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Justinian II
Justinian II
(Greek: Ἰουστινιανός Β΄, Ioustinianos II; Latin: Flavius Iustinianus Augustus; 668 – 11 December 711), surnamed the Rhinotmetos or Rhinotmetus (ὁ Ῥινότμητος, "the slit-nosed"), was the last Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
of the Heraclian Dynasty, reigning from 685 to 695 and again from 705 to 711. Justinian II was an ambitious and passionate ruler who was keen to restore the Roman Empire to its former glories, but he responded poorly to any opposition to his will and lacked the finesse of his father, Constantine IV.[1] Consequently, he generated enormous opposition to his reign, resulting in his deposition in 695 in a popular uprising, and he only returned to the throne in 705 with the help of a Bulgar and Slav
Slav
army. His second reign was even more despotic than the first, and it too saw his eventual overthrow in 711, abandoned by his army who turned on him before killing him.

Contents

1 First reign 2 Exile 3 Second reign 4 Legacy 5 Family 6 Fictional account 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources

9.1 Primary sources 9.2 Secondary sources

10 External links

First reign[edit] Justinian II
Justinian II
was the eldest son of Emperor Constantine IV
Constantine IV
and Anastasia.[2] His father raised him to the throne as joint emperor in 681 on the fall of his uncles Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius.[3] In 685, at the age of sixteen, Justinian II
Justinian II
succeeded his father as sole emperor.[4] Due to Constantine IV's victories, the situation in the Eastern provinces of the Empire was stable when Justinian ascended the throne.[5] After a preliminary strike against the Arabs
Arabs
in Armenia,[6] Justinian managed to augment the sum paid by the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphs as an annual tribute, and to regain control of part of Cyprus.[5] The incomes of the provinces of Armenia
Armenia
and Iberia were divided among the two empires.[1] In 687, as part of his agreements with the Caliphate, Justinian removed from their native Lebanon
Lebanon
12,000 Christian Maronites, who continually resisted the Arabs.[7] Additional resettlement efforts, aimed at the Mardaites
Mardaites
and inhabitants of Cyprus allowed Justinian to reinforce naval forces depleted by earlier conflicts.[1] In 688, Justinian signed a treaty with the Caliph
Caliph
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan which rendered Cyprus
Cyprus
neutral ground, with its tax revenue split.[8] Justinian took advantage of the peace in the East to regain possession of the Balkans, which were before then almost totally under the heel of Slavic tribes.[7] In 687 Justinian transferred cavalry troops from Anatolia
Anatolia
to Thrace. With a great military campaign in 688–689, Justinian defeated the Bulgars
Bulgars
of Macedonia and was finally able to enter Thessalonica, the second most important Byzantine city in Europe.[1] The subdued Slavs
Slavs
were resettled in Anatolia, where they were to provide a military force of 30,000 men.[1] Emboldened by the increase of his forces in Anatolia, Justinian now renewed the war against the Arabs.[9] With the help of his new troops, Justinian won a battle against the enemy in Armenia
Armenia
in 693, but they were soon bribed to revolt by the Arabs. The result was that Justinian was comprehensively defeated at the Battle of Sebastopolis,[10] caused by the defection of most of his Slavic troops, while he himself was forced to flee to the Propontis.[9] There, according to Theophanes,[11] he took out his frustration by slaughtering as many of the Slavs
Slavs
in and around Opsikion
Opsikion
as he could lay his hands on.[12] In the meantime, a Patrician by the name of Symbatius proceeded to rebel in Armenia,[9] and opened up the province to the Arabs, who proceeded to conquer it in 694–695.[1]

The Mutilation of the Byzantine Emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
and Phillipicus

Meanwhile, the Emperor's bloody persecution of the Manichaeans and suppression of popular traditions of non-Orthodox origin caused dissension within the Church.[4] In 692 Justinian convened the so-called Quinisext Council
Quinisext Council
at Constantinople
Constantinople
to put his religious policies into effect.[13] The Council expanded and clarified the rulings of the Fifth and Sixth ecumenical councils, but by highlighting differences between the Eastern and Western observances (such as the marriage of priests and the Roman practice of fasting on Saturdays) the council compromised Byzantine relations with the Roman Church.[14] The emperor ordered Pope Sergius I arrested, but the militias of Rome
Rome
and Ravenna
Ravenna
rebelled and took the Pope's side.[1] Justinian contributed to the development of the thematic organization of the Empire, creating a new theme of Hellas in southern Greece and numbering the heads of the five major themes- Thrace
Thrace
in Europe, Opsikion, the Anatolikon, and Armeniakon
Armeniakon
themes in Asia Minor, and the maritime corps of the Karabisianoi- among the senior administrators of the Empire.[1] He also sought to protect the rights of peasant freeholders, who served as the main recruitment pool for the armed forces of the Empire, against attempts by the aristocracy to acquire their land. This put him in direct conflict with some of the largest landholders in the Empire.[1] While his land policies threatened the aristocracy, his tax policy was very unpopular with the common people.[1] Through his agents Stephen and Theodotos, the emperor raised the funds to gratify his sumptuous tastes and his mania for erecting costly buildings.[1] This, ongoing religious discontent, conflicts with the aristocracy, and displeasure over his resettlement policy eventually drove his subjects into rebellion.[13] In 695 the population rose under Leontios, the strategos of Hellas, and proclaimed him Emperor.[1] Justinian was deposed and his nose was cut off (later replaced by a solid gold replica of his original) to prevent his again seeking the throne: such mutilation was common in Byzantine culture. He was exiled to Cherson in the Crimea.[1] Leontius, after a reign of three years, was in turn dethroned and imprisoned by Tiberius
Tiberius
Apsimarus, who next assumed the throne.[15] Exile[edit] While in exile, Justinian began to plot and gather supporters for an attempt to retake the throne.[16] Justinian became a liability to Cherson and the authorities decided to return him to Constantinople
Constantinople
in 702 or 703.[5] He escaped from Cherson and received help from Busir, the khagan of the Khazars, who received him enthusiastically and gave him his sister as a bride.[16] Justinian renamed her Theodora, after the wife of Justinian I.[17] They were given a home in the town of Phanagoria, at the entrance to the sea of Azov. Busir
Busir
was offered a bribe by Tiberios to kill his brother-in-law, and dispatched two Khazar officials, Papatzys
Papatzys
and Balgitzin, to do the deed.[18] Warned by his wife, Justinian strangled Papatzys
Papatzys
and Balgitzin
Balgitzin
with his own hands.[19] He sailed in a fishing boat to Cherson, summoned his supporters, and they all sailed westwards across the Black Sea.[20] As the ship bearing Justinian sailed along the northern coast of the Black Sea, he and his crew became caught up in a storm somewhere between the mouths of the Dniester
Dniester
and the Dnieper Rivers.[18] While it was raging, one of his companions reached out to Justinian saying that if he promised God that he would be magnanimous, and not seek revenge on his enemies when he was returned to the throne, they would all be spared.[20] Justinian retorted: "If I spare a single one of them, may God drown me here".[18] Having survived the storm, Justinian next approached Tervel
Tervel
of Bulgaria.[20] Tervel
Tervel
agreed to provide all the military assistance necessary for Justinian to regain his throne in exchange for financial considerations, the award of a Caesar's crown, and the hand of Justinian's daughter, Anastasia, in marriage.[16] In spring 705, with an army of 15,000 Bulgar and Slav
Slav
horsemen, Justinian appeared before the walls of Constantinople.[16] For three days, Justinian tried to convince the citizens of Constantinople
Constantinople
to open the gates, but to no avail.[21] Unable to take the city by force, he and some companions entered through an unused water conduit under the walls of the city, roused their supporters, and seized control of the city in a midnight coup d'état.[16] Justinian once more ascended the throne, breaking the tradition preventing the mutilated from Imperial rule. After tracking down his predecessors, he had his rivals Leontius and Tiberios brought before him in chains in the Hippodrome, now wearing a golden nasal prosthesis.[22] There, before a jeering populace, Justinian placed his feet on the necks of Tiberius
Tiberius
and Leontios
Leontios
in a symbolic gesture of subjugation before ordering their execution by beheading, followed by many of their partisans,[23] as well as deposing, blinding and exiling Patriarch Kallinikos I of Constantinople
Constantinople
to Rome.[24] Second reign[edit] His second reign was marked by unsuccessful warfare against Bulgaria and the Caliphate, and by cruel suppression of opposition at home.[25] In 708 Justinian turned on Bulgarian Khan Tervel, whom he had earlier crowned Caesar, and invaded Bulgaria, apparently seeking to recover the territories ceded to Tervel
Tervel
as a reward for his support in 705.[23] The Emperor was defeated, blockaded in Anchialus, and forced to retreat.[23] Peace between Bulgaria and Byzantium was quickly restored. This defeat was followed by Arab
Arab
victories in Asia Minor, where the cities of Cilicia
Cilicia
fell into the hands of the enemy, who penetrated into Cappadocia
Cappadocia
in 709–711.[25] He ordered Pope John VII
Pope John VII
to recognize the decisions of the Quinisext Council and simultaneously fitted out a punitive expedition against Ravenna
Ravenna
in 709 under the command of the Patrician Theodore.[26] The expedition was led to reinstate the Western Church's authority over Ravenna, which was taken as a sign of disobedience to the emperor, and revolutionary sentiment.[27][28] The repression succeeded, and the new Pope Constantine
Pope Constantine
visited Constantinople
Constantinople
in 710. After receiving Holy Communion at the hands of the pope, he renewed all the privileges of the Roman Church. Exactly what passed between them on the subject of the Quinisext Council
Quinisext Council
is not known. It would appear, however, that Constantine approved most of the canons.[29] This would be the last time a Pope visited the city until the visit of Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
to Istanbul
Istanbul
in 1967.[22] Justinian's rule provoked another uprising against him.[30] Cherson revolted, and under the leadership of the exiled general Bardanes the city held out against a counter-attack. Soon, the forces sent to suppress the rebellion joined it.[5] The rebels then seized the capital and proclaimed Bardanes as Emperor Philippicus;[31] Justinian had been on his way to Armenia, and was unable to return to Constantinople
Constantinople
in time to defend it.[32] He was arrested and executed outside the city in December 711, his head being sent to Bardanes as a trophy.[19] On hearing the news of his death, Justinian's mother took his six-year-old son and co-emperor, Tiberius, to sanctuary at St. Mary's Church in Blachernae, but was pursued by Philippicus' henchmen, who dragged the child from the altar and, once outside the church, murdered him, thus eradicating the line of Heraclius.[33] Legacy[edit] Justinian's reign saw the continued slow and ongoing process of transformation of the Byzantine Empire, as the traditions inherited from the ancient Latin Roman state were gradually being eroded. This is most clearly seen in the coinage of Justinian's reign, which saw the reintroduction of the Loros, the traditional consular costume that had not been seen on Imperial coinage for a century, while the office itself had not been celebrated for nearly half a century.[34] This was linked to Justinian's decision to unify the office of consul with that of emperor thus making the Emperor the head of state not only de facto but also de jure. Although the office of the consulate would continue to exist until Emperor Leo VI the Wise
Leo VI the Wise
formally abolished it with Novel 94,[35] it was Justinian who effectively brought the consulate as a separate political entity to an end. He was formally appointed as Consul in 686,[36] and from that point, Justinian II
Justinian II
adopted the title of consul for all the Julian years of his reign, consecutively numbered. Though at times undermined by his own despotic tendencies, Justinian was a talented and perceptive ruler who succeeded in improving the standing of the Byzantine Empire.[22] A pious ruler, Justinian was the first emperor to include the image of Christ on coinage issued in his name[4] and attempted to outlaw various pagan festivals and practices that persisted in the Empire.[1] He may have self-consciously modelled himself on his namesake, Justinian I,[6] as seen in his enthusiasm for large-scale construction projects and the renaming of his Khazar wife with the name of Theodora.[1] Among the building projects he undertook was the creation of the triklinos, an extension to the imperial palace,[37] a decorative cascade fountain located at the Augusteum, and a new Church of the Virgin at Petrion.[38] Family[edit] By his first wife Eudokia, Justinian II
Justinian II
had at least one daughter:

Anastasia, who was betrothed to Tervel
Tervel
of Bulgaria.

By his second wife, Theodora of Khazaria, Justinian II
Justinian II
had a son:

Tiberios, co-emperor from 706 to 711.

Fictional account[edit] Justinian, a 1998 novel by Byzantine scholar Harry Turtledove, writing under the name HN Turteltaub, gives a fictionalized version of Justinian's life as retold by a fictionalized lifelong companion the soldier Myakes.[39] In the novel, Turtledove speculates that while in exile Justinian had reconstructive surgery done by an itinerant Indian plastic surgeon to repair his damaged nose.[40] See also[edit]

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
portal

List of Byzantine emperors

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Ostrogorsky, pgs. 116–122 ^ Kazhdan, pg. 501 ^ Canduci, pg. 198 ^ a b c Kazhdan, pg. 1084 ^ a b c d Moore, Justinian II ^ a b Norwich, pg. 328 ^ a b Bury, pg. 321 ^ Romilly J.H. Jenkins, Studies on Byzantine History of the 9th and 10th Centuries, p. 271. ^ a b c Bury, pg. 322 ^ Norwich, pg. 330 ^ Theophanes: 6183 ^ Norwich, pg. 330–331 ^ a b Bury, pg. 327 ^ Norwich, pg. 332 ^ Bury, pg. 354 ^ a b c d e Ostrogorsky, pgs. 124–126 ^ Bury, pg. 358 ^ a b c Bury, pg. 359 ^ a b Canduci, pg. 199 ^ a b c Norwich, pg. 336 ^ Bury, pg. 360 ^ a b c Norwich, pg. 345 ^ a b c Bury, pg. 361 ^ Norwich, pg. 338 ^ a b Norwich, pg. 339 ^ Bury, pg. 366 ^ Liber pontificalis 1:389 ^ Constance Head, Justinian II
Justinian II
of Byzantium (University of Wisconsin Press, 1972). ^ New Advent: Pope Constantine ^ Norwich, pg. 342 ^ Norwich, pg. 343 ^ Bury, pg. 365 ^ Bury, pgs. 365–366 ^ Grypeou, Emmanouela, The encounter of Eastern Christianity with early Islam, BRILL, 2006, pg. 69 ^ Kazhdan, pg. 526 ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Book V (Chapter VII) ^ Bury, pg. 325 ^ Bury, pg. 326 ^ According to Turtletaub/Turtledove, Myakes is a historical character, the soldier in the boat with Justinian in the Black Sea storm, according to history, who unsuccessfully urged Justinian to become less vindictive. See Turtletaub, Justinian, at p. 510. ^ Turtletaub/Turtledove attributes to Richard Delbrück the same conjecture, stating that Delbrück was able to cite iconographic evidence to support the conjecture. See Turteltaub, Justinian, at p. 511.

Sources[edit] Primary sources[edit]

Theophanes, Chronographia.

Secondary sources[edit]

Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991), Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6  Norwich, John Julius (1990), Byzantium: The Early Centuries, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-011447-5  Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.  Canduci, Alexander (2010), Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8  Moore, R. Scott, " Justinian II
Justinian II
(685–695 & 705–711 A.D.)", De Imperatoribus Romanis (1998) Bury, J.B., A History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius
Arcadius
to Irene, Vol. II, MacMillan & Co., 1889  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Justinian II.". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Justinian II.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article

Justinian II Heraclian Dynasty Born: 669 Died: December 711

Regnal titles

Preceded by Constantine IV Byzantine Emperor 685–695 with Constantine IV, 681–685 Succeeded by Leontios

Preceded by Tiberios III Byzantine Emperor 705–711 with Tiberios, 706–711 Succeeded by Philippikos

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100262830 LCCN: n98082251 ISNI: 0000 0000 8078 3180 GND: 120174952 SUDOC: 177984317 BNF: cb105875760 (dat

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