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There are 3 main sets of works attributed to Florus
Florus
(a Roman cognomen): Virgilius orator an poeta, an Epitome of Roman History and a collection of poems (26 tetrameters, and 5 hexameters about roses). As to whether these were composed by the same person, or set of people, is unclear, but the works are variously attributed to:

Publius Annius Florus, described as a Roman poet and rhetorician. Julius Florus, described as an ancient Roman poet, orator, and author who was born in approximately 74 A.D and died in approximately 130 A.D.[1] Florus
Florus
was born in Africa,[1] but raised in Rome. Lucius Annaeus Florus
Florus
(c. 74 AD – c. 130 AD[2]), a Roman historian who lived in the time of Trajan
Trajan
and Hadrian
Hadrian
and was also born in Africa.

Contents

1 Virgilius orator an poeta 2 Poems 3 Epitome of Roman History 4 Attribution of the works 5 Tentative biography 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

Virgilius orator an poeta[edit]

Hadrian

The introduction to a dialogue called Virgilius orator an poeta is extant, in which the author (whose name is given as Publius Annius Florus) states that he was born in Africa, and at an early age took part in the literary contests on the Capitol instituted by Domitian. Having been refused a prize owing to the prejudice against African provincials, he left Rome in disgust, and after travelling for some time set up at Tarraco as a teacher of rhetoric. Here he was persuaded by an acquaintance to return to Rome, for it is generally agreed that he is the Florus
Florus
who wrote the well-known lines quoted together with Hadrian's answer by Aelius Spartianus
Aelius Spartianus
( Hadrian
Hadrian
I 6). Twenty-six trochaic tetrameters, De qualitate vitae, and five graceful hexameters, De rosis, are also attributed to him. Poems[edit] Florus
Florus
was also an established poet.[3] He was once thought to have been "the first in order of a number of 2nd century African writers who exercised a considerable influence on Latin
Latin
literature, and also the first of the poetae neoterici or novelli (new-fashioned poets) of Hadrian's reign, whose special characteristic was the use of lighter and graceful metres (anapaestic and iambic dimeters), which had hitherto found little favour." Since Cameron's article on the topic, however, the existence of such a school has been widely called into question, in part because the remnants of all poets supposedly involved are too scantily attested for any definitive judgment.[4] The little poems will be found in E. Bahrens, Poëtae Latini minores (1879–1883); for an unlikely identification of Florus
Florus
with the author of the Pervigilium Veneris
Pervigilium Veneris
see E. H. O. Müller, De P. Anino Floro poéta et de Pervigilio Veneris (1855), and, for the poet's relations with Hadrian, Franz Eyssenhardt, Hadrian
Hadrian
und Florus
Florus
(1882); see also Friedrich Marx in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopädie, i. pt. 2 (1894). Some his better-known poems include “Quality of Life”, “Roses in Springtime”, “Roses”, “The Rose”, “Venus’ Rose-Garden”, and “The Nine Muses”.[3][not in citation given] Florus’ better-known poetry is also associated with his smaller poems that he would write to Hadrian
Hadrian
out of admiration for the emperor.[5] Epitome of Roman History[edit] The two books of the Epitome of Roman History were written in admiration of the Roman people.[1] The books illuminate many historical events in a favorable tone for the Roman citizens.[6] The documentation the book provides is mainly based on the writings of Livy,[1] who was a Roman historian and author responsible for the work Ab Urbe Condita Libri. It consists of a brief sketch of the history of Rome from the foundation of the city to the closing of the temple of Janus by Augustus (25 BC). The work, which is called Epitome de T. Livio Bellorum omnium annorum DCC Libri duo, is written in a bombastic and rhetorical style – a panegyric of the greatness of Rome, the life of which is divided into the periods of infancy, youth and manhood. It is often wrong in geographical and chronological details. In spite of its faults, the book was much used as a handy epitome of Roman history, in the Middle Ages, and survived as a textbook into the nineteenth century. Florus
Florus
is credited with being politically unbiased for almost all of his work.[citation needed] However, many will say[who?] that after reviewing his descriptions of the civil war, he seems to position himself closer to Julius Caesar than Pompeius.[3] Florus
Florus
starts his books with the founding of Rome and ends them with the reign of Augustus.[6] The first book of the Epitome of Roman History is mainly about the establishment and growth of Rome.[6] The second is mainly about the decline of Rome and its changing morals.[6] Florus
Florus
has taken some criticism on his writing due to inaccuracies found chronologically and geographically in his stories,[3] but even so the Epitome of Roman History was vastly popular during the late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
as well as being used as a school book up until the 19th century.[7] The use of his writings far beyond his time is a testament to his premier narrative skills.[citation needed] In the manuscripts, the writer is variously named as Julius Florus, Lucius Anneus Florus, or simply Annaeus Florus. From certain similarities of style, he has been identified as Publius Annius Florus, poet, rhetorician and friend of Hadrian, author of a dialogue on the question of whether Virgil
Virgil
was an orator or poet, of which the introduction has been preserved. The most accessible modern text and translation are in the Loeb Classical Library (no. 231, published 1984, ISBN 0-674-99254-7). Christopher Plantin, Antwerp, in 1567, published two Lucius Florus texts (two title pages) in one volume. The titles were roughly as follows: 1) L.IVLII Flori de Gestis Romanorum, Historiarum; 2) Commentarius I STADII L.IVLII Flori de Gestis Romanorum, Historiarum. The first title has 149 pages; the second has 222 pages plus an index in a 12mo-size book. Attribution of the works[edit]

Tentative attribution Description Works Dates Other bio Identified with

Florus "a Roman historian" Epitome of Roman History c.74–c.130 born in Africa; lived in the time of Trajan
Trajan
and Hadrian "In the manuscripts, the writer is variously named as Julius Florus, Lucius Anneus Florus, or simply Annaeus Florus"; "he has been identified as Publius Annius Florus"

Julius Florus "an ancient Roman poet, orator, and author" Epitome of Roman History ; poems including “Quality of Life”, “Roses in Springtime”, “Roses”, “The Rose”, “Venus’ Rose-Garden”, and “The Nine Muses” c.74–c.130 born in Africa; accompanied Tiberius
Tiberius
to Armenia; lost Domitian’s Capital Competition due to prejudice; travelled in the Greek Empire; founded a school in Tarraco, Spain; returned to Rome; a friend of Hadrian "variously identified with Julius Florus, a distinguished orator and uncle of Julius Secundus, an intimate friend of Quintilian
Quintilian
(Instit. x. 3, 13); with the leader of an insurrection of the Treviri
Treviri
(Tacitus, Ann. iii. 40); with the Postumus of Horace (Odes, ii. 14) and even with the historian Florus."

Publius Annius Florus "Roman poet and rhetorician" Virgilius orator an poeta; Twenty-six trochaic tetrameters, De qualitate vitae, and five graceful hexameters, De rosis

born in Africa; accompanied Tiberius
Tiberius
to Armenia; lost Domitian’s Capital Competition due to prejudice; travelled; founded a school in Tarraco; returned to Rome; knew Hadrian "identified by some authorities with the historian Florus." "generally agreed that he is the Florus
Florus
who wrote the well-known lines quoted together with Hadrian's answer by Aelius Spartianus" "for an unlikely identification of Florus
Florus
with the author of the Pervigilium Veneris see E. H. O. Müller, "

Tentative biography[edit] The Florus
Florus
identified as Julius Florus
Florus
was one of the young men who accompanied Tiberius
Tiberius
on his mission to settle the affairs of Armenia. He has been variously identified with Julius Florus, a distinguished orator and uncle of Julius Secundus, an intimate friend of Quintilian (Instit. x. 3, 13); with the leader of an insurrection of the Treviri (Tacitus, Ann. iii. 40); with the Postumus of Horace (Odes, ii. 14) and even with the historian Florus. Under Domitian’s rule he competed in the Capital Competition,[3] which was an event in which poets received rewards and recognition from the emperor himself.[3] Although he acquired great applause from the crowds, he was not victorious in the event. Florus
Florus
himself blamed his loss on favoritism on behalf of the emperor.[7] Shortly after his defeat, Florus
Florus
departed from Rome to travel abroad.[7] His travels are said to have taken him through the Greek-speaking sections of the Roman Empire, taking in Sicily, Crete, the Cyclades, Rhodes, and Egypt.[7] At the conclusion of his travels, he resided in Tarraco, Spain.[3] In Tarraco, Florus
Florus
founded a school and taught literature.[7] During this time he also began to write the Epitome of Roman History.[3] After many years in Spain,he eventually migrated back to Rome during the rule of Hadrian
Hadrian
(117 A.D- 138 A.D).[3] Hadrian
Hadrian
and Florus
Florus
became very close friends, and Florus
Florus
was rumored to be involved in government affairs during the second half of Hadrian's rule.[3] References[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Florus

^ a b c d "Epitome of Roman History".  ^ Saecula Latina (1962), p. 215 ^ a b c d e f g h i j "LacusCurtius • Florus
Florus
— Epitome".  ^ "Cameron, A. "Poetae Novelli" in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 84 (1980), pp. 127-175. ^ "Florus: Introduction". Lacus Curtius. 2014. Retrieved 2015-12-09.  ^ a b c d Lucius Annaeus, Florus
Florus
(1929). Epitome of Roman History. London: Heinemann.  ^ a b c d e "P. Annius Florus". 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Florus, Publius Annius". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 547.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Florus, Julius". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 547. 

Bibliography[edit]

Jona Lendering. "Publius Annius Florus". Livius.org.  José Miguel Alonso-Nuñez (2006). "Floro y los historiadores contemporáneos". Acta classica Universitatis Scientiarum Debreceniensis. 42: 117–126.  W. den Boer (1972). Some Minor Roman Historians. Leiden: Brill.  Florus
Florus
(2005) [c. 120]. Römische Geschichte : lateinisch und deutsch. Eingel., übers. und kommentiert von Günter Laser. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Florus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 547. 

External links[edit]

Latin
Latin
and English texts of Florus, Epitome of Roman History, the 1929 Loeb Classical Library
Loeb Classical Library
translation by E.S. Forster, Bill Thayer's edition at LacusCurtius

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 266805890 GND: 100136907 BIBSYS: 90589731 B

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