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Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
is a 1990 science fiction novel written by Michael Crichton, divided into seven sections (iterations). A cautionary tale about genetic engineering, it presents the collapse of an amusement park showcasing genetically recreated dinosaurs to illustrate the mathematical concept of chaos theory and its real world implications. A sequel titled The Lost World, also written by Crichton, was published in 1995. In 1997, both novels were re-published as a single book titled Michael Crichton's Jurassic World, unrelated to the film of the same name.[2][3][4] In 1993, Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
adapted the book into the blockbuster film Jurassic Park. The book's sequel, The Lost World, was also adapted by Spielberg into a film in 1997. A third film directed by Joe Johnston and released in 2001 drew several elements, themes and scenes from both books that were ultimately not utilized in either of the previous films, such as the aviary and boat scenes. A fourth entry directed by Colin Trevorrow
Colin Trevorrow
was released in 2015. The novel began as a screenplay Crichton wrote in 1983, about a graduate student who recreates a dinosaur.[5] Eventually, given his reasoning that genetic research is expensive and "there is no pressing need to create a dinosaur", Crichton concluded that it would emerge from a "desire to entertain", leading to a wildlife park of extinct animals.[6] Originally it was told from the point of view of a child, but Crichton changed it as everyone who read the draft felt it would be better if told by an adult.[7]

Contents

1 Plot summary 2 Prehistoric animals featured in the novel 3 Reception 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Plot summary[edit] In 1989, a series of strange animal attacks occur in Costa Rica
Costa Rica
and on the nearby fictional island of Isla Nublar,[8] the story's main setting, one of which is a worker severely injured on a construction project on Isla Nublar, whose employers refuse to disclose any information about. One of the species is eventually identified as a Procompsognathus. Paleontologist Alan Grant and his paleobotanist graduate student, Ellie Sattler, are contacted to confirm the identification, but are abruptly whisked away by billionaire John Hammond — founder and chief executive officer of International Genetic Technologies, or InGen — for a weekend visit to a "biological preserve" he has established on Isla Nublar. Upon arrival, the preserve is revealed to be Jurassic Park, a theme park showcasing cloned dinosaurs. The animals have been recreated using damaged dinosaur DNA
DNA
found in blood inside of gnats and ticks fossilized and preserved in amber. Gaps in the genetic code have been filled in with "compatible" reptilian, avian or amphibian DNA. To control the population, all specimens on the island are lysine-deficient and X-Ray sterilized females. Hammond proudly touts InGen's advances in genetic engineering and shows his guests through the island's vast array of automated systems.

Ian Malcolm created dragon curves to simulate the actions that were to take place in the park.

Recent incidents in the park have spooked Hammond's investors. To placate them, Hammond uses Grant and Sattler as fresh consultants. They stand in counterbalance to a famous mathematician and chaos theorist, Ian Malcolm, and a lawyer representing the investors, Donald Gennaro, who are pessimistic about the park's prospects. Malcolm, having been consulted before the park's creation, is especially emphatic in his prediction that the park will collapse, as it is an unsustainable simple structure bluntly forced upon a complex system with too many unpredictable variables, such as an uncontrollable population, attempting to contain animals with no real equivalent to extant animals with no predictable behavior patterns, and an untested computer system that continually fails to monitor and feed the population. Countering Malcolm's dire predictions with youthful energy, Hammond groups the consultants with his grandchildren, Tim and Alexis "Lex" Murphy. While touring the park, Grant finds a Velociraptor
Velociraptor
eggshell, seemingly proving Malcolm's earlier assertion that the dinosaurs have somehow been breeding against the geneticists' design. Meanwhile, the disgruntled chief programmer of Jurassic Park's controlling software, Dennis Nedry, attempts corporate espionage for Lewis Dodgson, a geneticist and agent of InGen's archrival, Biosyn. By activating a backdoor he wrote into the park's computer system, Nedry shuts down its security systems and steals frozen embryos for each of the park's fifteen species in an attempt to smuggle them to a contact waiting at an auxiliary dock deep in the park. However, during a sudden tropical storm, he exits his vehicle to get his bearings and is killed by a Dilophosaurus. Without Nedry to reactivate the park's security, the electrified fences remain off and dinosaurs escape. The Tyrannosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
attacks the guests on tour. In the aftermath, Grant and the children become lost in the park. Malcolm is gravely injured during the incident, but is found by Gennaro and park game warden Robert Muldoon, spending the remainder of the novel slowly dying as – between lucid lectures and morphine-induced rants – he tries to help the others understand their predicament and survive. The park's upper management — engineer and park supervisor John Arnold, biotechnologist Henry Wu, Muldoon, and Hammond — struggle to return power to the park, while the veterinarian, Dr. Harding, takes care of Malcolm. They manage to temporarily get the park largely back in order, restoring the computer system by shutting down and restarting the power and resetting the system. When trying to restore the park to working order, they fail to notice that the system has been running on auxiliary power since the restart; this power soon runs out, shutting the park down a second time. The park's intelligent and aggressive raptors escape their enclosure, and kill Wu and Arnold. Meanwhile, Grant and the children slowly make their way back to the Visitor Center by rafting down the jungle river, carrying news that several young raptors were on board the island's supply ship when it departed for the mainland. Tim manages to reactivate the park's main power, allowing Gennaro to force the supply ship to return. Gennaro orders that the island be destroyed, but Grant rejects his authority, claiming that they must first inspect the whole situation. Grant, Sattler, Muldoon, and Gennaro set out into the park to find the wild raptor nests and compare hatched eggs with the island's revised population tally, and return unscathed. Meanwhile, Hammond, taking a walk and contemplating building a new park improving on his previous mistakes, hears a T. rex roar and, startled, falls down a hill, where he is eaten by a pack of Procompsognathus. With regard to the dinosaurs' breeding, it eventually transpires that using frog DNA
DNA
to fill gaps in the dinosaurs' genetic code enabled a measure of dichogamy, in which some of the female animals changed into males in response to the same-sex environment. The survivors are rescued by the fictitious Costa Rican Air Force, where Grant reveals that the dinosaurs have been killing people. The Costa Rican Air Force then declare the island hazardous and unsafe. Survivors of the incident are indefinitely detained by the United States and Costa Rican governments at a hotel. Weeks later, Grant is visited by Dr. Martin Guitierrez, an American doctor who lives in Costa Rica. Guitierrez informs Grant that an unknown pack of animals has been migrating through the Costa Rican jungle, eating lysine-rich crops and chickens. He also informs Grant that none of them, with the possible exception of Tim and Lex, are going to leave any time soon. Prehistoric animals featured in the novel[edit] Main article: List of cloned animals in Jurassic Park

Apatosaurus
Apatosaurus
(some versions of the novel replace this dinosaur with Camarasaurus) Cearadactylus Coelurus
Coelurus
(remains presumed to be a "Coelurosaurus" were awaiting DNA extraction) Dilophosaurus Dryosaurus
Dryosaurus
(although referred to either as "hypsilophodonts" or "hypsilophodontids," the genus was identified in the chapter "The Park") Euoplocephalus Hadrosaurus Maiasaura Meganeura
Meganeura
(referred to only as giant dragonflies) Microceratus
Microceratus
(Dubbed "Microceratops" some versions of the novel replace this dinosaur with Callovosaurus) Othnielia Procompsognathus Stegosaurus Styracosaurus Triceratops Tyrannosaurus Velociraptor

Reception[edit] The book became a bestseller and Michael Crichton's signature novel. It also received largely favorable reviews by critics. In a review for The New York Times, Christopher Lehmann-Haupt described it as "a superior specimen of the [Frankenstein] myth" and "easily the best of Mr. Crichton's novels to date."[9] Writing for Entertainment Weekly, Gene Lyons held that the book was "hard to beat for sheer intellectual entertainment" largely because it was "[f]illed with diverting, up-to-date information in easily digestible form."[10] Both Lyons' Entertainment Weekly
Entertainment Weekly
piece and Andrew Ferguson's review in the Los Angeles Times, however, criticized Crichton's characterization as heavy-handed and his characters as cliched. Ferguson further complained about Ian Malcolm's "dime-store philosophizing" and predicted that the movie adaptation of the book would be "undoubtedly trashy." He conceded that the book's "only real virtue" was "its genuinely interesting discussions of dinosaurs, DNA
DNA
research, paleontology and chaos theory."[11] The novel became even more famous following the release of the 1993 film adaptation, which has grossed more than US$1 billion and spawned several sequels.[12] In 1996 it was awarded the Secondary BILBY Award.[13] See also[edit]

United States portal Novels portal 1990s portal Dinosaurs portal Speculative fiction portal

The Cursed Earth, a Judge Dredd
Judge Dredd
story line by Pat Mills
Pat Mills
in 2000 AD from 1978 that introduces the idea of a dinosaur theme park, with dinosaurs cloned from DNA Carnosaur, a 1984 novel with similar themes Westworld, Crichton's earlier 1973 film also about a malfunctioning theme park

References[edit]

^ "Copyright information for Jurassic Park". United States Copyright Office. Retrieved June 15, 2016.  ^ Crichton, Michael (1997). Michael Crichton's Jurassic World. Knopf. ISBN 978-0375401077.  ^ "Michael Crichton's Jurassic world (information)". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-01-28.  ^ "Michael Crichton's Jurassic World: Jurassic Park, The Lost World". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved 2015-01-28.  ^ Crichton, Michael (2001). Michael Crichton
Michael Crichton
on the Jurassic Park Phenomenon (DVD). Universal.  ^ "Return to Jurassic Park: Dawn of a New Era", Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
Blu-ray (2011) ^ Michael Crichton's notes on Jurassic Park ^ Means approximately "Clouded Island" or "Obscured Island" in Spanish. ^ Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (November 15, 1990). "Books of The Times; Of Dinosaurs Returned And Fractals Fractured". New York Times. Retrieved 27 September 2015.  ^ Lyons, Gene (November 16, 1990). "Jurassic Park". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 27 September 2015.  ^ Ferguson, Andrew (November 11, 1990). "The Thing From the Tar Pits : JURASSIC PARK By Michael Crichton
Michael Crichton
(Alfred A. Knopf: $19.95; 413 pp.)". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 27 September 2015.  ^ Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
(1993). Box Office Mojo (1993-09-24). Retrieved on 2013-09-17. ^ "Previous Winners of the BILBY Awards: 1990 – 96" (PDF). www.cbcaqld.org. The Children's Book Council of Australia Queensland Branch. Retrieved 4 November 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

DeSalle, Rob & Lindley, David (1997). The Science of Jurassic Park and The Lost World. Or How to Build a Dinosaur. New York: BasicBooks. ISBN 0-465-07379-4. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
(novel)

Isla Nublar
Isla Nublar
novel map Official website Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
at the official Michael Crichton
Michael Crichton
website

Awards

Preceded by Looking for Alibrandi Books I Love Best Yearly: Older Readers Award 1996 Succeeded by The Hobbit

v t e

Works by Michael Crichton

Novels

The Andromeda Strain
The Andromeda Strain
(1969) The Terminal Man
The Terminal Man
(1972) The Great Train Robbery (1975) Eaters of the Dead
Eaters of the Dead
(1976) Congo (1980) Sphere (1987) Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
(1990) Rising Sun (1992) Disclosure (1994) The Lost World (1995) Airframe (1996) Timeline (1999) Prey (2002) State of Fear
State of Fear
(2004) Next (2006) Pirate Latitudes
Pirate Latitudes
(2009) Micro (2011) Dragon Teeth
Dragon Teeth
(2017)

Novels written under pseudonyms

Odds On
Odds On
(1966) Scratch One (1967) Easy Go
Easy Go
(1968) A Case of Need
A Case of Need
(1968) Zero Cool
Zero Cool
(1969) The Venom Business
The Venom Business
(1969) Drug of Choice
Drug of Choice
(1970) Dealing: or the Berkeley-to-Boston Forty-Brick Lost-Bag Blues (1970) Grave Descend
Grave Descend
(1970) Binary (1972)

Non-fiction

Five Patients
Five Patients
(1970) Jasper Johns (1977) Electronic Life
Electronic Life
(1983) Travels (1988)

Films directed

Pursuit (1972) Westworld (1973) Coma (1978) The First Great Train Robbery
The First Great Train Robbery
(1979) Looker
Looker
(1981) Runaway (1984) Physical Evidence (1989)

Films written

Extreme Close-Up (1973) Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
(1993) Rising Sun (1993) Twister (1996)

Television series

Beyond Westworld
Beyond Westworld
(1980) ER (1994–2009) Westworld (2016–present)

Adaptations

The Andromeda Strain
The Andromeda Strain
(1971) Dealing: Or the Berkeley-to-Boston Forty-Brick Lost-Bag Blues (1972) The Carey Treatment
The Carey Treatment
(1972) The Terminal Man
The Terminal Man
(1974) The First Great Train Robbery
The First Great Train Robbery
(1979) Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
(1993) Rising Sun (1993) Disclosure (1994) Congo (1995) The Lost World: Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
(1997) Sphere (1998) The 13th Warrior
The 13th Warrior
(1999) Timeline (2003) The Andromeda Strain
The Andromeda Strain
(2008)

Video games

Amazon (1984) Timeline (2000)

v t e

Jurassic Park

Novels

Jurassic Park The Lost World

Films

Jurassic Park The Lost World: Jurassic Park Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
III Jurassic World Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom

Music

Jurassic Park The Lost World: Jurassic Park Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
III Jurassic World

Spin-off novels

Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
Adventures: Survivor Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
Adventures: Prey Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
Adventures: Flyers

Theme park attractions

Jurassic Park: The Ride Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
Rapids Adventure Canopy Flyer Dino-Soarin' The Flying Dinosaur Amber
Amber
Rock Climb

Related

Cloned animals Characters Video games Song Isla Nublar

Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 273045578 GN

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