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Justin Pierre James Trudeau PC MP (/ˈtrʊdoʊ/; French: [ʒystɛ̃ tʁydo]; born 25 December 1971) is a Canadian politician serving as the 23rd and current Prime Minister of Canada since 2015 and Leader
Leader
of the Liberal Party since 2013.[2][3] Trudeau is the second-youngest Canadian Prime Minister, after Joe Clark; he is also the first to be related to a previous holder of the post, as the eldest son of Pierre Trudeau.[4][5] Born in Ottawa, Trudeau attended Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf
Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf
and graduated from McGill University
McGill University
in 1994 and the University of British Columbia in 1998. He gained a high public profile in October 2000, when he delivered a eulogy at his father's state funeral.[6] After graduating, he worked as a teacher in Vancouver, British Columbia. He completed one year of an engineering program at Montreal's École Polytechnique, from 2002 to 2003, and one year of a master's program in environmental geography at McGill University, from 2004 to 2005. He advocates for various causes, and portrayed a cousin in the 2007 TV miniseries The Great War.[7] In the 2008 federal election, he was elected to represent the riding of Papineau in the House of Commons. In 2009, he was appointed the Liberal Party's critic for youth and multiculturalism, and the following year, became critic for citizenship and immigration. In 2011, he was appointed as critic for secondary education and youth and amateur sport. Trudeau won the leadership of the Liberal Party in April 2013 and went on to lead his party to victory in the 2015 federal election, moving the 3rd-placed Liberals from 36 seats to 184 seats, the largest-ever numerical increase by a party in a Canadian general election.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Ancestry and birth 1.2 Childhood 1.3 University and early career 1.4 Advocacy

2 Political beginnings 3 In Opposition, 2008–2015

3.1 Liberal Party leadership

3.1.1 Earlier speculation 3.1.2 2013 leadership election

3.1.2.1 Leadership, 2013–2015

3.2 2015 federal election

4 Prime Minister of Canada 5 Domestic policy

5.1 Deficit 5.2 Infrastructure 5.3 Abortion 5.4 Marijuana 5.5 Religious freedom 5.6 Women's rights 5.7 Senate reform 5.8 Indigenous people 5.9 Electoral reform 5.10 Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
(TPP)

6 Foreign policy 7 Personal life

7.1 Family 7.2 Religion

8 Criticism 9 Electoral record 10 Published works 11 Ancestry 12 References 13 External links

Early life Ancestry and birth On 23 June 1971, the Prime Minister's office had announced that Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau's wife of four months, the former Margaret Sinclair,[8] was pregnant and due in December.[9][10] He was born on Christmas Day
Christmas Day
1971 at 9:27 pm EST at the Ottawa
Ottawa
Civic Hospital.[11] Trudeau is the second child in Canadian history to be born to a Prime Minister in office; the first was John A. Macdonald's daughter Margaret Mary Theodora Macdonald (8 February 1869 – 28 January 1933). Trudeau's younger brothers Alexandre (Sacha) (born 25 December 1973) and Michel (2 October 1975 – 13 November 1998) were the third and fourth.[12][13]

Three-month-old Justin Trudeau
Justin Trudeau
at Rideau Hall
Rideau Hall
with his mother (left) and U.S. First Lady Pat Nixon, 14 April 1972

Trudeau is predominantly of Scottish and French Canadian
French Canadian
descent. His grandfathers were businessman Charles-Émile Trudeau[14] and Scottish-born James Sinclair,[15] who served as Minister of Fisheries in the cabinet of Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent.[16] Trudeau's maternal great-grandfather Thomas Bernard was born in Makassar[17] and immigrated to Penticton, British Columbia, in 1906 at age 15 with his family.[18] Through the Bernard family, kinsmen of the Earls of Bandon,[19][20] Trudeau is the 5th-great grandson of Major-General William Farquhar,[21] a leader in the founding of modern Singapore; Trudeau also has remote ethnic Malaccan[22][23] and Ono Niha[24][25][26] ancestry. Trudeau was christened with his father's niece Anne Rouleau-Danis as godmother and his mother's brother-in-law Thomas Walker as godfather[27][28] at Ottawa's Notre Dame Basilica on the afternoon of 16 January 1972, which marked his first public appearance.[29] On 14 April 1972, Trudeau's father and mother hosted a gala at the National Arts Centre, at which visiting U.S. president Richard M. Nixon
Richard M. Nixon
said, "I'd like to toast the future prime minister of Canada, to Justin Pierre Trudeau" to which Pierre Elliott Trudeau responded that should his son ever assume the role, he hoped he would have "the grace and skill of the president".[30] Earlier that same day U.S. first lady Pat Nixon had come to see him in his nursery to deliver a gift, a stuffed toy Snoopy.[31][32] Nixon's White House audio tapes later revealed Nixon referred to that visit as "wasting three days up there. That trip we needed like a hole in the head."[33][34] Childhood

10-year-old Justin Trudeau
Justin Trudeau
touring the Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille with his father and French Prime Minister Pierre Mauroy, 8 November 1982

His parents publicly announced their separation on 27 May 1977,[35][36] when Trudeau was five years old, with his father having custody. There had been repeated rumours of a reconciliation in the public for many years afterwards,[37] but his mother's attorney Michael Levine[38] filed in Toronto
Toronto
to the Supreme Court of Ontario for a no-fault divorce on 16 November 1983[39] and finalized on 2 April 1984,[40] with his father publicly announcing his intention to retire as prime minister on February 29 of that year.[41] Eventually his parents came to an amicable joint-custody arrangement and learned to get along quite well. Interviewed in October 1979, his nanny Dianne Lavergne was quoted, "Justin is a mommy's boy, so it's not easy, but children's hurts mend very quickly. And they're lucky kids, anyway."[42] Of his mother and father's marriage, Trudeau said in 2009, "They loved each other incredibly, passionately, completely. But there was 30 years between them and my mom never was an equal partner in what encompassed my father's life, his duty, his country."[43] Trudeau has three half-siblings, Kyle and Alicia, from his mother's remarriage to Fried Kemper,[44] and Sarah, from his father's relationship with Deborah Coyne.[45] Trudeau lived at 24 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, the official residence of Canada's prime minister, from his birth until his father's government was defeated in the federal election on 22 May 1979. The Trudeaus were expected to move into the residence of the Leader
Leader
of the Official Opposition, Stornoway, at 541 Acacia Avenue in Rockcliffe Park, but because of flooding in the basement, prime minister Joe Clark
Joe Clark
offered them Harrington Lake, the prime minister's official country retreat in Gatineau Park, with the expectation they would move into Stornoway at the start of July.[46] However, the repairs were not complete so Pierre Trudeau
Pierre Trudeau
took a prolonged vacation with his sons to the Nova Scotia summer home of his friend, MP Don Johnston, and later sent his sons to stay with their maternal grandparents in North Vancouver
Vancouver
for the rest of the summer while he slept at his friend's Ottawa apartment. Justin and his brothers returned to Ottawa
Ottawa
for the start of the school year, but lived only on the top floor of Stornoway while repairs continued on the bottom floor.[47] His mother purchased and moved into a new home nearby at 95 Queen Victoria Avenue in Ottawa's New Edinburgh
New Edinburgh
in September 1979.[48][49] The Trudeaus returned to the prime minister's official residence in February 1980 after the election that returned his father to the Prime Minister's Office.[50] His father had intended Trudeau to begin his formal education at a French Lycée, but Trudeau's mother convinced his father of the importance of sending their sons to a public school.[51] In the end, Trudeau was enrolled in 1976 in the French immersion program at Rockcliffe Park Public School, the same school his mother had attended for 2 years when her family relocated to Rockcliffe Park while her father served as a federal Cabinet minister.[52] He could have been dropped off by limousine, but his parents elected he take the school bus albeit with a Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
car following.[53][54][55][56] This was followed by one year at the private Lycée Claudel d'Ottawa.[57][58] After his father's retirement, in June 1984, his mother remained at her New Edinburgh
New Edinburgh
home while the rest of the family moved into his father's home at 1418 Pine Avenue, Montreal
Montreal
known as Cormier House[59] where the following autumn he began attending the private Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, his father's alma mater. The school had begun as a Jesuit school but was non-denominational by the time Justin matriculated.[60][61] In 2008, Trudeau said that of all his early family outings he enjoyed camping with his father the most, because "that was where our father got to be just our father – a dad in the woods."[62] During the summers his father would send him and his brothers to Camp Ahmek, on Canoe Lake, in Algonquin Provincial Park, where he would later work in his first paid employment as a camp counselor.[58][63][64][65][66] University and early career Trudeau, then 28, emerged as a prominent figure in October 2000, after delivering a eulogy at his father's state funeral.[67][68][69] The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
(CBC) received numerous calls to rebroadcast the speech after its initial transmission, and leading Quebec
Quebec
politician Claude Ryan
Claude Ryan
described it as "perhaps [...] the first manifestation of a dynasty."[70] A book issued by the CBC in 2003 included the speech in its list of significant Canadian events from the past fifty years.[71] Trudeau has a bachelor of arts degree in literature from McGill University and a bachelor of education degree from the University of British Columbia. In his first year at McGill, Trudeau became acquainted with his future Principal Secretary Gerald Butts, through their mutual friend, Jonathan Ablett[72] and Butts invited Trudeau to join the McGill Debating Union.[73] They bonded while driving back to Montreal
Montreal
after a debate tournament at Princeton University[72] in which the Princeton team included Ted Cruz, a candidate for the U.S. Republican Party's presidential nomination in 2016.[74] After graduation, he stayed in Vancouver
Vancouver
and he found substitute work at several local schools and permanent work as a French and math teacher at the private West Point Grey Academy
West Point Grey Academy
and was roommates at the Douglas Lodge[75] with fellow West Point Grey Academy
West Point Grey Academy
faculty member and friend Christopher Ingvaldson.[72][76] From 2002 to 2004, he studied engineering at the École Polytechnique de Montréal, a part of the Université de Montréal.[77] He also started a master's degree in environmental geography at McGill University, before suspending his program to seek public office.[78] In 2007, Trudeau starred in the two-part CBC Television
CBC Television
miniseries The Great War, which gave an account of Canada's participation in the First World War. He portrayed his fifth cousin, twice removed,[79]Major Talbot Mercer Papineau, who was killed on 30 October 1917, during the Battle of Passchendaele.[80] Trudeau is one of several children of former prime ministers who have become Canadian media personalities. The others are Ben Mulroney
Ben Mulroney
(son of Brian Mulroney), Catherine Clark
Catherine Clark
(daughter of Joe Clark), and Trudeau's younger brother, Alexandre.[81] Ben Mulroney
Ben Mulroney
was a guest at Trudeau's wedding.[82] Advocacy Trudeau promotes various causes. He and his family started the Kokanee Glacier Alpine Campaign for winter sports safety in 2000, two years after his brother Michel Trudeau
Michel Trudeau
died in an avalanche during a ski trip.[83] In 2002, Trudeau criticized the British Columbia government's decision to stop its funding for a public avalanche warning system.[84]

Left to right at a Darfur
Darfur
rally, 2006: Trudeau, Darfurian refugee Tragi Mustafa, one of the event organisers, and Senator Roméo Dallaire

Trudeau chaired the Katimavik
Katimavik
youth program, a project started by longtime family friend Jacques Hébert, from 2002 to 2006.[85][86] In 2002–03, Trudeau was a panelist on CBC Radio's Canada
Canada
Reads series, where he championed The Colony of Unrequited Dreams by Wayne Johnston.[87][88] Trudeau and his brother Alexandre inaugurated the Trudeau Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies
Trudeau Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies
at the University of Toronto
Toronto
in April 2004; the centre later became a part of the Munk School of Global Affairs.[89] In 2006, he hosted the Giller Prize
Giller Prize
for literature.[90][91] In 2005, Trudeau fought against a proposed $100-million zinc mine that he argued would poison the Nahanni River, a United Nations World Heritage Site located in the Northwest Territories. He was quoted as saying, "The river is an absolutely magnificent, magical place. I'm not saying mining is wrong [...] but that is not the place for it. It's just the wrong thing to be doing."[92][93] On 17 September 2006, Trudeau was the master of ceremonies at a Toronto
Toronto
rally organized by Roméo Dallaire
Roméo Dallaire
that called for Canadian participation in resolving the Darfur
Darfur
crisis.[94][95][96] Political beginnings

Trudeau at the 2006 leadership convention

See also: Electoral history of Justin Trudeau Trudeau supported the Liberal Party from a young age, offering his support to party leader John Turner
John Turner
in the 1988 federal election.[97] Two years later, he defended Canadian federalism
Canadian federalism
at a student event at the Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, an elite high school which he attended.[98] Following his father's death, Trudeau became more involved with the Liberal Party throughout the 2000s. Along with Olympian Charmaine Crooks, he co-hosted a tribute to outgoing prime minister Jean Chrétien at the party's 2003 leadership convention, and was appointed to chair a task force on youth renewal after the party's defeat in the 2006 federal election.[99][100] In October 2006, Trudeau criticized Quebec nationalism
Quebec nationalism
by describing political nationalism generally as an "old idea from the 19th century", "based on a smallness of thought" and not relevant to modern Quebec. This comment was seen as a criticism of Michael Ignatieff, then a candidate in the 2006 Liberal Party leadership election, who was promoting recognition of Quebec
Quebec
as a nation.[101][102] Trudeau later wrote a public letter on the subject, describing the idea of Quebec
Quebec
nationhood as "against everything my father ever believed."[103][104] Trudeau announced his support for leadership candidate Gerard Kennedy shortly before the 2006 convention and introduced Kennedy during the candidates' final speeches.[105] When Kennedy dropped off after the second ballot, Trudeau joined him in supporting the ultimate winner, Stéphane Dion.[106][107] Rumours circulated in early 2007 that Trudeau would run in an upcoming by-election in the Montreal
Montreal
riding of Outremont. The Montreal newspaper La Presse reported despite Trudeau's keenness, Liberal leader Stéphane Dion
Stéphane Dion
wanted Outremont for a star candidate who could help rebuild the Liberal Party. Instead, Trudeau announced that he would seek the Liberal nomination in the nearby riding of Papineau for the next general election.[108][109][110] The riding, which had once been held for 26 years by André Ouellet, a senior minister under his father, had been in Liberal hands for 53 years before falling to the Bloc Québécois
Bloc Québécois
in 2006.[111] Trudeau faced off against Mary Deros, a Montreal
Montreal
city councillor and Basilio Giordano, the publisher of a local Italian-language newspaper for the Liberal nomination. On 29 April 2007, he easily won the party's nomination, picking up 690 votes to 350 for Deros and 220 for Giordano.[112] In Opposition, 2008–2015 Prime Minister Stephen Harper
Stephen Harper
called an election for 14 October 2008, by which time Trudeau had been campaigning for a year in Papineau. On election day Trudeau narrowly defeated Bloc Québécois
Bloc Québécois
incumbent Vivian Barbot.[113] Following his election win, Edward Greenspon, editor-in-chief of The Globe and Mail, noted that Trudeau would "be viewed as few other rookie MPs are—as a potential future Prime Minister—and scrutinized through that lens".[62] The Conservative Party won a minority government in the 2008 election, and Trudeau entered parliament as a member of the Official Opposition. Trudeau was the first member of the 40th Parliament of Canada
40th Parliament of Canada
to introduce a private member's motion, in which he called for a "national voluntary service policy for young people". The proposal won support from parliamentarians across party lines.[114] He later co-chaired the Liberal Party's April 2009 national convention in Vancouver, and in October of the same year he was appointed as the party's critic for multiculturalism and youth.[115] In September 2010, he was reassigned as critic for youth, citizenship, and immigration.[116] He was critical of the Harper government's legislation targeting human smuggling, which he argued would penalize the victims of smuggling.[117] Trudeau sparked controversy when it was revealed that he earned $1.3 million in public speaking fees from charities and school boards across Canada, $277,000 of which Trudeau received after becoming an MP.[118][119] He encouraged an increase of Canada's relief efforts after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and sought more accessible immigration procedures for Haitians moving to Canada
Canada
in the time of crisis. His own riding includes a significant Haitian community.[120] Trudeau was re-elected in Papineau in the 2011 federal election, as the Liberal Party fell to third-party standing in the House of Commons with only thirty-four seats. Ignatieff resigned as party leader immediately after the election, and rumours again circulated that Trudeau could run to become his successor. On this occasion, Trudeau said, "I don't feel I should be closing off any options ... because of the history packaged into my name, a lot of people are turning to me in a way that ... to be blunt, concerns me."[121][122] Weeks after the election Toronto
Toronto
MP Bob Rae
Bob Rae
was selected to serve as the interim leader until the party's leadership convention, which was later decided to be held in April 2013. Rae appointed Trudeau as the party's critic for Post Secondary Education, Youth and Amateur Sport.[123] After his re-election, he traveled the country hosting fundraisers for charities and the Liberal Party.[124][125][126][127] Trudeau wanted to take part in a charity boxing match on behalf of the cancer research fundraising event Fight for the Cure, but was having difficulty finding a Conservative opponent until Conservative senator Patrick Brazeau agreed when asked on Trudeau's behalf by their mutual hairdresser Stefania Capovilla.[128][129] The fight on 31 March 2012 in Ottawa
Ottawa
at the Hampton Inn was broadcast live on Sun News with commentary by Ezra Levant
Ezra Levant
and Brian Lilley and Trudeau won in the third round, the result considered an upset.[128][130] Liberal Party leadership Earlier speculation

2008 Trudeau promotional portrait by Jean-Marc Carisse

After Dion's resignation as Liberal leader in 2008, Trudeau's name was mentioned as a potential candidate to succeed him, with polls showing him as a favourite among Canadians for the position.[131][132] However, he did not enter the race and Ignatieff was later acclaimed as leader in December 2008.[133] After the party's poor showing in the 2011 election, Ignatieff resigned from the leadership and Trudeau was again seen as a potential candidate to lead the party.[134] Following the election, Trudeau said he was undecided about seeking the leadership;[135] months later on October 12 at Wilfrid Laurier University, he announced he would not seek the post because he had a young family.[136] When interim leader Rae, who was also seen as a frontrunner, announced he would not be entering the race in June 2012, Trudeau was hit with a "tsunami" of calls from supporters to reconsider his earlier decision to not seek the leadership.[137] Opinion polling conducted by several pollsters showed that if Trudeau were to become leader the Liberal Party would surge in support, from a distant third place to either being competitive with the Conservative Party or leading them.[138] In July 2012, Trudeau stated that he would reconsider his earlier decision to not seek the leadership and would announce his final decision at the end of the summer.[139][140] 2013 leadership election See also: Liberal Party of Canada
Liberal Party of Canada
leadership election, 2013 On 26 September 2012, multiple media outlets started reporting that Trudeau would launch his leadership bid the following week.[141][142] While Trudeau was seen as a frontrunner for the leadership of the Liberal Party, he was criticized for his perceived lack of substance.[143][144] During his time as a member of parliament he spoke little on policy matters and it was not known where he stood on many issues such as the economy and foreign affairs.[145][146] Some strategists and pundits believed the leadership would be the time for Trudeau to be tested on these issues; however, there was also fear within the party that his celebrity status and large lead might deter other strong candidates from entering the leadership race.[147][148][149] On 2 October 2012, Trudeau held a rally in Montreal
Montreal
to launch his bid for the leadership of the Liberal Party.[150] The core people on his campaign team were considered longtime friends, and all in their 30s and 40s. His senior advisor was Gerald Butts, the former President of WWF-Canada who had previously served as principal secretary to former Ontario
Ontario
premier Dalton McGuinty. Other senior aides included campaign manager Katie Telford, and policy advisors Mike McNeir and Robert Asselin, who had all worked for recent Liberal Party leaders.[151] His brother Alexandre also took a break from his documentary work to be a senior advisor on Trudeau's campaign.[152] During the leadership campaign three by-elections were held on 26 November 2012. The riding Calgary Centre
Calgary Centre
was expected to be a three-way race between the Conservatives, Liberals and Green Party. A week before by-election day Sun Media
Sun Media
reported on comments Trudeau had made in a 2010 interview with Télé-Québec, in which he said, " Canada
Canada
isn't doing well right now because it's Albertans who control our community and socio-democratic agenda." Trudeau's campaign advisor said that the comments were being brought up now because of the close race in Calgary Centre.[153] The following day, Trudeau apologized, saying he was wrong to use "Alberta" as "shorthand" in referring to Stephen Harper's government.[154] The Conservatives held onto Calgary Centre in the by-election by less than 1,200 votes. Liberal candidate Harvey Locke
Harvey Locke
said he lost the by-election on his own and that comments made by Trudeau did not influence the outcome.[155] Fellow leadership candidate Marc Garneau, seen as Trudeau's main challenger in the race, criticized Trudeau for not releasing enough substantial policy positions. Garneau called on him to release more detailed policies before members and supporters begin to vote.[156] Garneau later challenged Trudeau to a one-on-one debate, and said that if Trudeau could not defend his ideas in a debate against him, he wouldn't be able to do so against Prime Minister Harper.[157] Trudeau clashed in debates with challenger Joyce Murray, who was the only Liberal leadership candidate to speak out strongly in favour of electing the House of Commons with a system of proportional representation. She challenged Trudeau over his support for a preferential ballot voting system.[158] On 13 March 2013, Garneau dropped out of the leadership race, saying that polling conducted by his campaign showed he would be unable to defeat Trudeau.[159][160] With Joyce Murray
Joyce Murray
the last challenger receiving significant press time, more Liberal politicians and public figures declared themselves for Trudeau. Trudeau was declared the winner of the leadership election on 14 April 2013, garnering 80.1% of 30,800 votes.[161] Joyce Murray finished in second place with 10.2% points, ahead of Martha Hall Findlay's 5.7%.[162] Trudeau had lost only five ridings, all to Murray and all in BC.[163] Leadership, 2013–2015

Justin Trudeau
Justin Trudeau
delivering a speech on a doorstep in Toronto's Little Italy, 2014[164]

Polls conducted during the leadership race showed that support for the Liberals would surge if they were led by Trudeau. Days after winning his party's leadership a poll showed that the Liberal Party was the choice of 43 per cent of respondents. This compared to 30 per cent for the governing Conservatives and 19 per cent for the Official Opposition New Democrats.[165] According to EKOS Politics, in October 2013 Trudeau's approval numbers improved to a 48–29 Approval-Disapproval; Thomas Mulcair's jumped to a slight lead at 50–25, while Stephen Harper's ratings sank to 24–69.[166] A December 12–15 (2013) EKOS poll showed the Liberals preferred by 32.1% of voters, the Conservatives by 26.2%, the NDP 22.9%. Likely voters, estimated by removing those who didn't vote in 2011, moved the parties into a logjam: Liberals 29.1%, Conservatives 28.5%, NDP 27.2%.[167] In 2013, Justin Trudeau
Justin Trudeau
chose to give up his seat at the funeral of Nelson Mandela, in deference to Irwin Cotler
Irwin Cotler
as representative of the Liberal Party of Canada, because of Cotler's work for and with Nelson Mandela in fighting apartheid.[168] During the leadership campaign Trudeau pledged to park all his assets, exclusive of real estate holdings, into a blind trust which is atypical for opposition MPs, including leaders. According to documents obtained by the Ottawa
Ottawa
Citizen, he fulfilled the pledge in July 2013 when the blind trust was set up by BMO Private Banking.[169] On 27 January 2014, Trudeau and MP Carolyn Bennett
Carolyn Bennett
escorted Chrystia Freeland into the House of Commons, as is traditional for by-election victors.[170] Trudeau launched an internet video the week before the 2014 Liberal party convention titled "An economy that benefits us all" in which he narrates his economic platform. He said that Canada's debt to GDP ratios have come down in recent years and now it's time for Ottawa
Ottawa
to "step up".[171] 2015 federal election

Trudeau marching in the Vancouver
Vancouver
Pride Festival, shortly after launching his election campaign

On 19 October 2015, after the longest official campaign in over a century, Trudeau led the Liberals to a decisive victory in the federal election. The Liberals won 184 of the 338 seats, with 39.5% of the popular vote, for a strong majority government;[172][173] a gain of 150 seats compared to the 2011 federal election.[172] This was the second-best performance in the party's history. The Liberals won mostly on the strength of a solid performance in the eastern half of the country. In addition to taking all of Atlantic Canada
Canada
and Toronto,[172] they won 40 seats in Quebec—the most that the Liberals had won in that province since Trudeau's father led them to a near-sweep of the province in 1980, and also the first time since then that the Liberals won a majority of Quebec's seats in an election. The 150-seat gain was the biggest numerical increase for a single party since Confederation, and marked the first time that a party had rebounded from third place in the Commons to a majority government. In addition to the appeal of his party's platform, Trudeau's success has been credited to his performance both on the campaign trail and televised election debates exceeding the lowered expectations created by Conservative advertisements and conservative media outlets.[174][175][176] Trudeau declared victory shortly after CBC News
CBC News
projected that he had won a majority government. He began his speech with a reference to Wilfrid Laurier's "sunny ways" (French: voies ensoleillées) approach to bringing Canadians together despite their differences. According to Trudeau, Laurier "knew that politics can be a positive force, and that's the message Canadians have sent today".[177] Harper announced his resignation as the head of the Conservative Party that night.[178][179] Prime Minister of Canada Main article: Premiership of Justin Trudeau

Trudeau and U.S. President Donald Trump
Donald Trump
meet in Washington, D.C. in February 2017

Trudeau and the rest of the Cabinet were sworn in by Governor General David Johnston
David Johnston
on 4 November 2015. He said that his first legislative priority was to lower taxes for middle-income Canadians and raise taxes for the top one per cent of income earners after parliament was reconvened on 3 December 2015.[180] Trudeau also issued a statement promising to rebuild relations with indigenous people and run an open, ethical and transparent government.[181] On 5 November 2015, during the first Liberal caucus meeting since forming a majority government, the party announced that it would reinstate the mandatory long-form census that had been scrapped in 2010, effective with the 2016 census.[182][183] In January 2017, Canada's Ethics Commissioner, Mary Dawson, began an investigation into Trudeau for a vacation he and his family took to Aga Khan IV's private island in the Bahamas.[184][185] The Ethics Commissioner's report, released in December 2017, found that Trudeau had violated four provisions of the Conflict of Interest Act.[186] In February 2018, Trudeau was criticized when his administration invited Khalistani nationalist Jaspal Atwal to the Canadian High Commission's dinner party in Delhi. Atwal had previously been convicted for the shooting and attempted murder of Indian Cabinet Minister Malkiat Singh Sidhu in 1986, as well as the assault on former B.C. Premier Ujjal Dosanjh
Ujjal Dosanjh
in 1985. Following the dinner, the PMO rescinded the invitation, and apologized for the incident. [187] [188][189] [190] Domestic policy Deficit During the election, the Liberal Party promised to run a deficit of around $10 billion per year, but Trudeau's Minister of Finance, Bill Morneau, announced in his first budget in March 2016 that the government would have a $29 billion deficit in 2016 and 2017.[191]

Trudeau and then-U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry
John Kerry
before both officials signed the Paris Agreement
Paris Agreement
on climate change in April 2016.

Infrastructure During the 2015 election campaign, Trudeau said that if made prime minister, he would implement an infrastructure plan worth $60 billion (US$42 billion) in spending over 10 years.[192] Following his electoral win, in 2016, the Trudeau announced a 12-year, $180 billion (US$143 billion) infrastructure plan, with a focus on public transport, infrastructure in rural communities and Canada’s northern regions, green infrastructure and affordable housing.[193] The Trudeau government also is setting up an infrastructure bank to fund projects.[194] Abortion Trudeau has stated that he wishes to form a party that is "resolutely pro-choice" and that potential Liberal candidates in the 2015 election who are anti-abortion would not be greenlighted for the nomination if they did not agree to vote pro-choice on abortion bills.[195] This stance was in line with a resolution passed by a majority of Liberal party members at its 2012 policy convention.[195] Trudeau's stance was criticized by conservative Catholics, with former MP Jim Karygiannis saying it will "definitely hurt the party",[196] and Toronto
Toronto
cardinal Thomas Collins writing to Trudeau urging him to reverse his ruling,[197] leading Trudeau to defend the position.[198] Marijuana

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (February 2018)

Trudeau first publicly expressed an interest in the legalization of marijuana while speaking at a rally in Kelowna, B.C. on 24 June 2013. He told a crowd, "I'm actually not in favour of decriminalizing cannabis. I'm in favour of legalizing it. Tax it, regulate. It's one of the only ways to keep it out of the hands of our kids because the current war on drugs, the current model is not working. We have to use evidence and science to make sure we're moving forward on that."[199] In an interview in August 2013, Trudeau said that the last time he had used marijuana was in 2010, after he had become a member of parliament: "We had a few good friends over for a dinner party, our kids were at their grandmother's for the night, and one of our friends lit a joint and passed it around. I had a puff."[200][201][202] After analysing the results of the legalization of marijuana in Colorado, Trudeau reiterated his position in favour of the legalization in Canada, saying that Canadians would benefit from analysing the experiences of both Colorado
Colorado
and the state of Washington.[203] After the Liberal party formed the government in November 2015, with Trudeau as prime minister, he announced that a federal-provincial-territorial process was being created to discuss a jointly suitable process for the legalization of marijuana possession for recreational purposes. The plan is to remove marijuana consumption and incidental possession from the Criminal Code; however, new laws will be enacted for greater punishment of those convicted of supplying pot to minors and for impairment while driving a motor vehicle.[204] By late November 2015, Justice Minister Jody Wilson-Raybould
Jody Wilson-Raybould
said that she and the ministers of Health and Public Safety were working on specifics as to the legislation.[205] In April 2016, the Trudeau government announced that it would aim to introduce legislation to legalize cannabis in Spring 2017.[206] However, sales for casual use will probably not commence until January 2018 according to Canada's Parliamentary Budget Officer.[207] Until then, cannabis in Canada
Canada
remains illegal (except with prescription for medical purposes) Trudeau reminded police forces across the country. He insisted that they "enforce the law": criminally charge illegal storefront dispensaries. Trudeau also explained that the intent of the legislation is not to encourage recreational use of cannabis. The intent is "to better protect our kids from the easy access they have right now to marijuana [and] to remove the criminal elements that were profiting from marijuana," he told the Toronto
Toronto
Star on 2 December 2016.[208] Religious freedom Trudeau has expressed opposition towards the proposed Quebec
Quebec
Charter of Values, a controversial charter in that province and elsewhere that among other things prohibited public sector employees from wearing or displaying "conspicuous" religious symbols, justifying that it would make the people of Quebec
Quebec
"choose between their freedom of religion and freedom of expression, freedom of conscience and their economic well-being and their acceptance in the workplace. That for me is a real concern."[209] Women's rights

Sophie Grégoire, Justin Trudeau, Marie-Claude Bibeau
Marie-Claude Bibeau
and Maryam Monsef listening to Katja Iversen announcing that the Women Deliver 2019 Conference will be in Vancouver, 2017.

Trudeau identifies as a feminist,[210] having stated, "I am a feminist. I'm proud to be a feminist." Trudeau has also stated that "the Liberal Party is unequivocal in its defence of women's rights. We are the party of the Charter." After being sworn in as Prime Minister, when asked by a reporter why he felt gender parity was important when naming his cabinet, he replied simply, "Because it's 2015."[211] More recently, he has similarly answered to feminist organizations on social media that "On behalf of the Government of Canada, I am writing back to let you know that I wholeheartedly agree: Poverty is Sexist".[212] Senate reform Trudeau has long advocated changes that would make the Senate of Canada
Canada
a less partisan house. In January 2014, he announced a step that began reducing Senate partisanship by removing Liberal senators from the Liberal caucus.[213] On 5 December 2015, after his appointment as prime minister, the new government's democratic institutions minister, Maryam Monsef, with House leader Dominic LeBlanc, announced a major overhaul of the appointment process, as Trudeau had promised during the election campaign. The new system consists of five board members—three federal appointees and two from the relevant province—who will pick independent candidates, not officially affiliated with any political party, based on merit,[214] a similar concept to the Advisory Committee on Vice-Regal Appointments. The stated goal of the December 2015, reform, was to improve the effectiveness of the Senate which had been, according to Monsef, "hampered by its reputation as a partisan institution". She indicated that this reform would not require an amendment to the constitution. The advisory board was expected to have been appointed by the end of December 2015. The criteria for appointment to the Senate would be "outstanding personal qualities that include integrity and ethics and experience in public life, community service or leadership in their field of expertise". At the time of the announcement, there were 17 Senate vacancies and these were expected to be filled by the end of 2016.[215] Indigenous people Trudeau met with hundreds of chiefs at the Assembly of First Nations on 7 December 2015, and laid out his philosophy and commitments to Canada's indigenous people, to assure their "constitutionally guaranteed rights ... a sacred obligation". In brief,[216] he promised to rescind government policies that are in conflict with their rights, make a significant investment in education programs, increase general funding, and launch an enquiry into missing and murdered indigenous women. Trudeau also indicated that the new government would implement all of the recommendations made by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.[217][218] Electoral reform During the campaign prior to the 2015 federal election, Trudeau promised to eliminate the current voting system by the next federal election.[219] Called "first-past-the-post" or "single-member plurality",[220] this system awards the House of Commons seat in any electoral district to the candidate who received the most votes in that electoral riding, and the party with the most seats forms government.[221] Consequently, it is possible for a political party to form a majority government with around 40 percent of the popular vote across Canada.[219] Trudeau has said that he advocates a system where the distribution of seats is more in line with the popular vote on a Canada-wide basis, to be achieved by a new type of ballot that allows voters to rank the candidates in order of preference.[222] However, Trudeau has said that he is open to proportional representation, which is more likely to produce coalition governments.[219][221] In December 2015, the government announced that an all-party parliamentary committee would be formed in early 2016 to consider other options. During a discussion of the plan, Minister of Democratic Institutions Maryam Monsef
Maryam Monsef
referred to it as "an open and robust process of consultation". However, she refused to commit to the Conservative Party's demand for a public referendum that would allow Canadians to vote on their preferred electoral system, indicating that she does not want to "prejudice the outcome of that consultation process".[223] There was some controversy regarding the government's initial plans for the Special
Special
Committee on Electoral Reform, as the Liberals announced that they would have a majority of the committee's ten seats. Trudeau and Monsef subsequently altered their plans, ceding a majority of the seats to the opposition. Trudeau acknowledged the opposition's concerns that "we were perhaps behaving in a way that was resembling more the previous government than the kind of approach and tone that we promised throughout the electoral campaign", and stated they changed course to show otherwise.[224] On 1 February 2017, the newly appointed Minister of Democratic Institutions Karina Gould announced that the government had abandoned the electoral reform project and it was no longer a priority in her mandate letter from Trudeau.[225] In the letter, Trudeau wrote that "a clear preference for a new electoral system, let alone a consensus, has not emerged" and that "without a clear preference or a clear question, a referendum would not be in Canada's interest."[226] On 10 February 2017, at a townhall in Yellowknife, Trudeau admitted he had "turned his back" on the promise to reform the electoral system.[227][228] Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
(TPP) Trudeau thinks that Canada
Canada
needs to study the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement before Canada
Canada
makes a final decision on ratification.[229] Trudeau said that Canadians should know what effects TPP would have on different industries, adding that he would hold an open and serious discussion with Canadians.[230] Foreign policy See also: List of international prime ministerial trips made by Justin Trudeau

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau
Justin Trudeau
with Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto and then-U.S. President Barack Obama, 29 June 2016

Justin Trudeau
Justin Trudeau
in European Parliament, Strasbourg, 17 February 2017

On 22 October 2015, Trudeau stated that, once prime minister, he would end Canada's airstrike mission against ISIL.[231][232] In his mandate letter to Defence Minister Harjit Sajjan, he also called for increased focus on Canadian trainers for local troops and humanitarian aid for the region.[233] On 13 November 2015, Trudeau was asked whether his plans to change Canada's contribution to the fight against ISIS and to repeal parts of Bill C-51 would change following the terrorist attacks in Paris. Trudeau responded "It's too soon to jump to conclusions, but obviously governments have a responsibility to keep their citizens safe, while defending our rights and freedoms, and that balance is something the Canadian government, and indeed all governments around the world, will be focusing on."[234][235][236] On 14 June 2016, Trudeau refused to recognize ISIS's atrocities as genocide, instead waiting for an official position from the UN Security Council. He switched his position once the UN Commission released its inquiry on Syria.[237][238] Trudeau supported the Harper-negotiated arms deal with Saudi Arabia,[239] believed to be the largest arms sale in Canadian history.[240] In 2017, Trudeau criticized Executive Order 13769
Executive Order 13769
entitled "Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States" signed by President Donald Trump. The executive order bans refugees from seven countries, six of which have Muslim majorities, from entering the United States. On social media, he displayed support for affected refugees.[241] Personal life Family See also: Trudeau family

Trudeau with his wife Sophie Grégoire
Sophie Grégoire
at the 2008 Toronto International Film Festival.

Trudeau first met Sophie Grégoire
Sophie Grégoire
when they were both children growing up in Montreal; Grégoire was a classmate and childhood friend of Trudeau's youngest brother, Michel.[242] They reconnected as adults in June 2003, when Grégoire, by then a Quebec
Quebec
television personality, was assigned as Trudeau's co-host for a charity ball; they began dating several months later. Trudeau and Grégoire became engaged in October 2004, and married on 28 May 2005, in a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
ceremony at Montreal's Sainte-Madeleine d'Outremont Church.[243] They have three children: Xavier James (born 18 October 2007),[244] Ella-Grace Margaret (born 5 February 2009)[245][246] and Hadrien Grégoire (born 28 February 2014).[247][248] In June 2013, two months after Trudeau became the leader of the Liberal Party, the couple sold their home in the Côte-des-Neiges neighbourhood of Montreal.[249] They began living in a rented home in Ottawa's Rockcliffe Park, the neighbourhood near where Trudeau resided as a child during his father's time as prime minister.[249] On 18 August 2014, an intruder broke into the house while Grégoire and the couple's three children were sleeping and left a threatening note; however, nothing was stolen and there was no damage to the property. Following the incident, Trudeau, who was in Winnipeg
Winnipeg
at the time of the break-in, stated his intention to inquire with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police about his home security.[250] After his 2015 electoral victory, Trudeau opted to live at Rideau Cottage, on the grounds of Rideau Hall, until necessary repairs are completed at 24 Sussex to make it comfortable for his family.[251] Trudeau has a large Earth
Earth
inside a Haida raven tattoo on his left arm.[252] The tattoo is based on a design by Robert Davidson, a Haida artist whose grandmother ceremonially adopted Pierre Trudeau
Pierre Trudeau
as an honorary member of the Haida tribe during a 1976 trip to what was then called the Queen Charlotte Islands.[253] Religion Trudeau's father was a devout Roman Catholic[254] and his mother converted from Anglicanism to Catholicism just prior to their wedding.[255] As a child, he attended Mass each Sunday and said his prayers each night before bedtime. He became a lapsed Catholic at age 18, as he felt that much of his day-to-day life was not addressed by the formality and structure of the church.[56][256] Trudeau described his faith during this period as "like so many Catholics across this country, I said, 'OK, I'm Catholic, I'm of faith, but I'm just not really going to go to church. Maybe on Easter, maybe midnight Mass at Christmas.'"[56][256] After the death of his brother Michel in 1998, Trudeau was persuaded by a friend to participate in an Alpha course, during which he regained his faith.[56][256] In 2011, Trudeau stated, "My own personal faith is an extremely important part of who I am and the values that I try to lead with."[257] In 2015, however, Trudeau, in a departure from Catholic belief, announced that persons opposed to the legalisation of abortion were not welcome as members of the Liberal Party.[258] Criticism Trudeau has been criticized for responding in French when asked about the unavailability of governmental services in English.[259] Political commentator Don Martin has written that Trudeau’s embrace of political correctness will generate backlash.[260] He was also criticized after a state visit to India
India
during which he was accused of an excessive display of Indian outfits.[261][262] Electoral record

v t e

Canadian federal election, 2015: Papineau

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures

Liberal Justin Trudeau 26,391 51.98 +14.05 $129,821.55

New Democratic Anne Lagacé Dowson 13,132 25.87 -3.6 $111,652.95

Bloc Québécois Maxime Claveau 6,182 12.18 -12.71 $19,007.27

Conservative Yvon Vadnais 2,390 4.71 -0.33 $5,649.91

Green Danny Polifroni 1,443 2.84 +0.95 $82.71

Independent Chris Lloyd 505 0.99 – $5,759.41

Rhinoceros Tommy Gaudet 323 0.64 – –

Independent Kim Waldron 159 0.31 – $2,101.20

Marxist–Leninist Peter Macrisopoulos 142 0.28 -0.25 –

No affiliation Beverly Bernardo 103 0.2 – –

Total valid votes/Expense limit 50,770 100.0   $213,091.49

Total rejected ballots 698 – –

Turnout 51,468 – –

Eligible voters 78,649

Source: Elections Canada[263][264]

Liberal Party of Canada
Liberal Party of Canada
leadership election, 2013

Candidate First Ballot

Points* % Votes %

Justin Trudeau 24,669 80.1 81,389 78.76

Joyce Murray 3,131 10.2 12,148 11.76

Martha Hall Findlay 1,760 5.7 6,585 6.37

Martin Cauchon 816 2.6 1,630 1.58

Deborah Coyne 214 0.7 833 0.81

Karen McCrimmon 210 0.7 757 0.73

Total 30,800 100.0 104,552 100.00

*Each federal electoral district had 100 points, which were determined by the voters in the district.

v t e

Canadian federal election, 2011: Papineau

Party Candidate Votes % ±%

Liberal Justin Trudeau 16,429 38.41 −3.06

New Democratic Marcos Radhames Tejada 12,102 28.29 +19.55

Bloc Québécois Vivian Barbot 11,091 25.93 −12.76

Conservative Shama Chopra 2,021 4.73 −2.90

Green Danny Polifroni 806 1.88 −0.96

Marxist–Leninist Peter Macrisopoulos 228 0.53

Not affiliated1 Joseph Young 95 0.22

Total valid votes 42,772 100.0  

Total rejected ballots 588

Turnout 43,330

Source: Official Results, Elections Canada. 1 Communist League

v t e

Canadian federal election, 2008: Papineau

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures

Liberal Justin Trudeau 17,724 41.47 +2.99 $76,857

Bloc Québécois Vivian Barbot 16,535 38.69 -2.06 $70,872

New Democratic Costa Zafiropoulos 3,734 8.74 +1.04 $5,745

Conservative Mustaque Sarker 3,262 7.63 -0.69 $44,958

Green Ingrid Hein 1,213 2.84 -0.76 $814

Independent Mahmood Raza Baig 267 0.62 +0.20

Total valid votes/Expense limit 42,735 100.00 $81,172

Total rejected ballots 576 1.33

Turnout 43,311

Note: Baig's share of popular vote as an independent candidate is compared to his share in the 2006 general election as a Canadian Action Party candidate.

Sources: Official Results, Elections Canada
Elections Canada
and Financial Returns, Elections Canada.

Published works

Trudeau, Justin (20 October 2014). Common Ground. HarperCollins Canada. ISBN 978-1-4434-3339-6

Ancestry

Ancestors of Justin Trudeau

16. Louis Trudeau (1817–1879)

8. Joseph Trudeau (1848–1919)

17. Louise Dupuis (1817–1884)

4. Charles-Émile Trudeau (1887–1935)

18. Solime Cardinal (1815–1897)

9. Malvina Cardinal (1849–1931)

19. Marguerite Surprenant (1820–1873)

2.Pierre Trudeau (1919–2000)

20. Edward Elliott (1830–1881)

10. Philip Armstrong Elliott (1859–1936)

21. Amelia Morrison (1834–1903)

5. Grace Elliott (1890–1973)

22. Séraphin Sauvé (1821–1890)

11. Sarah Sauvé (1857–1899)

23. Agnes Clark (1830–1920)

1. Justin Trudeau (b. 1971)

24. James Sinclair (1834–1904)

12. James George Sinclair (1879–1962)

25. Isabella Taylor (1840–1914)

6.James Sinclair (1908–1984)

26. Alexander Ross (1849–1920)

13. Betsy Ross (1878–1959)

27. Betsy Ann Munro (1852–1916)

3.Margaret Sinclair (b. 1948)

28. Charles Grant Bugden Bernard (1857–1936)

14. Thomas Bernard (1891–1946)

29. Annie Purvis (1870–1947)

7. Kathleen Bernard (1920–2012)

30. Charles Howe Ivens (1859–1926)

15. Rose Ivens (1891–1979)

31. Julia Webb (1850–1898)

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Ottawa
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– Preliminary Election Expenses Limits for Candidates

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Justin Trudeau
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Parliament of Canada
biography House of Commons profile Appearances on C-SPAN

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Justin Trudeau

25 December 1971 – Prime Minister of Canada
Prime Minister of Canada
(2015–present) Leader
Leader
of the Liberal Party of Canada
Liberal Party of Canada
(2013–present) Member of Parliament for Papineau (2008–present)

Premiership

Premiership of Justin Trudeau Cabinet: 29th Canadian Ministry Parliament: 42nd Canadian Parliament Party: Liberal Party of Canada International trips

Elections

2015 federal election

Related

2013 Liberal Party leadership election Trudeaumania

Family

Sophie Grégoire
Sophie Grégoire
(wife) Pierre Trudeau
Pierre Trudeau
(father, 15th Prime Minister of Canada) Margaret Sinclair (mother) Alexandre Trudeau (brother) Michel Trudeau
Michel Trudeau
(brother) Charles-Émile Trudeau (paternal grandfather) James Sinclair (maternal grandfather)

Links to related articles

Parliament of Canada

Preceded by Vivian Barbot Member of Parliament for Papineau 2008–present Incumbent

Party political offices

Preceded by Bob Rae Interim Leader
Leader
of the Liberal Party 2013–present Incumbent

Political offices

Preceded by Stephen Harper Prime Minister of Canada 2015–present Incumbent

Preceded by Denis Lebel Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs and Youth 2015–present

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Paolo Gentiloni Chair of the Group of Seven 2018 Incumbent

Order of precedence

Preceded by Members of the Royal Family (other than the Queen) When in Canada Order of Precedence of Canada as Prime Minister Succeeded by Richard Wagner as Chief Justice

Preceded by Julie Payette as Governor General

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Prime Ministers of Canada

Macdonald Mackenzie Macdonald Abbott Thompson Bowell Tupper Laurier Borden Meighen King Meighen King Bennett King St. Laurent Diefenbaker Pearson P. E. Trudeau Clark P. E. Trudeau Turner Mulroney Campbell Chrétien Martin Harper J. Trudeau

Book Category Portal

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First Ministers of Canada

Federal

Prime Minister: Justin Trudeau
Justin Trudeau
(Liberal)

Provincial

AB: Rachel Notley
Rachel Notley
(NDP) BC: John Horgan
John Horgan
(NDP) MB: Brian Pallister
Brian Pallister
(Progressive Conservative) NB: Brian Gallant
Brian Gallant
(Liberal) NL: Dwight Ball
Dwight Ball
(Liberal) NS: Stephen McNeil
Stephen McNeil
(Liberal) ON: Kathleen Wynne
Kathleen Wynne
(Liberal) PE: Wade MacLauchlan
Wade MacLauchlan
(Liberal) QC: Philippe Couillard
Philippe Couillard
(Liberal) SK: Scott Moe
Scott Moe
(Saskatchewan)

Territorial

NT: Bob McLeod NU: Paul Quassa YT: Sandy Silver
Sandy Silver
(Liberal)

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Liberal Party of Canada

Provincial wings

Affiliated provincial parties

New Brunswick Newfoundland and Labrador Nova Scotia Prince Edward Island

Formerly affiliated parties

Alberta (1905–76) British Columbia
British Columbia
(1903–late 1980s) Manitoba Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
(1898–1905) Ontario Quebec
Quebec
(1867–1964) Saskatchewan (1905–2009) Yukon

National leaders

Leaders

Brown Mackenzie Blake Laurier McKenzie King St. Laurent Pearson P. E. Trudeau Turner Gray Chrétien Martin Graham Dion Ignatieff Rae J. Trudeau

Deputy Leaders

Copps Gray Manley McLellan Robillard Ignatieff Goodale

Leadership elections

1919 1948 1958 1968 1980 1984 1990 2003 2006 2009 2013

Parliamentary election candidates

1867 1878 1887 1891 1896 1900 1904 1908 1911 1917 1921 1925 1926 1930 1935 1940 1945 1949 1957 1958 1962 1963 1965 1968 1972 1974 1979 1980 1984 1988 1993 1997 2000 2004 2006 2008 2011 2015

Predecessors

History Clear Grits (circa 1850–58) Institut canadien de Montréal (1844–80) Parti canadien
Parti canadien
(circa 1800–38) Parti rouge
Parti rouge
(1848–61) Reformers (circa 1830–54) in Newfoundland

Related parties

Liberal Protectionist Liberal-Progressive Liberal-Labour Laurier Liberals Liberal–Unionist National Liberal Progressive

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Canadian federal election, 2015

Outgoing: Conservative majority Result: Liberal majority

Bloc Québécois

Gilles Duceppe, candidates

Christian Heritage

Rod Taylor, candidates

Conservative

Stephen Harper, candidates

Green

Elizabeth May, candidates

Liberal

Justin Trudeau, candidates

New Democrats

Thomas Mulcair, candidates

Strength in Democracy

Jean-François Fortin, candidates

Bold indicates parties with members elected to the House of Commons.

Results overview Results by riding MPs who stood down MPs who lost their seat Marginal seats Newspaper endorsements Other endorsements Opinion Polling (by constituency) Timeline

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Pierre Trudeau

October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000 Prime Minister of Canada
Prime Minister of Canada
(1968–79, 1980–84) Leader
Leader
of the Liberal Party of Canada
Liberal Party of Canada
(1968–84) Member of Parliament for Mount Royal (1965–84) Leader
Leader
of the Opposition (1979–80)

Political activities

Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1968-69 Liberal Party of Canada
Liberal Party of Canada
leadership election, 1968 Trudeauism Trudeaumania (Fuddle duddle) Just society Official bilingualism in Canada Petro-Canada National Energy Program Constitution Act, 1982 Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Foreign Investment Review Agency October Crisis/War Measures Act

"Just watch me"

Multiculturalism in Canada

Elections

1968 1972 1974 1979 1980

Staff

Jean Charpentier

Life

Cité Libre Death and state funeral

Family

Margaret Sinclair (wife) Justin Trudeau
Justin Trudeau
(son, 23rd Prime Minister of Canada) Alexandre Trudeau (son) Michel Trudeau
Michel Trudeau
(son) Charles-Émile Trudeau (father) Deborah Coyne
Deborah Coyne
(partner)

Related

Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation The Champions (1978 miniseries) Just Watch Me: Trudeau and the '70s Generation (1999 documentary) Trudeau (2002 miniseries) Young Trudeau
Young Trudeau
(2006 book)

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Cabinet of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau
Justin Trudeau
(2015–present)

Current ministers Justin Trudeau

Navdeep Bains Carolyn Bennett Marie-Claude Bibeau Scott Brison Jim Carr Bardish Chagger François-Philippe Champagne Jean-Yves Duclos Kirsty Duncan Chrystia Freeland Marc Garneau Ralph Goodale Karina Gould Patty Hajdu Ahmed Hussen Mélanie Joly Dominic LeBlanc Diane Lebouthillier Lawrence MacAulay Catherine McKenna Maryam Monsef Bill Morneau Seamus O'Regan Ginette Petitpas Taylor Jane Philpott Carla Qualtrough Harjit Sajjan Amarjeet Sohi Jody Wilson-Raybould

Former ministers

Stéphane Dion Judy Foote Kent Hehr John McCallum MaryAnn Mihychuk Hunter Tootoo

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Canadian Newsmaker of the Year

Igor Gouzenko

1946

Barbara Ann Scott

1947

William Lyon Mackenzie King

1948

Louis St. Laurent

1949

Lester B. Pearson

1950–1953

Marilyn Bell

1954

Lester B. Pearson

1955–1956

John Diefenbaker

1957–1960

Joey Smallwood

1959

James Coyne

1961

Réal Caouette

1962

Lester B. Pearson

1963–1964

Lucien Rivard

1965

John Diefenbaker

1966

Lester B. Pearson

1967

Pierre Trudeau

1968–1975

René Lévesque

1976–1977

Pierre Trudeau

1978

Joe Clark

1979

Terry Fox

1980–1981

Wayne Gretzky

1982

Brian Mulroney

1983–1984

Steve Fonyo

1985

Rick Hansen

1986–1987

Ben Johnson

1988

Michael Wilson

1989

Elijah Harper

1990

Brian Mulroney

1991

The referendum on the Charlottetown Accord

1992

Kim Campbell

1993

Jacques Parizeau

1994

Lucien Bouchard

1995

Donovan Bailey

1996

Sheldon Kennedy

1997

Jean Chrétien

1998

Pierre Trudeau

1999, as Newsmaker of the 20th Century

Pierre Trudeau

2000

Stockwell Day

2001

Jean Chrétien

2002

Paul Martin

2003–2004

John Gomery

2005

The Canadian Soldier

2006

RCMP

2007

Stephen Harper

2008–2009

Russell Williams

2010

Jack Layton

2011

Luka Magnotta

2012

Rob Ford

2013

Patrice Vincent and Nathan Cirillo

2014

Justin Trudeau

2015

Gord Downie

2016–2017

Book:Canadian Newsmakers of the Year Portal:History of Canada

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Current members of the Cabinet of Canada

Trudeau Bains Bennett Bibeau Brison Carr Chagger Champagne Duclos Duncan Freeland Garneau Goodale Gould Hajdu Hussen Joly LeBlanc Lebouthillier MacAulay McKenna Monsef Morneau O'Regan Petitpas Taylor Philpott Qualtrough Sajjan Sohi Wilson-Raybould

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Current Members of the House of Commons of Canada

Presiding Officer: Speaker Geoff Regan
Geoff Regan
(LIB)

Government

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Liberal Party

Trudeau

Aldag Alghabra Alleslev Amos Anandasangaree Arseneault Arya Ayoub Badawey Bagnell Bains Baylis Beech Bibeau Bittle Bennett Blair Boissonnault Bossio Bratina Breton Brison Caesar-Chavannes Carr B. Casey S. Casey Chagger Champagne Chen Cormier Cuzner Dabrusin Damoff DeCourcey Dhaliwal Dhillon Di Iorio Drouin Dubourg Duclos Duguid K. Duncan Dzerowicz Easter Ehsassi Ellis El-Khoury Erskine-Smith Eyking Eyolfson Fergus Fillmore Finnigan Fisher Fonseca Fortier Fragiskatos C. Fraser S. Fraser Freeland Fry Fuhr Garneau Gerretsen Goldsmith-Jones Goodale Gould Graham Grewal Hajdu Hardie Harvey Hébert Hehr Hogg Holland Housefather Hussen Hutchings Iacono Joly Jones Jordan Jowhari Khalid Khera Lambropoulos Lametti Lamoureux Lapointe S. Lauzon LeBlanc Lebouthillier Lefebvre Leslie Levitt Lightbound Lockhart Long Longfield Ludwig MacAulay MacKinnon Maloney R. Massé B. May McCrimmon McDonald McGuinty McKay McKenna McKinnon M. McLeod Mendès Mendicino Mihychuk M. Miller Monsef Morrissey Morneau Murray Nassif Nault Ng O'Connell O'Regan Oliphant Oliver Ouellette Paradis Peschisolido Peterson Petitpas Taylor Philpott Picard Poissant Qualtrough Ratansi Regan Rioux Robillard Rodríguez Rogers Romanado Rota Rudd Ruimy Rusnak Sahota Saini Sajjan Samson Sangha Sarai Scarpaleggia Schiefke Schulte Serré Sgro Shanahan Sheehan J. Sidhu S. Sidhu Sikand Simms Sohi Sorbara Spengemann Tabbara Tan Tassi Vandal Vandenbeld Vaughan Virani Whalen Wilkinson Wilson-Raybould Wrzesnewskyj Yip Young Zahid

Official Opposition

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Conservative Party

Scheer

Aboultaif Albas Albrecht Allison Anderson Arnold Barlow Benzen Bergen Bernier Berthold Bezan S. Blaney Block Boucher Brassard Brown Calkins Carrie Chong Clarke Clement Cooper Deltell Diotte Doherty Dreeshen Eglinski R. Falk T. Falk Fast Finley Gallant Généreux Genuis Gladu Godin Gourde Harder Hoback Jeneroux Kelly Kent Kitchen Kmiec Kusie Lake G. Lauzon Leitch Liepert Lloyd Lobb Lukiwski MacKenzie Maguire McCauley McColeman C. McLeod L. Miller Motz Nater Nicholson Nuttall Obhrai O'Toole Paul-Hus Poilievre Raitt Rayes Reid Rempel Richards Saroya Schmale Shields Shipley Sorenson Sopuck Stanton Strahl Stubbs Sweet Tilson Trost Van Kesteren Van Loan Vecchio Viersen Wagantall Warawa Warkentin Waugh Webber Wong Yurdiga Zimmer

Third party

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New Democratic Party

Caron

Angus Ashton Aubin Benson Blaikie R. Blaney Boulerice Boutin-Sweet Brosseau Cannings Choquette Christopherson Cullen Davies Donnelly Dubé L. Duncan Dusseault Duvall Garrison Hardcastle Hughes Johns Jolibois Julian Kwan Laverdière MacGregor Malcolmson B. Masse Mathyssen Moore Mulcair Nantel Quach Ramsey Rankin Saganash Sansoucy Stetski Stewart Trudel Weir

Other parties/groups

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Groupe parlementaire québécois

Fortin

Boudrias Marcil Pauzé Plamondon Ste-Marie Thériault

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Bloc Québécois

Beaulieu Barsalou-Duval Gill

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Green Party

E. May

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Independent

Kang Tootoo

42nd Canadian Parliament Vacancies: 1

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Current leaders of NATO
NATO
member states

Secretary General Stoltenberg

  Rama   Michel   Borisov   Trudeau   Plenković   Babiš   Løkke Rasmussen   Ratas   Macron   Merkel   Tsipras   Orbán   Katrín   Gentiloni   Kučinskis   Grybauskaitė   Bettel   Marković   Rutte   Solberg   Morawiecki   Costa   Iohannis   Pellegrini   Cerar   Rajoy   Yıldırım   May   Trump

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Current leaders of the Group of 8

Trudeau Macron Merkel Gentiloni Abe Putin (suspended) May Trump Tusk / Juncker

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Current leaders of the Group of 20

 Macri  Turnbull  Temer  Trudeau  Xi  Tusk / Juncker  Macron  Merkel  Modi  Jokowi  Gentiloni  Abe  Peña Nieto  Putin  Salman  Ramaphosa  Moon  Erdoğan  May  Trump

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Current leaders of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Turnbull Bolkiah Trudeau Piñera Xi Lam Jokowi Abe Moon Najib Peña Nieto

Ardern O'Neill Vizcarra Duterte Putin Lee Tsai Prayut Trump Quang

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Commonwealth Heads of Government

Head: Elizabeth II Secretary-General: Patricia Scotland Chair-in-Office: Joseph Muscat

Browne Turnbull Minnis Hasina Stuart Barrow Khama Bolkiah Biya Trudeau Anastasiades Skerrit Bainimarama Akufo-Addo Mitchell Granger Modi Holness Kenyatta Mamau Thabane Mutharika Najib Muscat Jugnauth Nyusi Geingob Waqa Ardern Buhari Abbasi O'Neill Kagame Harris Chastanet Gonsalves Malielegaoi Faure Koroma Lee Houenipwela Ramaphosa Sirisena Dlamini Magufuli Pōhiva Rowley Sopoaga Museveni May Salwai Lungu

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 311580041 LCCN: no20141475

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