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KöPPEN CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) collaborated with Köppen on changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the KöPPEN–GEIGER CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM.

The Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification
Trewartha climate classification
system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad). :200–1

CONTENTS

* 1 Meaning of symbols

* 2 Scheme

* 2.1 Group A: Tropical/megathermal climates

* 2.1.1 Tropical rainforest climate
Tropical rainforest climate
* 2.1.2 Tropical monsoon climate * 2.1.3 Tropical
Tropical
wet and dry or savanna climate

* 2.2 Group B: Dry (desert and semi-arid) climates

* 2.3 Group C: Temperate/mesothermal climates

* 2.3.1 Mediterranean climates * 2.3.2 Humid subtropical climates * 2.3.3 Oceanic climate
Oceanic climate
* 2.3.4 Highland climates

* 2.4 Group D: Continental/microthermal climates

* 2.4.1 Hot summer continental climates * 2.4.2 Warm summer continental or hemiboreal climates * 2.4.3 Subarctic or boreal climates

* 2.5 Group E: Polar climates

* 3 Ecological significance * 4 Trewartha climate classification
Trewartha climate classification
scheme * 5 Other Köppen climate maps * 6 See also * 7 References

* 8 External links

* 8.1 Climate
Climate
records

MEANING OF SYMBOLS

Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
scheme symbols description table 1ST 2ND 3RD

A (TROPICAL) f (Rainforest)

m (Monsoon)

w (Savanna, Wet)

s (Savanna, Dry)

B (ARID) W (Desert)

S (Steppe)

h (Hot)

k (Cold)

n (With frequent fog)

C (TEMPERATE) s (Dry summer)

w (Dry winter)

f (Without dry season)

a (Hot summer)

b (Warm summer)

c (Cold summer)

D (COLD (CONTINENTAL)) s (Dry summer)

w (Dry winter)

f (Without dry season)

a (Hot summer)

b (Warm summer)

c (Cold summer)

d (Very cold winter)

E (POLAR) T (Tundra)

F (Eternal winter (ice cap))

The Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
scheme divides climates into five main climate groups: A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). The second letter indicates the seasonal precipitation type, while the third letter indicates the level of heat.

GROUP A: TROPICAL (MEGATHERMAL) CLIMATES

This type of climate has every month of the year with an average temperature of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher, with significant precipitation.

* Af = Tropical rainforest climate
Tropical rainforest climate
; average precipitation of at least 60 mm (2.4 in) in every month. * Am = Tropical monsoon climate ; driest month (which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator) with precipitation less than 60 mm (2.4 in), but more than 4% the total annual precipitation. * Aw or As = Tropical
Tropical
wet and dry or savanna climate; with the driest month having precipitation less than 60 mm (2.4 in) and less than 4% of the total annual precipitation.

GROUP B: DRY (ARID AND SEMIARID) CLIMATES

This type of climate is defined by little precipitation.

Multiply the average annual temperature in Celsius
Celsius
by 20, then add (a) 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the spring and summer months (April–September in the Northern Hemisphere, or October–March in the Southern), or (b) 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the spring and summer, or (c) 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is received during the spring and summer.

If the annual precipitation is less than 50% of this threshold, the classification is BW (arid: desert climate); if it is in the range of 50%–100% of the threshold, the classification is BS (semi-arid: steppe climate).

A third letter can be included to indicate temperature. Originally, h signified low-latitude climate (average annual temperature above 18 °C (64.4 °F)) while k signified middle-latitude climate (average annual temperature below 18 °C), but the more common practice today, especially in the United States, is to use h to mean the coldest month has an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F), with k denoting that at least one month's averages below 0 °C. The n is used to denote a climate characterized by frequent fog.

* BWh = Hot desert climate * BWk = Cold desert climate * BWn = Desert climate with frequent fog * BSh = Hot semi-arid climate * BSk = Cold semi-arid climate * BSn = Semi-arid
Semi-arid
climate with frequent fog

GROUP C: TEMPERATE (MESOTHERMAL) CLIMATES

This type of climate has the coldest month averaging between 0 °C (32 °F) and 18 °C (64.4 °F) and at least one month averaging above 10 °C (50 °F).

* Cfa = Humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). No dry months in the summer. * Cfb = Temperate oceanic climate ; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). * Cfc = Subpolar oceanic climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). * Cwa = Monsoon
Monsoon
-influenced humid subtropical climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months). * Cwb = Subtropical highland climate or temperate oceanic climate with dry winters; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (an alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation received in the warmest six months). * Cwc = Cold subtropical highland climate or subpolar oceanic climate with dry winters; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months). * Csa = Hot-summer Mediterranean climate ; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in). * Csb = Warm-summer Mediterranean climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in). * Csc = Cool-summer Mediterranean climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in).

GROUP D: CONTINENTAL (MICROTHERMAL) CLIMATES

This type of climate has at least one month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) and at least one month averaging above 10 °C (50 °F).

* Dfa = Hot-summer humid continental climate ; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). * Dfb = Warm-summer humid continental climate ; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). * Dfc = Subarctic climate ; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). * Dfd = Extremely cold subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below −38 °C (−36.4 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). * Dwa = Monsoon-influenced hot-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months). * Dwb = Monsoon-influenced warm-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months). * Dwc = Monsoon-influenced subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months). * Dwd = Monsoon-influenced extremely cold subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below −38 °C (−36.4 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months). * Dsa = Hot, dry-summer continental climate ; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in). * Dsb = Warm, dry-summer continental climate ; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in). * Dsc = dry-summer subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in). * Dsd = Extremely cold, dry-summer subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below −38 °C (−36.4 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in).

GROUP E: POLAR AND ALPINE (MONTANE) CLIMATES

This type of climate has every month of the year with an average temperature below 10 °C (50 °F).

* ET = Tundra climate; average temperature of warmest month between 0 °C (32 °F) and 10 °C (50 °F). * EF = Ice cap climate ; eternal winter, with all 12 months of the year with average temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F).

SCHEME

GROUP A: TROPICAL/MEGATHERMAL CLIMATES

Tropical
Tropical
climates are characterized by constant high temperatures (at sea level and low elevations); all 12 months of the year have average temperatures of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher. They are subdivided as follows:

Tropical
Tropical
Rainforest Climate

Main article: Tropical rainforest climate
Tropical rainforest climate

All 12 months have average precipitation of at least 60 mm (2.4 in). These climates usually occur within 10° latitude of the equator . This climate is dominated by the doldrums low-pressure system all year round, so has no natural seasons in terms of thermal and moisture changes.

EXAMPLES

* Apia , Samoa
Samoa
(Af) * Balikpapan , Indonesia
Indonesia
(Af) * Davao , Philippines
Philippines
(Af) * Georgetown, Guyana
Guyana
(Af) * Hilo, Hawaii , United States
United States
(Af) * Honiara
Honiara
, Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(Af) * Innisfail, Queensland
Innisfail, Queensland
, Australia
Australia
(Af) * Kampala
Kampala
, Uganda
Uganda
(Af) * Kisumu, Kenya
Kenya
(Af) * Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, Malaysia
Malaysia
(Af) * Kuching , Malaysia
Malaysia
(Af) * Lae
Lae
, Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
(Af) * Medan
Medan
, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Af)

* Medellín , Colombia
Colombia
(Af) * Moroni, Comoros
Comoros
(Af) * Paramaribo , Suriname
Suriname
(Af) * Pontianak , Indonesia
Indonesia
(Af) * Quibdó , Colombia
Colombia
(Af) * Ratnapura , Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(Af) * Salvador da Bahia , Brazil
Brazil
(Af) * Santos , Brazil
Brazil
(Af) * Singapore
Singapore
(Af) * Suva , Fiji
Fiji
(Af) * Toamasina , Madagascar
Madagascar
(Af) * Victoria , Seychelles (Af) * West Palm Beach, Florida, United States
United States
(Af)

Some of the places with this climate are indeed uniformly and monotonously wet throughout the year (e.g., the northwest Pacific coast of South and Central America
Central America
, from Ecuador
Ecuador
to Costa Rica
Costa Rica
; see, for instance, Andagoya , Colombia
Colombia
), but in many cases, the period of higher sun and longer days is distinctly wettest (as at Palembang
Palembang
, Indonesia
Indonesia
) or the time of lower sun and shorter days may have more rain (as at Sitiawan , Malaysia
Malaysia
).

(NOTE. The term aseasonal refers to the lack in the tropical zone of large differences in daylight hours and mean monthly (or daily) temperature throughout the year. Annual cyclic changes occur in the tropics, but not as predictably as those in the temperate zone, albeit unrelated to temperature, but to water availability whether as rain, mist, soil, or ground water. Plant response (e. g., phenology ), animal (feeding, migration, reproduction, etc.), and human activities (plant sowing, harvesting, hunting, fishing, etc.) are tuned to this 'seasonality'. Indeed, in tropical South America
South America
and Central America, the 'rainy season' (and the 'high water season') is called invierno or inverno, though it could occur in the Northern Hemisphere summer; likewise, the 'dry season' (and 'low water season') is called verano or verão, and can occur in the Northern Hemisphere winter).

Tropical
Tropical
Monsoon
Monsoon
Climate

Main article: Tropical monsoon climate

This type of climate results from the monsoon winds which change direction according to the seasons. This climate has a driest month (which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator) with rainfall less than 60 mm, but more than 1/25 the total annual precipitation. :208

EXAMPLES

* Cairns
Cairns
, Queensland
Queensland
, Australia
Australia
(Am) * Chittagong, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Am) * Coatzacoalcos , Mexico
Mexico
(Am) * Conakry
Conakry
, Guinea
Guinea
(Am) * Douala
Douala
, Cameroon
Cameroon
(Am) * Freetown
Freetown
, Sierre Leone (Am) * Guanare , Venezuela
Venezuela
(Am) * Huế
Huế
, Thừa Thiên– Huế
Huế
, Vietnam
Vietnam
(Am) * Jakarta
Jakarta
, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Am) * Kochi
Kochi
, India
India
(Am) * Libreville
Libreville
, Gabon
Gabon
(Am)

* Malabo , Equatorial Guinea
Guinea
(Am) * Malé
Malé
, Maldives
Maldives
(Am) * Manaus
Manaus
, Amazonas , Brazil
Brazil
(Am) * Miami
Miami
, Florida
Florida
, United States
United States
(Am) * Monrovia , Liberia
Liberia
(Am) * Port Harcourt
Port Harcourt
, Rivers State , Nigeria
Nigeria
(Am) * Puerto Ayacucho , Venezuela
Venezuela
(Am) * Qionghai City , China
China
(Am) * San Juan, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
(Am) * Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
, Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(Am) * Yangon
Yangon
, Myanmar
Myanmar
(Am)

Tropical
Tropical
Wet And Dry Or Savanna
Savanna
Climate

Main article: Tropical savanna climate

Aw climates have a pronounced dry season, with the driest month having precipitation less than 60 mm and less than 1/25 of the total annual precipitation. :208–11

EXAMPLES

* Abidjan, Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
(Aw, bordering on Am) * Abuja
Abuja
, Nigeria
Nigeria
(Aw) * Accra
Accra
, Ghana
Ghana
(Aw) * Asunción , Paraguay
Paraguay
(Aw, bordering on Cfa) * Bamako
Bamako
, Mali
Mali
(Aw) * Bangkok
Bangkok
, Thailand
Thailand
(Aw) * Banjul
Banjul
, The Gambia
The Gambia
(Aw) * Barquisimeto
Barquisimeto
, Venezuela
Venezuela
(Aw) * Brasília , Brazil
Brazil
(Aw) * Brazzaville
Brazzaville
, Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
(Aw) * Bujumbura
Bujumbura
, Burundi
Burundi
(Aw) * Cali
Cali
, Colombia
Colombia
(Aw) * Cancún, Mexico
Mexico
(Aw) * Caracas
Caracas
, Venezuela
Venezuela
(Aw) * Cartagena , Colombia
Colombia
(Aw) * Chennai
Chennai
, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, India
India
(Aw) * Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
, Tanzania
Tanzania
(Aw) * Darwin , Northern Territory
Northern Territory
, Australia
Australia
(Aw) * Dhaka, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Aw) * Dili , East Timor
East Timor
(Aw) * Guatemala
Guatemala
City, Guatemala
Guatemala
(Aw) * Guayaquil, Ecuador
Ecuador
(Aw) * Havana, Cuba
Cuba
(Aw, bordering on Am) * Ho Chi Minh City , Vietnam
Vietnam
(Aw) * Kano
Kano
, Nigeria
Nigeria
(Aw)

* Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
, Taiwan
Taiwan
(Aw) * Katherine, Northern Territory
Northern Territory
, Australia
Australia
(Aw) * Key West, Florida
Florida
, United States
United States
(Aw) * Kigali , Rwanda
Rwanda
(Aw) * Kingston, Jamaica
Jamaica
(Aw) * Kinshasa
Kinshasa
, Democratic Republic of Congo (Aw) * Kolkata
Kolkata
, West Bengal
West Bengal
, India
India
(Aw) * Kumasi
Kumasi
, Ghana
Ghana
(Aw) * Kupang
Kupang
, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Aw) * Lagos
Lagos
, Lagos
Lagos
State , Nigeria
Nigeria
(Aw) * Maputo
Maputo
, Mozambique
Mozambique
(Aw) * Mumbai , Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, India
India
(Aw) * Naples, Florida
Florida
, United States
United States
(Aw) * Panamá
Panamá
City , Panamá
Panamá
(Aw) * Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh
, Cambodia
Cambodia
(Aw) * Port-au-Prince , Haiti
Haiti
(Aw) * Port of Spain
Port of Spain
, Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
(Aw) * Ribeirão Preto , São Paulo
São Paulo
, Brazil
Brazil
(Aw) * Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
, Brazil
Brazil
(Aw, bordering on Am) * Santa Cruz de la Sierra , Bolivia
Bolivia
(Aw) * Sanya , Hainan
Hainan
, China
China
(Aw) * Surabaya
Surabaya
, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Aw) * Veracruz
Veracruz
, Veracruz
Veracruz
, Mexico
Mexico
(Aw) * Vientiane
Vientiane
, Laos
Laos
(Aw) * Yaoundé , Cameroon
Cameroon
(Aw)

Most places that have this climate are found at the outer margins of the tropical zone from the low teens to the mid-20s latitudes, but occasionally an inner-tropical location (e.g., San Marcos, Antioquia , Colombia
Colombia
) also qualifies. Actually, the Caribbean coast, eastward from the Gulf of Urabá on the Colombia
Colombia
Panamá
Panamá
border to the Orinoco River
Orinoco River
delta, on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
(about 4,000 km), have long dry periods (the extreme is the BSh climate (see below), characterised by very low, unreliable precipitation, present, for instance, in extensive areas in the Guajira, and Coro , western Venezuela
Venezuela
, the northernmost peninsulas in South America, which receive

Links: ------ /wiki/Climate_classification /wiki/History_of_Germans_in_Russia,_Ukraine_and_the_Soviet_Union /wiki/List_of_climate_scientists /wiki/Wladimir_K%C3%B6ppen /#cite_note-2 /#cite_note-3

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