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Kabir
Kabir
(Hindi: कबीर, IAST: Kabīr[4]) was a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and saint, whose writings influenced Hinduism's Bhakti movement and his verses are found in Sikhism's scripture Guru Granth Sahib.[5][6][7] His early life was in a Muslim
Muslim
family, but he was strongly influenced by his teacher, the Hindu
Hindu
bhakti leader Ramananda.[5] Kabir
Kabir
is known for being critical of both Hinduism
Hinduism
and Islam, stating that the former was misguided by the Vedas, and questioning their meaningless rites of initiation such as the sacred thread and circumcision respectively.[5][8] During his lifetime, he was threatened by both Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims for his views.[1]:4 When he died, both Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims he had inspired claimed him as theirs.[6](There was dispute whether to cremate or bury his corpse). Kabir
Kabir
suggested that True God is with the person who is on the path of righteousness, considered all creatures on earth as his own self, and who is passively detached from the affairs of the world.[6] Kabir's legacy survives and continues through the Kabir panth
Kabir panth
("Path of Kabir"), a religious community that recognises him as its founder and is one of the Sant Mat sects. Its members are known as Kabir panthis.[9]

Contents

1 Early life and background 2 Poetry

2.1 Authenticity 2.2 Philosophy 2.3 Influence of Islam 2.4 Persecution and social impact

3 Legacy

3.1 Kabir, Nanak
Nanak
and the Guru Granth Sahib

4 Kabir's poetry today 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Early life and background[edit] The years of Kabir's birth and death are unclear.[10][11]:14 Some historians favor 1398–1448 as the period Kabir
Kabir
lived,[1][11]:5 while others favor 1440–1518.[2][5][11]:106 Many legends, inconsistent in their details, exist about his birth family and early life. According to one version, Kabir
Kabir
was born to a Brahmin
Brahmin
unwed mother in Varanasi, by a seedless conception and delivered through the palm of her hand,[1]:5 who then abandoned him in a basket floating in a pond, and baby Kabir
Kabir
was picked up and then raised by a Muslim
Muslim
family.[1]:4–5[5] However, modern scholarship has abandoned these legends for lack of historical evidence, and Kabir
Kabir
is widely accepted to have been born and brought up in a family of Muslim weavers.[1]:3–5 According to the Indologist Wendy Doniger, Kabir
Kabir
was born into a Muslim
Muslim
family and various birth legends attempt to "drag Kabir
Kabir
back over the line from Muslim
Muslim
to Hindu".[12] Some scholars state that Kabir's parents may have been recent converts to Islam, they and Kabir
Kabir
were likely unaware of Islamic orthodox tradition, and are likely to have been following the Nath (Shaiva Yogi) school of Hinduism. This view, while contested by other scholars, has been summarized by Charlotte Vaudeville as follows:[13]

Circumcised or not, Kabir
Kabir
was officially a musalman, though it appears likely that some form of Nathism was his ancestral tradition. This alone would explain his relative ignorance of Islamic tenets, his remarkable acquaintance with Tantric-yoga practices and his lavish use of its esoteric jargon [in his poems]. He appears far more conversant with Nath-panthi basic attitudes and philosophy than with the Islamic orthodox tradition. — Charlotte Vaudeville on Kabir
Kabir
(1974), [13]

Kabir
Kabir
is widely believed to have become one of the many disciples of the Bhakti
Bhakti
poet-sant Swami Ramananda
Ramananda
in Varanasi, known for devotional Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
with a strong bent to monist Advaita
Advaita
philosophy teaching that God was inside every person, everything.[6][14][15][16] It is widely believed that the Hindu
Hindu
saint Ramananda
Ramananda
had clearly refused to accept him as his disciple officially but Kabir
Kabir
very cleverly accepted his disciplehood by covering himself in a rag and lying on the steps that led the Ganges where Ramananda
Ramananda
was bound to go for a holy dip in the river before dawn : the saint accidentally touched him with his foot and habitually cried "Rama,Rama!", having touched him with feet and quoting Hinduism's most holy words (that became Kabir's "guru-mantra") were enough, even for the orthodox Ramananda
Ramananda
to accept him as his disciple. Some legends assert that Kabir
Kabir
never married and led a celibate's life. Most scholars conclude from historical literature that this legend is also untrue, that Kabir
Kabir
was likely married, his wife probably was named Dhania, they had at least one son named Kamal and a daughter named Kamali.[17] Kabir's family is believed to have lived in the locality of Kabir Chaura in Varanasi. Kabīr maṭha (कबीरमठ), a maṭha located in the back alleys of Kabir
Kabir
Chaura, celebrates his life and times.[18] Accompanying the property is a house named Nīrūṭīlā (नीरू टीला) which houses Niru and Nima's graves.[19] Poetry[edit]

Indian postage stamp portraying Kabir, 1952

Kabir's poems were in vernacular Hindi, borrowing from various dialects including Avadhi, Braj.[20] They cover various aspects of life and call for a loving devotion for God.[1]:4–6 Kabir
Kabir
composed his verses with simple Hindi
Hindi
words. Most of his work were concerned with devotion, mysticism and discipline.[21]

Where spring, the lord of seasons reigneth, there the unstruck music sounds of itself, There the streams of light flow in all directions, few are the men who can cross to that shore! There, where millions of Krishnas stand with hands folded, Where millions of Vishnus bow their heads, where millions of Brahmas are reading the Vedas, Where millions of Shivas are lost in contemplation, where millions of Indras dwell in the sky, Where the demi-gods and the munis are unnumbered, where millions of Saraswatis, goddess of music play the vina, There is my Lord self-revealed, and the scent of sandal and flowers dwells in those deeps.

— Kabir, II.57, Translated by Rabindranath Tagore[22]

Kabir
Kabir
and his followers named his verbally composed poems of wisdom as "bāņīs" (utterances). These include songs and couplets, called variously dohe, śalokā (Sanskrit: ślokā), or sākhī (Sanskrit: sākşī). The latter term means "witness", implying the poems to be evidence of the Truth.[23] Literary works with compositions attributed to Kabir
Kabir
include Kabir Bijak, Kabir
Kabir
Parachai, Sakhi Granth, Adi Granth
Adi Granth
(Sikh), and Kabir Granthawali (Rajasthan).[24] However, except for Adi Granth, significantly different versions of these texts exist and it is unclear which one is more original; for example, Kabir
Kabir
Bijak exists in two major recensions.[25] The most in depth scholarly analysis of various versions and translations are credited to Charlotte Vaudeville, the 20th century French scholar on Kabir.[25] Kabir's poems were verbally composed in the 15th century and transmitted viva voce through the 17th century. Kabir
Kabir
Bijak was compiled and written down for the first time in the 17th century.[26] Scholars state that this form of transmission, over geography and across generations bred change, interpolation and corruption of the poems.[26] Furthermore, whole songs were creatively fabricated and new couplets inserted by unknown authors and attributed to Kabir, not because of dishonesty but out of respect for him and the creative exuberance of anonymous oral tradition found in Indian literary works.[26] Scholars have sought to establish poetry that truly came from Kabir
Kabir
and its historicity value.[27] Authenticity[edit] Numerous poems are attributed to Kabir, but scholars now doubt the authenticity of many songs credited to him.[1]:6 Rabindranath Tagore's English translation and compilation One Hundred Poems of Kabir
Kabir
was first published in 1915, and has been a classic reprinted and widely circulated particularly in the West.[28][29] Scholars believe only six[30] of its hundred poems are authentic,[31] and they have questioned whether Tagore introduced then prevalent theological perspectives onto Kabir, as he translated poems in early 20th century that he presumed to be of Kabir's.[32] The unauthentic poems, nevertheless belong to the Bhakti movement
Bhakti movement
in medieval India, and may be by admirers of Kabir
Kabir
who lived later.[28] Philosophy[edit] Some commentators suggest Kabir's philosophy to be a syncretic synthesis of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Islam, but scholars widely state that this is false and a misunderstanding of Kabir.[1]:5 He adopted their terminology and concepts, but vigorously criticized them both.[1]:5–6[33] He questioned the need for any holy book, as stated in Kabir
Kabir
Granthavali as follows:

Reading book after book the whole world died, and none ever became learned!

—  Kabir
Kabir
Granthavali, XXXIII.3, Translated by Charlotte Vaudeville[34]

Many scholars interpret Kabir's philosophy to be questioning the need for religion, rather than attempting to propose either Hindu-Muslim unity or an independent synthesis of a new religious tradition.[35] Kabir
Kabir
rejected the hypocrisy and misguided rituals evident in various religious practices of his day, including those in Islam
Islam
and Hinduism.[35]

Saints I've seen both ways. Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims don't want discipline, they want tasty food. The Hindu
Hindu
keeps the eleventh-day fast, eating chestnuts and milk. He curbs his grain but not his brain, and breaks his fast with meat. The Turk [Muslim] prays daily, fasts once a year, and crows "God!, God!" like a cock. What heaven is reserved for people who kill chickens in the dark? Instead of kindness and compassion, they've cast out all desire. One kills with a chop, one lets the blood drop, in both houses burns the same fire. Turks and Hindus
Hindus
have one way, the guru's made it clear. Don't say Ram, don't say Khuda [Allah], so says Kabir.

— Kabir, Śabda 10, Translated by Linda Hess and Shukdeo Singh[1]:46

In Bijak, Kabir
Kabir
mocks the practice of praying to avatars such as Buddha of Buddhism, by asserting "don't call the master Buddha, he didn't put down devils".[1]:45[36] Kabir
Kabir
urged people to look within and consider all human beings as manifestation of God's living forms:

If God be within the mosque, then to whom does this world belong? If Ram be within the image which you find upon your pilgrimage, then who is there to know what happens without? Hari is in the East, Allah is in the West. Look within your heart, for there you will find both Karim and Ram; All the men and women of the world are His living forms. Kabir
Kabir
is the child of Allah and of Ram: He is my Guru, He is my Pir.

— Kabir, III.2, Translated by Rabindranath Tagore[37]

Charlotte Vaudeville states that the philosophy of Kabir
Kabir
and other sants of the Bhakti movement
Bhakti movement
is the seeking of the Absolute. The notion of this Absolute is nirguna which, writes Vaudeville, is same as "the Upanishadic concept of the Brahman-Atman and the monistic Advaita
Advaita
interpretation of the Vedantic tradition, which denies any distinction between the soul [within a human being] and God, and urges man to recognize within himself his true divine nature".[38] Vaudeville notes that this philosophy of Kabir
Kabir
and other Bhakti
Bhakti
sants is self-contradictory, because if God is within, then that would be a call to abolish all external bhakti. This inconsistency in Kabir's teaching may have been differentiating "union with God" from the concept of "merging into God, or Oneness in all beings". Alternatively, states Vaudeville, the saguna prema-bhakti (tender devotion) may have been prepositioned as the journey towards self-realization of the nirguna Brahman, a universality beyond monotheism.[39] David N. Lorenzen and Adrián Muñoz trace these ideas of God in Kabir's philosophy as nirguna Brahman
Brahman
to those in Adi Shankara's theories on Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hinduism, albeit with some differences.[40] Influence of Islam[edit] Lorenzen in his review of Kabir
Kabir
philosophy and poetry writes, "the extent to which Kabir
Kabir
borrowed elements from Islam
Islam
is controversial. Most recent scholars have argued that he simply rejected Islam
Islam
and took almost all his ideas and beliefs from the Hindu
Hindu
tradition. Contemporary Kabir Panth
Kabir Panth
sadhus makes roughly the same argument. Most of the vocabulary used in his songs and verses is borrowed directly from the Hindu
Hindu
tradition. Nonetheless it is hard not to see the influence of Islam
Islam
in his insistence on devotion to a single God, a god Kabir
Kabir
most often calls Ram".[40] Some scholars state that the sexual imagery in some of Kabir's poems reflect a mystic Sufi
Sufi
Islam
Islam
influence, wherein Kabir
Kabir
inverts the traditional Sufi
Sufi
representation of a God-woman and devotee-man longing for a union, and instead uses the imagery of Lord-husband and devotee-bride.[41] Other scholars, in contrast, state that it is unclear if Sufi
Sufi
ideas influenced Bhakti
Bhakti
sants like Kabir
Kabir
or it was vice versa, suggesting that they probably co-developed through mutual interaction.[42] Kabir
Kabir
left Islam, states Ronald McGregor, but that does not mean Kabir adopted Hindu
Hindu
beliefs.[7] Kabir, nevertheless, criticized practices such as killing and eating a cow by Muslims, in a manner Hindus criticized those practices:[43]

We have searched the turaki dharam (Turk's religion, Islam), these teachers throw many thunderbolts, Recklessly they display boundless pride, while explaining their own aims, they kill cows. How can they kill the mother, whose milk they drink like that of a wet nurse? The young and the old drink milk pudding, but these fools eat the cow's body. These morons know nothing, they wander about in ignorance, Without looking into one's heart, how can one reach paradise?

— Kabir, Ramaini 1, Translated by David Lorenzen[43]

Persecution and social impact[edit] Kabir's couplets suggest he was persecuted for his views, while he was alive. He stated, for example,

Saints I see the world is mad. If I tell the truth they rush to beat me, if I lie they trust me.

— Kabir, Sabda 4, [1]:4

Kabir
Kabir
response to persecution and slander was to welcome it. He called the slanderer a friend, expressed gratefulness for the slander, for it brought him closer to his god.[44] Winand Callewaert translates a poem attributed to Kabir
Kabir
in the warrior-ascetic Dadupanthi tradition within Hinduism, as follows:[45]

Keep the slanderer near you, build him a hut in your courtyard — For, without soap or water, he will scrub your character clean.

— Kabir, Sākhī 23.4, [45]

The legends about Kabir
Kabir
describe him as the underdog who nevertheless is victorious in trials by a Sultan, a Brahmin, a Qazi, a merchant, a god or a goddess. The ideological messages in the legends appealed to the poor and oppressed. According to David Lorenzen, legends about Kabir
Kabir
reflect a "protest against social discrimination and economic exploitation", they present the perspective of the poor and powerless, not the rich and powerful.[46] However, many scholars doubt that these legends of persecution are authentic, point to the lack of any corroborating evidence, consider it unlikely that a Muslim
Muslim
Sultan would take orders from Hindu
Hindu
Brahmins or Kabir's own mother demanded that the Sultan punish Kabir, and question the historicity of the legends on Kabir.[47] Legacy[edit] Kabir
Kabir
literature legacy was championed by two of his disciples, Bhāgodās and Dharmadās. Songs of Kabir were collected by Kshitimohan Sen from mendicants across India, these were then translated to English by Rabindranath Tagore.[48] New English translations of Songs of Kabir is done by Arvind Krishna Mehrotra ."It is Mehrotra who has succeeded in capturing the ferocity and improvisational energy of Kabir’s poetry".[49] Kabir's legacy continues to be carried forward by the Kabir
Kabir
panth ("Path of Kabir"), a religious community that recognises him as its founder and is one of the Sant Mat sects. This community was founded centuries after Kabir
Kabir
died, in various parts of India, over the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.[50] Its members, known as Kabir panthis, are estimated to be around 9.6 million.[citation needed] They are spread over north and central India, as well as dispersed with the Indian diaspora across the world, up from 843,171 in the 1901 census.[51] There are two temples dedicated to Kabir
Kabir
located in Benares. One of them is maintained by Hindus, while the other by Muslims. Both the temples practise similar forms of worship where his songs are sung daily. Other rituals of aarti and distributing prasad are similar to other Hindu
Hindu
temples. The followers of Kabir
Kabir
are vegetarians and abstain from alcohol.[52] Kabir, Nanak
Nanak
and the Guru Granth Sahib[edit] Further information: Writers of Guru Granth Sahib Kabir's verses were incorporated into Adi Granth, the scripture of Sikhism, with verses attributed to Kabir
Kabir
constituting the largest non-Sikh contribution.[7] Some scholars state Kabir's ideas were one of the many influences[53][54] on Guru Nanak, who went on to found Sikhism
Sikhism
in the fifteenth century. Other Sikh scholars disagree, stating there are differences between the views and practices of Kabir
Kabir
and Nanak.[50][55][56] Harpreet Singh, quoting Hew McLeod, states, "In its earliest stage Sikhism
Sikhism
was clearly a movement within the Hindu
Hindu
tradition; Nanak
Nanak
was raised a Hindu
Hindu
and eventually belonged to the Sant tradition of northern India, a movement associated with the great poet and mystic Kabir."[57] Surjit Singh Gandhi disagrees, and writes "Guru Nanak
Nanak
in his thought pattern as well as in action model was fundamentally different from Kabir
Kabir
and for that matter other radical Bhaktas or saints (saint has been erroneously used for such Bhaktas by Mcleod). Hence to consider Kabir
Kabir
as an influence on Guru Nanak
Nanak
is wrong, both historically and theologically".[55] McLeod places Nanak
Nanak
in the Sant tradition that included Kabir, and states that their fundamental doctrines were reproduced by Nanak. JS Grewal contests this view and states that McLeod's approach is limiting in its scope because, "McLeod takes into account only concepts, ignores practices altogether, he concentrates on similarities and ignores all differences".[58] Kabir's poetry today[edit] There are several allusions to Kabir's poetry in mainstream Indian film music. The title song of the Sufi
Sufi
fusion band Indian Ocean's album Jhini
Jhini
is an energetic rendering of Kabir's famous poem "The intricately woven blanket", with influences from Indian folk, Sufi traditions and progressive rock. Noted classical singer, late Kumar Gandharva, is widely recognized for his wonderful rendering of Kabir's poetry. Documentary filmmaker Shabnam Virmani, from the Kabir
Kabir
Project, has produced a series of documentaries and books tracing Kabir's philosophy, music and poetry in present-day India
India
and Pakistan. The documentaries feature Indian folk singers such as Prahlad Tipanya, Mukhtiyar Ali and the Pakistani Qawwal Fareed Ayaz. Kabir
Kabir
festival was organized in Mumbai, India
India
in 2017.[59][60] The album No Stranger Here by Shubha Mudgal, Ursula Rucker
Ursula Rucker
draws heavily from Kabir's poetry. Kabir's poetry has appeared prominently in filmmaker Anand Gandhi's films Right Here Right Now (2003) and Continuum. Pakistani Sufi
Sufi
singer Abida Parveen
Abida Parveen
has sung Kabir
Kabir
in a full album. Criticism[edit] Kabir
Kabir
has been criticised for his depiction of women. Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh states, "Kabir's opinion of women is contemptuous and derogatory".[56] Wendy Doniger
Wendy Doniger
concludes Kabir
Kabir
had a misogynist bias.[56] For Kabir, states Schomer, woman is " Kali
Kali
nagini (a black cobra), kunda naraka ka (the pit of hell), juthani jagata ki (the refuse of the world)". According to Kabir, a woman prevents man's spiritual progress.[56]

Woman ruins everything when she comes near man; Devotion, liberation, and divine knowledge no longer enter his soul.

— Kabir, Translated by Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh[56]

Singh states that this outlook of Kabir
Kabir
about women and their role in human quest for spirituality[56] was not shared with Nanak
Nanak
who founded Sikhism. Surjit Singh Gandhi also agrees with this.[55] In contrast to Singh's interpretation of Kabir's gender views, Dass interprets Rag Asa section of Adi Granth
Adi Granth
as Kabir
Kabir
asking a young married woman to stop veiling her face, and not to adopt such social habits.[61] Dass adds that Kabir's poetry can be interpreted in two ways, one literally where the woman refers to human female, another allegorically where woman is symbolism for his own soul and Rama
Rama
is the Lord-husband.[62] See also[edit]

Bhakti
Bhakti
movement

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Hess, Linda; Shukdev Singh (2002). The Bijak of Kabir. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-8120802162.  ^ a b c Lorenzen, David N. (2006). Who invented Hinduism?: essays on religion in history. New Dehli: Yoda Press. ISBN 8190227262.  ^ a b Mohan Singh Karki (January 2001). Kabir. Motilal Banarsidass. p. xv. ISBN 978-81-208-1799-9.  ^ Jaroslav Strnad (2013). Morphology and Syntax of Old Hindī: Edition and Analysis of One Hundred Kabīr vānī Poems from Rājasthān. BRILL Academic. p. 10. ISBN 978-90-04-25489-3.  ^ a b c d e Kabir
Kabir
Encyclopædia Britannica (2015)Accessed: July 27, 2015 ^ a b c d Hugh Tinker (1990). South Asia: A Short History. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 75–77. ISBN 978-0-8248-1287-4. Retrieved 12 July 2012.  ^ a b c Ronald McGregor (1984), Hindi
Hindi
literature from its beginnings to the nineteenth century, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447024136, page 47 ^ Carol Henderson Garcia; Carol E. Henderson (2002). Culture and Customs of India. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-0-313-30513-9. Retrieved 12 July 2012.  ^ David Lorenzen
David Lorenzen
(Editors: Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod, 1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, pages 281–302 ^ Lorenzen, David (1991). Kabir
Kabir
Legends and Ananta-Das's Kabir Parachai. SUNY Press. pp. 12–18. ISBN 978-1-4384-1127-9.  ^ a b c Dass, Nirmal (1991). Songs of Kabir from the Adi Granth. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791405605.  ^ Wendy Doniger, The Hindus: An Alternative History, Oxford University Press (2010), p. 462 ^ a b David N. Lorenzen and Adrián Muñoz (2012), Yogi Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438438900, page 31 ^ Rekha Pande (2014), Divine Sounds from the Heart—Singing Unfettered in their Own Voices, Cambridge Scholars, ISBN 978-1443825252, page 77 ^ Ronald McGregor (1984), Hindi
Hindi
literature from its beginnings to the nineteenth century, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447024136, pages 43–44 ^ Islamicist Dr. Saiyid Athar Abbas Rizvi, in his A History of Sufism in India
India
(New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1983), Vol. II, page 412, states: "The author of the Dabistan-i Mazahib placed Kabir
Kabir
against the background of the legends of the Vaishnavite vairagis (mendicants) with whom he was identified, but a contemporary of his, Shaikh 'Abdu'r-Rahman Chisti, combined both the Bairagi and the muwwahid traditions about Kabir
Kabir
in his Mir'atu'l-asrar and also made him a Firdaussiya sufi." ^ Lorenzen, David (1991). Kabir
Kabir
Legends and Ananta-Das's Kabir Parachai. SUNY Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4384-1127-9.  ^ Karine Schomer; W. H. McLeod (1 January 1987). The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 291–. ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3. Retrieved 12 July 2012.  ^ "Jab Mein Tha Tab Hari Nahin‚ Ab". Kabirchaura.com. Retrieved 12 July 2012.  ^ Scudiere, Todd. "Rare Literary Gems: The Works of Kabir
Kabir
and Premchand at CRL". South Asian Studies, Spring 2005 Vol. 24, Num. 3. Center for Research Libraries.  ^ Sastri, p. 24 ^ R Tagore (Edited by Evelin Underhill, 2005), Poem XV One Hundred Poems of Kabir: Translated by Rabindranath Tagore, ISBN 978-1421253596, University of Toronto Archives, page 15 ^ The Vision of Kabir: Love poems of a 15th Century Weaver, (1984) Alpha & Omega, page 48 ASIN B000ILEY3U ^ Lorenzen, David (1991). Kabir
Kabir
Legends and Ananta-Das's Kabir Parachai. SUNY Press. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-1-4384-1127-9.  ^ a b O Classe (2000), Encyclopedia of Literary Translation Into English: A-L, Routledge, ISBN 978-1884964367, page 746 ^ a b c O Classe (2000), Encyclopedia of Literary Translation Into English: A-L, Routledge, ISBN 978-1884964367, pages 745–747 ^ K Schomer and WH McLeod (Editors, 1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, pages 167–179 ^ a b Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod (1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, pages 167–169 ^ R Tagore (Edited by Evelyn Underhill, 2005), One Hundred Poems of Kabir: Translated by Rabindranath Tagore, ISBN 978-1421253596, University of Toronto Archives ^ The authentic poems are poem 15, 32, 34, 35, 69 and 94; see Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod (1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, page 173 ^ Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod (1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, page 172 ^ V Mishra in K Schomer and WH McLeod (Editors, 1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, pages 168, 178–179 ^ David N. Lorenzen and Adrián Muñoz (2012), Yogi Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438438900, pages 27–28 ^ Charlotte Vaudeville (Editors: Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod, 1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, page 23 ^ a b David N. Lorenzen and Adrián Muñoz (2012), Yogi Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438438900, page 35 ^ Wendy Doniger
Wendy Doniger
(2010), The Hindus: An Alternative History, Oxford University Press, page 484 ^ R Tagore (Edited by Evelin Underhill, 2005), Poem LXIX One Hundred Poems of Kabir: Translated by Rabindranath Tagore, ISBN 978-1421253596, University of Toronto Archives, page 72 ^ Charlotte Vaudeville (Editors: Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod, 1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, page 26 ^ Charlotte Vaudeville (Editors: Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod, 1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, pages 27–33 with footnotes ^ a b David N. Lorenzen and Adrián Muñoz (2012), Yogi Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438438900, page 48 ^ V Mishra in K Schomer and WH McLeod (Editors, 1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3, pages 177–178 with footnote 26 ^ Gerald James Larson (1995), India's Agony Over Religion: Confronting Diversity in Teacher Education, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791424124, page 116 ^ a b David N. Lorenzen and Adrián Muñoz (2012), Yogi Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438438900, page 27 ^ GN Das (1996), Mystic Songs of Kabir, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 978-8170173380, page 8 ^ a b Winand Callewaert (1978), The Sarvāṅgī of the Dādūpanthī Rajab, Volume 4: Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, Oriëntalistiek Kathol. Univ. Press, ISBN 978-9070192013, pages 273-274 ^ Lorenzen, David (1991). Kabir
Kabir
Legends and Ananta-Das's Kabir Parachai. SUNY Press. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-1-4384-1127-9.  ^ Lorenzen, David (1991). Kabir
Kabir
Legends and Ananta-Das's Kabir Parachai. SUNY Press. pp. 16–35. ISBN 978-1-4384-1127-9.  ^ " Songs of Kabir in Persian : Gutenberg: Songs of Kabir by Rabindranath Tagore".  ^ "Rebirth of a Poet". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 19 October 2015.  ^ a b J. S. Grewal (2010), WH McLeod and Sikh Studies, Journal of Punjab Studies, Vol. 17, Issue 1–2, page 119, Archive ^ Westcott, G. H. (2006). Kabir
Kabir
and the Kabir
Kabir
Panth. Read Books. p. 2. ISBN 1-4067-1271-X.  ^ Sastri, p. 33 ^ WH McLeod (2003), Exploring Sikhism: Aspects of Sikh Identity, Culture, and Thought, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195658569, pages 19–31 ^ David Lorenzen
David Lorenzen
(1981), Religious change and cultural domination, Colegio Mexico, ISBN 978-9681201081, pages 173–191 ^ a b c Gandhi, Surjit Singh (2008). History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1469-1606 C.E. English: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors Pvt Ltd. pp. 174 to 176. ISBN 8126908572.  ^ a b c d e f Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh (24 Sep 1993). The Feminine Principle in the Sikh Vision of the Transcendent. English: Cambridge University Press. pp. 114–116. ISBN 978-0521432870.  ^ Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech (2014), The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 205 ^ J. S. Grewal (2010), WH McLeod and Sikh Studies, Journal of Punjab Studies, Volume 17, Issue 1–2, page 119 ^ " Kabir
Kabir
Festival 2017". Festivals of India.  ^ " Kabir
Kabir
Festival Mumbai
Mumbai
2017". Sahapedia.org.  ^ Nirmal Dass (1991), Songs of Kabir from the Adi Granth, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791405611, pages 147-148 ^ Nirmal Dass (1991), Songs of Kabir from the Adi Granth, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791405611, pages 322-323

Bibliography[edit]

Bly, Robert (2007, Original: 1977), tr. Kabir: Ecstatic Poems. Beacon Press, ISBN 978-0807063804 (Bly writes, "my version is Rabindranath Tagore's translation rephrased into more contemporary language", see page xix) Charlotte Vaudeville (1957), Kabîr Granthâvalî : (Doha), OCLC 459472759 (French); English: Kabir, Vol. 1, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198265269, OCLC 32447240 Charlotte Vaudeville (1993), A Weaver Named Kabir: Selected Verses with a Biographical and Historical Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195630787 Vinay Dharwadker (2003), Kabir: Weaver's Songs, Penguin Classics, ISBN 978-0143029687 David N. Lorenzen (1991), Kabir
Kabir
Legends and Ananta-Das's Kabir Parachai, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791404614 Dass, Nirmal, tr. Songs of Kabir from the Adi Granth. SUNY Press, 1991. (ISBN 0-7914-0560-5) Das, G. N., ed. (1992). Love songs of Kabir. Foreword by K.S. Duggal. Sittingbourne: Asia. ISBN 978-0-948724-33-6.  Kabir. Compilation of Kabir's dohas in Devanagari. Kabir
Kabir
ke dohey Sastri, Hari Prasad (2002). "Kalidasa". The great authors and poets of India. New Delhi: Crest Publishing House. ISBN 978-8-124-20241-8.  Tagore, Rabindranath. Songs of Kabir, Macmillan, New York, 1915.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Kabir

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Kabir

One Hundred Poems of Kabir
Kabir
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(Translator, 1915), (see authenticity discussion above) Works by or about Kabir
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at Internet Archive Works by Kabir
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(public domain audiobooks) The Bijak of Kabir, Ahmad Shah Translation of the Entire Text (1917) The Ocean of Love Anurag Sagar of Kabir

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