya
and not a Tu-kiue/Tu-kue (Turk).[12] The fact that Xuanzang
Xuanzang
(AD 644) specifically describes the ruler of Kapisa
Kapisa
as Kshatriya,[13] and that of Zabul
Zabul
at this time being known as Shahi[14] casts serious doubt about the speculated connections of the first Shahis of Kabul/Kapisa to the Kushanas or the Hephthalites. Neither the Kushanas, the Hunas/ Hephthalites
Hephthalites
nor the Turks (or Turushkas) have ever been designated or classified as Kshatriyas in any ancient Indian tradition. Therefore, the identification of the first line of Shahi kings of Kapisa/ Kabul
Kabul
with the Kushanas, Hunas, or Turks obviously seems to be in gross error.[15] It is very interesting that Alberuni
Alberuni
calls the early Shahi
Shahi
rulers "Turks", but this should be interpreted to mean Turkicised, rather than Turkic in origin.[16] Hindu
Hindu
origins and Turkic influences[edit] The Shahi
Shahi
rulers of Kapisa/ Kabul
Kabul
who ruled from the early 4th century until 870 CE were Hindu
Hindu
Brahmins.[citation needed] The Shahis of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
were discovered in 1874 to be connected to the Kamboja "race" by E. Vesey Westmacott.[17] E. Vesey Westmacott,[18] Bishan Singh, K. S. Dardi, et al. connect the Kabul
Kabul
Shahis to the ancient Indian Kshatriya
Kshatriya
clans of the Kambojas/Gandharas. George Scott Robertson[19] writes that the Kators/Katirs of Kafiristan belong to the well known Siyaposh tribal group of the Kams, Kamoz and Kamtoz tribes.[20] But numerous scholars now also agree that the Siyaposh tribes of Hindukush
Hindukush
are the modern representatives of the ancient Iranian cis- Hindukush
Hindukush
Kambojas.[21] The powerful evidence from Xuanzang
Xuanzang
(AD 644) attesting that the ruler of Kabul/ Kapisa
Kapisa
was a devout Buddhist
Buddhist
and belonged to Kshatriya
Kshatriya
caste would rather connect this ruling dynasty either to the erstwhile Gandharas or more probably to Ashvaka clan of the Kambojas, the eminent Kshatriya
Kshatriya
clan of the Mauryan
Mauryan
times from the neighbouring region in India.[22] The name (Katorman or Lagaturman) of the last king of the so-called first Shahi
Shahi
line of Kabul/ Kapisa
Kapisa
simply reveals a trace of Tukhara cultural influence in the Kamboja (Kapisa) region, as hinted in the above discussion. Thus, the first ruling dynasty of Kapisa
Kapisa
and Kabul, designated as a Kshatriya
Kshatriya
dynasty by Xuanzang
Xuanzang
had been a Kamboja dynasty from India.[23]

Asia in AD 565, showing the Shahi
Shahi
kingdoms and their neighbours.

From the 2nd century BC onwards (much prior to the Huna ascendancy), the Tukharas had settled in considerable numbers in the ancient Kamboja land[24][25] and thus the culture of the Kambojas
Kambojas
undoubtedly underwent some changes and due to the interaction of two cultures, the Kambojas
Kambojas
of Kapisa
Kapisa
were also substantially influenced by Tukharas[26][27] who remained for quite a time the ruling power in this region. This fact is also verified by Xuanzang
Xuanzang
who records that the literature, customary rules, and currency of Bamiyan were same as those of Tukhara; the spoken language is only little different and in personal appearance the people closely resembled those of the Tukhara country. On the other hand, the literature and written language of Kapisa
Kapisa
(=Kamboja) was like that of Tukharas but the social customs, colloquial idiom, rules of behavior (and their personal resemblance) differed somewhat from those of Tukhara
Tukhara
country[28] which means that the original and dominant community of Kapisa
Kapisa
had imbibed the Tukharan culture and customs but to a limited extent and the penetration of the Tukharas in the Kapisa
Kapisa
territory appears to have therefore been also limited. The Kambojas
Kambojas
and the Tukharas (Turks) are mentioned as immediate neighbors in north-west as late as the 8th century AD as Rajatarangini
Rajatarangini
of Kalhana demonstrates.[29] Evidence also exists that some medieval Muslim writers have confused the Kamboja clans of Pamirs/ Hindukush
Hindukush
with the Turks and invested the former with Turkic ethnicity. For example, 10th-century Arab geographer Al-Muqaddasi, refers to the Kumiji (=Kamoji/Kamboja) tribesmen of Buttaman mountains (Tajikistan),[30] on upper Oxus, and calls them of Turkic race.[31][32][33][34][35] Song Yun, the Chinese Ambassador to the Huna kingdom of Gandhara, in AD 520 writes that the Yethas (Hephthalites) had invaded Gandhara
Gandhara
two generations prior to him and had completely destroyed this country. The then Yetha ruler was extremely cruel, vindictive, and anti- Buddhist
Buddhist
and had engaged in a three years border war with the king of Ki-pin (Cophene or Kapisa), disputing the boundaries of that country.[36] The Yetha king referred to by Song Yun may have been Mihirakula
Mihirakula
(AD 515-540/547) or his governor. This evidence also proves that the Kapisa
Kapisa
kingdom was well established prior to the Huna/ Hephthalite
Hephthalite
invasion of Gandhara
Gandhara
(c. AD 477) and that it did not submit to the Yethas but had survived and continued to maintain its independence.

Newly excavated Buddhist
Buddhist
stupa at Mes Aynak
Mes Aynak
in Logar Province. Similar stupas have been discovered in neighbouring Ghazni
Ghazni
Province, including in the northern Samangan Province.

Once the political clout of the invaders like the Kushanas or the Hephthalites
Hephthalites
had declined, some native chieftain from the original dominant clans of this region seems to have attained ascendancy in political power and established an independent kingdom on the ruins of the Kushana
Kushana
and/or the Hephthalite
Hephthalite
empire. Commenting on the rise of Shahi
Shahi
dynasty in Kabul/Kapisa, Charles Frederick Oldham observes: " Kabulistan
Kabulistan
must have passed through many vicissitudes during the troublous times which followed the overthrow of the great Persian empire by the Alexander. It no doubt fell for a time under the sway of foreign rulers (Yavanas, Kushanas, Hunas
Hunas
etc). The great mass of the population, however, remained Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
or Shamanic Polytheists. And probably too, the Kshatriya
Kshatriya
chiefs from India retained great shadow of authority, and conquered Kabulistan when the opportunity arose.". Barhatigin is said to be the founder of the dynasty which is said to have ruled for 60 generations until AD 870. This, if true, would take Barhatigin and the founding of the early Shahi
Shahi
dynasty back about 20x60=1200 years, i.e., to about the 4th century BC if we take the average generation of 20 years; and to the 7th century BC if an average generation is taken as 25 years. It is well nigh impossible that a single dynasty could have ruled for 1200 (or 1500) years at a stretch. Moreover, King Kanik (if Kanishaka) ruled (AD 78 – 101) not over Kabul
Kabul
but over Purushapura/ Gandhara
Gandhara
and his descendants could not have ruled for almost 900 years as a single dynasty over Kapisa/Kabul especially in a frontier region called the gateway of India. Pre Islamic Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist
Buddhist
heritage of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is well established in the Shahi
Shahi
coinage from Kabul
Kabul
of this period. Based on fragmentary evidence of coins, there was one king named Vrahitigin (Barhatigin?) who belonged to pre-Christian times as Alberuni's accounts would tend to establish. If Kanik is same as Kanishaka of Kushana
Kushana
race as is often claimed, then the second claim that the ancestors of the early Shahis came from Tibet becomes incompatible to known facts of history. According to Olaf Caroe, "the earlier Kabul
Kabul
Shahis in some sense were the inheritors of the Kushana
Kushana
chancery tradition and were staunch Hindus in character.[37] The affinities of the early Shahis of Kapisa/ Kabul
Kabul
are still speculative, and the inheritance of the Kushan- Hephthalite
Hephthalite
chancery tradition and political institutions by Kabul
Kabul
Shahis do not necessarily connect them to the preceding dynasty (i.e. the Kushanas or Hephthalites). It appears that from start of the 5th century till AD 793-94, the capital of the Kabul
Kabul
Shahis was Kapisa. As early as AD 424, the prince of Kapisa
Kapisa
(Ki-pin of the Chinese) was known as Guna Varman.[38] The name ending "Varman" is used after the name of a Ksahriya only.[39][40][41][42] Thus the line of rulers whom Xuanzang
Xuanzang
refers to in his chronicles appears to be an extension of the Kshatriya
Kshatriya
dynasty whom this Guna Varman of Ki-pin or Kapisa
Kapisa
(AD 424) belonged. Thus this Kshatriya
Kshatriya
dynasty was already established prior to AD 424 and it was neither a Kushana
Kushana
nor a Hephthalite
Hephthalite
dynasty by any means.[43]

Abbasid Shahi-inspired coin, Iraq 908–930. British Museum.[44]

It appears more than likely that, rather than the Kushanas or Hunas
Hunas
or the Turks, the Shahi
Shahi
rulers of Kabul/ Kapisa
Kapisa
and Gandhara
Gandhara
had a descent[citation needed] from the neighbouring warlike Kshatriya
Kshatriya
clans of the Kambojas
Kambojas
known as Ashvakas (q.v.), who in the 4th century BC, had offered stubborn and decisive resistance to Macedonian invader, Alexander, and later had helped Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
found the Mauryan empire of India.[45] They were the same bold and warlike people on whom king Ashoka
Ashoka
Maurya had thought it wise and expedient to bestow autonomous status[46] and to whom he gave eminent place in his Rock Edicts V and XIII. They were fiercely independent warlike people who had never easily yielded to any foreign overlord.[47] They were the people who, in the 5th century AD, had formed the very neighbours of the Bactrian Ephthalites
Ephthalites
of Oxus
Oxus
and whom Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
of Gupta dynasty had campaigned against and had obtained tribute from about the start of the 5th century AD.[48][49] Dr V. A. Smith says that this epic verse is reminiscent of the times when the Hunas
Hunas
first came into contact with the Sassanian
Sassanian
dynasty of Persia.[50] Sata-pañcāśaddesa-vibhaga of the medieval era Tantra
Tantra
book Saktisamgma Tantra[51] locates Kambojas
Kambojas
( Kabul
Kabul
Shahis?) to the west of southwest Kashmir (or Pir-pañcāla), to the south of Bactria
Bactria
and to the east of Maha-Mlechcha-desa (=Mohammadan countries i.e Khorasan/Iran) and likewise, locates the Hunas
Hunas
( Zabul
Zabul
Shahis?) to the south of Kama valley (or Jallalabad/Afghanistan) and to the north of Marudesa (or Rajputana) towards western Punjab.[52] The Kavyamimasa of Rajshekhar also lists the Sakas, Kekayas, Kambojas, Vanayujas, Bahlikas, Hunas, Pahlvas, Limpakas, Harahuras, Hansmaragas (Hunzas) etc [53] in the north-west. Since Rajshekhar (AD 880–920) was contemporary with Hindu
Hindu
Shahis, he identifies people called Kambojas
Kambojas
(Kabul/Kapisa), Vanayujas (Bannus), Limpakas (Lamghanis), Hunas
Hunas
(Zabul), Pahlvas (Persians—Maha-mlechchas), Harahuras (Red Hunas
Hunas
located in Herat) etc almost exactly in the same localities which were occupied by Kabul
Kabul
Shahi
Shahi
and Zabul
Zabul
Shahi
Shahi
kingdoms respectively. The above referred to pieces of evidence again spotlight on the Kambojas
Kambojas
and the Hunas
Hunas
together and places them near the environs of the Muslim Persians in north-west. During the 1st century AD and later in the 5th century (c. AD 477), the cis-Hindukush Kambojas
Kambojas
and Gandharas partially came under the sway of foreign invaders like the Kushanas and the Hephthalites
Hephthalites
(Hunas). These warlike people were temporarily overpowered by the numerous hordes but they did not become extinct; and once the political tide of the foreign hordes ebbed, someone from the native chieftains from the original dominant clans (i.e. the Ksatrya Ashvakas) of this region asserted his authority and attained ascendancy in political power and had established himself as Kshatriya
Kshatriya
overlord of an independent kingdom on the ruins of the erstwhile Kushana
Kushana
and/or the Hephthalites
Hephthalites
empire.[54] The title of "Shahi"[edit] In ancient time, the title Shahi
Shahi
appears to be a quite popular royal title in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the north-western areas of the Indian sub-continent. Sakas,[55][citation needed] Kushanas,[56] Hunas,[57] Bactrians,[58] by the rulers of Kapisa/Kabul,[59] and Gilgit
Gilgit
used it.[60][verification needed] In Persian form, the title appears as Kshathiya, Kshathiya Kshathiyanam, Shao of the Kushanas and the Ssaha of Mihirakula
Mihirakula
(Huna chief).[61] The Kushanas are stated to have adopted the title Shah-in-shahi ("Shaonano shao") in imitation of Achaemenid practice.[62] An ancient Jaina work, Kalakacarya-kathanaka, says that the rulers of the Sakas
Sakas
who had invaded Ujjaini/ Malwa
Malwa
in 62 BC also used the titles of Sahi and Sahnusahi.[63] Since the title Shahi
Shahi
was used by the rulers of Kapisa/ Kabul
Kabul
or Gandhara
Gandhara
also in imitation of Kushana "Shao", it has been speculated by some writers that the Shahi
Shahi
dynasty of Kapisa/ Kabul
Kabul
or Gandhara
Gandhara
was a foreign dynasty and had descended from the Kushans or Turks (Turushkas).[6] However, the title has been used by several rulers irrespective of any racial connotations and this may refute the above speculation. In addition, one ancient inscription and several ancient Buddhist manuscripts from the Gilgit
Gilgit
area between upper Indus
Indus
and river Kabul shed some light on the three kings who ruled in the Gilgit
Gilgit
region in the 6th and 7th centuries AD. They also bore Shahi
Shahi
titles and their names are mentioned as Patoladeva alias Navasurendradiyta Nandin, Srideva alias Surendra Vikrmadiyta Nandin and Patoladeva alias Vajraditya Nandin. It is very relevant to mention here that each of the Shahi
Shahi
rulers mentioned in the above list of Gilgit
Gilgit
rulers has Nandin as his surname or last name[64] It is more than likely that the surname Nandin refers to their clan name. It is also very remarkable that the modern Kamboj tribe of northern Punjab
Punjab
still has Nandan (Nandin) as one of their important clan names. It is therefore very likely that these Gilgit
Gilgit
rulers of upper Indus
Indus
may also have belonged to the Kamboja lineage.[65][66] Furthermore, "Shahi, Sahi, Shahiya" as a septal name is still carried by a section of the Punjab
Punjab
Kambojs which appears to be a relic from the Shahi
Shahi
title of their Kabul/Kapisa princes.[67] Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist
Buddhist
culture[edit]

6th-century "image of Hindu
Hindu
deity, Ganesha, consecrated by the Shahi King Khingala." (Gardez, Afghanistan)

Alberuni's reference to the supplanting of the Kabul
Kabul
Shahi
Shahi
dynasty in about AD 870 by a Brahmin
Brahmin
called Kallar actually implies only that the religious faith of the royal family had changed from Buddhism
Buddhism
to Hinduism
Hinduism
by about that date; it might not have actually involved any physical supplanting of the existing Kabul
Kabul
Shahi
Shahi
dynasty as is stated by Alberuni
Alberuni
whose account of early Shahis is indeed based on telltale stories.[68] Archeological sites of the period, including a major Hindu
Hindu
Shahi temple north of Kabul
Kabul
and a chapel in Ghazni, contain both the pre-dominant Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist
Buddhist
statuary, suggesting that there was a close interaction between the two religions. When the Chinese monk Xuanzang
Xuanzang
visited Kapisa
Kapisa
(about 60 km north of modern Kabul) in the 7th century, the local ruler was a Kshatriya King Shahi
Shahi
Khingala. A Ganesha
Ganesha
idol has been found near Gerdez that bears the name of this king, see Shahi
Shahi
Ganesha. Several 6th- or 7th-century AD Buddhist
Buddhist
manuscripts were found from a stupa at Gilgit. One of the manuscripts reveals the name of a Shahi king Srideva Sahi Surendra Vikramaditya Nanda.[69] See also: Pre Islamic Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist
Buddhist
heritage of Afghanistan Invasions from the 7th century[edit] In the wake of Muslim invasions of Kabul
Kabul
and Kapisa
Kapisa
in second half of the 7th century (AD 664), the Kapisa/ Kabul
Kabul
ruler called by Muslim writers Kabul
Kabul
Shah
Shah
( Shahi
Shahi
of Kabul) made an appeal to the Kshatriyas of the Hind who had gathered there in large numbers for assistance and drove out the Muslim invaders as far as Bost.[70] This king of Kapisa/ Kabul
Kabul
who faced the Muslim invasion was undoubtedly a Kshatriya.[71] In AD 645, when Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang
Xuanzang
was passing through the Uttarapatha, Udabhanda or Udabhandapura was the place of residence or secondary capital of emperor of Kapisa
Kapisa
which then dominated over 10 neighboring states comprising Lampaka, Nagara, Gandhara
Gandhara
and Varna (Bannu) and probably also Jaguda. About Gandhara, the pilgrim says that its capital was Purushapura; the royal family was extinct and country was subject to Kapisa; the towns and villages were desolate and the inhabitants were very few. It seems that under pressure from Arabs in the southwest and the Turks in the north, the kings of Kapisa had left their western possessions in the hands of their viceroys and made Udabhanda their principal seat of residence. The reason why Udabhandapura was selected in preference to Peshawar is at present unknown but it is possible that the new city of Udabhanda was built by Kapisa
Kapisa
rulers for strategic reasons.[72] In AD 671 Muslim armies seized Kabul
Kabul
and the capital was moved to Udabhandapura.[73] Move to Kabul; dynastic continuity[edit] In subsequent years, the Muslim armies returned with large reinforcements and Kabul
Kabul
was swept when the Shahi
Shahi
ruler agreed to pay tribute to the conquerors. For strategical reasons, the Shahis, who continued to offer stubborn resistance to Muslim onslaughts, finally moved their capital from Kapisa
Kapisa
to Kabul
Kabul
in about AD 794. Kabul
Kabul
Shahis remained in Kabul
Kabul
until AD 879[7] when Ya'qub-i Laith Saffari, the founder of the Saffarid dynasty, conquered the city. Kabul
Kabul
Shahis had built a defensive wall all around the Kabul
Kabul
city to protect it against the army of Muslim Saffarids. The remains of these walls are still visible over the mountains which are located inside the Kabul
Kabul
city. The first Hindu
Hindu
Shahi
Shahi
dynasty was founded in AD 870 by Kallar (see above). Kallar is well documented to be a Brahmin. The kingdom was bounded on the north by the Hindu
Hindu
kingdom of Kashmir, on the east by Rajput
Rajput
kingdoms, on the south by the Muslim Emirates of Multan and Mansura, and on the west by the Abbasid Caliphate. According to the confused accounts recorded by the Persian historian Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
which are chiefly based on folklore,[74][75][76] the last king of the first Shahi
Shahi
dynasty, Lagaturman (Katorman) was overthrown and imprisoned by his Brahmin
Brahmin
vizier Kallar, thus resulting in the change-over of dynasty. The Hindu
Hindu
Shahi, a term used by Al-Biruni[77] to refer to the ruling Hindu
Hindu
dynasty[78] that took over from the Turki Shahi
Shahi
and ruled the region during the period prior to Muslim conquests of the 10th and 11th centuries. The term Hindu
Hindu
Shahi
Shahi
was a royal title of this dynasty and not its actual clan or ethnological name. Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
used the title Shah
Shah
for many other contemporary royal houses in his descriptions as well.[79] It is very remarkable[according to whom?] that Kalhana (c. 12th century), the author of Rajatarangini
Rajatarangini
(written in AD 1147–49), also refers to the Shahis and does not maintain any difference or distinction between the earlier Shahis (RT IV.143) and the later Shahis or does not refer to any supplanting of the dynasty at any stage as Alberuni
Alberuni
does in his Tarikh-al-Hind.[80] etc., unbroken to as far as or earlier than AD 730.[81] It is also remarkable[according to whom?] that Rajatrangini and all other sources refer to the Shahi rulers of Udabhandapura/Waihind as belonging to the Kshatriya lineage[82][83] in contrast to Alberuni
Alberuni
who designates the earlier Shahi
Shahi
rulers as Turks and the later as Brahmins[84] Since the change of Shahi
Shahi
capital from Kabul
Kabul
to Waihind or Uddhabhandapura had also occurred precisely around this period, it is probable that the narrator of the folklore/tellatale to Alberuni
Alberuni
had confused the "change of capital" issue with the "supplanting of Kabul Shahi
Shahi
dynasty" since the incidence of shift had occurred remotely about 200 years prior to Alberuni's writing (AD 1030). There is no doubt, as the scholars also admit, that the change in dynasty is effected by "a common legend of eastern story", which surely bears the express mark of folklore for the previous history of Kabul
Kabul
Shahis, hence obviously speculative and not much worthy of serious history.[85] See also: History of Arabs in Afghanistan Retreat and dependence on Kashmir[edit] The Hindu
Hindu
Shahis became engaged with the Yamini Turks of Ghazni[86] over supremacy of the eastern regions of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
initially before it extended towards the Punjab
Punjab
region. They briefly recaptured the Kabul
Kabul
Valley from the Samanid
Samanid
successors of the Saffarids, until a general named Alptigin
Alptigin
drove out the Samanid
Samanid
wali of Zabulistan
Zabulistan
and established the Ghaznavid
Ghaznavid
dynasty at Ghazna.[87] Under his general and successor Sabuktigin
Sabuktigin
the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
had begun to raid the provinces of Lamghan.[88] and Multan.[87] This precipated an alliance first between the then King Jayapala
Jayapala
and the Amirs of Multan, and then in a second battle in alliance with Delhi, Ajmer, Kalinjar, and Kannauj
Kannauj
which saw the Hindu
Hindu
Shahi
Shahi
lose all lands west of the Indus
Indus
River.[87] His successor Anandapala arrived at a tributary arrangement with Sebuktigin's successor, Mahmud of Ghazni, before he was defeated and exiled to Kashmir in the early 11th century. Al-Idirisi (AD 1100-1165/66) testifies that until as late as the 12th century, a contract of investiture for every Shahi
Shahi
king was performed at Kabul
Kabul
and that here he was obliged to agree to certain ancient conditions which completed the contract.[89] Kalhana remarked: "To this day, the appellation Shahi
Shahi
throws its lustre on a numberless host of kshatriya abroad who trace their origin to that family".[90] The kings of Kashmir were related to the Shahis through marital and political alliance. Didda, a queen of Kashmir was a granddaughter of the Brahmin
Brahmin
Shahi
Shahi
Bhima, who was married to Kshemagupta (r. 951–959). Bhima had visited Kashmir and built the temple Bhima Keshava. Jayapal[edit] The initial Hindu
Hindu
Shahi
Shahi
dynasty was the House of Kallar, but in AD 964 the rule was assumed from Bhima upon his death by Jayapala, son of Rai Asatapala[citation needed] .[91] Epithets from the Bari Kot inscriptions record his full title as "Parambhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Paramesvara Sri Jayapala
Jayapala
deva" the first Emperor of the Janjua Shahi phase.[citation needed] He is celebrated as a hero for his struggles in defending his kingdom from the Turkic rulers of Ghazni. Emperor Jayapala
Jayapala
was challenged by the armies of Sultan Sabuktigin
Sabuktigin
in Battle of Peshawar (1001)
Battle of Peshawar (1001)
and later by his son Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. According to the Minháj ad-Dīn in his chronicle Tabaqát-i Násiri,[92] he bears a testament to the political and powerful stature of Maharaja Jayapala
Jayapala
Shah, "Jayapála, who is the greatest of all the ráis (kings) of Hind..." Misra wrote on Jaypala: "(He) was perhaps the last Indian ruler to show such spirit of aggression, so sadly lacking in later Rajput
Rajput
kings."[93] Anandpal[edit] Prince Anandapala who ascended his father's throne (in about March/April AD 1002) already proved an able warrior and general in leading many battles prior to his ascension. According to 'Adáb al-Harb' (pp. 307–10) in about AD 990, it is written, "the arrogant but ambitious Raja
Raja
of Lahore
Lahore
Bharat, having put his father in confinement, marched on the country of Jayapála with the intention of conquering the districts of Nandana, Jailum (Jehlum) and Tákeshar" (in an attempt to take advantage of Jayapala's concentrated effort with defence against the armies of Ghazni). " Jayapala
Jayapala
instructed Prince Anandapala to repel the opportunist Raja
Raja
Bharat. Anandapala defeated Bharat and took him prisoner in the battle of Takeshar and marched on Lahore
Lahore
and captured the city and extended his father's kingdom yet further." However, during his reign as emperor many losses were inflicted on his kingdom by the Ghaznavids. During the battle of Chach between Mahmud and Anandapala, it is stated that "a body of 30,000 Gakhars
Gakhars
fought alongside as soldiers for the Shahi
Shahi
Emperor and incurred huge losses for the Ghaznavids". However, despite the heavy losses of the enemy, he lost the battle and suffered much financial and territorial loss. This was Anandapala's last stand against Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. He eventually signed a treaty with the Ghaznavid
Ghaznavid
Empire in AD 1010 and shortly a year later died a peaceful death. R.C Majumdar (D.V. Potdar Commemoration Volume, Poona 1950, p. 351) compared him ironically to his dynastic ancient famous ancestor "King Porus, who bravely opposed Alexander but later submitted and helped in subduing other Indian rulers". And Tahqíq Má li'l-Hind (p. 351) finally revered him in his legacy as "noble and courageous" . Trilochanpal[edit] Prince Trilochanpála, the son of Anandapala, ascended the imperial throne in about AD 1011. Inheriting a reduced kingdom, he immediately set about expanding his kingdom into the Sivalik Hills, the domain of the Rai of Sharwa. His kingdom now extended from the River Indus
Indus
to the upper Ganges valley. According to Al-Biruni, Tirlochanpála "was well inclined towards the Muslims (Ghaznavids)" and was honourable in his loyalty to his father's peace treaty to the Ghaznavids. He eventually rebelled against Sultan Mahmud and was later assassinated by some of his own mutinous troops in AD 1021–22, an assassination which was believed to have been instigated by the Rai of Sharwa who became his arch-enemy due to Tirlochanpala's expansion into the Siwalik ranges. He was romanticised in Punjabi folklore as the Last Punjabi ruler of Punjab. Bheempal[edit] Prince Bhímapála, son of Tirlochanpala, succeeded his father in AD 1021–22. He was referred to by Utbí as "Bhīm, the Fearless" due to his courage and valour. Considering his kingdom was at its lowest point, possibly only in control of Nandana, he admirably earned the title of "fearless" from his enemy's own chronicle writer. He is known to have commanded at the battle of Nandana
Nandana
personally and seriously wounded the commander of the Ghaznavid
Ghaznavid
army Muhammad bin Ibrahim at-Tāī ('Utbi, vil.ii, p. 151.). He ruled only five years before meeting his death in AD 1026. He was final Shahi
Shahi
Emperor of the famed dynasty. Kalhana, a 12th-century Kashmiri Brahmin, wrote of one campaign in the process that led to this collapse.[94] After the loss of empire[edit] His sons Rudrapal, Diddapal, Kshempala, and Anangpala served as generals in Kashmir. They gained prominence in the Kashmiri royal court where they occupied influential positions and intermarried with the royal family. Hindu
Hindu
Kashmir had aided the Hindus Shahis against Mahmud of Ghazni. As a result after barely defeating the Hindu
Hindu
Shahis, Mahmud marched his men to Hindu
Hindu
Kashmir to take revenge for Kashmir's support of the Hindu
Hindu
Shahis. Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
was with Mahmud on these campaigns. They are mentioned frequently in Rajatarangini
Rajatarangini
of Kalhana written during AD 1147–49. Rudrapal was mentioned by the writer Kalhana as a valiant general in the campaigns he led to quell resistance to the Kashmiri kings whom they served whilst in exile. His later descendants fell out of favour at the royal court and were exiled to the Siwalik Hills, retaining control of the Mandu fort. After a brief period, they rose again to take control of Mathura under Raja
Raja
Dhrupet Dev in the 12th century before the campaigns of the Ghorid Empire. The Janjua Rajputs of Punjab region
Punjab region
claim to be the descendants of the Jayapala.[95][96] Shahi
Shahi
rulers[edit]

Khingala of Kapisa
Kapisa
(7th century) Patoladeva alias Navasurendradiyta Nandin of Gilgit
Gilgit
(6th–7th century) Srideva alias Surendra Vikrmadiyta Nandin of Gilgit
Gilgit
(6th–7th century) Patoladeva alias Vajraditya Nandin of Gilgit
Gilgit
(6th–7th century) Samantadeva Kallar alias Lalliya (c. 890–895) of Kabul Kamalavarmadeva/Kamaluka (895–921) Bhimadeva (921–964), son of Kamaluka Ishtthapala (?) Jayapala
Jayapala
(964–1001) Anandapala (1001 - c. 1010), son of Jayapala Trilochanapala (ruled c. 1010 - 1021-22; assassinated by mutinous troops) Bhímapála (died in 1022–1026)

See also[edit]

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Footnotes[edit]

^ André Wink, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam: 7th-11th Centuries, (Brill, 2002), 125. ISBN 9780391041257 – via  Questia (subscription required) ^ as in: Rajatarangini, IV, 140-43, Kalahana. ^ as in inscriptions: See: Hindu
Hindu
Sahis of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Punjab, 1972, p 111, Yogendra Mishra. ^ as in: Tarikh-al-Hind, trans. E. C. Sachau, 1888/1910, vol ii, pp 10, Abu Rihan Alberuni; Sehrai, Fidaullah (1979). Hund: The Forgotten City of Gandhara, p. 1. Peshawar Museum Publications New Series, Peshawar. ^ a b Sehrai, Fidaullah (1979). Hund: The Forgotten City of Gandhara, p. 2. Peshawar Museum Publications New Series, Peshawar. ^ a b c Shahi
Shahi
Family. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 16 October 2006. ^ a b Kohzad, Ahmad Ali, " Kabul
Kabul
Shāhāni Berahmanī", 1944, Kabul ^ The Pathans, 1958, p 108, 109, Olaf Caroe. ^ Abu Rihan Alberuni
Alberuni
Tarikh-al-Hind, trans. E. C. Sachau, 1888/1910, vol ii, pp. 10–14. ^ Charles Frederick Oldham The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, pp. 113-126,  — Serpent worship. ^ Important Note: Urasa, Rajauri/Poonch and Abhisara were off-shoots of ancient Kamboja (see: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133, 219/220, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; A History of India, p 269-71, N. R. Ray, N. K. Sinha; Journal of Indian History, 1921, P 304, University of Allahabad, Department of Modern Indian History, University of Kerala). ^ Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya History of Mediaeval Hindu
Hindu
India, 1979, p 200. ^ Si-Yu-KI V1: Buddhist
Buddhist
Records of the Western World, Edition 2006, pp. 54-55, Hsuen Tsang; The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p. 120, Charles Frederick Oldham – Serpent worship; The Shahis of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Punjab, 1973, p 17, Deena Bandhu Pandey; The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1977, p 165, Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar — India. ^ Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1977, p. 165. ^ History of Mediaeval Hindu
Hindu
India, 1979, p. 200, Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya — India. ^ "The view that Nepali Traditions apply name Kamboja Desha to Tibet is based on the statement made by Foucher (Ref: Étude sur l'Iconographie bouddhique de l'Inde, pp 134–135, A. Foucher) on the authority of Ranga Nath, Pandit to B. H. Hodgson. But it is also supported by two manuscripts [No 7768 & 7777] described in the Catalogue of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Prakrit Mss in the library of India Office, Vol II, Part II." (Refs: History of Bengal, I, 191, Dr R. C. Majumdar; Dist. Gazetteer [Rajashahi], 1915, p 26; Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, Dr B. C. Sen, p 342, fn 1.) ^ "The Pal Kings of Bengal" in Calcutta Review, June 1874, pp 74, 95, 96, E. Vesey Westmacott, Bengal Civil Service, Bengal Asiatic Society of Royal Asiatic Society, F.R.G.S.). ^ "The Pal Kings of Bengal" in Calcutta Review, June 1874, pp 74, 95, 96, E. Vesey Westmacott, Bengal Civil Service, Bengal Asiatic Society of Royal Asiatic Society, F.R.G.S. ^ The Kafirs of the Hindukush, 1896, pp 75–85; A Passage to Nurestan explaining the mysteries of Afghan Hinterland, 2006, p 80, I. B. Tauris, Nicholas Barrington, Joseph T. Kenderick, Reinhard Schlangitweit, Sardy Gall. ^ The Káfirs of the Hindu-Kush, 1896, pp 71–77, George Scott Robertson — Nuristani (Asian people). ^ NOTE: According to Persiacs-9, in the 7th century, the Kabol area (i.e Kabol, Kapisa, Lamghan, etc.) was the stronghold of the Iranian cis-Hindkush Kambojas
Kambojas
whose influence extended as far as Arachosia/Kandhahar (See: Early East Iran
Iran
and Arthaveda, 1981, p 92 sqq, Dr Michael Witzel). ^ For example: King Ashoka's Rock Edicts at Shahbazgarhi and Mansehra list the Kambojas
Kambojas
among the Yonas and Gandharas as the most eminent clan of this region, i.e., Kabul/Kapisa/Swat. ^ According to Sata-pañcāśaddesa-vibhaga of Saktisamgma Tantra, Book
Book
III, Ch VII, v 24–28 (a medieval era Tantra
Tantra
text), the Kambojas are said to be located to west of South-west Kashmir (Pir-pañcāla), to South of Bactria, and to east of Maha-Mlechcha-desa (Mohammadan countries i.e Khorasan/Iran). Likewise verse 42–44 of the same reference locates the medieval Huna-desa to the north of Maru-desa (Rajputana) and to the south of Kama-giri (Kama hills) (See Ref: Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 100-102, 108, Dr D. C. Sircar). The Kama/kamma is the name of hilly territory of eastern Afghanistan, lying between Jalalabad and Khyber pass. Hence, the general location of Huna-desa may indeed have comprised south-western Punjab
Punjab
and parts of Southern and Central Afghanistan
Afghanistan
which territory again was same as the Zabulistan
Zabulistan
of Arab
Arab
writers. ^ Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 108, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar (All-India Oriental Conference); The Cultural Heritage of India: Sri Ramakrishna Centenary Memorial, 1936, p 135, Dr S. K. Chatterjee, Sri Ramakrishna Centenary Committee. ^ Bhartya Itihaas ki Ruprekha, p 534, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 129, 300, Dr J. L. Kamboj. ^ Cf: The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1977, pp 165 sqq, Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar — India. ^ History and Culture of Indian People, Vol II, and several other noted authorities identify Kapisa
Kapisa
kingdom a part of ancient cis- Hindukush
Hindukush
Kamboja (See: The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol II, 1977, p 122, Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Dr Achut Dattatraya Pusalker, Dr Asoke Kumar Majumdar — India. ^ Si-yu-ki: Buddhist
Buddhist
Records of the Western World, 1906 edition, pp 50, 54, Samuel Beal. ^ Rajatarangini
Rajatarangini
4.164–166. ^ For identification of Kumijis with Kambojas, see: India and Central Asia, p 25, Dr P. C. Bagchi; Prācīna Kamboja, Jana aur Janapada
Janapada
=: Ancient Kamboja, People and Country, 1981, pp 300, 401, Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Satyavrat Śāstrī. The tribal name Kumiji may also be compared to Camoji/Caumojee or Kamoje Kafir tribes of the Hindukush
Hindukush
as referred to by Elphinstone (An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul) and Kams/Kamoz as mentioned by George Scott Robertson
George Scott Robertson
(The Kafirs of the Hindukush). The Kafir tribes Kamojis/Kamozis of the Hindukush represent the relics of the ancient Kambojas. For Kamoj/Kamoji people of Hindukush
Hindukush
and their relations with ancient Kambojas, See: Wishnu Purana, p 374, fn, H. H. Wilson; The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 127, Charles Frederick Oldham; Peter Weiss: Von existentialistischen Drama zum marxistischen Welttheater ..., 1971, Otto F. Best; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 131, Moti Chandra; The Living Age, 1873, p 781; Mountstuart Elphinstone, "An account of the kingdom of Caubol", fn p 619; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1843, p 140; Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1874, p 260 fn; Die altpersischen Keilinschriften: Im Grundtexte mit Uebersetzung, Grammatik und Glossar, 1881, p 86, Friedrich Spiegel; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133, fn, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Banerjee; The Achaemenids and India, 1974, p 13, Dr S Chattopadhyaya. ^ Quoted in: India and Central Asia, p 25, Dr P. C. Bagchi; The Achamenids in India, p 7 by Dr S. Chattopadhya, where the author identifies the Kambojas
Kambojas
as of Turko-Iranian stock; cf also: The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 192, India; Cf: Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1928, pp 130,138, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, which connects the Kambhojas with Tartar ethnics. ^ Some writers have gone to the extent of designating these 11th-century Pamirian Kumijis (the remnants of ancient Kambojas
Kambojas
of Pamirs/Hindukush) as extractions from the Hephthalites
Hephthalites
(See: History of Civilizations of Central Asia, 1999, p 102, Dr Ahmad Hasan Dani, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, János Harmatta, Boris Abramovich Litvinovskiĭ, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Unesco — Asia, Central. ^ There are numerous references to Kambojas
Kambojas
and Tukharas (Turukshakas) being bracketed together as allied tribes or as neighboring tribes located in Central Asia. See: Tukhara
Tukhara
Kingdom. The Tukharas/Tusharas had also joined the Kamboja army and fought the Kurukshetra war under the supreme command of Kamboja Sudakshina (MBH 5.19.21–23; The Nations of India at the Battle Between the Pandavas and Kauravas, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1908, pp 313, 331, Dr F. E. Pargiter; (See: Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland). As noted above, as late as the 8th century AD, the Kambojas
Kambojas
and Tukharas are attested to be immediate neighbors in around Oxus
Oxus
( Rajatarangini
Rajatarangini
4.164–166). ^ IMPORTANT COMMENT: As noted above, the Kambojas
Kambojas
and the Tukharas/Turukshakas, for long time, had co-existed in the former Kamboja/Tukharistan country and thus, their culture, customs, mannerism and dress had become shared over the time. Thus, it is but natural that some writers make mistakes in identifying these remnants of ancient Kambojas
Kambojas
of the Pamirs/ Hindukush
Hindukush
with the Turks or the Hephthalites. ^ There are even some noted scholars who identify the Kambojas
Kambojas
as a branch of the Tukharas (See for example: Buddhism
Buddhism
in Central Asia, 1987, p 90, Dr B. N. Puri — Buddhism). ^ See: Si-yu-ki, Buddhist
Buddhist
Records of the Western World, 1906, p c (Introduction), Samuel Beal. ^ The Pathans, 1958, p 101, Olaf Caroe. ^ See: The Maha-Bodhi, p 181, Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta — Buddhism; Ancient Indian History and Culture, 1974, p 149, Shripad Rama Sharma — India; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, April 1903, p 369, M Anesaki; The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 125, Charles Frederick Oldham — Serpent worship. ^ See entry Varman in Monier Williams, Sanskrit-English Dictionary; see also entry Varman in: Cologne Digital Sanskrit
Sanskrit
English Dictionary) ^ "Varman" is the virtual name ending of a Kshatriya
Kshatriya
in India (See: Some Aspects of Asian History and Culture, 1986, p 17, Upendra Thakur. ^ For "Varman" being a Kshatriya
Kshatriya
surname, see also: Inscriptions of Orissa, 1997, p 25, Snigdha Tripathy, Indian Council of Historical Research, Indian council of historical research). ^ Cf: Surname Sarman always indicated a Brahmana and Varman a Kshatriya
Kshatriya
(See: Concise History of Ancient India, 1977, p 43, Asoke Kumar Majumdar). ^ For Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
records referencing Guna Varman, see reference: J.R.A.S., April 1903, p 369, M. Anesaki. From the account of Guna Varman as referenced in Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
Records, there were Hindu (Kshatriya) kings in Kabul/ Kapisa
Kapisa
more than two centuries before Xuanzang's arrival in AD 631 (644/45 in Kapis) when he found a Kshatriya
Kshatriya
king upon the throne of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(See: The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 125, Charles Frederick Oldham). ^ André Wink (June 1991). Al- Hind: The slave kings and the Islamic conquest. 2. BRILL. pp. 127–. ISBN 90-04-09509-8.  ^ Mudrarakshasa act II; History of Poros, 1967, p 89, Dr Buddha Prakash. ^ A History of Zoroastrianism, 1991, p 136, Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet; Mauryan
Mauryan
Samrajya Ka Itihaas, Hindi, 1927, p 665-67 by Dr Sataketu Vidyalankar; Hindu
Hindu
Polity, A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, 1978, p 117-121, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient India, 2003, pp 839–40, Dr V. D. Mahajan; Northern India, p 42, Dr Mehta Vasisitha Dev Mohan etc. ^ History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 225, Dr Buddha Prakash; Raja Poros, 1990, p 9, Publication Bureau, Punjabi University Patiala. ^ Raghuvamsa, 4.67–70, Kalidasa. ^ The Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata, which is supposed to have been edited around the 4th or 5th century AD, in one of its verses mentions the Hunas
Hunas
with the Parasikas and other Mlechha tribes of the northwest including the Kambojas, Yavanas, Chinas, Darunas, Sukritvahas, Kulatthas, etc.

HrishIvidarbhah kantikasta~Nganah parata~Nganah. uttarashchapare mlechchhA jana bharatasattama. 63 YavanAshcha sa Kamboja Daruna mlechchha jatayah. Sakahaddruhah Kuntalashcha Hunah Parasikas saha. 64 Tathaiva maradhAahchinastathaiva dasha malikah. Kshatriyopaniveshashcha vaishyashudra kulani cha. 65

( Mahabharata
Mahabharata
6.9.63–65) .

^ Early History of India, p 339, Dr V. A. Smith; See also Early Empire of Central Asia (1939), W. M. McGovern. ^ Book
Book
III, Ch VII, v 24–28. ^ Book
Book
III, Ch VII, v 42–44. ^ Raj Shekhar Chapter 17, Kavy Mimansa. ^ Cf: The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 125, Charles Frederick Olmsted. ^ Sakas
Sakas
used titles like "Sahi and Sahanusahi". ^ Kushanas used the grandiloquent title like "daivaputra-sahi.sahanu.sahi", "Shaonano shao", and "Shao". ^ The Hunas
Hunas
had the title "Shāhi". ^ The title "Shahi" appears on Indo-Bactrian coins. ^ " Shahi
Shahi
of Kalhana's Rajatrangini, Shahiya of Alberuni
Alberuni
and Sahi of the inscriptions". ^ The Shahi
Shahi
Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Punjab, 1973, pp 1, 45–46, 48, 80, Dr D. B. Pandey; The Śakas in India and Their Impact on Indian Life and Culture, 1976, p 80, Vishwa Mitra Mohan – Indo-Scythians; Country, Culture and Political life in early and medieval India, 2004, p 34, Daud Ali. ^ Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1954, pp 112 ff; The Shahis of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Punjab, 1973, p 46, Dr D. B. Pandey; The Śakas in India and Their Impact on Indian Life and Culture, 1976, p 80, Vishwa Mitra Mohan — Indo-Scythians. ^ India, A History, 2001, p 203, John Keay. ^ J.B.B.R.A.S., 139ff; J.B.O.R.S, xvi, 233, 293; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 383, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury; Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft 34, pp 247ff, 262; Indian Antiquary, X, 222; Jaina Journal, V-22, 1987–88, p 107; The Śakas in India, 1981, p 23, Satya Shrava; Mālwa in Post-Maurya Period, 1981, p 41, Manika Chakrabarti — Malwa
Malwa
(Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, India). ^ The Shahis of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Punjab, 1973, p 1, Dr Deena Bandhu Pandey. ^ The former Kafirs like Aspins of Chitral
Chitral
and Ashkuns or Yashkuns of Gilgit
Gilgit
are identified as the modern representatives of the Pāṇinian Aśvakayanas (Greek: Assakenoi); and the Asip/Isap or Yusufzai (from Aspa.zai) in the Kabul
Kabul
valley (between river Kabul
Kabul
and Indus) are believed to be modern representatives of the Pāṇinian Aśvayanas (Greek: Aspasioi) respectively (See: The Quarterly Review, 1873, p 537, William Gifford, George Walter Prothero, John Gibson Lockhart, John Murray, Whitwell Elwin, John Taylor Coleridge, Rowland Edmund Prothero Ernle, William Macpherson, William Smith; An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, 1893, p 75, Henry Walter Bellew; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1864, p 681, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; The Invasion of India by Alexander the Great, 1896, p 334, John Watson M'Crindle; Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, 1971, p 72; History of Punjab, Publication Bureau Punjabi University Patiala, 1997, p 225, Dr Buddha Prakash; A Comprehensive History of India, Vol II, p 118, Dr Nilkantha Shastri; See also: Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, 1981, p 278, These Kamboj People, 1979, pp 119–20, K. S. Dardi etc. ^ NOTE: The Aspasios and Assaekoi clans of Kunar/Swat valleys are stated to be sub-sections of the Kambojas
Kambojas
who were especially engaged in horse-culture and were expert horsemen (Asva.yuddhah-kushalah). See: Ashvakas. See also: Mahabharata
Mahabharata
12.101.5, Kumbhakonam Ed.; See also: Hindu
Hindu
Polity, 1955, p 140, Dr K. P. Jayswal). ^ See: Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab
Punjab
and North West Frontier Province, 1910, Vol III, p 524, H. A. Rose. ^ Note: No systematic excavation of the area has so far been made in the Kabul
Kabul
Shahi
Shahi
realm, but the sporadic finds made in the region affirm the spread of Hindu
Hindu
influence at the cost of Buddhism
Buddhism
during the period spanning AD 600–900. The replacement of Buddhist
Buddhist
kingship with Hindu
Hindu
kingship around AD 870 seems to symbolize the Brahmanization of the so-called Turk kings as well as the population south of the Hindukush. A Brahmanised king named Kallar started the Hindu
Hindu
Shahi
Shahi
dynasty of Gandhara
Gandhara
(Cf: The Afghans, 2002, p 183, W. Vogelsang; See also: "The Pal Kings of Bengal" in Calcutta Review, June 1874, p 96, E. Vesey Westmacott, Bengal Civil Service, Bengal Asiatic Society of Royal Asiatic Society, F.R.G.S.). ^ See Gilgit
Gilgit
Manuscripts ^ The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 126, Charles Frederick Oldham — Serpent worship. ^ Comments Charles Frederick Oldham: "Whether this king of Kabul
Kabul
was same Kshatriya
Kshatriya
chief who had entertained Chinese pilgrim is uncertain; but he too must have been a Kshatriya, or the warriors (Kshatriyas) of Hind would have taken little notice of his appeal for assistance (op cit, p 126, Charles Frederick Oldham. ^ See: The Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 292-93, Dr D. C. Sircar. Dr Sircar continues: "The fact that Kalhana speaks of the Shahis with reference to the period earlier than that of king Lalitaditya
Lalitaditya
(c 730–66 AD) and of Udabhanda as the capital of the Shahis at least from the time of king Lalliya of Kashmir (c 875–90 AD) and that Chinese evidence refers to the city as the residence of the emperor of Kapisa
Kapisa
about 645 AD would indicate that Xuanzang's king of Kapisa
Kapisa
was a Shahi
Shahi
ruler. It is very interesting that this king has been called by Hsuen Tsang as a Kshatriya." (See: "Udabhanda" in The Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 293, Dr D. C. Sircar). ^ Modern day Hund, also called Waihind by Al Biruni (Wink p 125). ^ Tarikh-al-Hind, trans Sachau, 1910, vol ii, p 13, Abu Rihan Alberuni. ^ The Pathans, 1958, pp 108–09, Olaf Caroe; cf: Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Punjab, 1971, p 135, Dr Buddha Prakash. ^ NOTE: Alberuni
Alberuni
also records in "Tarikh-al-Hind" that the Kabul
Kabul
Shahi rulers claimed descent from Kanik (believed by some to be Kanishka
Kanishka
of Kushana
Kushana
dynasty) and further also boast of their Tibetan origin (sic) (Alberuni's Indica, A Record of the Cultural History of South Asia, 1973, p 38, Ahmad Hasan Dani, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Bīrūnī, Eduard Sachau; History of Mediaeval Hindu
Hindu
India, 1979, p 199, Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya; The Shahis of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Punjab, 1973, p 51, D. B. Pandey). There is abundant evidence that a branch of Kambojas was living in Tibet around the 4th or 5th century AD as is evidenced by Brahma Purana (53.19). Many scholars like Charles Elliot, Dr Foucher, Dr G. G. Gokhale, V.A. Smith etc locate the Kambojas
Kambojas
in Tibet. Nepalese traditions also apply name Kamboja-desa to Tibet (See refs: Iconographie bouddhique, p 132); History of the Koch Kingdom, C. 1515–1615, 1989, P 10, D. Nath. Even otherwise also, the ancient Kambojas
Kambojas
of Kafiristan are said to have extended as far as little Tibet and Ladak (See Refs: Peter weiss: Von existentialistischen Drama zum marxistischen Welttheater ..., 1971, Otto F. Best; The Devi Bhagavatam, Vol. 2 of 3, p 117, Swami Vijnanannanda; Historical Mahākāvyas in Sanskrit, Eleventh to Fifteenth Century A.D., 1976, 373, Chandra Prabha; Kāmarūpaśāsanāvalī, 1981, p 137, Dimbeswar Sarma, P. D. Chowdhury, R. K. Deva Sarma — Assam (India; Cf: The Early History of India, 1904, p 165, Vincent A. Smith); The Khamba province of Tibet still carries the vestiges of ancient Kamboja in it. The above tradition recorded by Alberuni
Alberuni
may also go in favor of " Shahi
Shahi
origin from Tibetan Kambojas" rather than from Kushanas, Hunas or Turks. ^ Kalhana Rajatarangini
Rajatarangini
referred to them as simply Shahi
Shahi
and inscriptions refer to them as sahi(Wink, p 125). ^ Al Biruni refers to the subsequent rulers as "Brahman kings" however most other references such as Kalahan refer to them as kshatriyas (Wink, p 125). ^ (Journal of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Historical Society, xxxvi, Dr N Ahmad, 1988, i, NWF Regions of Pakistan, Geographical Tribes and Historical Perspective, p 53). ^ Refs: Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 291, Dr D. C. Sircar; Hindu
Hindu
Sahis of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Punjab, 1972, p 5, Yogendra Mishra. Furthermore, Kalhana makes the dynasty of the ancestors of the Hindu
Hindu
Shahi
Shahi
rulers Lallya (Kallar), Kamala Toramana, Bhimadeva, Jaipala, Anandapala, Trilochanpala, Bhimapala. NOTE: Some scholars[who?] arbitrarily assume, without presenting any evidence, that the line of Shahi
Shahi
princes with names ending in -pala represents a change-over in royal dynasty. But this view is refuted by well-known examples of similar changes in royal names in the same family (See ref: The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1977, p 114, Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Dr Achut Dattatrya Pusalker, Dr A. K. Majumdar — India). For instance, in the Pratihara dynasty of Kanauj, king Nagabhata I was followed by kings Kakkuka, Devaraja, Vatsaraja, Nagabhata II, Ramabhadra, Mihirabhoja, Mahendrapala, Bhoja II, Mahipala, Devapala, Vijayapala, Rajyapala etc. There was no change-over of dynasty here and all kings belonged to the same Pratihara royal family though there have been frequent changes in name endings. ^ Cf: Rajatrangini, IV, 140-43, Kalhana; Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 292, 293, Dr D. C. Sircar. ^

Adyapi dyotate sahevahvayena digantare, Tatsantana bhavonantah samuhah Ksatrajanamanam

(Kalahana's Rajatrangini, New Delhi, 1960, VIII, 3230, M. A. Stein (Editor).

^ The Hindu
Hindu
Sahis of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Punjab, A.D. 865–1026: A phase of Islamic advance into India, 1972, p 3, Yogendra Mishra; Cf: Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, 2002, p 125-26, André Wink. ^ Dr D. C. Sircar: "It will be seen that the Kashmirian who knew the Shahis from before 730 AD down to the 12th century AD regarded them as Kshatriyas, although Alberuni
Alberuni
refers to the Hindu
Hindu
Shahis of Tibetan origin and their successors of Brahmana origin. That the early Shahis were regarded as Kshatriyas in India is also indicated by another evidence." ^ The system of naming the kings of the so-called Turki Shahi
Shahi
dynasty and the Hindu
Hindu
Shahi
Shahi
dynasty is also similar for which reason it is very likely that the caste of the two might also have been same, i.e., Kshatriya, Hindu
Hindu
Sahis of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Punjab, 1972, p 5, Yogendra Mishra. Thus, if we follow Kalhana, then the ancestors of Shahi
Shahi
kings Lallya, Toramana, Kamalu, Bhimadeva, Jaipala, Anandapala, Trilochanapala etc may be traced back to the Kshatriya
Kshatriya
ruler of Kapisa/ Kabul
Kabul
(AD 644–45) mentioned by Xuanzang
Xuanzang
and also probably to prince Guna Varman (AD 424), a princely scion of the Kshatriya
Kshatriya
rulers ruling at the start of the 5th century in Kapisa
Kapisa
(Ki-pin) as mentioned in the Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
records. ^ The Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
or Turushkas by Kalhana. ^ a b c Wink, pp 125–126 ^ This was the westernmost extent of the Hindu
Hindu
Shahi, and last foothold in the Kabul/ Gandhara
Gandhara
region. (Wink, pp 125–126.) ^ Al-Idrisi, p 67, Maqbul Ahmed; Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, 1991, p 127, Andre Wink. ^ Kalhana's Rajatangini, VIII, 3230; Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Punjab, 1971, p 147, Dr Buddha Prakash. ^ Coins of Medieval India, A. Cunningham, London, 1894, pp 56, 62; The Last Two Dynasties of The Sahis, A. Rehman, 1988, Delhi, pp 131, 48, 49, 3001 ^ H. G. Raverty's trans., Vol.1, p.82. ^ Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders Up to 1206 AD, R.G. Misra, Anu Books, repr. 1992. ^ Stein, Mark Aurel (1989) [1900]. Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 1 (Reprinted ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 106–108. ISBN 978-81-208-0369-5. Retrieved 2011-07-18.  ^ Coins of Medieval India, A.Cunningham, London, 1894, p56, p62 ^ The Last Two Dynasties of The Sahis, A. Rehman, 1988, Delhi, pp 131, 48, 49)(Gazetteer of the Jhelum District, Lahore, 1904, p93.

References[edit]

Wink, André,Al Hind: the Making of the Indo Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, 1 Jan 1996, ISBN 90-04-09249-8 Coinage of the Hindu
Hindu
Shahi
Shahi
period from Mardan, Pakistan. Treasures of Kashmir Smast.

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References and sources for table

References

^ Samuel ^ Samuel ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources

Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press 

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Athletics Baseball Boxing Cricket Cycling Field hockey Football Gilli-danda Golf Kabaddi Motorsport Marathon (Lahore) Olympics Paralympics Polo Rugby Squash Swimming Tennis

Places

Botanical gardens Cemeteries Churches Forts Gurdwaras Hindu
Hindu
temples Libraries Mausolea and shrines Mosques Museums Parks Stadiums World Heritage Sites Zoos

Category Portal Commons

Coordinates: 28°33′00″N 79°19′12″E / 28.55000°N 79.32000°E /

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