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Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen
Wladimir Köppen
in 1884,[2][3] with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936.[4][5] Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) collaborated with Köppen on changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.[6][7] The Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification
Trewartha climate classification
system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad).[8]:200–1

Contents

1 Meaning of symbols 2 Scheme

2.1 Group A: Tropical/megathermal climates

2.1.1 Tropical
Tropical
rainforest climate 2.1.2 Tropical
Tropical
monsoon climate 2.1.3 Tropical
Tropical
wet and dry or savanna climate

2.2 Group B: Dry (desert and semi-arid) climates 2.3 Group C: Temperate/mesothermal climates

2.3.1 Mediterranean climates 2.3.2 Humid subtropical climates 2.3.3 Oceanic climate 2.3.4 Highland climates

2.4 Group D: Continental/microthermal climates

2.4.1 Hot summer continental climates 2.4.2 Warm summer continental or hemiboreal climates 2.4.3 Subarctic or boreal climates

2.5 Group E: Polar climates

3 Ecological significance 4 Trewartha climate classification
Trewartha climate classification
scheme 5 Other Köppen climate maps 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

8.1 Climate
Climate
records

Meaning of symbols[edit]

Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
scheme symbols description table[1]

1st 2nd 3rd

A (Tropical) f (Rainforest)

m (Monsoon)

w (Savanna, Wet)

s (Savanna, Dry)

B (Arid) W (Desert)

S (Steppe)

h (Hot)

k (Cold)

n (With frequent fog)[9]

C (Temperate) s (Dry summer)

w (Dry winter)

f (Without dry season)

a (Hot summer)

b (Warm summer)

c (Cold summer)

D (Cold (continental)) s (Dry summer)

w (Dry winter)

f (Without dry season)

a (Hot summer)

b (Warm summer)

c (Cold summer)

d (Very cold winter)

E (Polar) T (Tundra)

F (Eternal winter (ice cap))

The Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
scheme divides climates into five main climate groups: A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar).[10] The second letter indicates the seasonal precipitation type, while the third letter indicates the level of heat.[11] Group A: Tropical
Tropical
(megathermal) climates This type of climate has every month of the year with an average temperature of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher, with significant precipitation.

Af = Tropical
Tropical
rainforest climate; average precipitation of at least 60 mm (2.4 in) in every month. Am = Tropical
Tropical
monsoon climate; driest month (which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator) with precipitation less than 60 mm (2.4 in), but more than 4% the total annual precipitation. Aw or As = Tropical
Tropical
wet and dry or savanna climate; with the driest month having precipitation less than 60 mm (2.4 in) and less than 4% of the total annual precipitation.

Group B: Dry (arid and semiarid) climates This type of climate is defined by little precipitation. Multiply the average annual temperature in Celsius
Celsius
by 20, then add

(a) 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the spring and summer months (April–September in the Northern Hemisphere, or October–March in the Southern), or (b) 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the spring and summer, or (c) 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is received during the spring and summer.

If the annual precipitation is less than 50% of this threshold, the classification is BW (arid: desert climate); if it is in the range of 50%–100% of the threshold, the classification is BS (semi-arid: steppe climate). A third letter can be included to indicate temperature. Originally, h signified low-latitude climate (average annual temperature above 18 °C (64.4 °F)) while k signified middle-latitude climate (average annual temperature below 18 °C), but the more common practice today, especially in the United States, is to use h to mean the coldest month has an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F), with k denoting that at least one month's averages below 0 °C. The n is used to denote a climate characterized by frequent fog.[9][12][13]

BWh = Hot desert climate BWk = Cold desert climate BWn = Desert climate
Desert climate
with frequent fog[9][12][13] BSh = Hot semi-arid climate BSk = Cold semi-arid climate BSn = Semi-arid
Semi-arid
climate with frequent fog[9][12][13]

Group C: Temperate (mesothermal) climates This type of climate has the coldest month averaging between 0 °C (32 °F) and 18 °C (64.4 °F) and at least one month averaging above 10 °C (50 °F).

Cfa = Temperate rainy climate; coldest month averaging above −3 °C (27 °F), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). No dry months in the summer. Cfb = Temperate oceanic climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). Cfc = Subpolar oceanic climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). Cwa = Monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months). Cwb = Subtropical highland climate
Subtropical highland climate
or Monsoon-influenced temperate oceanic climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (an alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation received in the warmest six months). Cwc = Cold subtropical highland climate or Monsoon-influenced subpolar oceanic climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months). Csa = Hot-summer Mediterranean climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in). Csb = Warm-summer Mediterranean climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in). Csc = Cool-summer Mediterranean climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in).

Group D: Continental (microthermal) climates This type of climate has at least one month averaging below −3 °C (27 °F) and at least one month averaging above 10 °C (50 °F).

Dfa = Hot-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below −3 °C (27 °F), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). Dfb = Warm-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below −3 °C (27 °F), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). Dfc = Subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below −3 °C (27 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). Dfd = Extremely cold subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below −38 °C (−36.4 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). Dwa = Monsoon-influenced hot-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months). Dwb = Monsoon-influenced warm-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months). Dwc = Monsoon-influenced subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months). Dwd = Monsoon-influenced extremely cold subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below −38 °C (−36.4 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months). Dsa = Mediterranean-influenced hot-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F), average temperature of the warmest month above 22 °C (71.6 °F) and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in). Dsb = Mediterranean-influenced warm-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F), average temperature of the warmest month below 22 °C (71.6 °F) and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in). Dsc = subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in). Dsd = extremely cold, subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below −38 °C (−36.4 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in).

Group E: Polar and alpine (montane) climates This type of climate has every month of the year with an average temperature below 10 °C (50 °F).

ET = Tundra
Tundra
climate; average temperature of warmest month between 0 °C (32 °F) and 10 °C (50 °F). EF = Ice cap climate; eternal winter, with all 12 months of the year with average temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F).

Scheme[edit] Group A: Tropical/megathermal climates[edit] Tropical
Tropical
climates are characterized by constant high temperatures (at sea level and low elevations); all 12 months of the year have average temperatures of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher. They are subdivided as follows: Tropical
Tropical
rainforest climate[edit] Main article: Tropical
Tropical
rainforest climate All 12 months have average precipitation of at least 60 mm (2.4 in). These climates usually occur within 10° latitude of the equator. This climate is dominated by the doldrums low-pressure system all year round, so has no natural seasons in terms of thermal and moisture changes.

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Examples

Apia, Samoa
Samoa
(Af) Balikpapan, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Af) Davao, Philippines
Philippines
(Af) Georgetown, Guyana
Georgetown, Guyana
(Af) Hilo, Hawaii, United States
United States
(Af) Honiara, Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(Af) Innisfail, Queensland, Australia
Australia
(Af) Kampala, Uganda
Uganda
(Af) Kisumu, Kenya
Kisumu, Kenya
(Af) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Malaysia
(Af) Kuching, Malaysia
Malaysia
(Af) Lae, Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
(Af) Medan, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Af)

Medellín, Colombia
Colombia
(Af) Moroni, Comoros
Moroni, Comoros
(Af) Paramaribo, Suriname
Suriname
(Af) Pontianak, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Af) Quibdó, Colombia
Colombia
(Af) Ratnapura, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(Af) Salvador da Bahia, Brazil
Brazil
(Af) Santos, Brazil
Brazil
(Af) Singapore
Singapore
(Af) Suva, Fiji
Fiji
(Af) Toamasina, Madagascar
Madagascar
(Af) Victoria, Seychelles
Victoria, Seychelles
(Af) West Palm Beach, Florida, United States
United States
(Af)

Some of the places with this climate are indeed uniformly and monotonously wet throughout the year (e.g., the northwest Pacific coast of South and Central America, from Ecuador
Ecuador
to Costa Rica; see, for instance, Andagoya, Colombia), but in many cases, the period of higher sun and longer days is distinctly wettest (as at Palembang, Indonesia) or the time of lower sun and shorter days may have more rain (as at Sitiawan, Malaysia). (Note. The term aseasonal refers to the lack in the tropical zone of large differences in daylight hours and mean monthly (or daily) temperature throughout the year. Annual cyclic changes occur in the tropics, but not as predictably as those in the temperate zone, albeit unrelated to temperature, but to water availability whether as rain, mist, soil, or ground water. Plant response (e. g., phenology), animal (feeding, migration, reproduction, etc.), and human activities (plant sowing, harvesting, hunting, fishing, etc.) are tuned to this 'seasonality'. Indeed, in tropical South America
South America
and Central America, the 'rainy season' (and the 'high water season') is called invierno or inverno, though it could occur in the Northern Hemisphere summer; likewise, the 'dry season' (and 'low water season') is called verano or verão, and can occur in the Northern Hemisphere winter). Tropical
Tropical
monsoon climate[edit]

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Main article: Tropical
Tropical
monsoon climate This type of climate results from the monsoon winds which change direction according to the seasons. This climate has a driest month (which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator) with rainfall less than 60 mm, but more than 1/25 the total annual precipitation.[8]:208 Examples

Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Australia
(Am)[14] Chittagong, Bangladesh
Chittagong, Bangladesh
(Am) Coatzacoalcos, Mexico
Mexico
(Am) Conakry, Guinea
Guinea
(Am) Douala, Cameroon
Cameroon
(Am) Freetown, Sierre Leone
Sierre Leone
(Am) Guanare, Venezuela
Venezuela
(Am) Huế, Thừa Thiên–Huế, Vietnam
Vietnam
(Am) Jakarta, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Am) Kochi, India
India
(Am) Libreville, Gabon
Gabon
(Am)

Malabo, Equatorial Guinea
Guinea
(Am) Malé, Maldives
Maldives
(Am) Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil
Brazil
(Am) Miami, Florida, United States
United States
(Am) Monrovia, Liberia
Liberia
(Am) Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Nigeria
(Am) Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela
Venezuela
(Am) Qionghai City, China
China
(Am) San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Juan, Puerto Rico
(Am) Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(Am) Yangon, Myanmar
Myanmar
(Am)

Tropical
Tropical
wet and dry or savanna climate[edit]

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Main article: Tropical
Tropical
savanna climate Aw climates have a pronounced dry season, with the driest month having precipitation less than 60 mm and less than 1/25 of the total annual precipitation.[8]:208–11 Examples

Abidjan, Ivory Coast
Abidjan, Ivory Coast
(Aw, bordering on Am) Abuja, Nigeria
Nigeria
(Aw) Accra, Ghana
Ghana
(Aw) Asunción, Paraguay
Paraguay
(Aw, bordering on Cfa) Bamako, Mali
Mali
(Aw) Bangkok, Thailand
Thailand
(Aw) Banjul, The Gambia
The Gambia
(Aw) Barquisimeto, Venezuela
Venezuela
(Aw) Brasília, Brazil
Brazil
(Aw) Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
(Aw) Bujumbura, Burundi
Burundi
(Aw) Cali, Colombia
Colombia
(Aw) Cancun, Mexico
Mexico
(Aw) Caracas, Venezuela
Venezuela
(Aw) Cartagena, Colombia
Colombia
(Aw) Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
India
(Aw) Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Tanzania
(Aw) Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
Australia
(Aw) Dhaka, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Aw) Dili, East Timor
East Timor
(Aw) Guatemala
Guatemala
City, Guatemala
Guatemala
(Aw) Guayaquil, Ecuador
Ecuador
(Aw) Havana, Cuba
Cuba
(Aw, bordering on Am) Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Vietnam
(Aw) Kano, Nigeria
Nigeria
(Aw)

Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Taiwan
(Aw) Katherine, Northern Territory, Australia
Australia
(Aw) Key West, Florida, United States
United States
(Aw) Kigali, Rwanda
Rwanda
(Aw) Kingston, Jamaica
Kingston, Jamaica
(Aw) Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Democratic Republic of Congo
(Aw) Kolkata, West Bengal, India
India
(Aw) Kumasi, Ghana
Ghana
(Aw) Kupang, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Aw) Lagos, Lagos
Lagos
State, Nigeria
Nigeria
(Aw) Managua, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
(Aw) Maputo, Mozambique
Mozambique
(Aw) Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
India
(Aw) Naples, Florida, United States
United States
(Aw) Panamá
Panamá
City, Panamá
Panamá
(Aw) Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Cambodia
(Aw) Port-au-Prince, Haiti
Haiti
(Aw) Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
(Aw) Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
Brazil
(Aw) Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Brazil
(Aw, bordering on Am) Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia
Bolivia
(Aw) Sanya, Hainan, China
China
(Aw) Surabaya, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Aw) Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico
Mexico
(Aw) Vientiane, Laos
Laos
(Aw) Yaoundé, Cameroon
Cameroon
(Aw)

Most places that have this climate are found at the outer margins of the tropical zone from the low teens to the mid-20s latitudes, but occasionally an inner-tropical location (e.g., San Marcos, Antioquia, Colombia) also qualifies. Actually, the Caribbean coast, eastward from the Gulf of Urabá
Gulf of Urabá
on the Colombia– Panamá
Panamá
border to the Orinoco River delta, on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
(about 4,000 km), have long dry periods (the extreme is the BSh climate (see below), characterised by very low, unreliable precipitation, present, for instance, in extensive areas in the Guajira, and Coro, western Venezuela, the northernmost peninsulas in South America, which receive <300 mm total annual precipitation, practically all in two or three months). This condition extends to the Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
and Greater Antilles forming the circum-Caribbean dry belt. The length and severity of the dry season diminishes inland (southward); at the latitude of the Amazon River—which flows eastward, just south of the equatorial line—the climate is Af. East from the Andes, between the dry, arid Caribbean and the ever-wet Amazon are the Orinoco River's llanos or savannas, from where this climate takes its name. Sometimes As is used in place of Aw if the dry season occurs during the time of higher sun and longer days. This is the case in parts of Hawaii, northwestern Dominican Republic, East Africa, and the Brazilian Northeastern Coast. In most places that have tropical wet and dry climates, however, the dry season occurs during the time of lower sun and shorter days because of rain shadow effects during the 'high-sun' part of the year. Examples

Monte Cristi, Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(As) Recife, Brazil
Brazil
(As) Natal, Brazil
Brazil
(As) Trincomalee, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(As) Mombasa, Kenya
Kenya
(As)

Group B: Dry (desert and semi-arid) climates[edit]

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Main articles: Desert climate
Desert climate
and Semi-arid
Semi-arid
climate These climates are characterized by actual precipitation less than a threshold value set equal to the potential evapotranspiration.[8]:212 The threshold value (in millimeters) is determined as: Multiply the average annual temperature in °C by 20, then add (a) 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the high-sun half of the year (April through September in the Northern Hemisphere, or October through March in the Southern), or (b) 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the applicable period, or (c) 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is so received. According to the modified Köppen classification system used by modern climatologists, total precipitation in the warmest six months of the year is taken as reference instead of the total precipitation in the high-sun half of the year.[15] If the annual precipitation is less than 50% of this threshold, the classification is BW (arid: desert climate); if it is in the range of 50%–100% of the threshold, the classification is BS (semi-arid: steppe climate). A third letter can be included to indicate temperature. Originally, h signified low-latitude climate (average annual temperature above 18 °C) while k signified middle-latitude climate (average annual temperature below 18 °C), but the more common practice today, especially in the United States, is to use h to mean the coldest month has an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F), with k denoting that at least one month averages below 0 °C. Desert areas situated along the west coasts of continents at tropical or near-tropical locations are characterized by cooler temperatures than encountered elsewhere at comparable latitudes (due to the nearby presence of cold ocean currents) and frequent fog and low clouds, despite the fact that these places rank among the driest on earth in terms of actual precipitation received. This climate is sometimes labelled BWn.[9][12][13] The BSn category can be found in foggy coastal steppes.[9][12][13] Desert climate
Desert climate
examples

Alice Springs, Australia
Australia
(BWh) Almería, Andalusia, Spain
Spain
(BWh/BWk bordering on BSh/BSk) Baghdad, Iraq
Iraq
(BWh)) Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
Mexico
(BWh) Death Valley, California, United States
United States
(BWh) Eilat, Southern District, Israel
Israel
(BWh) Karachi, Pakistan
Karachi, Pakistan
(BWh)

Mecca, Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(BWh) Cairo, Egypt
Egypt
(BWh) Timbuktu, Mali
Mali
(BWh) Turpan, Xinjiang, China
China
(BWk) Damascus, Syria
Syria
(BWk) Lima, Peru
Peru
(BWn)

Semi-arid
Semi-arid
examples

Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Pakistan
(BSh) Jodhpur, India
India
(BSh) Oranjestad, Aruba
Oranjestad, Aruba
(BSh) Alicante, Spain
Spain
(BSh) Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
Spain
(BSh) Ivanhoe, New South Wales, Australia
Australia
(BSh) Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
United States
(BSh) Odessa, Texas, United States
United States
(BSh) Monterrey, Mexico, (BSh) Querétaro
Querétaro
City, Querétaro, Mexico
Mexico
(BSh) Maracaibo, Venezuela
Venezuela
(BSh) Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil
Brazil
(BSh) Piraeus, Greece
Greece
(BSh) Nicosia, Cyprus
Cyprus
(BSh) Amman, Amman
Amman
Governorate, Jordan
Jordan
(BSh) Tripoli, Libya
Libya
(BSh) Mogadishu, Somalia
Somalia
(BSh) Dakar, Senegal
Senegal
(BSh) Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
(BSh) Niamey, Niger
Niger
(BSh) N'Djamena, Chad
Chad
(BSh) Luanda, Angola
Angola
(BSh) Windhoek, Namibia
Namibia
(BSh)

Yerevan, Armenia
Armenia
(BSk bordering Dfa) Baku, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(BSk) Denver, Colorado, United States
United States
(BSk) Zaragoza, Spain
Spain
(BSk) Konya, Turkey
Konya, Turkey
(BSk) Zacatecas
Zacatecas
City, Zacatecas, Mexico
Mexico
(BSk) Tabriz, East Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Province, Iran
Iran
(BSk) Ulan-Ude, Russia
Russia
(BSk) Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
Canada
(BSk) Brooks, Alberta, Canada
Canada
(BSk) Kabul, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(BSk) Aleppo, Syria
Syria
(BSk) Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China
China
(BSk) Lhasa, Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region, China
China
(BSk bordering on Dwb/Cwb) Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Mongolia
(BSk bordering on Dwb/Dwc) Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina
Argentina
(BSk) La Quiaca, Jujuy, Argentina
Argentina
(BSk) L'Agulhas, Western Cape, South Africa
South Africa
(BSn) Sana'a, Yemen
Yemen
(BSk)

On occasion, a fourth letter is added to indicate if either the winter or summer half of the year is "wetter" than the other half. To qualify, the wettest month must have at least 60 mm (2.4 in) of average precipitation if all 12 months are above 18 °C (64 °F), or 30 mm (1.2 in) if not; plus at least 70% of the total precipitation must be in the same half of the year as the wettest month — but the letter used indicates when the 'dry' season occurs, not the 'wet' one. This would result in Khartoum, Sudan, being reckoned as BWhw; Niamey, Niger, as BShw; Alexandria, Egypt, as BWhs; Asbi'ah, Libya, as BShs; Ömnögovi Province, Mongolia, as BWkw; and Xining, Qinghai, China, as BSkw (BWks and BSks do not exist if 0 °C in the coldest month is recognized as the h/k boundary.[citation needed]) If the standards for neither w nor s are met, no fourth letter is added. Group C: Temperate/mesothermal climates[edit]

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Main article: Temperate climate In the Koppen climate system, temperate climates are defined as having an average temperature above -3 C (26.6 F) (or 0 °C in some versions, as noted previously) in their coldest month but below 18 C (64.4 F). The average temperature of -3 C roughly coincides with the equatorward limit of frozen ground and snowcover lasting for a month or more. The second letter indicates the precipitation pattern—w indicates dry winters (driest winter month average precipitation less than one-tenth wettest summer month average precipitation. s indicates at least three times as much rain in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer. f means significant precipitation in all seasons (neither above-mentioned set of conditions fulfilled).[1] The third letter indicates the degree of summer heat—a indicates warmest month average temperature above 22 °C (72 °F) while b indicates warmest month averaging below 22 °C. Mediterranean climates[edit] Main article: Mediterranean climate These climates usually occur on the western sides of continents between the latitudes of 30° and 45°.[16] These climates are in the polar front region in winter, and thus have moderate temperatures and changeable, rainy weather. Summers are hot and dry, due to the domination of the subtropical high pressure systems, except in the immediate coastal areas, where summers are milder due to the nearby presence of cold ocean currents that may bring fog but prevent rain.[8]:221–3 Examples

Beirut, Lebanon
Lebanon
(Csa) Latakia, Syria
Syria
(Csa) Halabja, Iraq
Iraq
(Csa) Jerusalem, Israel
Israel
(Csa) Tel Aviv, Israel
Israel
(Csa) Ramallah, Palestine (Csa) Tangier, Morocco
Morocco
(Csa) Casablanca, Morocco
Morocco
(Csa) Algiers, Algeria
Algeria
(Csa) Valletta, Malta
Malta
(Csa) Rome, Italy
Italy
(Csa) Naples, Italy
Italy
(Csa) Seville, Spain
Spain
(Csa) Málaga, Spain
Spain
(Csa) Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Spain
(Csa) Lisbon, Portugal
Portugal
(Csa) Faro, Portugal
Portugal
(Csa)

Monaco
Monaco
(Csa) Marseille, France
France
(Csa) Nice, France
France
(Csa) Athens, Greece
Greece
(Csa bordering on BSh) Tunis, Tunisia
Tunisia
(Csa) Antalya, Turkey
Turkey
(Csa) Izmir, Turkey
Turkey
(Csa) Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(Csa) Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(Csa) Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran
Iran
(Csa) Los Angeles, California, United States
United States
(Csa/Csb bordering on BSh/BSk) Sacramento, California, United States
United States
(Csa) Medford, Oregon, United States
United States
(Csa) Perth, Australia
Australia
(Csa) Adelaide, Australia
Australia
(Csa)

Dry-summer sometimes extends to additional areas not typically associated with a typical Mediterranean climate, as their warmest month mean doesn't reach 22 °C (71.6 °F), they are classified as (Csb).[1] Some of these areas would border the Oceanic climate (Cfb), except their dry-summer patterns meet Köppen's Cs minimum thresholds. Examples

Santiago, Chile
Chile
(Csb bordering BSk) A Coruña, Spain
Spain
(Csb) Essaouira, Morocco
Morocco
(Csb) Porto, Portugal
Portugal
(Csb) Potenza, Italy
Italy
(Csb) San Francisco, California, United States
United States
(Csb) Santa Barbara, California, United States
United States
(Csb) Seattle, Washington, United States
United States
(Csb) Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
Canada
(Csb) Cape Town, South Africa
South Africa
(Csb) Albany, Western Australia, Australia
Australia
(Csb)

Cold-summer Mediterranean climates (Csc) exist in high-elevation areas adjacent to coastal Csb climate areas, where the strong maritime influence prevents the average winter monthly temperature from dropping below 0 °C. This climate is rare and is predominantly found in climate fringes and isolated areas of the Cascades and Andes Mountains, as the dry-summer climate extends further poleward in the Americas than elsewhere.[8] Rare instances of this climate can be found in some coastal locations in the North Atlantic and at high altitudes in Hawaii. Examples

Balmaceda, Chile
Chile
(Csc) Haleakalā
Haleakalā
Summit, Hawaii, United States
United States
(Csc)

Humid subtropical climates[edit] Main article: Humid subtropical climate These climates usually occur on the eastern coasts and eastern sides of continents, usually in the high 20s and 30s latitudes. Unlike the dry summer Mediterranean climates, humid subtropical climates have a warm and wet flow from the tropics that creates warm and moist conditions in the summer months. As such, summer (not winter as is the case in Mediterranean climates) is often the wettest season. The flow out of the subtropical highs and the summer monsoon creates a southerly flow from the tropics that brings warm and moist air to the lower east sides of continents. This flow is often what brings the frequent but short-lived summer thundershowers so typical of the more southerly subtropical climates like the far southern United States, southern China
China
and Japan.[8]:223–6 Examples

Buenos Aires, Argentina
Argentina
(Cfa) Montevideo, Uruguay
Uruguay
(Cfa) Campinas, Brazil
Brazil
(Cfa) Porto
Porto
Alegre, Brazil
Brazil
(Cfa) São Paulo, Brazil
Brazil
(Cfa) Brisbane, Australia
Australia
(Cfa) Sydney, Australia
Australia
(Cfa) Albury, Australia
Australia
(Cfa) Washington DC, United States
United States
(Cfa) Orlando, Florida, United States
United States
(Cfa) Dallas, Texas, United States] (Cfa) Astara, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(Cfa) Horta, Azores, Portugal
Portugal
(Cfa) Adapazarı, Turkey
Turkey
(Cfa)

Belgrade, Serbia
Belgrade, Serbia
(Cfa) Lugano, Switzerland
Switzerland
(Cfa, bordering on Cfb) Sochi, Russia
Russia
(Cfa) Kutaisi, Georgia (Cfa) Srinagar, India
India
(Cfa) Shanghai, China
China
(Cfa) Nanjing, China
China
(Cfa) Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(Cfa) Tokyo, Japan
Japan
(Cfa) Osaka, Japan
Japan
(Cfa) Milan, Italy
Italy
(Cfa) Venice, Italy
Italy
(Cfa) Durban, South Africa
South Africa
(Cfa)

Subtropical-Dry Winter (Cwa) is monsoonal influenced, having the classic dry winter/wet summer pattern associated with tropical monsoonal climates. Examples

Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo
Democratic Republic of Congo
(Cwa) Lusaka, Zambia
Zambia
(Cwa) Córdoba, Argentina
Argentina
(Cwa) Santiago
Santiago
del Estero, Argentina
Argentina
(Cwa) Mackay, [Queensland]], Australia
Australia
(Cwa) Islamabad, Pakistan
Pakistan
(Cwa) Sialkot, Pakistan
Pakistan
(Cwa) New Delhi, India
India
(Cwa) Patna, India
India
(Cwa)

Imphal, India
India
(Cwa) Kathmandu, Nepal
Nepal
(Cwa) Haikou, China
China
(Cwa) Zhengzhou, China
China
(Cwa) Chengdu, Sichuan, China
China
(Cwa) Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(Cwa) Taunggyi, Myanmar
Myanmar
(Cwa) Hanoi, Vietnam
Vietnam
(Cwa) Guadalajara, Mexico
Mexico
(Cwa)

Oceanic climate[edit] Main article: Oceanic climate Cfb climates usually occur in the higher middle latitudes on the western sides of continents between the latitudes of 40° and 60°; they are typically situated immediately poleward of the Mediterranean climates, although in Australia
Australia
and extreme southern Africa this climate is found immediately poleward of temperate climates, and at a somewhat lower latitude. In western Europe, this climate occurs in coastal areas up to 63°N in Norway. These climates are dominated all year round by the polar front, leading to changeable, often overcast weather. Summers are cool due to cool ocean currents, but winters are milder than other climates in similar latitudes, but usually very cloudy. Cfb climates are also encountered at high elevations in certain subtropical and tropical areas, where the climate would be that of a subtropical/tropical rain forest if not for the altitude. These climates are called "highlands".[8]:226–9 Examples

Paris, France
France
(Cfb) Bordeaux, France
France
(Cfb) Dunkirk, France
France
(Cfb) Skagen, Denmark
Denmark
(Cfb, bordering on Dfb) Copenhagen, Denmark
Denmark
(Cfb, bordering on Dfb) Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
Norway
(Cfb) Berlin, Germany
Germany
(Cfb) Cologne, Germany
Germany
(Cfb) Munich, Bavaria, Germany
Germany
(Cfb, bordering on Dfb) Vienna, Austria
Vienna, Austria
(Cfb) Zürich, Switzerland
Switzerland
(Cfb, bordering on Dfb) Vaduz, Liechtenstein
Vaduz, Liechtenstein
(Cfb) London, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(Cfb) Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(Cfb) Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(Cfb) Dublin, Ireland
Dublin, Ireland
(Cfb) Brussels, Belgium
Brussels, Belgium
(Cfb) Amsterdam, Netherlands
Amsterdam, Netherlands
(Cfb) Luxembourg City, Luxembourg
Luxembourg City, Luxembourg
(Cfb) Bilbao, Spain
Spain
(Cfb) Santiago
Santiago
de Compostela, Spain
Spain
(Cfb) Andorra
Andorra
la Vella, Andorra
Andorra
(Cfb) Corvo Island, Azores, Portugal
Portugal
(Cfb, bordering on Cfa)

Flores Island, Azores, Portugal
Portugal
(Cfb, bordering on Cfa) Budapest, Hungary
Hungary
(Cfb) Zagreb, Croatia
Croatia
(Cfb, bordering on Dfb) Ljubljana, Slovenia
Ljubljana, Slovenia
(Cfb, bordering on Dfb) Zonguldak, Turkey
Turkey
(Cfb) Auckland, North Island, New Zealand
New Zealand
(Cfb) Wellington, New Zealand
New Zealand
(Cfb) Prince Rupert, British Columbia, Canada
Canada
(Cfb) Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Canada
(Cfb, bordering on Csb) Forks, Washington, United States
United States
(Cfb) Ketchikan, Alaska, United States
United States
(Cfb) Block Island, Rhode Island, United States
United States
(Cfb) George, Western Cape, South Africa
South Africa
(Cfb) Port Elizabeth, South Africa
South Africa
(Cfb) Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Australia
(Cfb) Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Australia
(Cfb) Collinsvale, Tasmania, Australia
Australia
(Cfb bordering on Cfc) Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Province, Argentina
Argentina
(Cfb) Valdivia, Los Ríos Region, Chile
Chile
(Cfb)

Subpolar oceanic climates (Cfc) occur poleward of or at higher elevations than the maritime temperate climates, and are mostly confined either to narrow coastal strips on the western poleward margins of the continents, or, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, to islands off such coasts. They occur in both hemispheres, most often at latitudes from 60° north and south to 70° north and south.[8] Examples

Reykjavík, Iceland
Iceland
(Cfc, borders on Dfc) Tórshavn, Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
(Cfc) Røst, Norway
Norway
(Cfc) Mount Read, Tasmania, Australia
Australia
(Cfc, borders on ET) Auckland
Auckland
Islands, New Zealand
New Zealand
(Cfc) Punta Arenas, Chile
Chile
(Cfc) Unalaska, Alaska, United States
United States
(Cfc)

Highland climates[edit] Dry-winter highland climate (Cwb) is a type of climate mainly found in highlands inside the tropics of Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, Madagascar, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
and South Africa
South Africa
or central Argentina
Argentina
and areas outside of the tropics (such as in the subtropics). Winters are noticeable and dry, and summers can be very rainy. In the tropics, the rainy season is provoked by the tropical air masses and the dry winters by subtropical high pressure. Examples

Da Lat, Vietnam
Vietnam
(Cwb) Shimla, India
India
(Cwb) Thimphu, Bhutan
Bhutan
(Cwb) Mokhotlong, Lesotho
Lesotho
(Cwb) Mbabane, Swaziland
Swaziland
(Cwb) Nairobi, Kenya
Kenya
(Cwb) Baguio, Philippines
Philippines
(Cwb) Kunming, China
China
(Cwb) Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico
Mexico
(Cwb) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(Cwb) Harare, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(Cwb) Antananarivo, Madagascar
Madagascar
(Cwb) Johannesburg, South Africa
South Africa
(Cwb) Cusco, Peru
Peru
(Cwb) La Paz, Bolivia
Bolivia
(Cwb bordering on Cwc) Salta, Argentina
Argentina
(Cwb)

Highland climates with uniform rainfall (Cfb) are a type of oceanic climate mainly found in highlands of Australia, such as in or around the Great Dividing Range
Great Dividing Range
in the states of New South Wales
New South Wales
and Victoria, and also sparsely in other continents, such as in South America, among others. Unlike a typical Cwb climate, they tend to have rainfall spread evenly throughout the year. They have characteristics of both the Cfb and Cfa climates. Though unlike these climates, they have a high diurnal temperature variation and low humidity, owing to their inland location and relatively high elevation. Examples

Quito, Pichincha Province, Ecuador
Ecuador
(Cfb) Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
Colombia
(Cfb) Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil
Brazil
(Cfb) São Joaquim, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Brazil
(Cfb) Campos do Jordão, São Paulo, Brazil
Brazil
(Cfb) Boone, North Carolina, United States
United States
(Cfb) Constanza, Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(Cfb) Katoomba, New South Wales, Australia
Australia
(Cfb) Cameron Highlands, Malaysia
Malaysia
(Cfb) Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(Cfb)

Group D: Continental/microthermal climates[edit]

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Main article: Continental climate

The snowy city of Sapporo

These climates have an average temperature above 10 °C (50 °F) in their warmest months, and a coldest month average below −3 °C (or 0 °C in some versions, as noted previously). These usually occur in the interiors of continents and on their upper east coasts, normally north of 40°N. In the Southern Hemisphere, group D climates are extremely rare due to the smaller land masses in the middle latitudes and the almost complete absence of land at 40–60°S, existing only in some highland locations. Hot summer continental climates[edit] Main article: Hot-summer humid continental climate Dfa climates usually occur in the high 30s and low 40s latitudes, with a qualifying average temperature in the warmest month of greater than 22 °C/72 °F. In Europe, these climates tend to be much drier than in North America. In eastern Asia, Dwa climates extend further south due to the influence of the Siberian high pressure system, which also causes winters there to be dry, and summers can be very wet because of monsoon circulation. Dsa exists at higher elevations adjacent to areas with hot summer Mediterranean (Csa) climates.[8]:231–2 Examples

Almaty, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(Dfa) Oral, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(Dfa) Aomori, Aomori
Aomori, Aomori
Prefecture, Japan
Japan
(Dfa) Nagano, Nagano
Nagano, Nagano
Prefecture, Japan
Japan
(Dfa) Sapporo, Japan
Japan
(Dfa, bordering on Dfb) Chicago, Illinois, United States
United States
(Dfa) Boston, Massachusetts, United States
United States
(Dfa) Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
United States
(Dfa) Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Canada
(Dfa, bordering on Dfb) Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Canada
(Dfa, bordering on Dfb) Windsor, Ontario, Canada
Canada
(Dfa) Bucharest, Romania
Romania
(Dfa) Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Russia
(Dfa) Volgograd, Russia
Russia
(Dfa) Pyongyang, North Korea
North Korea
(Dwa) Seoul, South Korea
South Korea
(Dwa) Beijing, China
China
(Dwa) Harbin, China
China
(Dwa) Tianjin, China
China
(Dwa)

Dsa exists only at higher elevations adjacent to areas with hot summer Mediterranean (Csa) climates. Examples

Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(Dsa) Saqqez, Kurdistan Province, Iran
Iran
(Dsa) Arak, Markazi Province, Iran
Iran
(Dsa) Hakkâri, Turkey
Turkey
(Dsa) Muş, Turkey
Turkey
(Dsa) Cambridge, Idaho, United States
United States
(Dsa)

Warm summer continental or hemiboreal climates[edit] Main article: Warm-summer humid continental climate Dfb and Dwb climates are immediately poleward of hot summer continental climates, generally in the high 40s and low 50s latitudes in North America and Asia, and also extending to higher latitudes in central and eastern Europe and Russia, between the maritime temperate and continental subarctic climates, where it extends up to 65 degrees latitude in places.[8] Examples

Kushiro, Hokkaido, Japan
Japan
(Dfb) Karaganda, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(Dfb) Stockholm, Sweden
Sweden
(Dfb) Oslo, Norway
Norway
(Dfb) Lillehammer, Norway
Norway
(Dfb) Helsinki, Finland
Finland
(Dfb) Tallinn, Estonia
Estonia
(Dfb) Riga, Latvia
Latvia
(Dfb) Vilnius, Lithuania
Lithuania
(Dfb) Kiev, Ukraine
Ukraine
(Dfb) Moscow, Russia
Russia
(Dfb) Kaliningrad, Russia
Russia
(Dfb) Saint Petersburg, Russia
Russia
(Dfb) Minsk, Belarus
Belarus
(Dfb) Warsaw, Poland
Poland
(Dfb)

Pristina, Kosovo
Pristina, Kosovo
(Dfb) Erzurum, Turkey
Turkey
(Dfb) Ardahan, Turkey
Turkey
(Dfb) Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Canada
(Dfb) Quebec
Quebec
City, Quebec, Canada
Canada
(Dfb) Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Canada
(Dfb) Portland, Maine, United States
United States
(Dfb) Buffalo, New York, United States
United States
(Dfb) Marquette, Michigan, United States
United States
(Dfb) Cabramurra, New South Wales, Australia
Australia
(Dfb) Heihe, China
China
(Dwb) Vladivostok, Russia
Russia
(Dwb) Irkutsk, Russia
Russia
(Dwb) Baruunturuun, Mongolia
Mongolia
(Dwb) Pyeongchang County, South Korea
South Korea
(Dwb) Mount Rushmore, South Dakota, United States
United States
(Dwb)

Dsb arises from the same scenario as Dsa, but at even higher altitudes or latitudes, and chiefly in North America, since the Mediterranean climates extend further poleward than in Eurasia. Examples

Sivas, Turkey
Turkey
(Dsb) Roghun, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(Dsb) Dras, India
India
(Dsb) Flagstaff, Arizona, United States
United States
(Dsb) South Lake Tahoe, California, United States
United States
(Dsb) Wallace, Idaho, United States
United States
(Dsb)

Subarctic or boreal climates[edit] Main article: Subarctic climate Dfc, Dsc and Dwc climates occur poleward of the other group D climates, generally in the 50 and low 60 degrees of North latitude. In some places, it extends northward to beyond 70°N latitude.[8]:232–5 Examples:

Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada
Canada
(Dfc) Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada
Canada
(Dfc) Labrador City, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
Canada
(Dfc) Anchorage, Alaska, United States
United States
(Dfc) Fairbanks, Alaska, United States
United States
(Dfc) Fraser, Colorado, United States
United States
(Dfc) Mount Buller, Victoria, Australia
Australia
(Dfc) Charlotte Pass, New South Wales, Australia
Australia
(Dfc) Murmansk, Murmansk
Murmansk
Oblast, Russia
Russia
(Dfc) Arkhangelsk, Russia
Russia
(Dfc)

Aldan, Russia
Russia
(Dfc) Tromsø, Norway
Norway
(Dfc) St. Moritz, Grisons, Switzerland
Switzerland
(Dfc) Kangerlussuaq, Greenland
Greenland
(Dfc) Homer, Alaska, United States
United States
(Dsc) Bodie, California, United States
United States
(Dsc) Brian Head, Utah, United States
United States
(Dsc) Mohe County, Heilongjiang, China
China
(Dwc) Yushu City, Qinghai, China
China
(Dwc) Mörön, Mongolia
Mongolia
(Dwc) Lukla, Nepal
Nepal
(Dwc)

Places with this climate (Dfd,Dwd,Dsd) have severe winters, with the temperature in their coldest month lower than −38 °C. These climates occur only in eastern Siberia. The names of some of the places with this climate have become veritable synonyms for extreme, severe winter cold. Examples

Yakutsk, Sakha Republic, Russia
Russia
(Dfd) Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic, Russia
Russia
(Dfd) Amga, Sakha Republic, Russia
Russia
(Dfd) Oymyakon, Sakha Republic, Russia
Russia
(Dwd) Seymchan, Magadan Oblast, Russia
Russia
(Dwd)

Group E: Polar climates[edit]

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In the Köppen climate system, polar climates are defined as the warmest temperature of any month is below 10 °C (50 °F). Polar climates are further divided into two types, tundra climates and icecap climates: Tundra climate
Tundra climate
(ET and ETf): Warmest month has an average temperature between 0 and 10 °C. These climates occur on the northern edges of the North American and Eurasian land masses (generally north of 70 °N although it may be found farther south depending on local conditions), and on nearby islands. ET climates are also found on some islands near the Antarctic Convergence, and at high elevations outside the polar regions, above the tree line. Examples

Mount Rainier, Washington, United States
United States
(ET) Macquarie Island, Australia
Australia
(ET) Crozet Islands
Crozet Islands
(ET) Campbell Island, New Zealand
New Zealand
(ET) Kerguelen Islands
Kerguelen Islands
(ET) Prince Edwards Islands
Prince Edwards Islands
(ET) Stanley, Falkland Islands, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(ET), borders subpolar oceanic (Cfc) Ushuaia, Argentina
Argentina
(ET), (borders on Cfc) Mount Wellington, Tasmania, Australia
Australia
(ET) Nagqu, Tibet, China
China
(ET) Letseng diamond mine, Lesotho
Lesotho
(ET, bordering on Cfc and Dfc) La Rinconada, Peru
Peru
(ET) Cairn Gorm, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(ET)

These climates are a colder and more continental variants of tundra. They would have characteristics of the ice cap climate, but still manage to see monthly average temperatures above 0 °C (32 °F): Examples

Nanortalik, Greenland
Greenland
(ETf) Mount Fuji, Japan
Japan
(ETf) Murghab, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(ETf) Mount Washington, New Hampshire, United States
United States
(ETf) Zugspitze, Bavaria, Germany
Germany
(ETf) Eureka, Nunavut, Canada
Canada
(ETf) Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada
Canada
(ETf) Inukjuak, Quebec, Canada
Canada
(ETf) Nuuk, Greenland
Greenland
(ETf, bordering on Dfc) Svalbard, Norway
Norway
(ETf) Mys Shmidta, Russia
Russia
(ETf) Dikson Island, Russia
Russia
(ETf) Nord, Greenland
Greenland
(ETf) Esperanza Base, Antarctica
Antarctica
(ETf)

Ice cap climate
Ice cap climate
(EF): This climate is dominant in Antarctica
Antarctica
and inner Greenland, but also occurs at extremely high altitudes on mountains, above even tundra. Monthly average temperatures never exceed 0 °C (32 °F). Examples

Mount Ararat, Turkey
Turkey
(EF) Grossglockner, Carinthia, Austria
Austria
(EF) Mount Everest, China/ Nepal
Nepal
(EF) Summit Camp, Greenland
Greenland
(EF) Scott Base, Antarctica
Antarctica
(EF) Vostok Station, Antarctica
Antarctica
(EF), location of the lowest air temperature ever recorded on Earth. McMurdo Station, Antarctica
Antarctica
(EF) Byrd Station, Antarctica
Antarctica
(EF)

Occasionally, a third, lower-case letter is added to ET climates (distinguishing between ETf, ETs, and ETw), if either the summer or winter is clearly drier than the other half of the year. When the option to include this letter is exercised, the same standards that are used for Groups C and D apply, with the additional requirement that the wettest month must have an average of at least 30 mm precipitation (Group E climates can be as dry or even drier than Group B climates based on actual precipitation received, but their rate of evaporation is much lower). Seasonal precipitation letters are almost never attached to EF climates, mainly due to the difficulty in distinguishing between falling and blowing snow, as snow is the sole source of moisture in these climates.[citation needed] Ecological significance[edit] The Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
is based on the empirical relationship between climate and vegetation. This classification provides an efficient way to describe climatic conditions defined by temperature and precipitation and their seasonality with a single metric. Because climatic conditions identified by the Köppen classification are ecologically relevant, it has been widely used to map geographic distribution of long term climate and associated ecosystem conditions.[17] Over the recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using the classification to identify changes in climate and potential changes in vegetation over time.[11] The most important ecological significance of the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
is that it helps to predict the dominant vegetation type based on the climatic data and vice versa.[18] In 2015, a Nanjing
Nanjing
University paper published in Nature analyzing climate classifications found that between 1950 and 2010, approximately 5.7% of all land area worldwide had moved from wetter and colder classifications to drier and hotter classifications. The authors also found that the change "cannot be explained as natural variations but are driven by anthropogenic factors."[19] Trewartha climate classification
Trewartha climate classification
scheme[edit]

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Main article: Trewartha climate classification The Trewartha climate classification
Trewartha climate classification
is a climate classification system published by American geographer Glenn Thomas Trewartha in 1966, and updated in 1980. It is a modified version of the 1899 Köppen system, created to answer some of the deficiencies of the Köppen system. The Trewartha system attempts to redefine the middle latitudes to be closer to vegetation zoning and genetic climate systems. It was considered a more true or "real world" reflection of the global climate. For example, under the standard Köppen system, in the United States, western Washington and Oregon
Oregon
are classed into the same climate zone as southern California, even though the two regions have strikingly different weather and vegetation. Under the old Köppen system cool oceanic climates like that of London
London
or Seattle
Seattle
were classed in the same zone as hot subtropical cities like Savannah, Georgia
Savannah, Georgia
or Brisbane, Australia. In the United States, locations like Colorado
Colorado
and Iowa
Iowa
which have long, severe winter climates where plants are completely dormant, were classed into the same climate zone as Louisiana
Louisiana
or northern Florida
Florida
which have mild winters and a green winter landscape. Other Köppen climate maps[edit] All maps use the ≥0 °C definition for temperate climates and the 18 °C annual mean temperature threshold to distinguish between hot and cold dry climates.[1]

North America

Europe

Russia

Central Asia

East Asia

South America

Africa

Middle East

South Asia

Southeast Asia

Australia/Oceania

See also[edit]

Holdridge life zones
Holdridge life zones
climate classification by three dimensions: precipitation, humidity, and potential evapotranspiration ratio Savory brittleness scale Hardiness zone

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.  (direct: Final Revised Paper) ^ Köppen, Wladimir (1884). Translated by Volken, E.; Brönnimann, S. "Die Wärmezonen der Erde, nach der Dauer der heissen, gemässigten und kalten Zeit und nach der Wirkung der Wärme auf die organische Welt betrachtet" [The thermal zones of the earth according to the duration of hot, moderate and cold periods and to the impact of heat on the organic world)]. Meteorologische Zeitschrift (published 2011). 20 (3): 351–360. Bibcode:2011MetZe..20..351K. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2011/105 – via http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/mz/2011/00000020/00000003/art00009.  ^ Rubel, F.; Kottek, M (2011). "Comments on: 'The thermal zones of the Earth' by Wladimir Köppen
Wladimir Köppen
(1884)". Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 20 (3): 361–365. Bibcode:2011MetZe..20..361R. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2011/0258.  ^ Köppen, Wladimir (1918). "Klassification der Klimate nach Temperatur, Niederschlag and Jahreslauf". Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen. 64. pp. 193–203, 243–248 – via http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/koeppen.htm.  ^ Köppen, Wladimir (1936). "C". In Köppen, Wladimir; Geiger (publisher), Rudolf. Das geographische System der Klimate [The geographic system of climates] (PDF). Handbuch der Klimatologie. 1. Berlin: Borntraeger.  ^ Geiger, Rudolf (1954). "Klassifikation der Klimate nach W. Köppen" [Classification of climates after W. Köppen]. Landolt-Börnstein – Zahlenwerte und Funktionen aus Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Geophysik und Technik, alte Serie. Berlin: Springer. 3. pp. 603–607.  ^ Geiger, Rudolf (1961). Überarbeitete Neuausgabe von Geiger, R.: Köppen-Geiger / Klima der Erde.  (Wandkarte 1:16 Mill.) – Klett-Perthes, Gotha. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). " Climate
Climate
Zones and Types". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-020263-0.  ^ a b c d e f Cereceda, P.; Larrain, H.; osses, P.; Farias, M.; Egaña, I. (2008). "The climate of the coast and fog zone in the Tarapacá Region, Atacama Desert, Chile". Atmospheric Research. 87 (3-4): 301–311. Bibcode:2008AtmRe..87..301C. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2007.11.011. Retrieved 21 January 2018.  ^ "Koppen climate classification climatology". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-04.  ^ a b Chen, Hans; Chen, Deliang. "Köppen climate classification". hanschen.org. Retrieved 2017-08-04.  ^ a b c d e "CLASIFICACIÓN CLIMÁTICA DE KÖPPEN" (in Spanish). Universidad de Chile. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2018.  ^ a b c d e Inzunza, Juan. "Capitulo 15. Climas de Chile" (PDF). Meteorología Descriptiva y Aplicaciones en Chile
Chile
(in Spanish). p. 427. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.  ^ Linacre, Edward; Bart Geerts (1997). Climates and Weather Explained. London: Routledge. p. 379. ISBN 0-415-12519-7.  ^ Critchfield, H.J. (1983). "Criteria for classification of major climatic types in modified Köppen system" (4 ed.). University of Idaho. Archived from the original on 2009-09-30. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Melvin R. George. "Mediterranean Climate". UCRangelands. University of California. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-01-26.  ^ Chen, D.; Chen, H. W. (2013). "Using the Köppen classification to quantify climate variation and change: An example for 1901–2010". Environmental Development. 6: 69–79. doi:10.1016/j.envdev.2013.03.007.  (direct: Final Revised Paper) ^ Critchfield, Howard J (1983). General Climatology (4th ed.). New Delhi: Prentice Hall. pp. 154–161. ISBN 978-81-203-0476-5.  ^ Chan, D. and Wu, Q. (2015). "Significant anthropogenic-induced changes of climate classes since 1950". Scientific Reports. 5 (13487). Bibcode:2015NatSR...513487C. doi:10.1038/srep13487. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Köppen-Geiger.

World Map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification for the period 1951–2000 Global climate maps, using Köppen classification (FAO, 1999)

Climate
Climate
records[edit]

IPCC Data Distribution Center

v t e

Climate
Climate
types under the Köppen climate classification

Class A

Tropical
Tropical
rainforest (Af) Tropical
Tropical
monsoon (Am) Tropical
Tropical
savanna (Aw, As)

Class B

Desert (BWh, BWk, BWn) Semi-arid
Semi-arid
(BSh, BSk, BSn)

Class C

Humid subtropical (Cfa, Cwa) Oceanic (Cfb, Cwb, Cfc, Cwc) Mediterranean (Csa, Csb, Csc)

Class D

Humid continental (Dfa, Dwa, Dfb, Dwb, Dsa, Dsb) Subarctic (Dfc, Dwc, Dfd, Dwd, Dsc, Dsd)

Class E

Tundra
Tundra
(ET) Ice cap (E

.