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Kūkai
Kūkai
(空海), also known posthumously as Kōbō-Daishi (弘法大師, The Grand Master Who Propagated the Buddhist Teaching), 774–835, was a Japanese Buddhist monk, civil servant, scholar, poet, and artist who founded the Shingon
Shingon
or "True Word" school of Buddhism. Shingon
Shingon
followers usually refer to him by the honorific title of Odaishisama (お大師様) and the religious name of Henjō-Kongō (遍照金剛). Kūkai
Kūkai
is famous as a calligrapher and engineer. Among the many achievements attributed to him is the invention of the kana, the syllabary with which, in combination with Chinese characters (kanji), the Japanese language
Japanese language
is written to this day[citation needed]. Also according to tradition, the Iroha, which uses every phonetic kana syllable just once and is one of the most famous poems in Japanese, is attributed to him but again, this is a popular belief and nowhere attested to. His religious writings, some fifty works, expound the Esoteric Shingon
Shingon
doctrine. The major ones have been translated into English by Yoshito Hakeda (see references below).

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early years 1.2 Travel and study in China 1.3 Emerging from obscurity 1.4 Mount Kōya 1.5 Public works 1.6 Tō-ji
Tō-ji
Period 1.7 Final years

2 In popular culture 3 See also 4 References

4.1 Additional sources

5 External links

Biography[edit] Early years[edit]

Painting of Kūkai
Kūkai
as a child

Wood statue of Kūkai.

Kūkai
Kūkai
was born in 774 in the present-day Zentsū-ji
Zentsū-ji
precincts in the province of Sanuki on the island of Shikoku. His family were members of the aristocratic Saeki family, a branch of the ancient Ōtomo clan. There is some doubt as to his birth name: Tōtomono (precious one) is recorded in one source, while Mao (True Fish) is recorded elsewhere. Mao is generally used in modern studies.[1] Kūkai
Kūkai
was born in a period of important political changes with Emperor Kanmu
Emperor Kanmu
(r. 781–806) seeking to consolidate his power and to extend his realm, taking measures which included moving the capital of Japan
Japan
from Nara ultimately to Heian (modern-day Kyoto). Little more is known about Kūkai's childhood. At the age of fifteen, he began to receive instruction in the Chinese classics under the guidance of his maternal uncle. During this time, the Saeki-Ōtomo clan suffered government persecution due to allegations that the clan chief, Ōtomo Yakamochi, was responsible for the assassination of his rival Fujiwara no Tanetsugu.[1] The family fortunes had fallen by 791 when Kūkai
Kūkai
journeyed to Nara, the capital at the time, to study at the government university, the Daigakuryō (大学寮). Graduates were typically chosen for prestigious positions as bureaucrats. Biographies of Kūkai
Kūkai
suggest that he became disillusioned with his Confucian studies, but developed a strong interest in Buddhist studies instead. Around the age of 22, Kūkai
Kūkai
was introduced to Buddhist practice involving chanting the mantra of the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Ākāśagarbha (Kokuzō). During this period, Kūkai
Kūkai
frequently sought out isolated mountain regions where he chanted the Ākāśagarbha
Ākāśagarbha
mantra relentlessly. At age 24 he published his first major literary work, Sangō Shiiki, in which he quotes from an extensive list of sources, including the classics of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. The Nara temples, with their extensive libraries, possessed these texts. During this period in Japanese history, the central government closely regulated Buddhism
Buddhism
through the Sōgō (僧綱, Office of Priestly Affairs) and enforced its policies, based on the ritsuryō system. Ascetics and independent monks, like Kūkai, were frequently banned and lived outside the law, but still wandered the countryside or from temple to temple.[2] During this period of private Buddhist practice, Kūkai
Kūkai
had a dream, in which a man appeared and told Kūkai
Kūkai
that the Mahavairocana Tantra is the scripture which contained the doctrine Kūkai
Kūkai
was seeking.[1] Though Kūkai
Kūkai
soon managed to obtain a copy of this sūtra which had only recently become available in Japan, he immediately encountered difficulty. Much of the sūtra was in untranslated Sanskrit
Sanskrit
written in the Siddhaṃ script. Kūkai
Kūkai
found the translated portion of the sūtra was very cryptic. Because Kūkai
Kūkai
could find no one who could elucidate the text for him, he resolved to go to China to study the text there. Ryuichi Abe suggests that the Mahavairocana Tantra
Mahavairocana Tantra
bridged the gap between his interest in the practice of religious exercises and the doctrinal knowledge acquired through his studies.[2] Travel and study in China[edit]

Kōbō Daishi altar at Tian Hou Temple, Taipei.

In 804 Kūkai
Kūkai
took part in a government-sponsored expedition to China in order to learn more about the Mahavairocana Tantra. Scholars are unsure why Kūkai
Kūkai
was selected to take part in an official mission to China, given his background as a private, not state-sponsored, monk. Theories include family connections within the Saeki-Ōtomo clan, or connections through fellow clergy or a member of the Fujiwara clan.[1] The expedition included four ships, with Kūkai
Kūkai
on the first ship, while another famous monk, Saichō
Saichō
was on the second ship. During a storm, the third ship turned back, while the fourth ship was lost at sea. Kūkai's ship arrived weeks later in the province of Fujian
Fujian
and its passengers were initially denied entry to the port while the ship was impounded. Kūkai, being fluent in Chinese, wrote a letter to the governor of the province explaining their situation.[3] The governor allowed the ship to dock, and the party was asked to proceed to the capital of Chang'an
Chang'an
(present day Xi'an), the seat of power of the Tang dynasty. After further delays, the Tang court granted Kūkai
Kūkai
a place in Xi Ming Temple where his study of Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
began in earnest as well as studies of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
with the Gandharan pandit Prajñā (734-810?) who had been educated at the Indian Buddhist university at Nalanda. It was in 805 that Kūkai
Kūkai
finally met Master Huiguo
Huiguo
(746 – 805) the man who would initiate him into the esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
tradition at Chang'an's Qinglong Monastery (青龍寺). Huiguo
Huiguo
came from an illustrious lineage of Buddhist masters, famed especially for translating Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts into Chinese, including the Mahavairocana Tantra. Kūkai
Kūkai
describes their first meeting:

Accompanied by Jiming, Tansheng, and several other Dharma
Dharma
masters from the Ximing monastery, I went to visit him [Huiguo] and was granted an audience. As soon as he saw me, the abbot smiled, and said with delight, "since learning of your arrival, I have waited anxiously. How excellent, how excellent that we have met today at last! My life is ending soon, and yet I have no more disciples to whom to transmit the Dharma. Prepare without delay the offerings of incense and flowers for your entry into the abhisheka mandala".[2]

Huiguo
Huiguo
immediately bestowed upon Kūkai
Kūkai
the first level abhisheka (esoteric initiation). Whereas Kūkai
Kūkai
had expected to spend 20 years studying in China, in a few short months he was to receive the final initiation, and become a master of the esoteric lineage. Huiguo
Huiguo
was said to have described teaching Kūkai
Kūkai
as like "pouring water from one vase into another".[2] Huiguo
Huiguo
died shortly afterwards, but not before instructing Kūkai
Kūkai
to return to Japan
Japan
and spread the esoteric teachings there, assuring him that other disciples would carry on his work in China. Kūkai
Kūkai
arrived back in Japan
Japan
in 806 as the eighth Patriarch of Esoteric Buddhism, having learnt Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and its Siddhaṃ script, studied Indian Buddhism, as well as having studied the arts of Chinese calligraphy and poetry, all with recognized masters. He also arrived with a large number of texts, many of which were new to Japan
Japan
and were esoteric in character, as well as several texts on the Sanskrit language and the Siddhaṃ script. However, in Kūkai's absence Emperor Kanmu
Emperor Kanmu
had died and was replaced by Emperor Heizei
Emperor Heizei
who exhibited no great enthusiasm for Buddhism. Kukai's return from China was eclipsed by Saichō, the founder of the Tendai
Tendai
school, who found favor with the court during this time. Saichō
Saichō
had already had esoteric rites officially recognised by the court as an integral part of Tendai, and had already performed the abhisheka, or initiatory ritual, for the court by the time Kūkai returned to Japan. Later, with Emperor Kanmu's death, Saichō's fortunes began to wane. Saichō
Saichō
requested, in 812, that Kūkai
Kūkai
give him the introductory initiation, which Kūkai
Kūkai
agreed to do. He also granted a second-level initiation upon Saichō, but refused to bestow the final initiation (which would have qualified Saichō
Saichō
as a master of esoteric Buddhism) because Saichō
Saichō
had not completed the required studies, leading to a falling out between the two that was not resolved; this feud later extended to the Shingon
Shingon
and Tendai
Tendai
sects. Little is known about Kūkai's movements until 809 when the court finally responded to Kūkai's report on his studies, which also contained an inventory of the texts and other objects he had brought with him, and a petition for state support to establish the new esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
in Japan. That document, the Catalogue of Imported Items, is the first attempt by Kūkai
Kūkai
to distinguish the new form of Buddhism
Buddhism
from that already practiced in Japan. The court's response was an order to reside in the Takaosan (later Jingo-ji) Temple in the suburbs of Kyoto. This was to be Kūkai's headquarters for the next 14 years. The year 809 also saw the retirement of Heizei due to illness and the succession of the Emperor Saga, who supported Kūkai
Kūkai
and exchanged poems and other gifts. Emerging from obscurity[edit]

Cui Ziyu's Beliefs (崔子玉座右銘)

In 810 Kūkai
Kūkai
emerged as a public figure when he was appointed administrative head of Tōdai-ji, the central temple in Nara, and head of the Sōgō (僧綱, Office of Priestly Affairs). Shortly after his enthronement Saga became seriously ill, and while he was recovering, Heizei fomented a rebellion, which had to be put down by force. Kūkai
Kūkai
petitioned the Emperor to allow him to carry out certain esoteric rituals which were said to "enable a king to vanquish the seven calamities, to maintain the four seasons in harmony, to protect the nation and family, and to give comfort to himself and others". The petition was granted. Prior to this, the government relied on the monks from the traditional schools in Nara to perform rituals, such as chanting the Golden Light Sutra
Golden Light Sutra
to bolster the government, but this event marked a new reliance on the esoteric tradition to fulfill this role. With the public initiation ceremonies for Saichō
Saichō
and others at Takaosan in 812, Kūkai
Kūkai
became the acknowledged master of esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
in Japan. He set about organizing his disciples into an order - making them responsible for administration, maintenance and construction at the temple, as well as for monastic discipline. In 813 Kūkai
Kūkai
outlined his aims and practices in the document called The admonishments of Konin. It was also during this period at Takaosan that he completed many of the seminal works of the Shingon
Shingon
School:

Attaining Enlightenment in This Very Existence The Meaning of Sound, Word, Reality Meanings of the Word Hūm

All of these were written in 817. Records show that Kūkai
Kūkai
was also busy writing poetry, conducting rituals, and writing epitaphs and memorials on request. His popularity at the court only increased, and spread. Meanwhile, Kukai's new esoteric teachings and literature drew scrutiny from a noted scholar-monk of the time named Tokuitsu, who traded letters back and forth in 815 asking for clarification. The dialogue between them proved constructive and helped to give Kūkai
Kūkai
more credibility, while the Nara Schools took greater interest in esoteric practice.[4] Mount Kōya[edit]

Part of a series on

Buddhism
Buddhism
in Japan

Schools

Jōjitsu Hosso Sanron Kegon Ritsu Kusha Tendai Shingon Pure Land Zen Nichiren

Founders

Saichō Kūkai Hōnen Shinran Dōgen Eisai Ingen Nichiren

Sacred texts

Avataṃsaka Sūtra Lotus Sūtra Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sūtra Infinite Life Sūtra Mahāvairocana Sūtra Vajraśekhara Sūtra

Glossary of Japanese Buddhism

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In 816, Emperor Saga
Emperor Saga
accepted Kūkai's request to establish a mountain retreat at Mount Kōya
Mount Kōya
as a retreat from worldly affairs. The ground was officially consecrated in the middle of 819 with rituals lasting seven days. He could not stay, however, as he had received an imperial order to act as advisor to the secretary of state, and he therefore entrusted the project to a senior disciple. As many surviving letters to patrons attest, fund-raising for the project now began to take up much of Kūkai's time, and financial difficulties were a persistent concern; indeed, the project was not fully realised until after Kūkai's death in 835. Kūkai's vision was that Mt. Kōya was to become a representation of the Mandala of the Two Realms
Mandala of the Two Realms
that form the basis of Shingon
Shingon
Buddhism: the central plateau as the Womb Realm
Womb Realm
mandala, with the peaks surrounding the area as petals of a lotus; and located in the centre of this would be the Diamond Realm
Diamond Realm
mandala in the form of a temple which he named Kongōbu-ji
Kongōbu-ji
— the Diamond Peak Temple. At the center of the temple complex sits an enormous statue of Vairocana, who is the personification of Ultimate Reality. Public works[edit] In 821 Kūkai
Kūkai
took on a civil engineering task, that of restoring Manno Reservoir, which is still the largest irrigation reservoir in Japan.[5] His leadership enabled the previously floundering project to be completed smoothly, and is now the source of some of the many legendary stories which surround his figure. In 822 Kūkai
Kūkai
performed an initiation ceremony for the ex-emperor Heizei. In the same year Saichō
Saichō
died. Tō-ji
Tō-ji
Period[edit]

Letter to Saichō, stored in Tō-ji

Kobo Daishi in Daishoin Miyajima

When Emperor Kanmu
Emperor Kanmu
had moved the capital in 784, he had not permitted the powerful Buddhists from the temples of Nara to follow him. He did commission two new temples: Tō-ji
Tō-ji
(Eastern Temple) and Sai-ji (Western Temple) which flanked the road at southern entrance to the city, protecting the capital from evil influences. However, after nearly thirty years the temples were still not completed. In 823 the soon-to-retire Emperor Saga
Emperor Saga
asked Kūkai, experienced in public works projects, to take over Tō-ji
Tō-ji
and finish the building project. Saga gave Kūkai
Kūkai
free rein, enabling him to make Tō-ji
Tō-ji
the first Esoteric Buddhist centre in Kyoto, and also giving him a base much closer to the court, and its power. The new emperor, Emperor Junna
Emperor Junna
(r. 823-833) was also well disposed towards Kūkai. In response to a request from the emperor, Kūkai, along with other Japanese Buddhist leaders, submitted a document which set out the beliefs, practices and important texts of his form of Buddhism. In his imperial decree granting approval of Kūkai's outline of esoteric Buddhism, Junna uses the term Shingon-shū (真言宗, Mantra
Mantra
Sect) for the first time. An imperial decree gave Kūkai exclusive use of Tō-ji
Tō-ji
for the Shingon
Shingon
School, which set a new precedent in an environment where previously temples had been open to all forms of Buddhism. It also allowed him to retain 50 monks at the temple and train them in Shingon. This was the final step in establishing Shingon
Shingon
as an independent Buddhist movement, with a solid institutional basis with state authorization. Shingon
Shingon
had become legitimate. In 824 Kūkai
Kūkai
was officially appointed to the temple construction project. In that year he founded Zenpuku-ji, the second oldest temple of the Edo
Edo
(Tokyo) region. In 824 he was also appointed to the Office of Priestly Affairs. The Office consisted of four positions, with the Supreme Priest being an honorary position which was often vacant. The effective head of the Sōgō was the Daisōzu (大僧都, Senior Director). Kūkai's appointment was to the position of Shōsōzu (小僧都, Junior Director).[2] In addition there was a Risshi (律師, Vinaya
Vinaya
Master) who was responsible for the monastic code of discipline. At Tō-ji, in addition to the main hall (kondō) and some minor buildings on the site, Kūkai
Kūkai
added the lecture hall in 825 which was specifically designed along Shingon
Shingon
Buddhist principles, which included the making of 14 Buddha images. Also in 825, Kūkai
Kūkai
was invited to become tutor to the crown prince. Then in 826 he initiated the construction of a large pagoda at Tō-ji
Tō-ji
which was not completed in his lifetime (the present pagoda was built in 1644 by the third Tokugawa Shogun, Tokugawa Iemitsu). In 827 Kūkai
Kūkai
was promoted to be Daisōzu in which capacity he presided over state rituals, the emperor and the imperial family. The year 828 saw Kūkai
Kūkai
open his School of Arts and Sciences (Shugei shuchi-in). The school was a private institution open to all regardless of social rank. This was in contrast to the only other school in the capital which was only open to members of the aristocracy. The school taught Taoism and Confucianism, in addition to Buddhism, and provided free meals to the pupils. The latter was essential because the poor could not afford to live and attend the school without it. The school closed ten years after Kūkai's death, when it was sold in order to purchase some rice fields for supporting monastic affairs. Final years[edit]

Monks bringing food to Kōbō Daishi on Mount Kōya, as they believe he is not dead but rather meditating. At his mausoleum in Okunoin, food offerings are presented daily to Kōbō Daishi daily in the early morning and before noon. No one except the highest monks are allowed to see him.

Kūkai
Kūkai
completed his magnum opus, The Jūjūshinron (十住心論, Treatise on The Ten Stages of the Development of Mind) in 830. Because of its great length, it has yet to have been fully translated into any language. A simplified summary, Hizō Hōyaku (秘蔵宝鑰, The Precious Key to the Secret Treasury) followed soon after. The first signs of the illness that would eventually lead to Kūkai's death appeared in 831. He sought to retire, but the emperor would not accept his resignation and instead gave him sick leave. Toward the end of 832 Kūkai
Kūkai
was back on Mt. Kōya and spent most of his remaining life there. In 834 he petitioned the court to establish a Shingon
Shingon
chapel in the palace for the purpose of conducting rituals that would ensure the health of the state. This request was granted and Shingon
Shingon
ritual became incorporated into the official court calendar of events. In 835, just two months before his death, Kūkai
Kūkai
was finally granted permission to annually ordain three Shingon
Shingon
monks at Mt. Kōya — the number of new ordainees being still strictly controlled by the state. This meant that Kōya had gone from being a private institution to a state-sponsored one. With the end approaching, he stopped taking food and water, and spent much of his time absorbed in meditation. At midnight on the 21st day of the third month (835) he died at the age of 62.[6] Emperor Ninmyō (r. 833-50) sent a message of condolence to Mount Kōya, expressing his regret that he could not attend the cremation due to the time lag in communication caused by Mount Kōya's isolation. However, Kūkai was not given the traditional cremation, but instead, in accordance with his will, was entombed on the eastern peak of Mount Kōya. "When, some time after, the tomb was opened, Kōbō-Daishi was found as if still sleeping, with complexion unchanged and hair grown a bit longer."[7] Legend has it that Kūkai
Kūkai
has not died but entered into an eternal samadhi and is still alive on Mount Kōya, awaiting the appearance of Maitreya, the future Buddha.[7][8] In popular culture[edit] The 1991 drama film Mandala
Mandala
(Chinese: 曼荼羅; Japanese: 若き日の弘法大師・空海), a China- Japan
Japan
co-production, was based on Kūkai's travels in China. The film stars Toshiyuki Nagashima as Kūkai, also co-starring Junko Sakurada and Zhang Fengyi as Huiguo. The 2017 drama film Legend of the Demon Cat
Legend of the Demon Cat
stars Shōta Sometani
Shōta Sometani
as Kūkai. See also[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1920 Encyclopedia Americana
Encyclopedia Americana
article about Kūkai.

Japan
Japan
portal Buddhism
Buddhism
portal Biography portal

Ākāśagarbha Huiguo Padmasambhava Shingon
Shingon
Buddhism Shikoku
Shikoku
Pilgrimage Vajrayana

References[edit]

^ a b c d Hakeda, Yoshito S. (1972). Kūkai
Kūkai
and His Major Works. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-05933-7.  ^ a b c d e Abe, Ryuichi (1999). The Weaving of Mantra: Kukai and the Construction of Esoteric Buddhist Discourse. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11286-6.  ^ Matsuda, William, J. (2003). The Founder Reinterpreted: Kukai and Vraisemblant Narrative, Thesis, University of Hawai´i, pp. 39-40. Internet Archive ^ Abe, Ryuichi (1999). The Weaving of Mantra: Kūkai
Kūkai
and the Construction of Esoteric Buddhist Discourse. Columbia University Press. pp. 206–219. ISBN 0-231-11286-6.  ^ Mogi, Aiichiro (1 January 2007). "A Missing Link: Transfer of Hydraulic Civilization from Sri Lanka to Japan".  ^ Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 284. ^ a b Casal, U. A. (1959), The Saintly Kōbō Daishi in Popular Lore (A.D. 774-835); Asian Folklore Studies 18, p. 139 (hagiography) ^ Yusen Kashiwahara, Koyu Sonoda "Shapers of Japanese Buddhism", Kosei Pub. Co. 1994. "Kukai"

Additional sources[edit]

Clipston, Janice (2000). Sokushin-jōbutsu-gi: Attaining Enlightenment in This Very Existence, Buddhist Studies Reviews 17 (2), 207-220 Giebel, Rolf W.; Todaro, Dale A.; trans. (2004). Shingon
Shingon
texts, Berkeley, Calif.: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research Inagaki Hisao (1972). "Kukai's Sokushin-Jobutsu-Gi" (Principle of Attaining Buddhahood
Buddhahood
with the Present Body), Asia Major (New Series) 17 (2), 190-215 Skilton, A. 1994. A Concise History of Buddhism. Birmingham: Windhorse Publications. Wayman, A and Tajima, R. 1998 The Enlightenment of Vairocana. Delhi: Motilal Barnasidass [includes Study of the Vairocanābhisambodhitantra (Wayman) and Study of the Mahāvairocana-Sūtra (Tajima)]. White, Kenneth R. 2005. The Role of Bodhicitta
Bodhicitta
in Buddhist Enlightenment. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press (includes Bodhicitta-śāstra, Benkenmitsu-nikyōron, Sanmaya-kaijō)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kukai.

Koyosan Shingon
Shingon
Buddhism
Buddhism
Kūkai
Kūkai
officially founded the seminary community  "Kōbō Daishi". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  Bridge of dreams: the Mary Griggs Burke collection of Japanese art, a catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Kūkai
Kūkai
(see index)

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Refuge Satya

Sacca

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi

Śīla

Five Precepts Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā

Vīrya

Four Right Exertions

Nirvana

Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat

Monasticism

Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi

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Mahayana
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Zen Seon Thiền

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in India

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and the Roman world Buddhism
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 70244544 LCCN: n81023382 ISNI: 0000 0001 2138 4582 GND: 11890471X SUDOC: 028109937 BNF: cb12000971f (data) ULAN: 500320881 NDL: 00270

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