1 Design and development
1.1 Technical description and testing 1.2 Postwar production
2.1 Variants table
3 Applications 4 Survivors 5 Specifications (Jumo 004B)
5.1 General characteristics 5.2 Components 5.3 Performance
6 In popular culture 7 See also 8 References
8.1 Notes 8.2 Bibliography
9 External links
Design and development
The feasibility of jet propulsion had been demonstrated in Germany in
early 1937 by
Hans von Ohain
Frontal view of a Jumo 004 engine mounted in a nacelle on an Me 262 fighter. The pull-starter handle for the Riedel APU unit to start the 004 is clearly visible in the center of the engine's intake diverter.
Riedel starter, with pull-start handle & cable
The first prototype 004A, which was constructed to run on diesel fuel,
was first tested in October 1940, though without an exhaust nozzle. It
was benchtested at the end of January 1941 to a top thrust of
430 kgf (4,200 N; 950 lbf), and work continued to
increase the output, the RLM contract having set a minimum of
600 kgf (5,900 N; 1,300 lbf) thrust.
Vibration problems with the compressor stators, originally
cantilevered from the outside, delayed the program at this point.
Max Bentele, as an Air Ministry consulting engineer with a background
in turbocharger vibrations, assisted in solving the problem. The
original aluminium stators were replaced with steel ones in which
configuration the engine developed 5.9 kN (1,300 lbf) in
August, and passed a 10-hour endurance run at 9.8 kN
(2,200 lbf) in December. The first flight test took place on
March 15, 1942, when a 004A was carried aloft by a Messerschmitt Bf
110 to run up the engine in flight. The 004 used an eight-stage
axial-flow compressor, with six axial combustion chambers (made
from sheet steel), and a one-stage turbine with hollow blades.
On July 18, one of the prototype Messerschmitt Me 262s flew for the
first time under jet power from its 004 engines, and the 004 was
ordered into production by the RLM to the extent of 80 engines.
The initial 004A engines built to power the Me 262 prototypes had been
built without restrictions on materials, and they used scarce raw
materials such as nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum in quantities which
were unacceptable in production. Franz realized that the Jumo 004
would have to be redesigned to incorporate a minimum of these
strategic materials, and this was accomplished. All the hot metal
parts, including the combustion chamber, were changed to mild steel
protected by an aluminum coating, and the hollow turbine blades were
produced from folded and welded Cromadur alloy (12% chromium, 18%
manganese, and 70% iron) developed by Krupp, and cooled by compressed
air "bled" from the compressor. The engine's operational lifespan was
shortened, but on the plus side it became easier to construct.
Production engines had a cast magnesium casing in two halves, one with
half-sections of stator assemblies bolted to it. The four front
stators were constructed from steel alloy blades welded to the mount;
the rear five were pressed steel sheet bent over the mount and welded
on. Steel alloy compressor blades dovetailled into slots in the
compressor disk and were fixed by small screws. The compressor
itself was mounted to a steel shaft with twelve set screws. Jumo
tried a variety of compressor blades, beginning with solid steel,
later hollow sheet metal ones, welded on the taper, with their roots
fitted over rhomboidal studs on the turbine wheel, to which they were
pinned and brazed.
One interesting feature of the 004 was the starter system, designed by
the German engineer Norbert Riedel, which consisted of a 10 hp
(7.5 kW) 2-stroke flat engine hidden in the intake, and
essentially functioned as a pioneering example of an APU for starting
a jet engine. A hole in the extreme nose of the intake diverter body
contained a pull-handle for the cable which "turned-over" the piston
engine, which in turn spun up the turbine. Two small gasoline/oil mix
tanks were fitted within the upper perimeter of the annular intake's
sheet metal housing for fueling the Riedel two-stroke mechanical APU
unit. The Riedel unit was also used — but was installed differently
— for startup of the competing
Sectioned Jumo 004 exhaust nozzle, showing the Zwiebel restrictive body
Closeup of drive system for the Zwiebel restrictive body
The exhaust area of the 004 featured a variable geometry nozzle, which had a special restrictive body nicknamed the Zwiebel (German for onion, due to its shape when seen from the side) which had roughly 40 cm (16 inch) of fore-and-aft travel, moved by an electric-motor powered jackscrew mechanism to vary the jet exhaust's cross-sectional area for thrust control, as the active part of a pioneering "divergent-convergent" nozzle format. The Jumo 004 could run on three types of fuel:
J-2, its standard fuel, a synthetic fuel produced from coal. Diesel oil. Aviation gasoline; not considered desirable due to its high rate of consumption.
Costing RM10,000 for materials, the Jumo 004 also proved somewhat
cheaper than the competing BMW 003, which was RM12,000, and cheaper
Following World War II, Jumo 004s were built in small numbers in
Malešice in Czechoslovakia, designated Avia Avia M-04, to power the
1⁄10 scale (compressor power absorption) prototype engine,
test-run with limited success.
Full-scale prototype and pre-production engines, powered early
Messerschmitt Me 262
109-004A-0: Pre-production engines for flight .
109-004B Production-series engines with reduced weight and strategic materials.
109-004B-0: initial production standard engines, 8.22 kN (1,848 lbf) thrust at 8,700 rpm. 109-004B-1: modified compressor and turbine to reduce vibration and thrust increased to 8.83 kN (1,984 lbf). 109-004B-2: Incorporating a new compressor to reduce vibration failures 109-004B-3: A development model 109-004B-4: Introduce air-cooled hollow turbine blades
109-004C A projected version with detail refinements giving 9.81 kN (2,205 lbf) thrust, not built. 109-004D A refined 004B with two-stage fuel injection and a new fuel control unit, ready for production by the end of World War II.
109-004D-4: Modified combustion system for increased thrust but reduced life, for testing only.
109-004E An 004D with exhaust area optimised for high altitude performance, 11.77 kN (2,646 lbf) thrust with afterburning. 109-004F Possibly with Water or Water/Methanol injection. 109-004G Based on the 004C with an 11-stage compressor and 8 can combustion chambers for 16.68 kN (3,749 lbf). 109-004H A re-designed and enlarged version of the 004 with 11-stage compressor and 2-stage turbine, only reaching the design stage by war's end; projected to deliver 17.7 kN (3,970 lbf) thrust at 6,600 rpm. Avia M-04 Post-war production of the 004B in Czechoslovakia RD-10 Designation used for both captured Jumo 004s and copies, built from 1945 onward by a team at 26 GAZ, headed by Klimov and at a captured underground factory near Dessau.
109-004B Turbojet 8A 6C 1T 8.83 kN (1,984 lbf) 745 kg (1,642 lb) 8,700 rpm
109-004C Turbojet 8A 6Cn 1T 9.81 kN (2,205 lbf) 720 kg (1,590 lb) 8,700 rpm
109-004D Turbojet 8A 6C 1T 10.30 kN (2,315 lbf) 745 kg (1,642 lb) 10,000 rpm
109-004H Turbojet 11A 8C 2T 17.7 kN (3,970 lbf) 1,200 kg (2,600 lb) 6,600 rpm
Layout: A=axial flow compressor stages, C=can combustion chambers, T=turbine stages. Applications
Arado Ar 234
Avia S-92: (Avia M-04) Czechoslovak-built Me 262 A-1a (fighter)
Avia CS-92: (Avia M-04) Czechoslovak-built Me 262 B-1a (fighter
trainer, two seats)
Blohm & Voss P.188
Focke-Wulf Ta 183
A number of examples of the Jumo 004 turbojet exist in aviation
museums in North America, Europe and Australia specifically at the
Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum, the National Museum of
the U.S. Air Force, at the New England Air Museum, Bradley
International Airport, Windsor Locks, CT; and in Europe in such
museums like the
RAF Museum in the UK, and Munich's Deutsches Museum
and in Australia at the Australian National Aviation Museum, as well
in preserved examples of the Me 262A jet fighters in several aviation
museums. Cut-away version at the AFB Ysterplaat Museum, Cape Town
The Me 262 owned by the
Flying Heritage Collection
A Jumo 004 engine is being investigated by Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory engineers of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1946
Data from General characteristics
Type: Turbojet Length: 3.86 m (152 in) Diameter: 81 cm (32 in) Dry weight: 719 kg (1,585 lb)
Compressor: 8-stage axial compressor Combustors: Can-type, 6 Turbine: Single-stage
Maximum thrust: 8.8 kN (1,980 lbf) at 8,700 rpm Overall pressure ratio: 3.14:1 Specific fuel consumption: 1.39 N/(N·hr) Thrust-to-weight ratio: 1.25 (12.2 N/kg)
In popular culture
Blue Öyster Cult
Armstrong Siddeley ASX
List of aircraft engines
List of aircraft engines
^ Christopher, pp.70–71. ^ Christopher, p.72. ^ Christopher, pp.74–5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Christopher, p.70. ^ a b Pavelec, p. 32 ^ a b c ``Engine Revolutions: The Autobiography of Max Bentele`` ISBN 1-56091-081-X, p.45 ^ Machine Design (retrieved 30 May 2017) ^ Meher-Homji ^ a b c d e f Christopher, p.76. ^ "Summary of Debriefing of German pilot Hans Fey" (PDF). Zenos' Warbird Video Drive-In. ^ Christopher, John. The Race for Hitler's X-Planes (The Mill, Gloucestershire: History Press, 2013), p.74. ^ Christopher, p.75. ^ Christopher, p.69. ^ Christopher, pp.69–70. ^ Kay, Anthony L. (2007). Turbojet: History and Development 1930–1960: Volume 1: Great Britain and Germany. Marlborough, Wiltshire: Crowood Press. ISBN 978-1-86126-912-6. ^ "The Flying Heritage Collection" Internet Modeler. Retrieved: 29 June 2013.
Meher-Homji, Cyrus B. (September 1997). "
Anselm Franz and the Jumo
004". Mechanical Engineering. ASME. Archived from the original on
Pavelec, Sterling Michael (2007). The Jet Race and the Second World
War. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-99355-8.
Kay, Anthony L. (2002). German Jet Engine and Gas
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