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The JUTES (/dʒuːts/ ), IUTI, or IUTæ were a Germanic people . According to Bede
Bede
, the Jutes
Jutes
were one of the three most powerful Germanic peoples of their time in the Nordic Iron Age , the other two being the Saxons and the Angles
Angles
.

The Jutes
Jutes
are believed to have originated from the Jutland Peninsula (called _Iutum_ in Latin ) and part of the North Frisian coast. In present times, the Jutlandic Peninsula consists of the mainland of Denmark
Denmark
and Southern Schleswig in Germany
Germany
. North Frisia is also part of Germany.

The Jutes
Jutes
invaded and settled in southern Britain in the late 4th century during the Age of Migrations , as part of a larger wave of Germanic settlement in the British Isles .

CONTENTS

* 1 Homeland and historical accounts * 2 Settlement in southern Britain * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links

HOMELAND AND HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS

Bede
Bede
places the homeland of the Jutes
Jutes
on the other side of the Angles relative to the Saxons , which would mean the northern part of the Jutland Peninsula . Tacitus portrays a people called the EUDOSES living in the north of Jutland and these may have been the later Iutae. The Jutes
Jutes
have also been identified with the EOTENAS (_ēotenas_) involved in the Frisian conflict with the Danes as described in the Finnesburg episode in the poem _ Beowulf
Beowulf
_ (lines 1068–1159). Others have interpreted the _ēotenas_ as _jotuns _ ("ettins" in English), meaning giants, or as a kenning for "enemies".

Disagreeing with Bede, some historians identify the Jutes
Jutes
with the people called EUCII (or _Saxones Eucii_), who were evidently associated with the Saxons and dependents of the Franks
Franks
in 536. The Eucii may have been identical to an obscure tribe called the EUTHIONES (_Ευθίωνες_ in Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
) and probably associated with the Saxons. The Euthiones are mentioned in a poem by Venantius Fortunatus (583) as being under the suzerainty of Chilperic I of the Franks. This identification would agree well with the later location of the Jutes
Jutes
in Kent
Kent
, since the area just opposite to Kent
Kent
on the European mainland (present-day Flanders
Flanders
) was part of Francia
Francia
. Even if Jutes
Jutes
were present to the south of the Saxons in the Rhineland
Rhineland
or near the Frisians , this does not contradict the possibility that they were migrants from Jutland .

Another theory, known as the "Jutish hypothesis" – a term accepted by the _ Oxford English Dictionary _ – claims that the Jutes
Jutes
may be synonymous with the GEATS of southern Sweden
Sweden
or their neighbours, the GUTES . The evidence adduced for this theory includes:

* primary sources referring to the Geats (_Geátas_) by alternative names such as _Iútan_, _Iótas_ and _Eotas_; * Asser in his _Life of Alfred_ (893) identifies the Jutes
Jutes
with the Goths (in a passage claiming that Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
was descended, through his mother, Osburga , from the ruling dynasty of the Jutish kingdom of Wihtwara , on the Isle of Wight), and; * the _ Gutasaga _ (13th Century) states that some inhabitants of Gotland
Gotland
left for mainland Europe (and large burial sites attributable to either Goths or Gepids have been found in the 19. century near Willenberg, Prussia (after 1945 Wielbark in Poland).

However, it is possible that the tribal names were confused in the above sources (an error that demonstrably occurred in sources discussing the death of the 7th Century Swedish king Östen , for example). In both _Beowulf_ (8th – 11th centuries) and _ Widsith _ (10th century), the _Eotenas_ (in the Finn passage) are clearly distinguished from the _Geatas_.

SETTLEMENT IN SOUTHERN BRITAIN

_ A map of Jutish settlements in Britain c_. 575

The Jutes, along with some Angles
Angles
, Saxons and Frisians , sailed across the North Sea to raid and eventually invade Great Britain
Great Britain
from the late 4th century onwards, either displacing, absorbing, or destroying the native peoples there.

According to Bede, Jutes
Jutes
settled in:

* Kent
Kent
, where they established _Cantaware _ (Latinised as _Cantuarii_) * the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
, where they established the kingdom of _ Wihtwara _ (Latin: _Uictuarii_)

* the area known later as Hampshire
Hampshire
, where they established the kingdoms of:

* _ Meonwara _ (in the Meon Valley area) * _ Ytene _ (which Florence of Worcester states was the name of the area that became the New Forest
New Forest
).

There is also evidence that the Haestingas people who settled in the Hastings
Hastings
area of Sussex, in the 6th century, may also have been Jutish in origin.

While it is commonplace to detect their influences in Kent
Kent
(for example, the practice of partible inheritance known as gavelkind ), the Jutes
Jutes
in Hampshire
Hampshire
and the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
vanished, probably assimilated to the surrounding Saxons, leaving only the slightest of traces. One recent scholar, Robin Bush , even argued that the Jutes
Jutes
of Hampshire
Hampshire
and the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
were victims of a form of ethnic cleansing by the West Saxons . Bede
Bede
clearly implies that this was so, in 686. However, Bush's theory has been the subject of debate amongst academics, including a counter-hypothesis, that only the aristocracy were wiped out.

The culture of the Jutes
Jutes
of Kent
Kent
shows more signs of Roman, Frankish, and Christian influence than that of the Angles
Angles
or Saxons. Funerary evidence indicates that the pagan practice of cremation ceased relatively early and jewellery recovered from graves has affinities with Rhenish styles from the Continent, perhaps suggesting close commercial connections with Francia. The Quoit Brooch Style has been regarded as Jutish, from the 5th century.

SEE ALSO

* Haestingas

NOTES

* _Ancient Germanic culture portal

* ^ The Saxon Invasion British Isles – past and present. IslandGuide.co.uk (by Alan Price) * ^ Jutes
Jutes
Channel 4 Archived June 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Venerable Saint