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Kabul
Kabul
(/ˈkɑːbʊl/; Persian: [ˈkɒːbul]) is the capital of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. It is also a municipality, forming part of the greater Kabul
Kabul
Province. According to estimates in 2015, the population of Kabul
Kabul
is 4.635 million,[1] which includes all the major ethnic groups.[2] Rapid urbanization had made Kabul
Kabul
the world's 75th largest city.[3] Kabul
Kabul
is located high up in a narrow valley between the Hindu Kush mountains, with an elevation of 1,790 metres (5,873 ft) making it one of the highest capitals in the world. The city is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire. It is at a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia, and a key location of the ancient Silk Road. It has been part of the Achaemenids followed by the Seleucids, Mauryans, Kushans, Kabul
Kabul
Shahis, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khwarazmians, Qarlughids, Khaljis, Timurids, Mughals, and Hotaks, until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
(also known as the " Afghan Empire") in 1747.[4] Kabul
Kabul
became the capital of Afghanistan in 1776, during the reign of Timur
Timur
Shah Durrani, the son of Ahmad Shah Durrani. In the early 19th century, the British occupied the city but after establishing foreign relations they were compelled to withdraw all forces from Afghanistan. The city was occupied by the Soviets in 1979 but they too abandoned it after the 1988 Geneva Accords were signed. A civil war in the 1990s between various rebel groups destroyed much of the city, resulting in many casualties.[5] Kabul
Kabul
is known for its historic gardens, quaint bazaars, and vast amount of palaces.[6][7][8] It was also formerly a mecca for young western hippies.[9][10] Since the removal of the Taliban
Taliban
from power in late 2001, the city gradually began rebuilding itself with assistance from the international community. Despite the many terrorist attacks by anti-state elements, the city is greatly developing and was the fifth fastest-growing city in the world as of 2012.[11] The city is divided into 22 districts.

Contents

1 Toponymy 2 History

2.1 Antiquity 2.2 Islamization
Islamization
and Mongol invasion 2.3 Timurid and Mughal era 2.4 Durrani
Durrani
Empire 2.5 20th century 2.6 Soviet occupation 2.7 Civil war and Taliban
Taliban
era 2.8 21st century

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Environment 3.3 Demographics 3.4 Districts 3.5 Places of interest

4 Government and politics 5 Economy and infrastructure

5.1 Development planning 5.2 Communications 5.3 Transportation

5.3.1 Air 5.3.2 Rail 5.3.3 Road 5.3.4 Taxis 5.3.5 Buses and trolleybuses

6 Education

6.1 Universities

7 Health care 8 Twin towns – sister cities 9 See also 10 References and footnotes 11 Further reading 12 External links

Toponymy[edit] Kabul
Kabul
(/ˈkɑːbəl, ˈkɑːbuːl/; Pashto: کابل‎ Kâbəl, IPA: [kɑˈbəl]; Persian: کابل‎ Kābol, IPA: [kɒːˈbol]),[12] also spelled Cabool, Caubul, Kabol, or Cabul. History[edit] See also: Timeline of Kabul Antiquity[edit]

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The exact origin of Kabul, who built it and when, is largely unknown.[13] The Hindu Rigveda, composed between 1700–1100 BCE and one of the four canonical sacred texts (śruti) of Hinduism, and the Avesta, the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, refer to the Kabul River
Kabul River
and to a settlement called Kubha.[13][14] The Rigveda
Rigveda
refers to Kabul
Kabul
as an "ideal city" and a vision of paradise set in the mountains and is full of poems in praise of the city.[15][16] The Kabul
Kabul
valley was part of the Median Empire (c. 678-549 BC).[17] In 549 BC, the Median Empire was annexed by Cyrus The Great and Kabul became part the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(c. 550–330 BC).[18] During that period, Kabul
Kabul
became a center of learning for Zoroastrianism, followed by Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism.[19] An inscription on Darius the Great's tombstone lists Kabul
Kabul
as one of the 29 countries of Achaemenid Empire.[14]

Kushan Empire

When Alexander annexed the Achaemenid Empire, the Kabul
Kabul
region came under his control.[20] After his death, his empire was seized by his general Seleucus, becoming part of the Seleucid Empire. In 305 BCE, he extended his empire all the way to the Indus river, which caused a friction with the neighboring Mauryan Empire. It is widely believed that the two empires reached an alliance treaty.[21]

Alexander took these away from the Aryans and established settlements of his own, but Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus (Chandragupta), upon terms of intermarriage and of receiving in exchange 500 elephants.[4] — Strabo, 64 BC–24 AD

During the Mauryan period, trade flourished because of uniform weights and measures. Irrigation facilities for public use were developed leading to an increased harvest of crops. People were also employed as artisans, jewelers, carpenters.[22] The Greco-Bactrians took control of Kabul
Kabul
from the Mauryans in the early 2nd century BC, then lost the city to their subordinates in the Indo-Greek Kingdom
Indo-Greek Kingdom
around the mid-2nd century BC. Buddhism
Buddhism
was greatly patronized by the rulers and majority of people of the city were adherents of the religion.[23] Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
expelled the Indo-Greeks by the mid 1st century BC, but lost the city to the Kushan Empire about 100 years later.[24][25] Some historians ascribe Kabul
Kabul
the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name of Kamboja (Kamboj).[26][27] It is mentioned as Kophes or Kophene in some classical writings. Hsuan Tsang refers to the name as Kaofu[28] in the 7th century AD, which is the appellation of one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
who had migrated from across the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
into the Kabul valley around the beginning of the Christian
Christian
era.[29] It was conquered by Kushan Emperor Kujula Kadphises
Kujula Kadphises
in about 45 AD and remained Kushan territory until at least the 3rd century AD.[30][31] The Kushans were Indo-European-speaking Tocharians
Tocharians
from the Tarim Basin.[32] Around 230 AD, the Kushans were defeated by the Sassanid Empire and replaced by Sassanid vassals known as the Indo-Sassanids. During the Sassanian period, the city was referred to as "Kapul" in Pahlavi scripts.[14] Kapol in Persian language
Persian language
means Royal (ka) Bridge (pol) and its due to the main bridge on the Kabul River
Kabul River
that was connecting the east and west Kabul
Kabul
together. In 420 AD the Indo-Sassanids were driven out of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by the Xionite tribe known as the Kidarites, who were then replaced in the 460s by the Hephthalites. It became part of the surviving Turk Shahi Kingdom of Kapisa, also known as Kabul-Shahan.[33] According to Táríkhu-l Hind by Al-Biruni, Kabul was governed by princes of Turkic lineage whose rule lasted for about 60 generations.

Kábul was formerly governed by princes of Turk lineage. It is said that they were originally from Tibet. The first of them was named Barhtigín ... and the kingdom continued with his children for sixty generations.... The last of them was a Katormán, and his minister was Kalar, a Bráhman. This minister was favored by fortune, and he found in the earth treasures which augmented his power. Fortune at the same time turned her back upon his master. The Katormán's thoughts and actions were evil, so that many complaints reached the minister, who loaded him with chains, and imprisoned him for his correction. In the end the minister yielded to the temptation of becoming sole master, and he had wealth sufficient to remove all obstacles. So he established himself on the throne. After him reigned the Bráhman(s) Samand, then Kamlúa, then Bhím, then Jaipál, then Anandpál, then Narda-janpál, who was killed in A.H. 412. His son, Bhímpál, succeeded him, after the lapse of five years, and under him the sovereignty of Hind became extinct, and no descendant remained to light a fire on the hearth. These princes, notwithstanding the extent of their dominions, were endowed with excellent qualities, faithful to their engagements, and gracious towards their inferiors....[33] — Abu Rayhan Biruni, 978–1048 AD

The Kabul
Kabul
rulers built a long defensive wall around the city to protect it from enemy raids. This historical wall has survived until today. It was briefly held by Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
between 801 and 815. Islamization
Islamization
and Mongol invasion[edit] Further information: Islamic conquest of Afghanistan

Map showing names of the regions during the 7th century.

The Islamic conquest reached modern-day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 642 AD, at a time when Kabul
Kabul
was independent.[34] A number of failed expeditions were made to Islamize the region. In one of them, Abdur Rahman bin Samana arrived to Kabul
Kabul
from Zaranj
Zaranj
in the late 600s and managed to convert 12,000 local inhabitants to Islam
Islam
before abandoning the city. Muslims were a minority until Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar
Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar
of Zaranj conquered Kabul
Kabul
in 870 and established the first Islamic dynasty in the region. It was reported that the rulers of Kabul
Kabul
were Muslims with non-Muslims living close by.

Kábul has a castle celebrated for its strength, accessible only by one road. In it there are Musulmáns, and it has a town, in which are infidels from Hind.[35] — Istahkrí, 921 AD

Over the following centuries, the city was successively controlled by the Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khwarazmshahs, Qarlughids, and Khaljis. In the 13th century, the invading Mongols caused major destruction in the region. Report of a massacre in the close by Bamiyan
Bamiyan
is recorded around this period, where the entire population of the valley was annihilated by the Mongol troops as a revenge for the death of Genghis Khan's grandson. As a result, many natives of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
fled south toward the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
where some established dynasties in Delhi. The Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
and Kartids
Kartids
were vassals of Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
till dissolution of latter in 1335. Following the era of the Khalji dynasty
Khalji dynasty
in 1333, the famous Moroccan scholar Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
was visiting Kabul
Kabul
and wrote:

We travelled on to Kabul, formerly a vast town, the site of which is now occupied by a village inhabited by a tribe of Persians called Afghans. They hold mountains and defiles and possess considerable strength, and are mostly highwaymen. Their principal mountain is called Kuh Sulayman.[36] — Ibn Battuta, 1304–1369 AD

Timurid and Mughal era[edit] Further information: Timurid Empire
Timurid Empire
and Mughal Empire

Humayun
Humayun
with his father Babur, emperors of the Mughal Empire

Old painting showing the Great Wall of Kabul

In the 14th century, Kabul
Kabul
became a major trading center under the kingdom of Timur
Timur
(Tamerlane). In 1504, the city fell to Babur
Babur
from the north and made into his headquarters, which became one of the principal cities of his later Mughal Empire. In 1525, Babur
Babur
described Kabulistan
Kabulistan
in his memoirs by writing that:

In the country of Kābul there are many and various tribes. In the city and the greater part of the villages, the population consists of Tājiks (called "Sarts" by Babur). Many other of the villages and districts are occupied by Pashāis, Parāchis, Tājiks, Berekis, and Afghans. In the hill-country to the west, reside the Hazāras and Nukderis. Among the Hazāra and Nukderi tribes, there are some who speak the Moghul language. In the hill-country to the north-east lies Kaferistān, such as Kattor and Gebrek. To the south is Afghanistān... There are eleven or twelve different languages spoken in Kābul: Arabic, Persian, Tūrki, Moghuli, Hindi, Afghani, Pashāi, Parāchi, Geberi, Bereki, and Lamghāni....[37] — Baburnama, 1525

Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat, a poet from Hindustan
Hindustan
who visited at the time wrote: "Dine and drink in Kabul: it is mountain, desert, city, river and all else." It was from here that Babur
Babur
began his 1526 conquest of Hindustan, which was ruled by the Afghan Lodi dynasty
Lodi dynasty
and began east of the Indus River
Indus River
in what is present-day Pakistan. Babur loved Kabul
Kabul
due to the fact that he lived in it for 20 years and the people were loyal to him, including its weather that he was used to. His wish to be buried in Kabul
Kabul
was finally granted. The inscription on his tomb contains the famous Persian couplet, which states: اگرفردوس روی زمین است همین است و همین است و همین است (If there is a paradise on earth, it is this, it is this, it is this!)[38] Durrani
Durrani
Empire[edit] Further information: Durrani dynasty
Durrani dynasty
and Barakzai dynasty

Shujah Shah Durrani, the last Durrani
Durrani
King, sitting at his court inside the Bala Hissar.

Chihil Sutun
Chihil Sutun
Palace
Palace
(also known as "Hindaki"), the Emir's residence, built in the 19th century

Nine years after Nader Shah
Nader Shah
and his forces invaded and occupied the city as part of the more easternmost parts of his Empire, he was assassinated by his own officers, causing the rapid disintegration of it. Ahmad Shah Durrani, commander of 4,000 Abdali Afghans, asserted Pashtun rule in 1747 and further expanded his new Afghan Empire. His ascension to power marked the beginning of Afghanistan. His son Timur Shah Durrani, after inheriting power, transferred the capital of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from Kandahar
Kandahar
to Kabul
Kabul
in 1776,[39] and used Peshawar
Peshawar
in what is today Pakistan
Pakistan
as the winter capital. Timur
Timur
Shah died in 1793 and was succeeded by his son Zaman Shah Durrani. Kabul's first visitor from Europe was Englishman George Forster, who described 18th-century Kabul
Kabul
as "the best and cleanest city in South Asia".[16] In 1826, the kingdom was claimed by Dost Mohammad Khan
Dost Mohammad Khan
but in 1839 Shujah Shah Durrani
Durrani
was re-installed with the help of British India during the First Anglo- Afghan War. In 1841 a local uprising resulted in the killing of the British resident and loss of mission in Kabul and the 1842 retreat from Kabul
1842 retreat from Kabul
to Jalalabad. In 1842 the British returned to Kabul, plundering Bala Hissar in revenge before fleeing back to British India
India
(now Pakistan). Akbar Khan took to the throne from 1842 to 1845 and was followed by Dost Mohammad Khan. The British-led Indian forces invaded in 1879 when Kabul
Kabul
was under Sher Ali Khan's rule, as the Afghan king initially refused to accept British diplomatic mission and later the British residents were again massacred. The British partially destroyed Bala Hissar fortress before retreating to British India. 20th century[edit] Having become an established bazaar city, leather and textile industries developed by 1916.[40] The majority of the population was concentrated on the south side of the river. Kabul
Kabul
gradually modernized throughout the regime of King Habibullah Khan, with the introduction of electricity, telephone, and a postal service.[41] The first modern high school, Habibia, was established in 1903. In 1919, after the Third Anglo- Afghan War, King Amanullah Khan announced Afghanistan's independence from foreign affairs at Eidgah Mosque in Kabul. Amanullah was reform-minded and he had a plan to build a new capital city on land about 6 km away from Kabul. This area was named Darulaman
Darulaman
and it consisted of the famous Darul Aman Palace, where he later resided. Many educational institutions were founded in Kabul
Kabul
during the 1920s. In 1929 King Ammanullah left Kabul
Kabul
due to a local uprising orchestrated by Habibullah Kalakani, but he himself was imprisoned and executed after nine months in power by King Nader Khan. Three years later, in 1933, the new king was assassinated during an award ceremony inside a school in Kabul. The throne was left to his 19-year-old son, Zahir Shah, who became the last King of Afghanistan. Unlike Amanullah Khan, Nader Khan and Zahir Shah had no plans to create a new capital city, and thus Kabul
Kabul
remained the country's seat of government.

The famous Darul Aman Palace, built under King Amanullah Khan
Amanullah Khan
as part of an incompleted new capital city

Serena Hotel, opened 1945

During the inter-war period France and Germany worked to help develop the country and maintained high schools and lycees in the capital, providing education for the children of the city's elite families.[42] Kabul University
Kabul University
opened in 1932 and by the 1960s western educated Afghans made up the majority of teachers.[43] By the 1960s the majority of instructors at the university had degrees from Western universities.[43] When Zahir Shah took power in 1933 Kabul
Kabul
had the only 10 kilometers (6 miles) of rail in the country and the country had few internal telegraphs, phone lines or roads. Zahir turned to the Japanese, Germans and Italians for help developing a modern transportation and communication network.[44] A radio tower built by the Germans in 1937 in Kabul
Kabul
allowing instant communication with outlying villages.[45] A national bank and state cartels were organized to allow for economic modernization.[46] Textile mills, power plants, carpet and furniture factories were also built in Kabul, providing much needed manufacturing and infrastructure.[46] During the 1940s and 1950s, urbanization accelerated and the built-up area was increased to 68 km² by 1962, an almost fourteen-fold increase compared to 1925.[47] Under the premiership of Mohammad Daoud Khan in the 1950s, foreign investment and development increased. In 1955, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
forwarded $100 million in credit to Afghanistan, which financed public transportation, airports, a cement factory, mechanized bakery, a five-lane highway from Kabul
Kabul
to the Soviet border and dams, including the Salang Pass
Salang Pass
to the north of Kabul.[48] During the 1960s, Soviet-style microrayon housing estates were built, containing sixty blocks. The government also built many ministry buildings in the brutalist architecture style.[49]

Men and women entering a public transport bus in the 1950s.

In the 1960s the first Marks & Spencer store in Central Asia
Central Asia
was built in the city. Kabul Zoo
Kabul Zoo
was inaugurated in 1967, which was maintained with the help of visiting German zoologists. Many foreigners began flocking to Kabul
Kabul
and the nation's tourism industry was starting to pick up speed. Kabul
Kabul
experimented with liberalization, notably the loosening of restrictions on speech and assembly which led to student politics in the capital.[50] Socialist, Maoist and liberal factions demonstrated daily in Kabul
Kabul
while more traditional Islamic leaders spoke out against the failure to aid the Afghan countryside.[50] From the 1960s until the late 1970s, Kabul
Kabul
was a major stop on the famous Hippie
Hippie
trail.[51]

Flats in "Old Mikrorayon", one of the city's Soviet-style microdistricts built between the 1960s and 1980s

In the early 1970s Radio Kabul
Radio Kabul
began to broadcast in other languages besides Pashto which helped to unify those minorities that often felt marginalized.[citation needed] However this was put to a stop after Daoud Khan, the King's cousin and former Prime Minister, launched a coup in July 1973[52] which deposed the King and took over power. This was supported by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(PDPA), a pro-Soviet political party. Daoud named himself President and planned to institute reforms.[53] The BBC has described the period before the April 1978 Revolution as an era when different ethnic groups of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
lived together harmoniously, intermarried and mixed socially.[16] Soviet occupation[edit] Further information: Soviet- Afghan War and Afghan Civil War (1989–92)

Street scene in Kabul
Kabul
in 1978, some time after the Saur Revolution

Center of Kabul
Kabul
in 1979; the Pul-e Khishti bridge crosses the Kabul River to the old city in the south bank

On April 28, 1978, President Daoud and most of his family were assassinated in Kabul, in what is called the Saur Revolution. Pro-Soviet PDPA
PDPA
under Nur Muhammad Taraki
Nur Muhammad Taraki
seized power and slowly began to institute reforms.[54] Private businesses were nationalized in the Soviet manner.[55] Education was modified into the Soviet model, with lessons focusing on teaching Russian, Marxism-Leninism
Marxism-Leninism
and learning of other countries belonging to the Soviet bloc.[55] Foreign-backed rebel groups and army deserters took up arms in the name of Islam.[55] In February 1979, U.S. Ambassador Adolph Dubs was murdered after Afghan security forces burst in on his kidnappers. In neighboring Pakistan, President Zulfiqar Bhutto was executed in April 1979. In September 1979 Afghan President Taraki was assassinated by his rival Hafizullah Amin, who in turn was assassinated in December 1979 by a team of Soviet Spetsnaz
Spetsnaz
inside the Tajbeg Palace
Palace
in Kabul.[56] On December 24, 1979, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
invaded Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Kabul
Kabul
was heavily occupied by Soviet Armed Forces. Following this invasion, Pakistani President Zia-ul-Haq chaired a meeting in Islamabad
Islamabad
and was told by several cabinet members to refrain from interfering in Afghanistan, owing to the vastly superior military power of the Soviet Union.[57] However, Zia-ul-Haq, fearing that the Soviets may be advancing into Pakistan, particularly Balochistan, made no secret about his intentions of aiding the mujahideen rebel groups. During this meeting, Director-General
Director-General
of the ISI Akhtar Abdur Rahman advocated for the idea of covert operation in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by arming the Islamic extremists.[57] General Rahman was heard loudly saying: " Kabul
Kabul
must burn! Kabul
Kabul
must burn!",[58] and mastered the idea of proxy war in Afghanistan.[57] President Zia-ul-Haq authorised this operation under General Rahman, and it was later merged with Operation Cyclone, a programme funded by the United States. Major protests against the Soviet presence broke out in Kabul
Kabul
in 1980 in what is called the 3 Hut uprising.

Tajbeg Palace
Palace
in 1982, when it was the Red Army headquarters during the Soviet- Afghan War

The Soviets turned the city of Kabul
Kabul
into their command center during the Soviet- Afghan War. Kabul
Kabul
was considered moderately safe during that period as it was essentially a guerrilla war with fighting mostly taking place in the countryside. During this time, women made up 40% of the workforce.[59] However political crime such as assassinations of PDPA
PDPA
party members or guerrilla attacks on military and government targets were quite common. The Soviet Embassy, for example, was attacked four times with arms fire in the first five years of the war. In 1983, a report from Izvestia said that most public places such as hospitals and state banks had "people with guns in their hands", which was not the case before 1979. A Western correspondent revisiting Kabul in December 1983 after a year, said that the city was "converted into a fortress bristling with weapons".[60] Contrastingly, American diplomat Charles Dunbar said that the Soviet troops' presence was "surprisingly modest". He said in a July 1983 article that whilst Soviet troops are a common sight, they "do not give the impression of invaders who are enforcing their occupation at the point of a bayonet". Soviet men and women were very common in the city's shopping roads, with the large availability of Western products.[61] An December 1983 article from Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, where the author stayed two weeks in the city, said that the Soviet soldiers had a friendly atmosphere in which they would greet friends and have a chat with the population.[62] Most Soviet civilians (numbering between 8,000 and 10,000) lived in the north eastern Soviet-style Mikrorayon (microraion) housing complex that was surrounded by barbed-wire and armed tanks. They sometimes received abuse from anti-Soviet civilians on the streets.[63] The mujahideen rebels managed to strike at the city a few times - on October 9, 1987, a car bomb planted by a mujahideen group killed 27 people, and on April 27, 1988 in celebrations of the 10th anniversary of the Saur Revolution, a truck bomb killed six people.[64] The city's population increased from around 500,000 in 1978 to 1.5 million in 1988.[65] The large influx were mostly internal refugees who fled other parts of the country for safety in Kabul. Civil war and Taliban
Taliban
era[edit]

Kabul's Jadayi Maiwand
Jadayi Maiwand
in 1993 during the civil war.

Main article: Afghan Civil War (1992–96) After the fall of Najibullah's[66] government in April 1992, leaders of the different mujahideen factions created a new government under the Peshawar
Peshawar
Accords, but Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's party refused to sign the accords and started shelling the city for power, which soon escelated into a full-scale conflict. This marked the start of a dark period of the city: at least 30,000 civilians were killed.[67] About 80 percent of the city was devastated and destroyed by 1996.[68][69] The old city and western areas were among the worst-hit. A New York Times analyst said in 1996 that the city was more devastated than Sarajevo, which was similarly damaged during the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
at the time.[70] The city suffered heavily under a bombardment campaign between rival militias which intensified during the summer of 1992. Its geographic location in a narrow valley made it an easy target from rockets fired by militias who based themselves in the surrounding mountains. Initially the factions in the city aligned to fight off Hekmatyar's forces, but diplomacy inside the capital quickly broke down.[71] For the following two years in particular, much of Kabul
Kabul
would be laid to waste, the majority of infrastructure destroyed, a massive exodus of the population leaving to the countryside or abroad, and electricity and water completely out. In late 1994, bombardment of the capital came to a temporary halt.[72][73][74] These forces took steps to restore law and order. Courts started to work again, convicting individuals inside government troops who had committed crimes.[75] On September 26, 1996 when the Taliban
Taliban
prepared a major offensive, Ahmad Shah Massoud, the government's military leader, ordered a full retreat from Kabul
Kabul
and fled north.[76] The next day the Taliban
Taliban
seized Kabul
Kabul
and established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. They imposed a strict form of Sharia
Sharia
(Islamic law), restricting women from work and education.[77] They also conducted amputations against common thieves. Their hit-squads from the infamous "Ministry for Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice" watched the streets conducting public beatings of people.[77] During the hardline Taliban
Taliban
regime, Kabul
Kabul
was a deserted city with many residents having long left, most infrastructure destroyed and little to no education or public services 21st century[edit] Further information: Presidency of Hamid Karzai
Presidency of Hamid Karzai
and List of terrorist attacks in Kabul
Kabul
since 2008

An American soldier standing with children at Freedom Circle (2011)

In November 2001, the Northern Alliance
Northern Alliance
captured Kabul
Kabul
after the Taliban
Taliban
had abandoned it following the American invasion. A month later a new government under President Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
began to assemble. In the meantime, a NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was deployed in Afghanistan. The war-torn city began to see some positive development as many expatriate Afghans returned to the country. The city's population grew from about 500,000 in 2001 to over 3 million in recent years. Many foreign embassies re-opened, and the city has been recovering ever since. As of 2014, the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) have been in charge of security in and around the city. Kabul
Kabul
is periodically the scene of deadly bombings carried out mostly by the Taliban
Taliban
but also by the Haqqani network, ISIL, and other anti-state groups.[78][79][80][81] Government employees, soldiers and ordinary civilians have all been targets of attacks.[82][83][84][85][86] The Afghan government called the actions of the terrorists war crimes. The deadliest attack yet was a truck bombing in May 2017. The city has experienced rapid urbanization with an increasing population. Many informal settlements have been build.[87] Since the late 2000s, numerous modern housing complexes have been built, many of which are gated and secured, to serve a growing Afghan middle class.[88] Some of these include the Aria City (in District 10) and Golden City (District 8).[89][90] Some complexes have been built out-of-town, such as the Omid-e-Sabz township (District 13), Qasaba/Khwaja Rawash township (District 15), and Sayed Jamaludin township (District 12).[91][92][93] A major ambitious $80 billion project called " Kabul
Kabul
New City" aims to develop a large modern township of homes and businesses on 1,700 acres of land to the north of Kabul
Kabul
(Districts 18 and 19) and Bagram
Bagram
in Parwan Province.[94][95] The project was first conceptualized in 2007 and approved in 2009. After years in planning and assistance from the Japanese government, construction started in 2015.[96] Geography[edit] Further information: Geography of Afghanistan

Night scene in Kabul
Kabul
in 2016, with three mountains visible

Qargha
Qargha
dam and lake

Kabul
Kabul
is situated in the eastern part of the country, 1,791 meters (5,876 feet) above sea level in a narrow valley, wedged between the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
mountains along the Kabul
Kabul
River. Immediately to the south of the old city are the ancient city walls and the Sher Darwaza mountain, with the Shuhadayi Salihin cemetery behind it. A bit further east is the ancient Bala Hissar fortress with the Kol-e Hasmat Khan lake behind it. Its location has been described as a "bowl surrounded by mountains".[97] Some of the mountains (which are called koh) include: Khair Khana-e Shamali, Khwaja Rawash, Shakhi Baran Tey, Chihil Sutun, Qurugh, Khwaja Razaq and Sher Darwaza. There are also two mountains in between urban areas in western Kabul: Asamayi
Asamayi
(also known as the Television hill) and Ali Abad. Hills within the city (which are called tapa) include Bibi Mahro and Maranjan. The city covers an area size of 1,023 square kilometres (395 sq mi), making it by far the largest in the country. Climate[edit] Kabul
Kabul
has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk) with precipitation concentrated in the winter (almost exclusively falling as snow) and spring months. Temperatures are relatively cool compared to much of Southwest Asia, mainly due to the high elevation of the city. Summer has very low humidity, providing relief from the heat. Autumn features warm afternoons and sharply cooler evenings. Winters are cold, with a January daily average of −2.3 °C (27.9 °F). Spring is the wettest time of the year, though temperatures are generally amiable. Sunny conditions dominate year-round. The annual mean temperature is 12.1 °C (53.8 °F), much lower than the other large cities of Afghanistan.

Climate data for Kabul
Kabul
(1956–1983)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 18.8 (65.8) 18.4 (65.1) 26.7 (80.1) 28.7 (83.7) 33.5 (92.3) 36.8 (98.2) 37.7 (99.9) 37.3 (99.1) 35.1 (95.2) 31.6 (88.9) 24.4 (75.9) 20.4 (68.7) 37.7 (99.9)

Average high °C (°F) 4.5 (40.1) 5.5 (41.9) 12.5 (54.5) 19.2 (66.6) 24.4 (75.9) 30.2 (86.4) 32.1 (89.8) 32.0 (89.6) 28.5 (83.3) 22.4 (72.3) 15.0 (59) 8.3 (46.9) 19.5 (67.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) −2.3 (27.9) −0.7 (30.7) 6.3 (43.3) 12.8 (55) 17.3 (63.1) 22.8 (73) 25.0 (77) 24.1 (75.4) 19.7 (67.5) 13.1 (55.6) 5.9 (42.6) 0.6 (33.1) 12.1 (53.8)

Average low °C (°F) −7.1 (19.2) −5.7 (21.7) 0.7 (33.3) 6.0 (42.8) 8.8 (47.8) 12.4 (54.3) 15.3 (59.5) 14.3 (57.7) 9.4 (48.9) 3.9 (39) −1.2 (29.8) −4.7 (23.5) 4.3 (39.7)

Record low °C (°F) −25.5 (−13.9) −24.8 (−12.6) −12.6 (9.3) −2.1 (28.2) 0.4 (32.7) 3.1 (37.6) 7.5 (45.5) 6.0 (42.8) 1.0 (33.8) −3.0 (26.6) −9.4 (15.1) −18.9 (−2) −25.5 (−13.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 34.3 (1.35) 60.1 (2.366) 67.9 (2.673) 71.9 (2.831) 23.4 (0.921) 1.0 (0.039) 6.2 (0.244) 1.6 (0.063) 1.7 (0.067) 3.7 (0.146) 18.6 (0.732) 21.6 (0.85) 312.0 (12.283)

Average rainy days 2 3 10 11 8 1 2 1 1 2 4 3 48

Average snowy days 7 6 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 20

Average relative humidity (%) 68 70 65 61 48 36 37 38 39 42 52 63 52

Mean monthly sunshine hours 177.2 178.6 204.5 232.5 310.3 353.4 356.8 339.7 303.9 282.6 253.2 182.4 3,175.1

Source: NOAA[98]

Environment[edit] The Kabul River
Kabul River
flows through the heart of the city, dividing the central bazaars. There are several bridges (pul) crossing the river, the major ones being Pul-e Shah-Do Shamshira, Pul-e Bagh-e Omomi, Pul-e Khishti, and Pul-e Mahmoud. Due to climate change, since the 21st century, the river runs dry most of the year, only filling up in the wetter winter and spring seasons.[99] A large lake and wetland is located just to the southeast from the old city called Kol-e Hashmat Khan.[100] The marsh provides a critical resting place to thousands of birds who fly between the Indian subcontinent and Siberia. In 2017 the government declared the lake a protected area.[101] Some rare species of birds have been spotted at the lake, such as the Eastern imperial eagle
Eastern imperial eagle
and the Dalmatian pelican.[102] Kabul's other large lake is Qargha, located some 9 km northwest from the center. It is a major attraction for locals as well as foreigners.[103] Demographics[edit] Further information: Demographics of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Afghan diaspora

Young Afghan men and women at a rock music festival inside the Gardens of Babur.

Young 'Kabulites' in downtown Kabul
Kabul
in 1980

Kabul's population was estimated in 2015 at about 4.6 million,[1] which possibly includes the people of the province as well. Another 2015 estimate has put it at 3,678,034.[104] The city's population has long fluctuated due to the wars. The lack of an up-to-date census means that there are many various estimates of the population. Kabul's population is estimated to have been about 10,000 in 1700, 65,000 by 1878, and 120,000 by 1940.[105] More recently, the population was around 500,000 in 1979, whilst another source claims 337,715 as of 1976.[106] This figure rose to about 1.5 million by 1988, before dramatically dropping in the 1990s. Kabul
Kabul
became one of the fastest growing cities in the world, with its population growing fourfold from 2001 to 2014. This was partly due to the return of refugees after the fall of the Taliban
Taliban
regime, and partly due to a large number of Afghans moving from other provinces mainly due to war between Taliban
Taliban
insurgents and Afghan government forces in their native areas as well as looking for labor. This resulting rapid urbanization mean that many residents today live in informal settlements.[107] Shanty mud-brick homes on the mountainsides and steep hills have been built by them and these are usually poverty-stricken, not connected to the water and electricity grid. Although the settlements are illegal, they have been tolerated by authorities. In 2017 Kabul
Kabul
Municipality
Municipality
started a project to paint the homes in these settlements in bright colors in an effort to "cheer up" residents.[108][109] Kabul
Kabul
is the most ethnically diverse city in the country, with the population including Afghans from all over the country.[110] In 2003, the National Geographic Channel
National Geographic Channel
reported that Kabul's population was composed of the following ethnic groups: 45% Tajik, 25% Hazara, 25% Pashtun, 2% Uzbek, 1% Baloch, 1% Turkmen, and 1% Afghan Hindu.[2] The Dari (Persian) and Pashto languages are widely used in the region, although Dari serves as the lingua franca. Multilingualism
Multilingualism
is common throughout the area, particularly among the Pashtun people. The term "Kabuli" (کابلی) is referred to the heterogeneous urbanites of the city. They are ethnic-neutral, typically speak Dari (Persian), are generally secularly and highly educated, and favor Western fashion. Many Kabulites (especially elites and the upper class) left the country during the civil war and are now outnumbered by rural people who moved in from the countryside, mostly refugees but also labor-seekers.[111][112][113] About 74% of the city's population follow Sunni Islam
Islam
while 25% are Shiites (mainly the Hazaras). The remaining 1% are followers of Sikhism and Hinduism, as well as one known Christian
Christian
resident (First Lady Rula Ghani) and one Jewish
Jewish
resident (Zablon Simintov). There are other Christians too but they are from international organizations rather than permanent residents. Kabul
Kabul
also has small Indian and Turkish communities, and in the 1980s had a sizable Russian community. Districts[edit]

Location of Kabul
Kabul
Municipality
Municipality
within Kabul
Kabul
Province

c. 1980 map showing public places in the city of Kabul

The Bibi Mahro family park, northern Kabul

The city of Kabul
Kabul
forms one of the 15 districts of Kabul
Kabul
Province. As the provincial capital, it forms a municipality (shārwāli) which is further divided into 22 administrative districts called city districts or "Police Districts" (nāhia). The number of city districts increased from 11 to 18 in 2005, and then to 22 by 2010 after the incorporations of Districts 14 and 19-22 which were annexed by Kabul
Kabul
Municipality from surrounding rural districts. The city limits have thus substantionally increased. Due to demarcation disputes with the provincial administration, some of these new districts are more administered by the provincial districts than the municipality. District 1 contains most of the old city. Downtown Kabul
Kabul
mostly consist of Districts 2, 4 and 10. In addition, Districts 3 and 6 house many commercial and governmental points of interests.[114] The city's north and west are the most urbanized, as opposed to the south and east. The table below show the 22 city districts and their settlements, with information about its land size and usage, accurate as of 2011.[115]

Name Location Settlements Area Urban area Agricultural area Vacant area Location map

District 1 ناحیه ۱ Central Char Chata Chindawol Hinduguzar Kharabat (street) Jadayi Maiwand
Jadayi Maiwand
(street) Mandawi (street) Rika Khana Shur Bazar 7000467000000000000♠4.67 km² 65.3% ~0% 18.9%

District 2 ناحیه ۲ Central Andarabi Deh Afghanan Karte Ariana Karte Parwan
Karte Parwan
(part) Murad Khane Shash Darak
Shash Darak
(part) 7000676000000000000♠6.76 km² 72.6% 0% 7.3%

District 3 ناحیه ۳ West Deh Bori Deh Mazang Deh Naw Jamal Mina Karte Char Karte Mamorin (part) Karte Sakhi Silo
Silo
(street, part) 7000922000000000000♠9.22 km² 82% 0.6% 8.8%

District 4 ناحیه ۴ Northwest Karte Parwan
Karte Parwan
(part) Kolola Pushta Shahrara Shahr-e Naw Taimani 7001116300000000000♠11.63 km² 83.1% 1% 6%

District 5 ناحیه ۵ West Afshar Fazel Baig Karte Mamorin (part) Khushal Khan Mena Kote Sangi/Mirwais Maidan Silo
Silo
(street, part) Qala-e Wazir 7001292000000000000♠29.2 km² 49.6% 14% 30.9%

District 6 ناحیه ۶ Southwest Darulaman Karte Seh Qala-e Shada 7001491000000000000♠49.1 km² 32.5% 13.5% 50.8%

District 7 ناحیه ۷ South Aqa Ali Shams Chihil Sutun Deh Dana Gozar Gah Wassel Abad 7001325000000000000♠32.5 km² 46.8% 17% 31.6%

District 8 ناحیه ۸ Southeast Beni Hisar Karte Naw Rahman Mina Qalacha Shah Shahid 7001484000000000000♠48.4 km² 33.7% 33.9% 25.1%

District 9 ناحیه ۹ Northeast Karte Wali Mikrorayon
Mikrorayon
(2nd, 3rd, 4th) Shash Darak
Shash Darak
(part) Yaka Tut 7001245000000000000♠24.5 km² 48.4% 29.7% 13.7%

District 10 ناحیه ۱۰ North Bibi Mahro Char Qala Qala-e Fathullah Qala-e Musa Sherpur Wazir Akbar Khan 7001130000000000000♠13.0 km² 75.3% 10.8% 5.6%

District 11 ناحیه ۱۱ Northwest Hazara-e Baghal Khair Khana Qala-e Najara 7001174009999900000♠17.4 km² 75.4% 0% 21%

District 12 ناحیه ۱۲ East Ahmad Shah Baba Mina/Arzan Qimat Bagrami But Khak Shina 7001348009999900000♠34.8 km² 33.2% 42.8% 21.7%

District 13 ناحیه ۱۳ Southwest Bist Hazari Dashte Barchi Omid-e Sabz (township) 7001466000000000000♠46.6 km² 32% 23.5% 40.2%

District 14 ناحیه ۱۴ Northwest Paghman 7002120100000000000♠120.1 km² 8.6% 47% 24.6%

District 15 ناحیه ۱۵ North Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
Int'l (airfield) Khaje Bughra Khwaja Rawash Qasaba
Qasaba
(township) 7001321000000000000♠32.1 km² 32.2% 7.5% 33%

District 16 ناحیه ۱۶ East Mikrorayon
Mikrorayon
(1st/Old) Qala-e Zaman Khan Sement Khana 7001252000000000000♠25.2 km² 37.1% 33.2% 24.1%

District 17 ناحیه ۱۷ Northwest Shakar Dara 7001560000000000000♠56.0 km² 16.7% 9.5% 72%

District 18 ناحیه ۱۸ Northeast Bakhtiaran Deh Sabz Tara Khel 7001339000000000000♠33.9 km² 19.4% 40.2% 29.2%

District 19 ناحیه ۱۹ Northeast Pul-e Charkhi 7002141400000000000♠141.4 km² 8.1% 0.05% 77.4%

District 20 ناحیه ۲۰ South Char Asiab 7002143600000000000♠143.6 km² 4.1% 17.7% 71.1%

District 21 ناحیه ۲۱ East (Populated by Kuchi nomads) 7001639000000000000♠63.9 km² 1.5% 2.7% 88.1%

District 22 ناحیه ۲۲ Southeast Shewaki 7001790000000000000♠79.0 km² 6.5% 24.6% 62.2%

Places of interest[edit] Each year about 20,000 foreign tourists visit Afghanistan.[116] Major hotels in Kabul
Kabul
include; the Serena Hotel, the Inter-Continental, and the Safi Landmark Hotel
Safi Landmark Hotel
above the Kabul
Kabul
City Center. There are a number of other less-known hotels. Most visitors prefer lodging at guest houses, which are found all over the city. The better and safer ones are in the Wazir Akbar Khan
Wazir Akbar Khan
neighborhood where the embassies are located. The old part of Kabul
Kabul
is filled with bazaars nestled along its narrow, crooked streets. Cultural sites include: the National Museum of Afghanistan, notably displaying an impressive statue of Surya excavated at Khair Khana, the ruined Darul Aman Palace, the tomb of Mughal Emperor Babur
Babur
at Bagh-e Babur, and Chihil Sutun
Chihil Sutun
Park, the Minar-i-Istiqlal (Column of Independence) built in 1919 after the Third Afghan War, the tomb of Timur
Timur
Shah Durrani, the Bagh-e Bala Palace
Palace
and the imposing Id Gah Mosque
Id Gah Mosque
(founded 1893). Bala Hissar is a fort destroyed by the British in 1879, in retaliation for the death of their envoy, now restored as a military college. There are also the Kolola Pushta fort, which is still garrisoned by the Afghan Army, and the nearby 19th-century Shahrara Tower fort, which was ruined in 1928. The Minaret of Chakari, destroyed in 1998, had Buddhist swastika and both Mahayana
Mahayana
and Theravada
Theravada
qualities. Other places of interest include Kabul
Kabul
City Center, which is Kabul's first shopping mall, the shops around Flower Street and Chicken Street, Wazir Akbar Khan
Wazir Akbar Khan
district, Kabul
Kabul
Golf Club, Kabul
Kabul
Zoo, Abdul Rahman Mosque, Shah-Do Shamshira and other famous mosques, the National Gallery of Afghanistan, the National Archives of Afghanistan, Afghan Royal Family Mausoleum, the OMAR Mine Museum, Bibi Mahro Hill, Kabul
Kabul
Cemetery, and Paghman
Paghman
Gardens. The Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) was also involved in the restoration of the Bagh-e Babur
Babur
(Babur Gardens). Tappe-i-Maranjan is a nearby hill where Buddhist statues and Graeco-Bactrian coins from the 2nd century BC have been found. Outside the city proper is a citadel and the royal palace. Paghman
Paghman
and Jalalabad
Jalalabad
are interesting valleys north and east of the city.

Ghazi Stadium

National Museum of Afghanistan

National Gallery of Afghanistan

Hotel Inter-Continental

Sports complexes

Alokozay Kabul
Kabul
International Cricket Ground Ghazi Stadium Olympic Committee Gymnasium

Parks

Bagh-e Babur
Babur
(Gardens of Babur) Baghi Bala Park Zarnegar Park Shahr-e Naw
Shahr-e Naw
Park Bagh-e Zanana Chaman-e-Hozori Bibi Mahro Park Lake
Lake
Qargha

Mosques

Abdul Rahman Mosque Id Gah Mosque Abu Fazl Mosque in Murad Khane Pul-e Khishti Mosque Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque

Mausoleums

Mausoleum of Timur
Timur
Shah Durrani Mausoleum of Abdur Rahman Khan Mausoleum of Zahir Shah and Nadir Shah Mausoleum of Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani

Palaces

Tajbeg Palace Stor Palace Darul Aman Palace Chihil Sutun
Chihil Sutun
Palace Zarnegar Palace Bagh-e Bala Palace Haram Sara Palace Shah Bobo Jan Palace Arg (Presidential Palace), including numerous other palaces inside the compound Delgushah Palace

Museums

National Museum of Afghanistan National Archives of Afghanistan National Gallery of Afghanistan Negaristani Milli

Hotels

Serena Hotel Inter-Continental Safi Landmark Hotel

Looking towards a neighborhood from the hill in Wazir Akbar Khan

Aerial view towards the Bagh-e Bala Palace
Palace
and the gardens surrounding it

View from the Bagh-e Babur
Babur
(Gardens of Babur)

16th-century mosque inside the Gardens of Babur

The Paghman
Paghman
arc de triomphe

The Kabul
Kabul
Bird Market (Ka Foroshi)

Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque

Government and politics[edit] Further information: Politics of Afghanistan

Arg, the Presidential Palace
Palace
in Kabul

The municipality's administrative structure consists of 17 departments under a mayor. Like other provincial municipalities in Afghanistan, the municipality of Kabul
Kabul
deals with city affairs such as construction and infrastructure. The city districts (nāhia) collect certain taxes and issue building licenses. Each city district has a district head appointed by the mayor, and leads six major departments in the district office. The neighborhood organization structure at the nahia level is called a gozar. A wakil-e gozar is a person chosen to represent a community within a city district. The current mayor of Kabul
Kabul
Municipality
Municipality
is Abdullah Habibzai who was appointed in May 2016 as the acting mayor. Kabul's Chief of Police is Lt. Gen. Abdul Rahman Rahimi. The police are part of the Afghan National Police (ANP) under the Ministry of Interior and are arranged by city districts. The Police Chief is selected by the Interior Minister and is responsible for all law enforcement activities throughout the Kabul
Kabul
province. Economy and infrastructure[edit] Further information: Economy of Afghanistan

A commercial area in the city

Dry food in one of Kabul's markets

Kabul's main products include fresh and dried fruit, nuts, beverages, Afghan rugs, leather and sheep skin products, furniture, antique replicas, and domestic clothes. The world bank authorized US$25 million for the Kabul
Kabul
Urban Reconstruction Project which closed in 2011.[117] Over the last decade, the United States
United States
has invested approximately $9.1 billion into urban infrastructure in Afghanistan.[118][119] The wars since 1978 have limited the city's economic productivity but after the establishment of the Karzai administration since late 2001, local economic developments have included a number of indoor shopping malls. The first of these was the Kabul
Kabul
City Center, opened 2005. Others have also opened in recent years including Gulbahar Center, City Walk Mall and Majid Mall.[120][121] Kabul's largest industrial hub is located in District 9, on the north banks of the River Kabul
Kabul
and near the airport.[122] About 6 km (4 mi) from downtown Kabul, in Bagrami, a 9-hectare (22-acre) industrial complex has completed with modern facilities, which will allow companies to operate businesses there. The park has professional management for the daily maintenance of public roads, internal streets, common areas, parking areas, 24 hours perimeter security, access control for vehicles and persons.[123] A number of factories operate there, including the $25 million Coca-Cola bottling plant and the Omaid Bahar juice factory.

Inside an antiquity shop in Kabul's famous Chicken Street (Kochi Murgha)

According to Transparency International, the government of Afghanistan is the third most-corrupt in the world.[124] Experts believe that the poor decisions of Afghan politicians contribute to the unrest in the region. This also prevents foreign investment in Afghanistan, especially by Western countries. In 2012, there were reportedly $3.9 billion paid to public officials in bribes which contributed to these issues.[125] Da Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Bank, the nation's central bank, is headquartered in Kabul. In addition, there are several commercial banks in the city.[126] Development planning[edit] A $1 billion USD contract was signed in 2013 to commence work on the "New Kabul
Kabul
City", which is a major residential scheme that would accommodate 1.5 million people.[127][128] In the meantime, many high rise buildings are being constructed in order to control the overcrowding and also to modernize the city.[129] An initial concept design called the City of Light Development, envisioned by Dr. Hisham N. Ashkouri, for the development and the implementation of a privately based investment enterprise has been proposed for multi-function commercial, historic and cultural development within the limits of the Old City of Kabul, along the southern side of the Kabul River
Kabul River
and along Jade Meywand Avenue,[130] Communications[edit] Further information: Communications in Afghanistan

Studio of Radio Kabul
Radio Kabul
in the 1950s

As of November 2015, there are more than 24 television stations based out of Kabul.[131] In Kabul, Minister Amir Zai Sangin of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology maintains statistics regarding telecommunications in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan Information Management Services (AIMS) provides software development, capacity development, information management, and project management services to the Afghan Government and other NGOs, thereby supporting their on-the-ground activities. GSM/ GPRS
GPRS
mobile phone services in the city are provided by Afghan Wireless, Etisalat, Roshan, MTN and Salaam. As of 2012[update], all of them provide 3G services as well. In November 2006, the Afghan Ministry of Communications signed a $64.5 million US dollar deal with ZTE
ZTE
on the establishment of a countrywide fibre optical cable network to help improve telephone, internet, television and radio broadcast services not just in Kabul
Kabul
but throughout the country.[132] Internet cafes were introduced in 2002 and has been expanding throughout the country. As of 2012[update], 3G services are also available. There are a number of post offices throughout the city. Package delivery services like FedEx, TNT N.V., and DHL are also available. Transportation[edit] Further information: Transport in Afghanistan

Flightline at Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
International Airport ( Kabul
Kabul
International Airport)

Air[edit] The Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
International Airport ( Kabul
Kabul
International Airport) is located 25 km (16 mi) from the center of Kabul, which has always served as the country's main airport. It is a hub to Ariana Afghan Airlines, the national carrier of Afghanistan, as well as private airlines such as Afghan Jet International, East Horizon Airlines, Kam Air, Pamir Airways, and Safi Airways. Regional airlines such as Air India, SpiceJet, flydubai, Emirates, Gulf Air, Mahan Air, Pakistan
Pakistan
International Airlines, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
and others also have regularly scheduled flights to the airport. A new international terminal was built by the government of Japan
Japan
and began operation in 2008. Rail[edit] Kabul
Kabul
has no train service currently, but the government has proposed the building of rail lines or a metro rail in the future.[citation needed] Kabul's only railway service, the Kabul– Darulaman
Darulaman
Tramway, operated for only six years from 1923 to 1929. As part of the approved major Deh Sabz
Deh Sabz
" Kabul
Kabul
New City" development project that kicked off in 2015, a light rail service is being planned during the mid-term development period.[133] Road[edit]

Traffic in Kabul
Kabul
city center in 2013

The AH76 highway (or Kabul- Charikar
Charikar
Highway) connects Kabul
Kabul
north towards Charikar, Pol-e Khomri
Pol-e Khomri
and Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
(310 km (190 mi) away), with leading roads to Kunduz
Kunduz
(250 km (160 mi) away). The AH77 highway goes west towards Bamiyan Province (150 km (93 mi) away) and Chaghcharan
Chaghcharan
in the central mountains of Afghanistan. To the south-west, the Kabul-Ghazni Highway goes to Ghazni
Ghazni
(130 km (81 mi) away) and Kandahar (460 km (290 mi) away). To the south, the Kabul-Gardez Highway connects it to Gardez
Gardez
(100 km (62 mi) away) and Khost. To the east, the Kabul- Jalalabad
Jalalabad
Highway goes to Jalalabad (120 km (75 mi) away) and across the border to Peshawar.

View towards Kabul
Kabul
in June 1976

Much of the road network in downtown Kabul
Kabul
consist of square or circle intersections (char-rahi). The main square in the city is Pashtunistan Square (named after Pashtunistan), which has a large fountain in it and is located adjacent to the presidential palace, the Central Bank, and other landmarks.[134] The Massoud Circle is located by the U.S. Embassy and has the road leading to the airport. In the old city, Sar-e Chawk roundabout is at the center of Maiwand Road (Jadayi Maiwand). Once all roads led to it, and in the 16th century was called the "navel of Kabul".[135] In the Shahr-e Naw
Shahr-e Naw
district there are several major intersections: Ansari, Haji Yaqub, Quwayi Markaz, Sedarat, and Turabaz Khan. The latter, named after Turabaz Khan, connect Flower Street and Chicken Street. There are also two major intersections in western Kabul: the Deh Mazang
Deh Mazang
Circle and Kote Sangi. Salang Watt is the main road to the north-west, whereas Asamayi
Asamayi
Watt and Seh Aqrab (also called Sevom Aqrab) is the main road to western Kabul. The steep population rise in the 21st century has caused major congestion problems for the city's roads.[136] In efforts to tackle this issue, a 95 km outer ring road costing $110 million was approved in 2017.[137][138] Construction will take five years and it will run from Char Asiab
Char Asiab
via Ahmad Shah Baba Mina, Deh Sabz
Deh Sabz
(" Kabul
Kabul
New City" development area), the AH76 highway, Paghman
Paghman
and back to Char Asyab.[139] A new bus public transport service is also planned to be opened in 2018 (see below).[140] In September 2017, the head of the Kabul
Kabul
Municipality
Municipality
announced that 286 meters of pedestrian overpass footbridges will be built in eight busy areas "in the near future".[141] Under the Kabul
Kabul
Urban Transport Efficiency Improvement Project that was signed in 2014 and backed by the World Bank, the city has seen widespread improvements in road conditions, including the building of new pedestrian sidewalks, drainage systems, lighting and asphalted road surfaces. The project runs until December 31, 2019.[142][143]

A Toyota Corolla (E100)
Toyota Corolla (E100)
at a security checkpoint in 2010

Private vehicles have been on the rise in Kabul
Kabul
since 2002, with about 700,000 cars registered as of 2013 and up to 80% of the cars reported to be Toyota Corollas.[144][145][146] The number of dealerships have also increased from 77 in 2003 to over 550 by 2010.[147] Gas stations are mainly private-owned. Bicycles on the road are a common sight in the city. Taxis[edit] The taxicabs in Kabul
Kabul
are painted in a white and yellow livery. The majority of these are older model Corollas. A few Soviet-era Russian cabs are also still in operation. Buses and trolleybuses[edit] Long distance road journeys are made by private Mercedes-Benz coach buses or various types of vans, trucks and cars. Although a nationwide bus service is available from Kabul, flying is safer, especially for foreigners. The city's public bus service ( Millie Bus
Millie Bus
/ "National Bus") was established in the 1960s to take commuters on daily routes to many destinations. The service currently has about 800 buses. The Kabul
Kabul
bus system has recently discovered a new source of revenue in whole-bus advertising from MTN similar to "bus wrap" advertising on public transit in more developed nations. There is also an express bus that runs from downtown to Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
International Airport for Safi Airways passengers. An electric trolleybus system operated in Kabul
Kabul
from February 1979 to 1992 using Škoda fleet built by a Czechoslovak
Czechoslovak
company (see Trolleybuses in Kabul
Trolleybuses in Kabul
for more). The trolleybus service was highly popular mainly due to its low price compared to the Millie Bus conventional bus service. The last trolleybus came to a halt in late 1992 due to warfare - much of the copper overhead wires were later looted but a few of them, including the steel poles, can still be seen in Kabul
Kabul
today.[106][148] In June 2017 Kabul
Kabul
Municipality
Municipality
unveiled plans for a new bus rapid transit (BRT) system (referred to as "Metro Bus"), the first major urban public transportation scheme. The initial route of 8 km will run from the downtown Deh Afghanan
Deh Afghanan
district via the Salang Watt Road to Sara-e Shamali in the north-west. The second phase would connect Deh Afghanan westwards to Kote Sangi
Kote Sangi
via Sevom Aqrab Road and Karte Char. Work is underway for a 2018 opening. In the next phases the service will expand to about 111 km by 2020, including covering Dashte Barchi in the west, Darulaman
Darulaman
in the south, and Karte Naw
Karte Naw
in the east.[149][150][151] Education[edit] Further information: List of schools in Kabul
List of schools in Kabul
and Education in Afghanistan

Kabul
Kabul
Medical University

The Ministry of Education led by Ghulam Farooq Wardak
Ghulam Farooq Wardak
is responsible for the education system in Afghanistan.[152] Public and private schools in the city have reopened since 2002 after they were shut down or destroyed during fighting in the 1980s to the late 1990s. Boys and girls are strongly encouraged to attend school under the Karzai administration but many more schools are needed not only in Kabul
Kabul
but throughout the country. The Afghan Ministry of Education has plans to build more schools in the coming years so that education is provided to all citizens of the country. The most well known high schools in Kabul
Kabul
include:

Habibia High School, a British- Afghan school founded in 1903 by King Habibullah Khan Lycée Esteqlal, a Franco- Afghan school founded in 1922 Malalai High School, a Franco- Afghan school for girls Amani High School, a German- Afghan school for boys founded in 1924 Aisha-i-Durani School, a German- Afghan school for girls Rahman Baba High School, an American- Afghan school for boys International School of Kabul, an American- Afghan school Afghan Turk High Schools, Turkish- Afghan schools Ghulam Haider Khan High School, a school for boys Abdul Hadi Dawi High School, a school for boys Nazo Ana High School, a school for girls

Universities[edit] Further information: List of universities in Afghanistan The city's colleges and universities were renovated after 2002. Some of them have been developed recently, while others have existed since the early 20th century. Health care[edit] Further information: Health in Afghanistan Health care in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is relatively poor. The wealthy Afghans usually go abroad when seeking treatment. Presently, there are several hospitals in Kabul
Kabul
which include;

Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan
Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan
Hospital

French Medical Institute for Children Kabul
Kabul
City Hospital Indira Gandhi Children's Hospital Jamhuriat Hospital Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan
Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan
Hospital[153] Jinnah Hospital (under construction) Wazir Akbar Khan
Wazir Akbar Khan
Hospital Malalai Maternity Hospital Rabia-I-Balki Maternity Hospital Maywand Hospital Afshar Hospital Noor Eye Hospital Atatürk Children's Hospital American Medical Center Afghanistan DK-German Medical Diagnostic Center[154] CURE International
CURE International
Hospital[155] KIA ISAF Role 3 Hospital

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Ankara, Turkey
Turkey
(since 2003)[156] Delhi, India
India
(proposed, 2017)[157] Istanbul, Turkey
Turkey
(since 1992)[158] Kazan, Russia
Russia
(since 2005)[159] Omaha, Nebraska, United States
United States
(since 2003)[160]

See also[edit]

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
portal

List of cities in Afghanistan 2002 Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
earthquakes Kabul
Kabul
Province List of rulers of Kabul Timeline of Kabul

References and footnotes[edit]

^ a b c "The World Factbook". CIA. Retrieved 2015-09-13.  ^ a b "2003 National Geographic Population Map" (PDF). Thomas Gouttierre, Center For Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Studies, University of Nebraska
University of Nebraska
at Omaha; Matthew S. Baker, Stratfor. National Geographic Society. November 2003. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ "Largest cities in the world and their mayors – 1 to 150". City Mayors. 2012-05-17. Retrieved 2012-08-17.  ^ a b Nancy Hatch Dupree
Nancy Hatch Dupree
/ Aḥmad ʻAlī Kuhzād (1972). "An Historical Guide to Kabul – The Story of Kabul". American International School of Kabul. Archived from the original on 2010-08-30. Retrieved 2010-09-18.  ^ "History of Kabul". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 2013-05-27.  ^ https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/reversing-kabuls-environmental-setbacks-sayed-aziz-azimi ^ http://afghanistantimes.af/kabul-city-isnt-just-capital-of-afghanistan-but-of-palaces-as-well/ ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-afghanistan-capital/once-called-paradise-now-kabul-struggles-to-cope-idUSSP20888220070416 ^ Dateline Mongolia: An American Journalist in Nomad's Land by Michael Kohn ^ https://www.ots.at/presseaussendung/OTS_20160830_OTS0058/mein-kabul-orf-reporterlegende-fritz-orter-praesentiert-im-weltjournal-seine-stadt-am-31-august-um-2230-uhr-in-orf-2 ^ "World's fastest growing urban areas (1)". City Mayors. 2012-05-17. Retrieved 2012-08-17.  ^ See National Review, November 20, 2002, Merriam-Webster: Kabul ^ a b Adamec, p.231 ^ a b c Nancy Hatch Dupree
Nancy Hatch Dupree
/ Aḥmad ʻAlī Kuhzād (1972). "An Historical Guide to Kabul – The Name". American International School of Kabul. Archived from the original on 2010-08-30. Retrieved 2010-09-18.  ^ "Kabul: City of lost glories". BBC. Retrieved 14 May 2015.  ^ a b c "Kabul: City of lost glories". BBC News. November 12, 2001. Retrieved 2010-09-18.  ^ Graciana del Castillo. Guilty Party: The International Community in Afghanistan. Xlibris Corporation. p. 28. ISBN 9781493185702.  ^ Hafizullah Emadi. Culture and Customs of Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 26. ISBN 9780313330896.  ^ Peter Marsden. The Taliban: War, Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 12. ISBN 9781856495226.  ^ Trudy Ring. International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781884964046.  ^ Meredith L. Runion. The History of Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 41. ISBN 9780313337987.  ^ Romano, p.12 ^ John Snelling (31 August 2011). The Buddhist Handbook: A Complete Guide to Buddhist Teaching and Practice. Random House. ISBN 9781446489581.  ^ Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. 2. BRILL. p. 159. ISBN 90-04-08265-4. Retrieved 2010-08-23.  ^ Louis Dupree. Afghanistan. Princeton University Press. p. 299. ISBN 9781400858910.  ^ Levi, P.; Jules Bloch; Jean Przyluski (1993). Pre- Aryan
Aryan
and pre-Dravidian in India. Asian Educational Services. p. 87. ISBN 81-206-0772-4. Retrieved 2010-09-18. ...they apply to a population of the north-western frontier of India
India
designated by the nickname of "shaved heads," and especially to the Kamboja of the country of Kabul.  ^ Watson, John Forbes; Sir John William Kaye (2007). The people of India: a series of photographic illustrations, with descriptive letterpress, of the races and tribes of Hindustan. 1. Pagoda Tree Press. p. 276. ISBN 1-904289-44-4. Retrieved 2010-09-18. The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name of Cabul is Kamboj, and a slight transition of sound renders this name so similar to Kumboh.  ^ Mookerji, Radhakumud (1966). Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
and his times (4 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 173. ISBN 81-208-0405-8. Retrieved 2010-09-18.  ^ "A.—The Hindu Kings of Kábul (p.2)". Sir H. M. Elliot. London: Packard Humanities Institute. 1867–1877. Retrieved 2010-09-18.  ^ Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 AD. Draft annotated English translation... Link ^ Hill (2004), pp. 29, 352–352. ^ A. D. H. Bivar, KUSHAN DYNASTY, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, 2010 ^ a b "A.—The Hindu Kings of Kábul". Sir H. M. Elliot. London: Packard Humanities Institute. 1867–1877. Retrieved 2010-09-18.  ^ Wilson, Horace Hayman (1998). Ariana antiqua: a descriptive account of the antiquities and coins of. Asian Educational Services. p. 133. ISBN 81-206-1189-6. Retrieved 2010-09-18.  ^ "A.—The Hindu Kings of Kábul (p.3)". Sir H. M. Elliot. London: Packard Humanities Institute. 1867–1877. Retrieved 2010-09-18.  ^ Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
(2004). Travels in Asia and Africa, 1325–1354 (reprint, illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 180. ISBN 0-415-34473-5. Retrieved 2010-09-10.  ^ Zahir ud-Din Mohammad Babur
Babur
(1525). "Events Of The Year 910". Memoirs of Babur. Packard Humanities Institute. Retrieved 2010-08-22.  ^ Gall, Sandy (2012). War Against the Taliban: Why It All Went Wrong in Afghanistan. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 165. ISBN 14-08-80905-2. Retrieved 2013-09-30.  ^ "Kabul". Online Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-09-18.  ^ http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00JMMJ.pdf ^ Tanin, Z. (2006): Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the 20th Century. Tehran. ^ Anthony Hyman, "Nationalism in Afghanistan" in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 34:2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002) 305. ^ a b Hyman, 305. ^ Nick Cullather, "Damming Afghanistan: Modernization in a Buffer State" in The Journal of American History 89:2 (Indiana: Organization of American Historians, 2002) 518. ^ Cullather, 518. ^ a b Cullather, 519. ^ http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00JMMJ.pdf ^ Cullather, 530. ^ https://www.huffingtonpost.com/christian-caryl/strange-rebels-excerpt_b_3427854.html ^ a b Cullather, 534. ^ "The Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
Journey: The Hippie
Hippie
Trail". The Independent. 5 Nov 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2017.  ^ Hyman, "Nationalism in Afghanistan", 307. ^ John E. Haynes, "Keeping Cool About Kabul" in World Affairs, 145:4 (Washington, D.C.: Heldref Publications, 1983), 371. ^ Haynes, 372. ^ a b c Haynes, 373. ^ "Nur Muhammad Taraki". Notable Names Database.  ^ a b c Yousaf, PA, Brigadier General (retired) Mohammad (1991). Silent soldier: the man behind the Afghan jehad General Akhtar Abdur Rahman. Karachi, Sindh: Jang Publishers, 1991. p. 106.  ^ Kakar, Hassan M. (1997). Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979–1982. University of California Press. p. 291. ISBN 0-5202-0893-5. Retrieved 2013-01-08.  ^ " Kabul
Kabul
at War (1992–1996) : State, Ethnicity and Social Classes". samaj.revues.org. Retrieved 2014-10-25.  ^ Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation, By J. Bruce Amstutz – Page 139 ^ Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation, By J. Bruce Amstutz – Page 139 & 140 ^ Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
– December 1983 issue ^ Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation, By J. Bruce Amstutz – Page 140 ^ https://www.upi.com/Archives/1988/04/27/A-truck-bomb-exploded-in-crowded-downtown-Kabul-today/7671578116800/ ^ Afghanistan: The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan, by Amin Saikal, William Maley – Page 48 ^ Bowersox, Gary W. (2004). The Gem Hunter: The Adventures of an American in Afghanistan. United States: GeoVision, Inc.,. p. 100. ISBN 0-9747-3231-1. Retrieved 2010-08-22.  ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1996/09/28/world/guerrillas-take-afghan-capital-as-troops-flee.html ^ Kolhatkar, S.; Ingalls, J.; Barsamian, D. (2011). Bleeding Afghanistan: Washington, Warlords, and the Propaganda of Silence. Seven Stories Press. ISBN 9781609800932. Retrieved 2014-10-25.  ^ Bowersox (p.192) ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1996/02/05/world/afghan-capital-grim-as-war-follows-war.html ^ Nazif M Shahrani, "War, Factionalism and the State in Afghanistan" in American Anthropologist 104:3 (Arlington, Virginia: American Anthropological Association, 2008), 719. ^ "Casting Shadows: War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity: 1978–2001" (PDF). Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Justice Project. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-04.  ^ Amnesty International. "DOCUMENT – AFGHANISTAN: FURTHER INFORMATION ON FEAR FOR SAFETY AND NEW CONCERN: DELIBERATE AND ARBITRARY KILLINGS: CIVILIANS IN KABUL." 16 November 1995 Accessed at: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-07. Retrieved 2014-10-18.  ^ "Afghanistan: escalation of indiscriminate shelling in Kabul". International Committee of the Red Cross. 1995.  ^ BBC Newsnight 1995 on YouTube ^ Coll, Ghost Wars (New York: Penguin, 2005), 14. ^ a b "The Taliban's War on Women. A Health and Human Rights Crisis in Afghanistan" (PDF). Physicians for Human Rights. 1998.  ^ "U.S. blames Pakistan
Pakistan
agency in Kabul
Kabul
attack". Reuters. September 22, 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-22.  ^ "U.S. links Pakistan
Pakistan
to group it blames for Kabul
Kabul
attack". Reuters. September 17, 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-21.  ^ "Clinton Presses Pakistan
Pakistan
to Help Fight Haqqani Insurgent Group". Fox News. September 18, 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-21.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
condemns US comments about spy agency". Associated Press. September 23, 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-23.  ^ Baktash, Hashmat; Rodriguez, Alex (December 7, 2008). "Two Afghanistan
Afghanistan
bombings aimed at Shiites kill at least 59 people". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-12-09.  ^ RUBIN, ALISSA. "U.S. Embassy and NATO
NATO
Headquarters Attacked in Kabul". nytimes.com.  ^ Holehouse, Matthew (13 September 2011). " Kabul
Kabul
US embassy attack: September 13 as it happened". London: telegraph.co.uk.  ^ "At least 55 killed in Kabul
Kabul
suicide bombing". The Hindu. Chennai, India. December 7, 2008. Retrieved 2011-12-09.  ^ "Photos of the Day: Dec. 8". The Wall Street Journal. December 7, 2008. Retrieved 2011-12-09.  ^ http://www.reachresourcecentre.info/system/files/resource-documents/reach_afg_factsheet_kabul_cover_page_jan2017_3.pdf ^ https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2018/01/kabul-afghanistan-suburb-modern/ ^ https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/to-go-with-story-afghanistan-elections-presidency-economics-news-photo/456453908#to-go-with-story-afghanistanelectionspresidencyeconomics-by-emmanuel-picture-id456453908 ^ https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2014/dec/11/kabul-afghanistan-fifth-fastest-growing-city-world-rapid-urbanisation ^ https://www.pajhwok.com/en/2015/03/10/new-township-changes-kabul-ring-road-course ^ http://gholghola.com/en/complete-projects/ ^ https://gandhara.rferl.org/a/afghanistan-the-changing-face-of-kabul/27796779.html ^ https://www.pajhwok.com/en/2015/03/10/agreement-kabul-new-city-signed ^ http://www.dcda.gov.af/ ^ https://www.khaama.com/kabul-new-city-to-be-equipped-with-renewal-energy-9614 ^ Canada in Afghanistan: The War So Far by Peter Pigott ^ " Kabul
Kabul
Climate Normals 1956–1983". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-03-30.  ^ kbr.id/english/11-2016/in_kabul__where_the_rivers_run_dry_/wo 86710.html ^ https://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/kabul-duck-alert-2-pictures-of-birds-and-birdwatchers-at-the-kol-e-hashmat-khan-wetland/ ^ http://web.unep.org/stories/story/kabul-wetland-declared-new-protected-area-migrating-birds ^ https://afghanistan.wcs.org/Wild-Places/Kabul.aspx ^ http://afghanistantimes.af/qargha-lake-a-transcendental-beauty-of-nature/ ^ "GeoHive - Afghanistan
Afghanistan
extended population statistics". Archived from the original on 2015-07-21.  ^ http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00JMMJ.pdf ^ a b http://www.spvd.cz/index.php/component/content/article/181-clanky/svet/af/217-afghanistan-en ^ Rasmussen, Sune Engel (11 December 2014). " Kabul
Kabul
– the fifth fastest growing city in the world – is bursting at the seams" – via The Guardian.  ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/30/world/asia/kabul-urban-sprawl.html ^ https://www.stripes.com/news/homes-in-kabul-painted-bright-colors-to-cheer-up-war-weary-residents-1.474759 ^ Women of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the Post- Taliban
Taliban
Era: How Lives Have Changed and Where They Stand Today by Rosemarie Skaine, 2009. ^ https://my.nps.edu/web/ccs/kabul ^ https://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/striking-at-kabul-now-and-then/ ^ https://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/striking-at-kabul-now-and-then/ ^ https://iwaweb.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/KBL-Municipality-CSC-FINAL-REPORT.pdf ^ http://open_jicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/12068151.pdf ^ Navid Ahmad Barakzai, ed. (September 27, 2016). "20,000 foreign tourists visit Afghanistan
Afghanistan
annually". Pajhwok Afghan News (PAN). Retrieved 2017-05-15.  ^ "Projects : Kabul
Kabul
Urban Reconstruction Project The World Bank". Worldbank.org. Retrieved 2014-05-18.  ^ "DVIDS – News – US Forces – Afghanistan
Afghanistan
adjusts its $9.1 billion infrastructure program to meet Afghans' near-term needs". Dvidshub.net. Retrieved 2014-05-18.  ^ "Kabul's Tax Levies Raise Flags From U.S. Watchdog – WSJ". online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2014-10-25.  ^ http://www.dailytidings.com/article/20130202/LIFE/302020305 ^ https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2014/03/the-modern-face-of-kabul/100707/ ^ https://iwaweb.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/KBL-Municipality-CSC-FINAL-REPORT.pdf ^ Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Industrial Parks Development Authority... Kabul
Kabul
(Bagrami) Archived 2007-06-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Corruption
Corruption
Perceptions Index 2010 Results". Transparency International. 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-27.  ^ 09.08.13. "Afghanistan's Million Dollar Minister". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2014-05-18.  ^ Licensed banks in Kabul
Kabul
include: Afghanistan
Afghanistan
International Bank, Kabul
Kabul
Bank, Azizi Bank, Pashtany Bank, Afghan United Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, Punjab National Bank, Habib Bank and Western Union ^ Muhammad Hassan Khetab, ed. (4 September 2013). "$1b contract signed to begin work on New Kabul
Kabul
City plan". Pajhwok Afghan News -. Retrieved 2013-09-30.  ^ "Welcome to our Official Website". DCDA. Retrieved 2012-08-17.  ^ "Onyx Construction Company". Onyx.af. Archived from the original on 2012-04-27. Retrieved 2012-08-17.  ^ Kabul – City of Light Project...link Archived 2007-06-01 at Archive.is ^ Micallef, Joseph V. (8 November 2015). " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
2015: The View From Kabul".  ^ Pajhwok Afghan News – Ministry signs contract with Chinese company ^ http://www.andrewgrantham.co.uk/afghanistan/kabul-new-city-light-rail-plan/ ^ https://baileyaplangandcomp.wordpress.com/2015/02/10/the-square-of-pashtunistan/ ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/newsnight/8357427.stm ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/world-asia-20509559/traffic-chaos-as-kabul-s-roads-are-improved ^ http://www.tolonews.com/afghanistan/officials-say-kabul-ring-road-construction-start-soon ^ rta.org.af/eng/2017/09/17/idb-pays-74m-loan-for-construction-of-kabul-city-ring-road/ ^ https://www.khaama.com/president-ghani-kabuls-ring-road-important-economical-project-3768 ^ http://kbr.id/english/07-2017/amid_chaos__kabul_gears_up_for_pioneering_metro_bus_service/91148.html ^ http://khabarnama.net/blog/2017/09/17/building-fly-overs-in-kabul/ ^ http://projects.worldbank.org/P131864?lang=en ^ https://nl4worldbank.org/2017/06/09/urban-transport-program-helps-keep-kabul-clean/ ^ http://www.autonews.com/article/20130626/BLOG06/130629915/why-the-corolla-is-so-popular----even-in-afghanistan ^ Nakamura, David (2010-08-27). "In Afghanistan, a car for the masses". The Washington Post.  ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Dodgy cars clogging Kabul's roads ^ https://www.stripes.com/news/middle-east/afghanistan/corolla-s-the-car-of-choice-in-kabul-1.112845 ^ "Catherine Lytle: From Gerbils to Trolleybus".  ^ https://www.khaama.com/kabul-municipality-unveils-new-developments-in-metro-bus-project-03420 ^ http://www.tolonews.com/business/kabul-municipality-unveils-first-metro-bus-system ^ http://www.1tvnews.af/en/news/afghanistan/29784-kabul-metro-bus-project-to-be-launched-today ^ "دپوھنی وزارت". Moe.gov.af. Retrieved 2014-05-18.  ^ Rivera, Ray; Sahak, Sharifullah (2011-05-21). "Blast Hits Military Hospital in Afghan Capital". The New York Times.  ^ S. Hakim Hamdani. "DK – German Medical Diagnostic Center Ltd. – Experience, Quality, Excellence". medical-kabul.com. Retrieved 27 July 2015.  ^ CURE International. "CURE Afghanistan". CURE. Retrieved 27 July 2015.  ^ "Sister Cities of Ankara".  ^ https://thediplomat.com/2015/09/india-and-afghanistan-a-growing-partnership/ ^ "Sister Cities of Istanbul". Greater Istanbul. Retrieved 10 April 2015.  ^ Cultures and Globalization: Cities, Cultural Policy and Governance by Helmut K Anheier, p.376 ^ https://reliefweb.int/report/afghanistan/cities-afghanistan-and-nebraska-forge-sister-cities-partnership

Further reading[edit]

Adamec, Ludwig W. (2012). Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810878150.  " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Struggles to Preserve Rich Past Despite Ongoing War". The Canadian Press. October 14, 2007. Archived from the original on October 11, 2008.  Hill, John E. (2009). Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. Charleston, South Carolina: BookSurge. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. Romano, Amy (2003). A Historical Atlas of Afghanistan. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 9780823938636.  Tang, Alisa (January 21, 2008). "Kabul's Old City Getting Face Lift". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kabul.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kabul.

People of Kabul
Kabul
– report by Radio France Internationale in English

v t e

Fourteen largest cities in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by population

Kabul Kandahar Herat Mazari Sharif Jalalabad Kunduz Lashkargah Taloqan Puli Khumri Khost Ghazni Sheberghan Sari Pol Farah

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

v t e

Kabul
Kabul
Province

Capital

Kabul

Districts

Bagrami Char Asiab Deh Sabz Farza Guldara Istalif Kabul Kalakan Khaki Jabbar Mir Bacha Kot Mussahi Paghman Qarabagh Shakardara Surobi

Cities

Bagrami Qalai Naeem Tarakhel Dehnawe Farza Guldara Istalif Kabul Kalakan Khak-i Jabbar Mir Bacha Kot Mussahi Paghman Qara Bagh Shakar Dara Surobi

Landmarks

Presidential Palace Darul Aman Palace Bagh-e Bala Palace Bala Hissar Gardens of Babur InterContinental Hotel Safi Landmark Hotel Kabul
Kabul
Serena Hotel Kabul's Irish Pub Kabul
Kabul
Library National Museum of Afghanistan Abdul Rahman Mosque Pul-e Khishti Mosque Id Gah Mosque Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque Gurdwara Karte Parwan

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 150371535 LCCN: n80056678 GND: 4029127-3 BNF:

.