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KABUL ( Pashto /Dari : کابل‎‎, pronounced ; English: /ˈkɑːbᵿl/ ) is the capital of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as well as its largest city , located in the eastern section of the country. According to latest estimates, the population of the city is between 3.6 million and 4.6 million , which includes all the major ethnic groups . Rapid urbanization had made Kabul
Kabul
the world's 64th largest city and the fifth fastest-growing city in the world.

Kabul
Kabul
is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
. The city is at a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia , and a key location of the ancient Silk Road . It has been part of the Achaemenids , Seleucids , Mauryans
Mauryans
, Kushans , Kabul
Kabul
Shahis , Saffarids
Saffarids
, Ghaznavids , and Ghurids . Later, it was controlled by the Mughal Empire until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire in 1747. The city is located high up in a narrow valley between the Hindu Kush mountains.

Kabul
Kabul
became the capital of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani
Durrani
(reigned 1772–1793). In the early 19th century, the British occupied the city but were compelled to abandon it. Relations between Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Great Britain were later established. The city was occupied by the Soviets in 1979 but they too abandoned it after the 1988 Geneva Accords were signed. A civil war in the 1990s between various rebel groups destroyed much of the city, resulting in many casualties.

Since the removal of the Taliban from power in late 2001, the city gradually began rebuilding itself with assistance by the international community. Despite the many terrorist attacks by anti-state elements, the city is growing and developing. The city is divided into about 18 districts .

CONTENTS

* 1 Toponymy

* 2 History

* 2.1 Antiquity * 2.2 Islamization and Mongol invasion * 2.3 Timurid and Mughal era * 2.4 Durrani Empire * 2.5 20th century Kabul
Kabul
* 2.6 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* 2.7 Civil war and Taliban regime * 2.8 21st century

* 3 Geography, climate and environment

* 3.1 Neighborhoods

* 4 Government and politics * 5 Demographics

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Development plans

* 7 Communications * 8 Health care

* 9 Education

* 9.1 Universities

* 10 Transportation

* 10.1 Airports * 10.2 Railways * 10.3 Road * 10.4 Trolleybuses

* 11 Tourism * 12 Twin towns – sister cities * 13 See also * 14 References and footnotes * 15 Further reading * 16 External links

TOPONYMY

KABUL (/ˈkɑːbəl, ˈkɑːbuːl/ ; Pashto : کابل‎ _Kâbəl_, IPA: ; Persian : کابل‎‎ _Kābol_, IPA: ), also spelled CABOOL, CAUBUL, KABOL, or CABUL.

HISTORY

See also: History of Kabul and Timeline of Kabul
Timeline of Kabul

ANTIQUITY

The word "_Kubhā_" is mentioned in the Rigveda
Rigveda
(circa 1500–1200 BCE), one of the four canonical sacred texts (śruti) of Hinduism, and the Avesta , the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism , refers to the Kabul River . The Rigveda
Rigveda
praises it as an ideal city, a vision of paradise set in the mountains. The area in which the Kabul
Kabul
valley sits was ruled by the Medes before falling to the Achaemenids . There is a reference to a settlement called _Kabura_ by the rulers of the Achaemenid Empire. It became a center of Zoroastrianism followed by Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism . Alexander the Great explored the Kabul
Kabul
valley after his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire in 330 BC but no record has been made of Kabul, which may have been only a small town and not worth writing about. The region became part of the Seleucid Empire but was later given to the Indian Maurya Empire .

_"Alexander took these away from the Aryans and established settlements of his own, but Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus (Chandragupta ), upon terms of intermarriage and of receiving in exchange 500 elephants."_ —  Strabo
Strabo
, 64 BC–24 AD Kushan Empire

The Greco-Bactrians captured Kabul
Kabul
from the Mauryans
Mauryans
in the early 2nd century BC, then lost the city to their subordinates in the Indo-Greek Kingdom around the mid-2nd century BC. Indo-Scythians expelled the Indo-Greeks by the mid 1st century BC, but lost the city to the Kushan Empire about 100 years later.

Some historians ascribe Kabul
Kabul
the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name of Kamboja (_Kamboj_). It is mentioned as _Kophes_ or _Kophene_ in some classical writings. Hsuan Tsang refers to the name as _Kaofu_ in the 7th century AD, which is the appellation of one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi who had migrated from across the Hindu Kush into the Kabul valley around the beginning of the Christian era . It was conquered by Kushan Emperor Kujula Kadphises in about 45 AD and remained Kushan territory until at least the 3rd century AD. The Kushans were Indo-European-speaking Tocharians from the Tarim Basin .

Around 230 AD, the Kushans were defeated by the Sassanid Empire and replaced by Sassanid vassals known as the Indo-Sassanids
Indo-Sassanids
. During the Sassanian period, the city was referred to as "Kapul" in Pahlavi scripts . In 420 AD the Indo-Sassanids
Indo-Sassanids
were driven out of Afghanistan by the Xionite tribe known as the Kidarites , who were then replaced in the 460s by the Hephthalites . It became part of the surviving Turk Shahi Kingdom of Kapisa
Kapisa
, also known as _Kabul-Shahan_. According to _Táríkhu-l Hind_ by Al-Biruni , Kabul
Kabul
was governed by princes of Turkic lineage whose rule lasted for about 60 generations.

_"Kábul was formerly governed by princes of Turk lineage. It is said that they were originally from Tibet
Tibet
. The first of them was named Barhtigín ... and the kingdom continued with his children for sixty generations. ... The last of them was a Katormán, and his minister was Kalar, a Bráhman . This minister was favored by fortune, and he found in the earth treasures which augmented his power. Fortune at the same time turned her back upon his master. The Katormán\'s thoughts and actions were evil, so that many complaints reached the minister, who loaded him with chains, and imprisoned him for his correction. In the end the minister yielded to the temptation of becoming sole master, and he had wealth sufficient to remove all obstacles. So he established himself on the throne. After him reigned the Bráhman(s) Samand, then Kamlúa, then Bhím, then Jaipál , then Anandpál , then Narda-janpál, who was killed in A.H. 412. His son, Bhímpál, succeeded him, after the lapse of five years, and under him the sovereignty of Hind became extinct, and no descendant remained to light a fire on the hearth. These princes, notwithstanding the extent of their dominions, were endowed with excellent qualities, faithful to their engagements, and gracious towards their inferiors..."_ —  Abu Rayhan Biruni , 978–1048 AD

The Kabul
Kabul
rulers built a long defensive wall around the city to protect it from enemy raids. This historical wall has survived until today. It was briefly held by Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
between 801 and 815.

ISLAMIZATION AND MONGOL INVASION

Further information: Islamic conquest of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
The Islamic conquest of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
began from Herat
Herat
, which was one of the important cities of Khorasan , and made its way to Kabul
Kabul
in the late 600's.

The Islamic conquest reached modern-day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 642 AD, at a time when Kabul
Kabul
was independent. A number of failed expeditions were made to Islamize the region. In one of them, Abdur Rahman bin Samana arrived to Kabul
Kabul
from Zaranj in the late 600s and managed to convert 12,000 local inhabitants to Islam
Islam
before abandoning the city. Muslims were a minority until Ya\'qub bin Laith as-Saffar of Zaranj conquered Kabul
Kabul
in 870 and established the first Islamic dynasty in the region. It was reported that the rulers of Kabul
Kabul
were Muslims with non-Muslims living close by.

_"Kábul has a castle celebrated for its strength, accessible only by one road. In it there are Musulmáns , and it has a town, in which are infidels from Hind ."_ — Istahkrí , 921 AD

Over the following centuries, the city was successively controlled by the Samanids , Ghaznavids , Ghurids , Khwarazmshahs , Qarlughids , and Khiljis . In the 13th century, the Mongol horde passed through and massively destroyed the area. Report of a massacre in the close by Bamiyan
Bamiyan
is recorded around this period, where the entire population of the valley was annihilated by the Mongol troops as a revenge for the death of Genghis Khan's grandson. During the Mongol invasion, many natives of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
fled to India
India
where some established dynasties in Delhi . It was also ruled by Chagatai Khanate and Kartids , were vassals of Ilkhanate till dissolution of latter in 1335.

Following the era of the Khilji dynasty in 1333, the famous Moroccan scholar Ibn Battuta was visiting Kabul
Kabul
and wrote:

_"We travelled on to Kabul, formerly a vast town, the site of which is now occupied by a village inhabited by a tribe of Persians called Afghans. They hold mountains and defiles and possess considerable strength, and are mostly highwaymen. Their principal mountain is called Kuh Sulayman ."_ —  Ibn Battuta , 1304–1369 AD

TIMURID AND MUGHAL ERA

Further information: Timurid dynasty and Mughal Empire Humayun with his father Babur
Babur
, emperors of the Mughal Empire

In the 14th century, Kabul
Kabul
became a major trading center under the kingdom of Timur
Timur
(_Tamerlane_). In 1504, the city fell to Babur
Babur
from the north and made into his headquarters, which became one of the principal cities of his later Mughal Empire . In 1525, Babur
Babur
described Kabulistan in his memoirs by writing that:

_"In the country of Kābul there are many and various tribes. In the city and the greater part of the villages, the population consists of Tājiks (called "Sarts " by Babur). Many other of the villages and districts are occupied by Pashāis , Parāchis , Tājiks, Berekis, and Afghans . In the hill-country to the west, reside the Hazāras and Nukderis. Among the Hazāra and Nukderi tribes, there are some who speak the Moghul language. In the hill-country to the north-east lies Kaferistān , such as Kattor and Gebrek. To the south is Afghanistān ... There are eleven or twelve different languages spoken in Kābul: Arabic , Persian , Tūrki , Moghuli, Hindi
Hindi
, Afghani , Pashāi , Parāchi, Geberi, Bereki, and Lamghāni..."_ —  Baburnama , 1525

Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat , a poet from Hindustan who visited at the time wrote: _"Dine and drink in Kabul: it is mountain, desert, city, river and all else."_ It was from here that Babur
Babur
began his 1526 conquest of Hindustan, which was ruled by the Afghan
Afghan
Lodi dynasty and began east of the Indus River
Indus River
in what is present-day Pakistan. Babur loved Kabul
Kabul
due to the fact that he lived in it for 20 years and the people were loyal to him, including its weather that he was used to. His wish to be buried in Kabul
Kabul
was finally granted. The inscription on his tomb contains the famous Persian couplet , which states: اگرفردوس روی زمین است همین است و همین است و همین است (If there is a paradise on earth, it is this, it is this, it is this!)

DURRANI EMPIRE

Further information: Durrani dynasty and Barakzai dynasty Shujah Shah Durrani
Durrani
, the last Durrani
Durrani
King , sitting at his court inside the Bala Hissar .

Nine years after Nader Shah and his forces invaded and occupied the city as part of the more easternmost parts of his Empire, he was assassinated by his own officers, causing the rapid disintegration of it. Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
, commander of 4,000 Abdali Afghans , asserted Pashtun rule in 1747 and further expanded his new Afghan
Afghan
Empire . His ascension to power marked the beginning of Afghanistan. His son Timur Shah Durrani
Durrani
, after inheriting power, transferred the capital of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from Kandahar
Kandahar
to Kabul
Kabul
in 1776, and used Peshawar
Peshawar
in what is today Pakistan
Pakistan
as the winter capital. Timur
Timur
Shah died in 1793 and was succeeded by his son Zaman Shah Durrani
Durrani
. Kabul's first visitor from Europe was Englishman George Forster , who described 18th-century Kabul
Kabul
as "the best and cleanest city in South Asia".

In 1826, the kingdom was claimed by Dost Mohammad Khan but in 1839 Shujah Shah Durrani
Durrani
was re-installed with the help of British India during the First Anglo- Afghan
Afghan
War . In 1841 a local uprising resulted in the killing of the British resident and loss of mission in Kabul and the 1842 retreat from Kabul to Jalalabad . In 1842 the British returned to Kabul, plundering Bala Hissar in revenge before fleeing back to British India
India
(now Pakistan). Akbar Khan took to the throne from 1842 to 1845 and was followed by Dost Mohammad Khan.

The British-led Indian forces invaded in 1879 when Kabul
Kabul
was under Sher Ali Khan 's rule, as the Afghan
Afghan
king initially refused to accept British diplomatic mission and later the British residents were again massacred. The British partially destroyed Bala Hissar fortress before retreating to British India.

20TH CENTURY KABUL

In the early 20th century King Amanullah Khan rose to power. His reforms included electricity for the city and schooling for girls. He drove a Rolls-Royce , and lived in the famous Darul Aman Palace . In 1919, after the Third Anglo- Afghan
Afghan
War , Amanullah announced Afghanistan's independence from foreign affairs at Eidgah Mosque . In 1929 King Ammanullah left Kabul
Kabul
due to a local uprising orchestrated by Habibullah Kalakani . After nine months rule, Kalakani was imprisoned and executed by King Nader Khan . Three years later, in 1933, the new king was assassinated by a Hazara student Abdul Khaliq during an award ceremony inside a school in Kabul. The throne was left to his 19-year-old son, Zahir Shah , who became the last King of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. Afghan
Afghan
men and women in the 1920s.

During the inter-war period France and Germany worked to help develop the country and maintained high schools and lycees in the capital, providing education for the children of the city's elite families. Kabul University opened in 1932 and by the 1960s western educated Afghans made up the majority of teachers. By the 1960s the majority of instructors at the university had degrees from Western universities.

When Zahir Shah took power in 1933 Kabul
Kabul
had the only 10 kilometers (6 miles) of rail in the country and the country had few internal telegraphs, phone lines or roads. Zahir turned to the Japanese, Germans and Italians for help developing a modern transportation and communication network. A radio tower built by the Germans in 1937 in Kabul
Kabul
allowing instant communication with outlying villages. A national bank and state cartels were organized to allow for economic modernization. Textile mills, power plants, carpet and furniture factories were also built in Kabul, providing much needed manufacturing and infrastructure.

In 1955, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
forwarded $100 million in credit to Afghanistan, which financed public transportation, airports, a cement factory, mechanized bakery, a five-lane highway from Kabul
Kabul
to the Soviet border and dams. Men and women entering a public transport bus in the 1950s.

In the 1960s the first Marks "> Kabul
Kabul
in 1976

In 1969 a religious uprising at the Pul-e Khishti Mosque
Pul-e Khishti Mosque
protested the Soviet Union's increasing influence over Afghan
Afghan
politics and religion . This protest ended in the arrest of many of its organizers, including Mawlana Faizani , a popular Islamic scholar. In the early 1970s Radio Kabul began to broadcast in other languages besides Pashto which helped to unify those minorities that often felt marginalized. However, this was put to a stop after Daoud Khan 's revolution in 1973. In July 1973, while King Zahir Shah was visiting Europe, his cousin Daoud Khan who served as Prime Minister launched a coup d\'état and took over power. This was supported by the People\'s Democratic Party of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(PDPA), a pro-Soviet political party. Daoud named himself President and planned to institute reforms. The BBC has described the period before the April 1978 Revolution as an era when different ethnic groups of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
lived together harmoniously, intermarried and mixed socially.

By 1975, the young Ahmad Shah Massoud and his followers initiated an uprising in Panjshir but were forced to flee to neighboring Pakistan where they received recruitment from Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to create unrest in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
with the help of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence . It is claimed that Bhutto paved the way for the April 1978 Saur Revolution
Saur Revolution
in Kabul
Kabul
by making Daoud spread his armed forces to the countryside. "To launch this plan, Bhutto recruited and trained a group of Afghans in the Bala-Hesar of Peshawar , in Pakistan's North-west Frontier Province . Among these young men were Massoud, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar , and other members of Jawanan-e Musulman. Massoud's mission to Bhutto was to create unrest in northern Afghanistan. It served Massoud's interests, which were apparently opposition to the Soviets and independence for Afghanistan. Later, after Massoud and Hekmatyar had a terrible falling-out over Massoud's opposition to terrorist tactics and methods, Massoud overthrew from Jawanan-e Musulman. He joined Rabani 's newly created Afghan
Afghan
political party, Jamiat-i-Islami , in exile in Pakistan."

SOVIET INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN

Further information: Soviet war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
The day after the April 1978 Saur Revolution
Saur Revolution

On April 28, 1978, President Daoud and his family along with many of his supporters were assassinated in Kabul. Pro-Soviet PDPA under Hafizullah Amin seized power and slowly began to institute reforms. Private businesses were nationalized in the Soviet manner. Education was modified into the Soviet model, with lessons focusing on teaching Russian, Leninism-Marxism and learning of other countries belonging to the Soviet bloc. Foreign-backed rebel groups and army deserters took up arms in the name of Islam.

In February 1979, U.S. Ambassador Adolph Dubs was murdered after Afghan
Afghan
security forces burst in on his kidnappers. In neighboring Pakistan, President Zulfiqar Bhutto was executed in April 1979. In September 1979 Afghan
Afghan
President Nur Muhammad Taraki was assassinated by a team of Soviet Spetsnaz inside the Tajbeg Palace in Kabul. On December 24, 1979, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
invaded Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Kabul
Kabul
was heavily occupied by Soviet Armed Forces . Following this invasion, Pakistani President Zia-ul-Haq chaired a meeting in Islamabad
Islamabad
and was told by several cabinet members to refrain from interfering in Afghanistan, owing to the vastly superior military power of the Soviet Union. However, Zia-ul-Haq, fearing that the Soviets may be advancing into Pakistan, particularly Balochistan , made no secret about his intentions of aiding the mujahideen rebel groups. During this meeting, Director-General of the ISI Akhtar Abdur Rahman advocated for the idea of covert operation in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by arming the Islamic extremists. General Rahman was heard loudly saying: "_ Kabul
Kabul
must burn! Kabul
Kabul
must burn!_", and mastered the idea of proxy war in Afghanistan. President Zia-ul-Haq authorised this operation under General Rahman, and it was later merged with Operation Cyclone , a programme funded by the United States. Kabul
Kabul
in 1982 during the Soviet- Afghan
Afghan
War

The Soviets turned the city of Kabul
Kabul
into their command center during the Soviet war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. Kabul
Kabul
was considered moderately safe during that period, as fighting was mostly in the countryside and in other major cities. Kabul
Kabul
was still economically active and women made up 40% of the workforce. However the city was not necessarily calm. Political crime, such as assassinations of PDPA party members and guerilla attacks on military and government targets were quite common. The Soviet Embassy, for example, was attacked 4 times with arms fire in the first five years of the war. In 1983, a report from _Izvestia_ said that most public places such as hospitals and state banks had "people with guns in their hands", which was not the case before 1979. A Western correspondent revisiting Kabul
Kabul
in December 1983 after a year, said that the city was "converted into a fortress bristling with weapons", suggesting the increasing sight of guns.

But the city's image wasn't negative in everyone's view. American diplomat Charles Dunbar said that the Soviet troops' presence was "surprisingly modest". He said in a July 1983 article that whilst Soviet troops are a common sight, they "do not give the impression of invaders who are enforcing their occupation at the point of a bayonet". Soviet men and women were very common in the city's shopping roads, with the large availability of Western products. An December 1983 article from _ Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists _, where the author stayed two weeks in the city, said that the Soviet soldiers had a friendly atmosphere in which they would greet friends and have a chat with the population. Most Soviet civilians (numbering between 8,000 and 10,000) lived in the north eastern Makroyan (_microraion _) suburb, in an apartment housing complex. It was surrounded by barbed-wire and armed tanks, for their safety. The residents were often unsafe when walking through the streets, receiving verbal abuse , rude gestures and even kidnappings from anti-PDPA/anti-Soviet Afghan civilians. Life for PDPA politicians and their families were also insecure. The city's population increased from around 500,000 in 1978 to 2 million in 1988, due to rural refugees but also the return of Afghan
Afghan
refugees from neighboring Pakistan
Pakistan
and Iran
Iran
under President Najibullah, who came into power in 1985.

CIVIL WAR AND TALIBAN REGIME

A section of Kabul
Kabul
during the civil war in 1993. Main articles: Civil war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(1989–1992) and Civil war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(1992–1996)

After the fall of Najibullah\'s Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in April 1992, leaders of the different mujahideen factions were unable to form a government. Despite the 1992 Peshawar
Peshawar
Accords , fighting started as Hekmatyar 's party refused to sign the accords and started shelling the city for power. This marked the start of a dark period of the city, in which over 50,000 civilians were killed. About 80 percent of the city was devastated and destroyed by 1996.

The city suffered heavily under a bombardment campaign between rival militias. Its geographic location in a narrow valley made it an easy target from rockets fired by militias who based themselves in the surrounding mountains. Initially the factions in the city aligned to fight off Hekmatyar's forces, but diplomacy inside the capital quickly broke down. For the following two years in particular, much of Kabul would be laid to waste, the majority of infrastructure destroyed, and a massive exodus of the population leaving to the countryside or abroad. In December 1992, the last of the 86 city trolley buses in Kabul
Kabul
came to a halt because of the conflict. A system of 800 public buses continued to provide transportation services to the city. By 1993 electricity and water in the city was completely out.

Additionally to the bombardment campaign conducted by Hekmatyar and Dostum , tension between the Shi'a Hazara forces of Abdul Ali Mazari and the Wahabi Ittihad-i Islami of Abdul Rasul Sayyaf soon escalated into a second violent conflict. The fighting between the two factions quickly took on aspects of "ethnic cleansing". One such example was the Afshar Operation in 1993, in which many ethnic Hazara and Pashtun civilians were murdered.

In January 1994, Dostum joined an alliance with Hekmatyar and conducted bombardment of Kabul
Kabul
during that period, but were eventually repelled by Massoud's forces who also bombarded the city to gain control. In late 1994, bombardment of the capital came to a temporary halt. These forces took steps to restore law and order. Courts started to work again, convicting individuals inside government troops who had committed crimes. Massoud tried to initiate a nationwide political process with the goal of national consolidation and democratic elections, also inviting the Taliban to join the process but the idea was rejected by them. By 1995 the university opened its doors once again.

The Taliban started shelling Kabul
Kabul
in early 1995 but were repelled at first by Massoud's forces. Amnesty International , referring to the Taliban offensive, wrote in a 1995 report that "This is the first time in several months that Kabul
Kabul
civilians have become the targets of rocket attacks and shelling aimed at residential areas in the city."

On September 26, 1996, as the Taliban prepared for another major offensive, Massoud ordered a full retreat from Kabul
Kabul
and fled north. The next day the Taliban seized Kabul
Kabul
and established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. They imposed a strict form of Sharia
Sharia
(Islamic law), restricting women from work and education. They also conducted amputations against common thieves. Their hit-squads from the infamous "Ministry for Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice" watched the streets conducting public beatings of people.

The al-Qaeda of Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
and Ayman al-Zawahiri became a state within the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, with bin Laden controlling Kabul
Kabul
and the eastern city of Jalalabad .

During the hardline Taliban regime, Kabul
Kabul
became a ruined city, with most infrastructure already been destroyed, many residents had long left, poverty levels were high, there was little to no education or public services, and its strict laws meant there were no entertainment or other media allowed. The regime's lack of interest in development meant that the city remained barren for years. On a positive note the Taliban's rule, which would last for five years, made the city calm after years of war between different warlords.

21ST CENTURY

Further information: Presidency of Hamid Karzai
Presidency of Hamid Karzai
and List of terrorist attacks in Kabul
Kabul
since 2008 _ An American soldier standing with children at Freedom Circle_ (2011)

In November 2001, the Northern Alliance captured Kabul
Kabul
after the Taliban had abandoned it. A month later a new government under President Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
began to assemble. In the meantime, a NATO
NATO
-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was deployed in Afghanistan. The war-torn city began to see some positive development as many expatriate Afghans returned to the country. The city's population grew from about 500,000 in 2001 to over 3 million in recent years. Many foreign embassies re-opened.

As of 2014, the Afghan
Afghan
National Security Forces (ANSF) have been in charge of security in and around the city. Kabul
Kabul
is periodically the scene of deadly suicide bombings carried out by the Haqqani network , the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Khorasan Province , the Taliban's Quetta Shura , Hezbi Islami , al-Qaeda, and other anti-state groups. Government employees, soldiers and ordinary civilians have all been targets of attacks. The Afghan
Afghan
government called the actions of the terrorists war crimes .

GEOGRAPHY, CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT

Further information: Geography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan

Kabul
Kabul
serves as the nation's cultural and learning center, situated 1,791 meters (5,876 feet) above sea level in a narrow valley, wedged between the Hindu Kush mountains along the Kabul River . It is linked with Kandahar
Kandahar
, Herat
Herat
and Mazar-e Sharif via the circular Highway 1 that stretches across Afghanistan. It is also the start of the main road to Jalalabad and further to Peshawar
Peshawar
in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa . The Kabul International Airport is located about 16 km (9.9 mi) from the center of the city, next to the Wazir Akbar Khan neighborhood. Bagram Airfield is about 40 km (25 mi) northeast of Kabul.

Kabul
Kabul
has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification _BSk _) with precipitation concentrated in the winter (almost exclusively falling as snow) and spring months. Temperatures are relatively cool compared to much of Southwest Asia, mainly due to the high elevation of the city. Summer has very low humidity , providing relief from the heat. Autumn features warm afternoons and sharply cooler evenings. Winters are cold, with a January daily average of −2.3 °C (27.9 °F). Spring is the wettest time of the year, though temperatures are generally amiable. Sunny conditions dominate year-round. The annual mean temperature is 12.1 °C (53.8 °F).

CLIMATE DATA FOR KABUL (1956–1983)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 18.8 (65.8) 18.4 (65.1) 26.7 (80.1) 28.7 (83.7) 33.5 (92.3) 36.8 (98.2) 37.7 (99.9) 37.3 (99.1) 35.1 (95.2) 31.6 (88.9) 24.4 (75.9) 20.4 (68.7) 37.7 (99.9)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 4.5 (40.1) 5.5 (41.9) 12.5 (54.5) 19.2 (66.6) 24.4 (75.9) 30.2 (86.4) 32.1 (89.8) 32.0 (89.6) 28.5 (83.3) 22.4 (72.3) 15.0 (59) 8.3 (46.9) 19.5 (67.1)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −2.3 (27.9) −0.7 (30.7) 6.3 (43.3) 12.8 (55) 17.3 (63.1) 22.8 (73) 25.0 (77) 24.1 (75.4) 19.7 (67.5) 13.1 (55.6) 5.9 (42.6) 0.6 (33.1) 12.1 (53.8)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −7.1 (19.2) −5.7 (21.7) 0.7 (33.3) 6.0 (42.8) 8.8 (47.8) 12.4 (54.3) 15.3 (59.5) 14.3 (57.7) 9.4 (48.9) 3.9 (39) −1.2 (29.8) −4.7 (23.5) 4.3 (39.7)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −25.5 (−13.9) −24.8 (−12.6) −12.6 (9.3) −2.1 (28.2) 0.4 (32.7) 3.1 (37.6) 7.5 (45.5) 6.0 (42.8) 1.0 (33.8) −3.0 (26.6) −9.4 (15.1) −18.9 (−2) −25.5 (−13.9)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 34.3 (1.35) 60.1 (2.366) 67.9 (2.673) 71.9 (2.831) 23.4 (0.921) 1.0 (0.039) 6.2 (0.244) 1.6 (0.063) 1.7 (0.067) 3.7 (0.146) 18.6 (0.732) 21.6 (0.85) 312.0 (12.283)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 2 3 10 11 8 1 2 1 1 2 4 3 48

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 7 6 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 20

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 68 70 65 61 48 36 37 38 39 42 52 63 52

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 177.2 178.6 204.5 232.5 310.3 353.4 356.8 339.7 303.9 282.6 253.2 182.4 3,175.1

Source: NOAA
NOAA

NEIGHBORHOODS

Main article: Neighborhoods of Kabul A family park in the Bibi Mahro neighborhood

The city of Kabul
Kabul
is one of the 15 districts of Kabul Province , which is divided into 22 city districts. Each city district covers several neighborhoods .

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

Further information: Politics of Afghanistan
Afghanistan

The current mayor of the city is Abdullah Habibzai who was appointed in May 2016 as the acting mayor.

Kabul's Chief of Police is Lt. Gen. Abdul Rahman Rahimi. The police are part of the Afghan
Afghan
National Police (ANP) under the Ministry of Interior and are arranged by city districts. The Police Chief is selected by the Interior Minister and is responsible for all law enforcement activities throughout the Kabul
Kabul
province.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Further information: Demographics of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Afghan
Afghan
diaspora _ Young Afghan
Afghan
men and women at a rock music festival inside the Gardens of Babur _.

Kabul's population was estimated in 2015 at about 4.6 million, which possibly includes the people of the province as well. Another 2015 estimate has put it at 3,678,034. The city's population has long fluctuated due to the wars. A large number of Afghans from other provinces moved to Kabul
Kabul
in the last decade, mainly due to the war between rebel groups and Afghan
Afghan
government forces in their native areas.

Kabul's population was around 500,000 in 1979, whilst another source claims 337,715 as of 1976. This figure rose to about 2 million by 1988, before dramatically dropping in the 1990s. Kabul
Kabul
became one of the fastest growing cities in the world, with its population growing fourfold from 2001 to 2014. However the city could not keep up with the rapid urbanization and today many residents live in informal settlements.

In 2003, the National Geographic Channel
National Geographic Channel
reported that Kabul's population was composed of the following ethnic groups: 45% Tajik , 25% Hazara , 25% Pashtun , 2% Uzbek , 1% Baloch , 1% Turkmen , and 1% Afghan
Afghan
Hindu. Dari and Pashto language are widely used in the region although Dari ( Afghan
Afghan
Persian) serves as the lingua franca . Multilingualism is common throughout the area, particularly among the Pashtun people.

About 74% of the city's population follows Sunni Islam
Islam
while 25% are Shiites (mainly the Hazaras). The remaining 1% are followers of Sikhism and Hinduism . The city also has one Jewish resident .

ECONOMY

Further information: Economy of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
A commercial area in the city

Kabul's main products include fresh and dried fruit , nuts , beverages, Afghan
Afghan
rugs , leather and sheep skin products, furniture, antique replicas , and domestic clothes. The world bank authorized US$ 25 million for the Kabul
Kabul
Urban Reconstruction Project which closed in 2011. Over the last decade, the United States has invested approximately $9.1 billion into urban infrastructure in Afghanistan. The wars since 1978 have limited the city's economic productivity but after the establishment of the Karzai administration . Since late 2001, local economic development has included a number of indoor shopping centers.

About 6 km (4 mi) from downtown Kabul, in Bagrami , a 9-hectare (22-acre) industrial complex has completed with modern facilities, which will allow companies to operate businesses there. The park has professional management for the daily maintenance of public roads, internal streets, common areas, parking areas, 24 hours perimeter security, access control for vehicles and persons. A number of factories operate there, including the $25 million Coca-Cola bottling plant and the Omaid Bahar juice factory.

According to Transparency International , the government of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is the third most-corrupt in the world. Experts believe that the poor decisions of Afghan
Afghan
politicians contribute to the unrest in the region. This also prevents foreign investment in Afghanistan, especially by Western countries. In 2012, there were reportedly $3.9 billion paid to public officials in bribes which contributed to these issues.

Da Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Bank , the nation's central bank , is headquartered in Kabul. In addition, there are several commercial banks in the city.

DEVELOPMENT PLANS

A $1 billion USD contract was signed in 2013 to commence work on the "New Kabul
Kabul
City", which is a major residential scheme that would accommodate 1.5 million people. In the meantime, many high rise buildings are being constructed in order to control the overcrowding and also to modernize the city.

An initial concept design called the City of Light Development , envisioned by Dr. Hisham N. Ashkouri , for the development and the implementation of a privately based investment enterprise has been proposed for multi-function commercial, historic and cultural development within the limits of the Old City of Kabul, along the southern side of the Kabul River and along Jade Meywand Avenue,

COMMUNICATIONS

Further information: Communications in Afghanistan
Afghanistan

As of November 2015, there are more than 24 television stations based out of Kabul.

In Kabul, Minister Amir Zai Sangin of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology maintains statistics regarding telecommunications in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan Information Management Services (AIMS) provides software development, capacity development, information management, and project management services to the Afghan
Afghan
Government and other NGOs, thereby supporting their on-the-ground activities.

GSM
GSM
/ GPRS mobile phone services in the city are provided by Afghan Wireless , Etisalat , Roshan , MTN and Salaam Network . As of 2012 , all of them provide 3G services as well. In November 2006, the Afghan Ministry of Communications signed a $64.5 million US dollar deal with ZTE on the establishment of a countrywide fibre optical cable network to help improve telephone, internet, television and radio broadcast services not just in Kabul
Kabul
but throughout the country. Internet cafes were introduced in 2002 and has been expanding throughout the country. As of 2012 , 3G services are also available.

There are a number of post offices throughout the city. Package delivery services like FedEx
FedEx
, TNT N.V. , and DHL are also available.

HEALTH CARE

Further information: Health in Afghanistan
Afghanistan

Health care in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is relatively poor. The wealthy Afghans usually go abroad when seeking treatment. Presently, there are several hospitals in Kabul
Kabul
which include; Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan Hospital

* French Medical Institute for Children * Kabul
Kabul
City Hospital * Indira Gandhi Childrens Hospital * Jamhuriat Hospital * Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan Hospital * Jinnah Hospital (under construction) * Wazir Akbar Khan Hospital * Malalai Maternity Hospital * Rabia-I-Balki Maternity Hospital * Maywand Hospital * Afshar Hospital * Noor Eye Hospital * Atatürk Children's Hospital * American Medical Center Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* DK-German Medical Diagnostic Center * CURE International Hospital * KIA ISAF Role 3 Hospital

EDUCATION

Further information: List of schools in Kabul and Education in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Kabul Medical University

The Ministry of Education led by Ghulam Farooq Wardak is responsible for the education system in Afghanistan. Public and private schools in the city have reopened since 2002 after they were shut down or destroyed during fighting in the 1980s to the late 1990s. Boys and girls are strongly encouraged to attend school under the Karzai administration but many more schools are needed not only in Kabul
Kabul
but throughout the country. The Afghan
Afghan
Ministry of Education has plans to build more schools in the coming years so that education is provided to all citizens of the country. The most well known high schools in Kabul
Kabul
include:

* Habibia High School , a British- Afghan
Afghan
school founded in 1903 by King Habibullah Khan * Lycée Esteqlal , a Franco- Afghan
Afghan
school founded in 1922 * Malalai High School , a Franco- Afghan
Afghan
school for girls * Amani High School , a German- Afghan
Afghan
school for boys founded in 1924 * Aisha-i-Durani School , a German- Afghan
Afghan
school for girls * Rahman Baba High School , an American- Afghan
Afghan
school for boys * International School of Kabul , an American- Afghan
Afghan
school * Afghan
Afghan
Turk High Schools , Turkish- Afghan
Afghan
schools * Ghulam Haider Khan High School , a school for boys * Abdul Hadi Dawi High School , a school for boys * Nazo Ana High School , a school for girls

UNIVERSITIES

Further information: List of universities in Afghanistan
Afghanistan

The city's colleges and universities were renovated after 2002. Some of them have been developed recently, while others have existed since the early 20th century.

TRANSPORTATION

Further information: Transport in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Flightline at Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
International Airport ( Kabul
Kabul
International Airport)

AIRPORTS

The Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
International Airport ( Kabul
Kabul
International Airport) is located 25 km (16 mi) from the center of Kabul, which always served as the country's main airport. It is a hub to Ariana Afghan
Afghan
Airlines , the national carrier of Afghanistan, as well as private airlines such as Afghan
Afghan
Jet International , East Horizon Airlines , Kam Air , Pamir Airways , and Safi Airways . Regional airlines such as Air India
Air India
, SpiceJet , flydubai , Emirates , Gulf Air
Gulf Air
, Mahan Air , Pakistan International Airlines , Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
and others also have regularly scheduled flights to the airport. A new international terminal was built by the government of Japan
Japan
and began operation in 2008.

RAILWAYS

Kabul
Kabul
has no train service but the government plans to build rail lines to connect the city with Mazar-i-Sharif in the north and Jalalabad - Torkham in the east. It also plans to build a metro rail in the future. Afghanistan's only railway service, the Kabul–Darulaman Tramway , operated for only six years from 1923 to 1929.

ROAD

Long distance road journeys are made by private Mercedes-Benz coach buses or various types of vans, trucks and cars. Although a nationwide bus service is available from Kabul, flying is safer, especially for foreigners. The city's public bus service ( Milli Bus / "National Bus") was established in the 1960s to take commuters on daily routes to many destinations. The service currently has about 800 buses, but it is gradually expanding and upgrading the fleet. The Kabul
Kabul
bus system has recently discovered a new source of revenue in whole-bus advertising from MTN similar to "bus wrap" advertising on public transit in more developed nations. There is also an express bus that runs from downtown to Kabul International Airport for Safi Airways passengers.

Private vehicles are on the rise in Kabul, with several dealerships in the city. It has been reported that up to 90% of cars in Kabul
Kabul
are Corollas. Gas stations are mainly private-owned. Bicycles on the road are a common sight in the city as are white and yellow older model Toyota Corolla
Toyota Corolla
taxicab used cars.

TROLLEYBUSES

Kabul's main form of public transport was an electric trolleybus service that was built by the Czechoslovak _Elektrizace železnic Praha_ (Electrification of railways, Prague
Prague
) from 1976. The service launched on February 9, 1979 with 25 Škoda 9TrH23 trolleybuses in a blue and white livery, eventually rising to 86 fleet by 1988. The initial line ran between Cinema Pamir and Silo, later expanded to three lines amounting a total of 12.5 km (7.8 mi). The trolleybus service was highly popular mainly due to its low price compared to the Milli Bus bus service. After months of warfare in the city, the last trolleybus came to a halt at the end of 1992. The copper overhead wires were subsequently looted and sold to scrap dealers. Some of the steel poles can still be seen in Kabul
Kabul
today. In 2004 there were plans for a resurrected trolleybus service but the proposal never made it to life.

TOURISM

Each year about 20,000 foreign tourists visit Afghanistan. Major hotels in Kabul
Kabul
include; the Serena Hotel , the Inter-Continental , and the Safi Landmark Hotel above the Kabul City Center . There are a number of other less-known hotels. Most visitors prefer lodging at guest houses , which are found all over the city. The better and safer ones are in the Wazir Akbar Khan neighborhood where the embassies are located.

The old part of Kabul
Kabul
is filled with bazaars nestled along its narrow, crooked streets. Cultural sites include: the National Museum of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, notably displaying an impressive statue of Surya excavated at Khair Khana , the ruined Darul Aman Palace , the tomb of Mughal Emperor Babur
Babur
at Bagh-e Babur
Babur
, and Chehlstoon Park, the Minar-i-Istiqlal (Column of Independence) built in 1919 after the Third Afghan
Afghan
War , the tomb of Timur Shah Durrani
Timur Shah Durrani
, and the imposing Id Gah Mosque (founded 1893). Bala Hissar is a fort destroyed by the British in 1879, in retaliation for the death of their envoy, now restored as a military college. The Minaret of Chakari , destroyed in 1998, had Buddhist swastika and both Mahayana and Theravada qualities.

Other places of interest include Kabul City Center , which is Kabul's first shopping mall, the shops around Flower Street and Chicken Street, Wazir Akbar Khan district, Kabul Golf Club , Kabul Zoo , Abdul Rahman Mosque , Shah-Do Shamshira and other famous mosques, the National Gallery of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, the National Archives of Afghanistan , Afghan
Afghan
Royal Family Mausoleum, the OMAR Mine Museum , Bibi Mahro Hill, Kabul
Kabul
Cemetery, and Paghman Gardens . The Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) was also involved in the restoration of the Bagh-e Babur
Babur
( Babur
Babur
Gardens).

Tappe-i-Maranjan is a nearby hill where Buddhist statues and Graeco-Bactrian coins from the 2nd century BC have been found. Outside the city proper is a citadel and the royal palace. Paghman and Jalalabad are interesting valleys north and east of the city. Ghazi Stadium
Ghazi Stadium
National Museum of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
National Gallery of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Hotel Inter-Continental

* SPORTS COMPLEXES

* Alokozay Kabul International Cricket Ground * Ghazi Stadium
Ghazi Stadium
* Olympic Committee Gymnasium

* PARKS

* Bagh-e Babur
Babur
(Gardens of Babur) * Baghi Bala Park * Zarnegar Park * Shahr-e Naw Park * Bagh-e Zanana * Chaman-e-Hozori * Bibi Mahro Park * Lake Qargha

* MOSQUES

* Abdul Rahman Mosque * Id Gah Mosque * Abu Fazl Mosque in Murad Khane * Pul-e Khishti Mosque
Pul-e Khishti Mosque
* Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque

* MAUSOLEUMS

* Mausoleum of Timur Shah Durrani
Timur Shah Durrani
* Mausoleum of Abdur Rahman Khan * Mausoleum of Zahir Shah and Nadir Shah * Mausoleum of Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani

* MUSEUMS

* National Museum of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* National Archives of Afghanistan * National Gallery of Afghanistan * Negaristani Milli

* HOTELS

* Serena Hotel * Inter-Continental * Safi Landmark Hotel * Kabul
Kabul
Star Hotel * Heetal Plaza Hotel

* TOURS

* There are local travel agencies developing their activity in the country.

*

Looking toward Mausoleum of Mohammed Zahir Shah and Mohammed Nadir Shah on Maranjan Hill in the far distant *

Tajbeg Palace *

Bagh-e Babur
Babur
(Gardens of Babur)

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

* Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
* Kazan
Kazan
, Russia
Russia
* Ankara
Ankara
, Turkey
Turkey
(2003)

SEE ALSO

* Afghanistan
Afghanistan
portal

* List of cities in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* 2002 Hindu Kush earthquakes * Kabul Province

REFERENCES AND FOOTNOTES

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News – _Ministry signs contract with Chinese company_ * ^ Rivera, Ray; Sahak, Sharifullah (2011-05-21). "Blast Hits Military Hospital in Afghan
Afghan
Capital". _The New York Times_. * ^ S. Hakim Hamdani. "DK – German Medical Diagnostic Center Ltd. – Experience, Quality, Excellence". _medical-kabul.com_. Retrieved 27 July 2015. * ^ CURE International. "CURE Afghanistan". _CURE_. Retrieved 27 July 2015. * ^ "دپوھنی وزارت". Moe.gov.af. Retrieved 2014-05-18. * ^ Nakamura, David (2010-08-27). "In Afghanistan, a car for the masses". _The Washington Post_. * ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation , Dodgy cars clogging Kabul\'s roads * ^ "Catherine Lytle: From Gerbils to Trolleybus". * ^ "Trolley Buses to Ease Kabul\'s Tangled Traffic". * ^ Navid Ahmad Barakzai, ed. (September 27, 2016). "20,000 foreign tourists visit Afghanistan
Afghanistan
annually". Pajhwok Afghan
Afghan
News (PAN). Retrieved 2017-05-15. * ^ "Landmark Hotels and Suites". Lmhotelgroup.com. Retrieved 2012-08-17. * ^ " Kabul
Kabul
Star Hotel". State Group. Retrieved 2015-10-11. * ^ "Heetal Group of companies". Heetal.com. Retrieved 2010-06-27. * ^ For example: Lets\'s be friends – Afghanistan. * ^ "Sister Cities of Istanbul". Greater Istanbul. Retrieved 10 April 2015. * ^ Cultures and Globalization: Cities, Cultural Policy and Governance by Helmut K Anheier, p.376 * ^ "Sister Cities of Ankara".

FURTHER READING

* Canadian Press (October 14, 2007). " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Struggles to Preserve Rich Past Despite Ongoing War". _ Canadian Press _. * Tang, Alisa (Associated Press) (January 21, 2008). "Kabul\'s Old City Getting Face Lift". _ The Boston Globe _. * Hill, John E. (2009). _Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE_. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to KABUL _.

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for KABUL _.

* People of Kabul
Kabul
– report by Radio France Internationale in English

* v * t * e

Fourteen largest cities in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by population

* Kabul * Kandahar
Kandahar
* Herat
Herat