K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve")
comprises the sum of primary and secondary education in India, the
United States, Canada, Ecuador, South Korea, Turkey, Philippines,
Egypt, Australia, Afghanistan, and Iran for publicly supported school
grades prior to college.
4 K–14, K–16, K–18 and K–20
5 See also
7 Further reading
The expression is a shortening of kindergarten (K) for 4- to
6-year-olds through twelfth grade (12) for 17- to 19-year-olds, the
first and last grades, respectively, of free education in these
countries. The related term P–12 is also occasionally used in
Australia and the United States to refer to the sum of
The image at the right is a table that defines the education system in
the United States. The table shows the progression of the education
system starting with the basic
K–12 system then progressing through
post-secondary education. K–14 refers to
K–12 plus two years of
post-secondary where training was received from vocational technical
institutions or community or junior colleges. The K numbers refer to
the years of educational attainment and continues to progress upward
accordingly depending on the degree being sought.
The term is often used in school website URLs, generally appearing
before the country code top-level domain (or in the United States, the
state top-level domain). The term "PK–12" is sometimes used to add
It is also used by American multinationals selling into the
educational sector, such as
Dell where UK customers are presented with
this as a market segment choice.
In Australia, P–12 is sometimes used in place of K–12,
particularly in Queensland, where it is used as an official term in
the curriculum framework. P–12 schools serve children for the
thirteen years from prep until Year 12, without including the
separate kindergarten component. In Canada (Nova Scotia) P–12 is
used commonly in place of
K–12 and serves students from grade
Primary through 12.
K–14, K–16, K–18 and K–20
K–14 education also includes community colleges (the first two years
of university). K–16 education adds a four-year undergraduate
university degree. For simplicity purposes education shorthand was
created to denote specific education levels of achievement. This
shorthand is commonly used in articles, publications and educational
legislations. The following list contains the most commonly found
P–14: Pre-school to associate degree
P–16: Pre-school to bachelor's degree
P–18: Pre-school to master's degree
P–20: Pre-school to graduate degree
Kindergarten to associate degree
Kindergarten to bachelor's degree
Kindergarten to master's degree
Kindergarten to graduate degree
The Career Technical Education (CTE) Unit of the California Community
College Economic Development and Workforce Preparation Division
focuses on program coordination and advocacy, policy development and
coordination with K–18 workforce preparation and career and
technical education systems.
The ASCCC Chancellor's Office Career Technical Education (CTE) Unit of
the Economic Development and Workforce Preparation Division focuses on
program coordination and advocacy, policy development and coordination
with K–18 workforce preparation and career and technical education
systems. Responsible for the implementation of the Vocational and
Technical Education Act (VTEA), managing and coordinating activities
that impact other interagency and intra-agency objectives. In
addition, the CTE Unit is also responsible for the development,
dissemination, and implementation of the California State Plan and the
annual performance reports.
Further reference to K–18 education can be found in this publication
by Ann Diver-Stamnes and Linda Catelli in chapter 4
University Partnership Projects for Instituting Change and
Improvement in K–18 Education".
All-through school, British equivalent to "
College Cooranbong, NSW, Australia
^ "P–12 US Department of Education". Retrieved 2016-09-16.
^ "Digest of Education Statistics, 2012". nces.ed.gov. Retrieved
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-11. Retrieved
^ P–12 Curriculum Framework – education.qld.gov.au. Retrieved 5
^ "Why is P–12 career education important?". Department of Education
and Training (Queensland). 2004. Archived from the original on
2010-01-01. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-17. Retrieved
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-09-08. Retrieved
^ Noble, Barnes &. "Commitment to Excellence: Transforming
Teaching and Teacher Education in Inner-City and Urban Settings".
Barnes & Noble. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
Williams, Juliet A. (2013). "Girls can be anything... but boys will be
boys: discourses of sex difference in education reform debates".
Nevada Law Journal, special issue: Men, Masculinities, and Law: A
Symposium on Multidimensional Masculinities Theory. William S. Boyd
School of Law. 13 (2): 12.
By educational stage
Adult high school
Sixth form college
University technical college
Institute of technology
Upper division college
By funding / eligibility
Free school (England)
UK Independent school
State or public school
State-integrated school (New Zealand)
By style of education
Folk high school
Ancient higher-learning institutions
Schools imposed on
in New Zealand
in the United States
in South Africa
Informal or illegal
in South Tyrol