The ghost of
Caesar taunts Brutus about his imminent defeat.
Copperplate engraving by Edward Scriven from a painting by Richard
Westall: London, 1802.)
The Tragedy of
Julius Caesar is a history play and tragedy by William
Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599. It is one of
several plays written by
Shakespeare based on true events from Roman
history, which also include
Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra.
Although the play is named Julius Caesar, Brutus speaks more than four
times as many lines as the title character; and the central
psychological drama of the play focuses on Brutus' struggle between
the conflicting demands of honor, patriotism, and friendship.
3.1 Deviations from Plutarch
4 Date and text
5 Analysis and criticism
5.1 Historical background
5.2 Protagonist debate
6 Performance history
6.1 Notable performances
7 Adaptations and cultural references
7.1 Film and television adaptations
7.2 Contemporary political references
8 See also
9.2 Secondary sources
10 External links
Triumvirs after Caesar's death
Conspirators against Caesar
Marcus Brutus (Brutus)
Roman Senate Senators
Calpurnia – Caesar's wife
Portia – Brutus' wife
Soothsayer – a person supposed to be able to foresee the future
Artemidorus – sophist from Knidos
Cinna – poet
Poet (believed to be based on Marcus Favonios)
Lucius – Brutus' attendant
Loyal to Brutus and Cassius
Young Cato – Portia's brother
Messala – messenger
Gaius Lucilius (non-speaking role)
Flavius (non-speaking role)
Statilius (non-speaking role)
Pindarus – Cassius' bondman
Other soldiers, senators, plebeians, and attendants
Shakespeare in Styria
Shakespeare in Styria 2014, directed by
Nicholas Allen and Roberta
The play opens with two tribunes discovering the commoners of Rome
celebrating Julius Caesar's triumphant return from defeating the sons
of his military rival, Pompey. The tribunes, insulting the crowd for
their change in loyalty from
Pompey to Caesar, attempt to end the
festivities and break up the commoners, who return the insults. During
the feast of Lupercal,
Caesar holds a victory parade and a soothsayer
warns him to "Beware the ides of March", which he ignores. Meanwhile,
Cassius attempts to convince Brutus to join his conspiracy to kill
Caesar. Although Brutus, friendly towards Caesar, is hesitant to kill
him, he agrees that
Caesar may be abusing his power. They then hear
from Casca that
Mark Antony has offered
Caesar the crown of Rome three
times and that each time
Caesar refused it with increasing reluctance.
On the eve of the ides of March, the conspirators meet and reveal that
they have forged letters of support from the Roman people to tempt
Brutus into joining. Brutus reads the letters and, after much moral
debate, decides to join the conspiracy, thinking that
Caesar should be
killed to prevent him from doing anything against the people of Rome
if he were ever to be crowned.
After ignoring the soothsayer, as well as his wife Calpurnia's own
Caesar goes to the Senate. The conspirators approach him
with a fake petition pleading on behalf of Metellus Cimber's banished
Caesar predictably rejects the petition, Casca and the
others suddenly stab him; Brutus is last. At this point,
the famous line "Et tu, Brute?" ("And you, Brutus?", i.e. "You too,
Brutus?"), concluding with "Then fall, Caesar!"
The conspirators make clear that they committed this murder for the
good of Rome, not for their own purposes, and do not attempt to flee
the scene. Brutus delivers an oration defending his own actions, and
for the moment, the crowd is on his side. However,
Mark Antony makes a
subtle and eloquent speech over Caesar's corpse, beginning with the
much-quoted "Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears!" In
this way, he deftly turns public opinion against the assassins by
manipulating the emotions of the common people, in contrast to the
rational tone of Brutus's speech, yet there is method in his
rhetorical speech and gestures: he reminds them of the good
done for Rome, his sympathy with the poor, and his refusal of the
crown at the Lupercal, thus questioning Brutus's claim of Caesar's
ambition; he shows Caesar's bloody, lifeless body to the crowd to have
them shed tears and gain sympathy for their fallen hero; and he reads
Caesar's will, in which every Roman citizen would receive 75 drachmas.
Antony, even as he states his intentions against it, rouses the mob to
drive the conspirators from Rome. Amid the violence, an innocent poet,
Cinna, is confused with the conspirator
Lucius Cinna and is taken by
the mob, which kills him for such "offenses" as his bad verses.
Brutus next attacks Cassius for supposedly soiling the noble act of
regicide by having accepted bribes. ("Did not great Julius bleed for
justice' sake? / What villain touch'd his body, that did stab, / And
not for justice?") The two are reconciled, especially after Brutus
reveals that his beloved wife committed suicide under the stress of
his absence from Rome; they prepare for a civil war against Mark
Antony and Caesar's adopted son, Octavius, who have formed a
triumvirate in Rome with Lepidus. That night, Caesar's ghost appears
to Brutus with a warning of defeat. (He informs Brutus, "Thou shalt
see me at Philippi.")
Antony (George Coulouris) kneels over the body of Brutus (Orson
Welles) at the conclusion of the
Mercury Theatre production of Caesar
At the battle, Cassius and Brutus, knowing that they will probably
both die, smile their last smiles to each other and hold hands. During
the battle, Cassius has his servant kill him after hearing of the
capture of his best friend, Titinius. After Titinius, who was not
really captured, sees Cassius's corpse, he commits suicide. However,
Brutus wins that stage of the battle, but his victory is not
conclusive. With a heavy heart, Brutus battles again the next day. He
loses and commits suicide by running on his own sword, held for him by
a loyal soldier.
The play ends with a tribute to Brutus by Antony, who proclaims that
Brutus has remained "the noblest Roman of them all" because he was
the only conspirator who acted, in his mind, for the good of Rome.
There is then a small hint at the friction between
Mark Antony and
Octavius which characterises another of Shakespeare's Roman plays,
Antony and Cleopatra.
The main source of the play is Thomas North's translation of
Deviations from Plutarch
Shakespeare makes Caesar's triumph take place on the day of Lupercalia
(15 February) instead of six months earlier.
For dramatic effect, he makes the Capitol the venue of Caesar's death
rather than the Curia Pompeia (Curia of Pompey).
Caesar's murder, the funeral, Antony's oration, the reading of the
will and the arrival of
Octavius all take place on the same day in the
play. However, historically, the assassination took place on 15 March
(The Ides of March), the will was published on 18 March, the funeral
was on 20 March, and
Octavius arrived only in May.
Shakespeare makes the Triumvirs meet in Rome instead of near Bononia
to avoid an additional locale.
He combines the two Battles of Philippi although there was a 20-day
interval between them.
Shakespeare gives Caesar's last words as "
Et tu, Brute?
Et tu, Brute? ("And you,
Suetonius each report that he said nothing,
Plutarch adding that he pulled his toga over his head when he saw
Brutus among the conspirators, though
Suetonius does record other
Caesar said in Greek "καὶ σὺ, τέκνον;" (Kai
su, teknon?, "And you, child?") The Latin words Et tu, Brute?,
however, were not devised by
Shakespeare for this play since they are
Caesar in earlier Elizabethan works and had become
conventional by 1599.
Shakespeare deviated from these historical facts to curtail time and
compress the facts so that the play could be staged more easily. The
tragic force is condensed into a few scenes for heightened effect.
Date and text
The first page of Julius Caesar, printed in the
Second Folio of 1632
Julius Caesar was originally published in the
First Folio of 1623, but
a performance was mentioned by
Thomas Platter the Younger in his diary
in September 1599. The play is not mentioned in the list of
Shakespeare's plays published by
Francis Meres in 1598. Based on these
two points, as well as a number of contemporary allusions, and the
belief that the play is similar to
Hamlet in vocabulary, and to Henry
As You Like It
As You Like It in metre, scholars have suggested 1599 as a
The text of
Julius Caesar in the
First Folio is the only authoritative
text for the play. The Folio text is notable for its quality and
consistency; scholars judge it to have been set into type from a
The play contains many anachronistic elements from the Elizabethan
era. The characters mention objects such as hats and doublets (large,
heavy jackets) – neither of which existed in ancient Rome.
mentioned to be wearing an Elizabethan doublet instead of a Roman
toga. At one point a clock is heard to strike and Brutus notes it with
"Count the clock".
Analysis and criticism
Maria Wyke has written that the play reflects the general anxiety of
Elizabethan England over succession of leadership. At the time of its
creation and first performance, Queen Elizabeth, a strong ruler, was
elderly and had refused to name a successor, leading to worries that a
civil war similar to that of Rome might break out after her death.
A late 19th-century painting of Act IV, Scene iii: Brutus sees
Critics of Shakespeare's play
Julius Caesar differ greatly on their
Caesar and Brutus. Many have debated whether
Caesar or Brutus
is the protagonist of the play, because of the title character's death
in Act Three, Scene One. But
Caesar compares himself to the Northern
Star, and perhaps it would be foolish not to consider him as the axial
character of the play, around whom the entire story turns. Intertwined
in this debate is a smattering of philosophical and psychological
ideologies on republicanism and monarchism. One author, Robert C.
Reynolds, devotes attention to the names or epithets given to both
Caesar in his essay "Ironic Epithet in Julius Caesar". This
author points out that Casca praises Brutus at face value, but then
inadvertently compares him to a disreputable joke of a man by calling
him an alchemist, "Oh, he sits high in all the people's hearts,/And
that which would appear offence in us/ His countenance, like richest
alchemy,/ Will change to virtue and to worthiness" (I.iii.158-60).
Reynolds also talks about
Caesar and his "Colossus" epithet, which he
points out has its obvious connotations of power and manliness, but
also lesser known connotations of an outward glorious front and inward
Myron Taylor, in his essay "Shakespeare's
Julius Caesar and the Irony
of History", compares the logic and philosophies of
Caesar and Brutus.
Caesar is deemed an intuitive philosopher who is always right when he
goes with his instinct, for instance when he says he fears Cassius as
a threat to him before he is killed, his intuition is correct. Brutus
is portrayed as a man similar to Caesar, but whose passions lead him
to the wrong reasoning, which he realises in the end when he says in
V.v.50–51, "Caesar, now be still:/ I kill'd not thee with half so
good a will".
Joseph W. Houppert acknowledges that some critics have tried to cast
Caesar as the protagonist, but that ultimately Brutus is the driving
force in the play and is therefore the tragic hero. Brutus attempts to
put the republic over his personal relationship with
Caesar and kills
him. Brutus makes the political mistakes that bring down the republic
that his ancestors created. He acts on his passions, does not gather
enough evidence to make reasonable decisions and is manipulated by
Cassius and the other conspirators.
Traditional readings of the play may maintain that Cassius and the
other conspirators are motivated largely by envy and ambition, whereas
Brutus is motivated by the demands of honour and patriotism.
Certainly, this is the view that Antony expresses in the final scene.
But one of the central strengths of the play is that it resists
categorising its characters as either simple heroes or villains. The
political journalist and classicist
Garry Wills maintains that "This
play is distinctive because it has no villains".
It is a drama famous for the difficulty of deciding which role to
emphasise. The characters rotate around each other like the plates of
a Calder mobile. Touch one and it affects the position of all the
others. Raise one, another sinks. But they keep coming back into a
Wills' contemporary interpretation leans more toward recognition of
the conscious, sub-conscious nature of human actions and interactions.
In this, the role of Cassius becomes paramount.
The play was likely one of Shakespeare's first to be performed at the
Globe Theatre. Thomas Platter the Younger, a Swiss traveller, saw
a tragedy about
Julius Caesar at a
Bankside theatre on 21 September
1599, and this was most likely Shakespeare's play, as there is no
obvious alternative candidate. (While the story of
Julius Caesar was
dramatised repeatedly in the Elizabethan/Jacobean period, none of the
other plays known are as good a match with Platter's description as
After the theatres re-opened at the start of the Restoration era, the
play was revived by Thomas Killigrew's
King's Company in 1672. Charles
Hart initially played Brutus, as did
Thomas Betterton in later
Julius Caesar was one of the very few Shakespearean plays
that was not adapted during the Restoration period or the eighteenth
John Wilkes Booth
John Wilkes Booth (left),
Edwin Booth and
Junius Brutus Booth, Jr.
Junius Brutus Booth, Jr. in
Julius Caesar in 1864.
1864: Junius, Jr., Edwin and
John Wilkes Booth
John Wilkes Booth (later the assassin of
U.S. president Abraham Lincoln) made the only appearance onstage
together in a benefit performance of
Julius Caesar on 25 November
1864, at the Winter Garden Theater in New York City. Junius, Jr.
played Cassius, Edwin played Brutus and John Wilkes played Mark
Antony. This landmark production raised funds to erect a statue of
Shakespeare in Central Park, which remains to this day.
May 29, 1916: A one-night performance in the natural bowl of Beachwood
Canyon, Hollywood drew an audience of 40,000 and starred Tyrone Power,
Sr. and Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. The student bodies of Hollywood and
Fairfax High Schools played opposing armies, and the elaborate battle
scenes were performed on a huge stage as well as the surrounding
hillsides. The play commemorated the tercentenary of Shakespeare's
death. A photograph of the elaborate stage and viewing stands can be
seen on the Library of Congress website. The performance was lauded by
L. Frank Baum.
1926: Another elaborate performance of the play was staged as a
benefit for the
Actors Fund of America at the Hollywood Bowl. Caesar
arrived for the
Lupercal in a chariot drawn by four white horses. The
stage was the size of a city block and dominated by a central tower
eighty feet in height. The event was mainly aimed at creating work for
unemployed actors. Three hundred gladiators appeared in an arena scene
not featured in Shakespeare's play; a similar number of girls danced
as Caesar's captives; a total of three thousand soldiers took part in
the battle sequences.
Orson Welles as Brutus in the Mercury Theatre's
1937: Caesar, Orson Welles's famous
Mercury Theatre production, drew
fevered comment as the director dressed his protagonists in uniforms
reminiscent of those common at the time in Fascist Italy and Nazi
Germany, drawing a specific analogy between
Caesar and Fascist Italian
leader Benito Mussolini. Time magazine gave the production a rave
review, together with the New York critics.:313–319 The
fulcrum of the show was the slaughter of Cinna the
Lloyd), a scene that literally stopped the show.
Caesar opened at
Mercury Theatre in New York City in November 1937:339 and
moved to the larger National Theater in January 1938,:341 running
a total of 157 performances. A second company made a five-month
national tour with
Caesar in 1938, again to critical acclaim.:357
John Gielgud played Cassius at the
Shakespeare Memorial Theatre
under the direction of
Michael Langham and Anthony Quayle. The
production was considered one of the highlights of a remarkable
Stratford season and led to Gielgud (who had done little film work to
that time) playing Cassius in Joseph L. Mankiewicz's 1953 film
1977: Gielgud made his final appearance in a Shakespearean role on
Caesar in John Schlesinger's production at the Royal National
Theatre. The cast also included
Ian Charleson as Octavius.
Arvind Gaur directed the play in
India with Jaimini Kumar as
Brutus and Deepak Ochani as
Caesar (24 shows); later on he revived it
Manu Rishi as
Caesar and Vishnu Prasad as Brutus for the
Shakespeare Drama Festival,
Assam in 1998. Arvind Kumar translated
Julius Caesar into Hindi. This production was also performed at the
Prithvi international theatre festival, at the
India Habitat Centre,
Denzel Washington played Brutus in the first Broadway production
of the play in over fifty years. The production received universally
negative reviews but was a sell-out because of Washington's popularity
at the box office.
Royal Shakespeare Company
Royal Shakespeare Company staged an all-black production
under the direction of Gregory Doran.
2012: An all-female production starring
Harriet Walter as Brutus and
Frances Barber as
Caesar was staged at the Donmar Warehouse, directed
by Phyllida Lloyd. In October 2013, the production transferred to New
St. Ann's Warehouse in Brooklyn.
Bridge Theatre stages
Julius Caesar as one of its first
productions, under the direction of Nicholas Hytner, with Ben Whishaw,
Michelle Fairley, and
David Morrissey as leads. This mirrors the
play's status as one of the first productions at the
Globe Theatre in
Adaptations and cultural references
1963 production of
Julius Caesar at The Doon School, India.
One of the earliest cultural references to the play came in
Shakespeare's own Hamlet. Prince
Polonius about his career
as a thespian at university,
Polonius replies "I did enact Julius
Caesar. I was killed i' th' Capitol. Brutus killed me." This is a
likely meta-reference, as
Richard Burbage is generally accepted to
have played leading men Brutus and Hamlet, and the older John Heminges
to have played
Caesar and Polonius.
In 1851, the German composer
Robert Schumann wrote a concert overture
Julius Caesar, inspired by Shakespeare's play. Other musical settings
include those by Giovanni Bononcini, Hans von Bülow, Felix Draeseke,
Josef Bohuslav Foerster, John Ireland, John Foulds, Gian Francesco
Malipiero, Manfred Gurlitt, Darius Milhaud, and Mario
The Canadian comedy duo
Wayne and Shuster
Wayne and Shuster parodied
Julius Caesar in
their 1958 sketch Rinse the Blood off My Toga.
Private Roman Eye, is hired by Brutus to investigate the death of
Caesar. The police procedural combines Shakespeare, Dragnet, and
vaudeville jokes and was first broadcast on The Ed Sullivan Show.
In 1984, the
Riverside Shakespeare Company
Riverside Shakespeare Company of New York City produced a
Julius Caesar set in contemporary Washington, called
simply CAESAR!, starring Harold Scott as Brutus, Herman Petras as
Caesar, Marya Lowry as Portia, Robert Walsh as Antony, and Michael
Cook as Cassius, directed by W. Stuart McDowell at The Shakespeare
In 2006, Chris Taylor from the Australian comedy team
The Chaser wrote
a comedy musical called Dead
Caesar which was shown at the Sydney
Theatre Company in Sydney.
The line "The Evil That Men Do", from the speech made by Mark Antony
following Caesar's death ("The evil that men do lives after them; The
good is oft interred with their bones.") has had many references in
media, including the titles of ...
Iron Maiden song
A politically oriented film directed by
J. Lee Thompson in 1984
A Buffy the Vampire Slayer novel.
The 2008 movie Me and Orson Welles, based on a book of the same name
by Robert Kaplow, is a fictional story centred around Orson Welles'
famous 1937 production of
Julius Caesar at the Mercury Theatre.
Christian McKay is cast as Welles, and co-stars with Zac
Efron and Claire Danes.
The 2012 Italian drama film
Caesar Must Die (Italian: Cesare deve
morire), directed by Paolo and Vittorio Taviani, follows convicts in
their rehearsals ahead of a prison performance of Julius Caesar.
Ray Bradbury book Fahrenheit 451, some of the character
Beatty's last words are "There is no terror, Cassius, in your threats,
for I am armed so strong in honesty that they pass me as an idle wind,
which I respect not!"
The play's line "the fault, dear Brutus, lies not in our stars, but in
ourselves", spoken by Cassius in Act I, scene 2, is often referenced
in popular culture. The line gave its name to the
J.M. Barrie play
Dear Brutus, and also gave its name to the best selling young adult
The Fault in Our Stars
The Fault in Our Stars by John Green and its film adaptation.
The same line was quoted in Edward R. Murrow's epilogue of his famous
See It Now documentary broadcast concerning Senator Joseph R.
McCarthy. This speech and the line were recreated in the 2005 film
Good Night, and Good Luck. It was also quoted by George Clooney's
character in the
Coen brothers film Intolerable Cruelty.
The line "And therefore think him as a serpent's egg / Which hatch'd,
would, as his kind grow mischievous; And kill him in the shell."
spoken by Brutus in Act II, Scene 1, is referenced in the Dead
Kennedys song, "California Über Alles".
Agatha Christie novel Taken At The Flood is entitled There is a
Tide in its American Edition. Both the UK and the US titles refer to
an iconic line of Brutus: "There is a tide in the affairs of men,
which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune” (Act-IV, Scene-III).
Film and television adaptations
Shakespeare on screen and List of
William Shakespeare screen
Julius Caesar has been adapted to a number of film productions,
Julius Caesar (Vitagraph Company of America, 1908), produced by J.
Stuart Blackton and directed by William V. Ranous, who also played
Julius Caesar (Avon Productions, 1949), directed by David Bradley, who
Charlton Heston played Antony and Harold Tasker played
Julius Caesar (MGM, 1953), directed by
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz and
produced by John Houseman; starring
James Mason as Brutus, Marlon
Brando as Antony and
Louis Calhern as Caesar.
An Honourable Murder (1960), directed by Godfrey Grayson; depicted
the play in a modern business setting.
The Spread of the Eagle, a 1963
BBC series comprising Coriolanus,
Julius Caesar, and Antony & Cleopatra.
Julius Caesar (Commonwealth United, 1969), directed by Stuart Burge,
produced by Peter Snell, starring
Jason Robards as Brutus, Charlton
Heston as Antony and
John Gielgud as Caesar.
Caesar (BBC, 1973), a three-part television play written by John
Griffith Bowen that was "a modern-dress modern-dialogue rewrite of the
play, updated to an unnamed present-day regime that's about to switch
from democracy to dictatorship unless Brutus and his conspirators act
to prevent it." It was intended as an introduction to Shakespeare's
play for schoolchildren, but it proved good enough to be shown on
adult television, and a stage version was later produced. The
British Universities Film & Video Council database states that the
work "transforms the play into a modern political conspiracy thriller
with modern dialogue and many strong allusions to political events in
the early 1970."
Julius Caesar (BBC/Time-Life TV, 1978), a television adaptation
Herbert Wise and produced by Cedric Messina, starring
Richard Pasco as Brutus,
Keith Michell as Antony and Charles Gray as
Zulfiqar (2016), a Bengali-language Indian film by Srijit Mukherji
that is an adaption of both
Julius Caesar and
Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra and
a tribute to the film The Godfather.
Contemporary political references
Modern adaptions of the play have often made contemporary political
Caesar depicted as resembling a variety of
political leaders, including Huey Long, Margaret Thatcher, and Tony
Blair. Professor A. J. Hartley, the Robinson Chair of Shakespeare
Studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, states that
this is fairly "common trope" of
Julius Caesar performances:
"Throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, the rule has been to
create a recognisable political world within the production. And often
people in the title role itself look like or feel like somebody either
in recent or current politics." A 2012 production of Julius Caesar
Guthrie Theatre and
The Acting Company
The Acting Company "presented
Caesar in the
guise of a black actor who was meant to suggest President Obama."
This production was not particularly controversial. In 2017,
however, a modern adaptation of the play at New York's
the Park (performed by The Public Theater) depicted
Caesar with the
likeness of President
Donald Trump and thereby aroused ferocious
controversy, drawing criticism by right-wing media such as The Daily
Breitbart and prompting corporate sponsors Bank of America
Delta Airlines to pull their financial support.
The Public Theater
The Public Theater stated that the message of the play is not
pro-assassination and that the point is that "those who attempt to
defend democracy by undemocratic means pay a terrible price and
destroy the very thing they are fighting to save." Shakespeare
scholars Stephen Greenblatt and Peter Holland agreed with this
statement. Pallotta stated that "I have never read anyone
suggesting that 'Julius Caesar' is a play that recommends
assassination. Look what happens:
Caesar is assassinated to stop him
becoming a dictator. Result: civil war, massive slaughter, creation of
an emperor, execution of many who sympathized with the conspiracy.
Doesn't look much like a successful result for the conspirators to
me." The play was interrupted several times by right-wing
protesters, who accused the play of "violence against the right", and
actors and members of theatres with
Shakespeare in the name has been
harassed and received death threats, including the wife of the play's
director Oskar Eustis. The protests were praised by
American Family Association
American Family Association director
Sandy Rios who compared the play
with the execution of Christians by damnatio ad bestias.
1599 in literature
Assassinations in fiction
Mark Antony's Funeral Speech
"The dogs of war"
^ Named in
Parallel Lives and quoted in Spevack, Marvin (2004). Julius
Caesar. New Cambridge
Shakespeare (2 ed.). Cambridge, England:
Cambridge University Press. p. 74.
^ Julius Caesar, Act 3, Scene 1, Line 77.
^ Julius Caesar, Act 3, Scene 2, Line 73.
^ Julius Caesar, Act 4, Scene 3, Lines 19–21.
^ Julius Caesar, Act 4, Scene 3, Line 283.
^ Julius Caesar, Act 5, Scene 5, Line 68.
^ Shakespeare, William (1999). Arthur Humphreys, ed. Julius Caesar.
Oxford University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-19-283606-4.
^ Pages from Plutarch, Shakespeare's Source for Julius Caesar.
^ Suetonius, Julius 82.2).
^ Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, translated by Robert Graves, Penguin
Classic, p.39, 1957.
^ Wells and Dobson (2001, 229).
^ Spevack (1988, 6), Dorsch (1955, vii–viii), Boyce (2000, 328),
Wells, Dobson (2001, 229)
^ Wells and Dobson, ibid.
^ Wyke, Maria (2006).
Julius Caesar in western culture. Oxford,
England: Blackwell. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4051-2599-4.
^ Reynolds 329–333
^ Taylor 301–308
^ Houppert 3–9
^ Wills, Garry (2011), Rome and Rhetoric: Shakespeare's Julius Caesar;
New Haven and London: Yale University Press, p. 118.
^ Wills, Op. cit., pg 117.
^ Evans, G. Blakemore (1974). The Riverside Shakespeare. Houghton
Mifflin Co. p. 1100.
^ Richard Edes's Latin play
Caesar Interfectus (1582?) would not
Admiral's Men had an anonymous
Pompey in their
repertory in 1594–5, and another play, Caesar's Fall, or the Two
Shapes, written by Thomas Dekker, Michael Drayton, Thomas Middleton,
Anthony Munday, and John Webster, in 1601-2, too late for Platter's
reference. Neither play has survived. The anonymous Caesar's Revenge
dates to 1606, while George Chapman's
Pompey dates from ca.
1613. E. K. Chambers, Elizabethan Stage, Vol. 2, p. 179; Vol. 3, pp.
259, 309; Vol. 4, p. 4.
^ Halliday, p. 261.
^ L. Frank Baum. "Julius Caesar: An Appreciation of the Hollywood
Production." Mercury Magazine, June 15, 1916.
^ "Theatre: New Plays in Manhattan: Nov. 22, 1937". TIME. 22 November
1937. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
^ Houseman, John (1972). Run-Through: A Memoir. New York: Simon &
Schuster. ISBN 0-671-21034-3.
^ Lattanzio, Ryan (2014). "Orson Welles' World, and We're Just Living
in It: A Conversation with Norman Lloyd". EatDrinkFilms.com. Retrieved
^ a b Welles, Orson; Bogdanovich, Peter; Rosenbaum, Jonathan (1992).
This is Orson Welles. New York:
^ "News of the Stage; 'Julius Caesar' Closes Tonight". The New York
Times. May 28, 1938. Retrieved 2015-11-05.
^ Callow, Simon (1996). Orson Welles: The Road to Xanadu. New York:
Viking. ISBN 9780670867226.
^ "A Big-Name Brutus in a Caldron of Chaosa". The New York Times. 4
April 2005. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
^ Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 5th edition, ed. Eric
Blom, Vol. VII, p. 733
^ "Rinse the Blood Off My Toga". Canadian Adaptations of Shakespeare
Project at the University of Guelph. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
Herbert Mitgang of The New York Times, 14 March 1984, wrote: "The
famous Mercury Theater production of
Julius Caesar in modern dress
Orson Welles in 1937 was designed to make audiences think of
Blackshirts – and it did. The Riverside Shakespeare
Company's lively production makes you think of timeless ambition and
^ Maria Wyke,
Caesar in the USA (University of California Press,
2012), p. 60.
^ a b c d
Shakespeare and the Moving Image: The Plays on Film and
Television (eds. Anthony Davies & Stanley Wells: Cambridge
University Press, 1994), pp. 29-31.
^ Darryll Grantley, Historical Dictionary of British Theatre: Early
Period (Scarecrow Press, 2013), p. 228.
^ Stephen Chibnall & Brian McFarlane, The British 'B' Film
(Palgrave Macmillan/British Film Institute, 2009), p. 252.
^ Michael Brooke. "
Julius Caesar On Screen". Screenonline. British
^ Heil Caesar, Part 1: The Conspirators, Learning on Screen, British
Universities Film & Video Council.
^ Anindita Acharya, My film Zulfiqar is a tribute to The Godfather,
says Srijit Mukherji, Hindustan Times (September 20, 2016).
^ a b c d Peter Marks, When 'Julius Caesar' was given a Trumpian
makeover, people lost it. But is it any good, Washington Post (June
^ a b c d Frank Pallotta, Trump-like 'Julius Caesar' isn't the first
time the play has killed a contemporary politician, CNN (June 12,
^ "Delta and
Bank of America
Bank of America boycott 'Julius Caesar' play starring
Trump-like character". The Guardian. 12 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June
^ Alexander, Harriet (12 June 2017). "Central Park play depicting
Julius Caesar as
Donald Trump causes theatre sponsors to withdraw".
The Telegraph. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
^ "Delta, BofA Drop Support For 'Julius Caesar' That Looks Too Much
Like Trump". NPR. June 12, 2017.
^ Beckett, Lois (12 June 2017). "Trump as Julius Caesar: anger over
play misses Shakespeare's point, says scholar". The Guardian.
Retrieved 17 June 2017.
^ Al-Sibai, Noor (17 June 2017). "Shakespearean actors across the US
are receiving death threats over New York's Trump-as-
Caesar play". The
Raw Story. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
^ "'Trump death' in
Julius Caesar prompts threats to wrong theatres".
CNN. 19 June 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
^ Wahlquist, Calla (17 June 2017). "'This is violence against Donald
Trump': rightwingers interrupt
Julius Caesar play". The Guardian.
Retrieved 23 June 2017.
^ Link, Taylor (22 June 2017). "Cops investigate death threats made
against "Caesar" director's wife". Salon. Retrieved 23 June
^ Mantyla, Kyle (June 20, 2017). "
Sandy Rios Sees No Difference
Shakespeare And Feeding Christians To The Lions". Right Wing
Watch. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
Boyce, Charles. 1990. Encyclopaedia of Shakespeare, New York,
Chambers, Edmund Kerchever. 1923. The Elizabethan Stage. 4 volumes,
Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-811511-3.
Halliday, F. E. 1964. A
Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Shakespeare
Library ser. Baltimore, Penguin, 1969. ISBN 0-14-053011-8.
Houppert, Joseph W. "Fatal Logic in 'Julius Caesar'". South Atlantic
Bulletin. Vol. 39, No.4. Nov. 1974. 3–9.
Kahn, Coppelia. "Passions of some difference":
Emulation in Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar: New Critical Essays. Horst
Zander, ed. New York: Routledge, 2005. 271–283.
Parker, Barbara L. "The Whore of Babylon and Shakespeares's Julius
Caesar." Studies in English Literature (Rice); Spring95, Vol. 35 Issue
2, p. 251, 19p.
Reynolds, Robert C. "Ironic Epithet in Julius Caesar". Shakespeare
Quarterly. Vol. 24. No.3. 1973. 329–333.
Taylor, Myron. "Shakespeare's
Julius Caesar and the Irony of History".
Shakespeare Quarterly. Vol. 24, No. 3. 1973. 301–308.
Wells, Stanley and Michael Dobson, eds. 2001. The Oxford Companion to
Shakespeare Oxford University Press
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
Wikiquote has quotations related to:
Julius Caesar (play)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Julius Caesar (play).
*Complete Annotated Text on One Page – No ads or images
Text of Julius Caesar, fully edited by John Cox, as well as
original-spelling text, facsimiles of the 1623 Folio text, and other
resources, at the Internet
Julius Caesar Navigator Includes Shakespeare's text with notes, line
numbers, and a search function.
Shakespeare Includes the play line by line with
Julius Caesar at the British Library
Julius Caesar – from Project Gutenberg
Julius Caesar – by The Tech
Julius Caesar – Searchable and scene-indexed version.
Julius Caesar in modern English
Lesson plans for
Julius Caesar at Web English Teacher
Julius Caesar public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Quicksilver Radio Theater adaptation of Julius Caesar, which may be
heard online, at PRX.org (Public Radio Exchange).
Julius Caesar Read Online in Flash version.
Shakespeare Julius Caesar—A word-by-word audio guide through
Antony and Cleopatra
Romeo and Juliet
Timon of Athens
Troilus and Cressida
All's Well That Ends Well
As You Like It
The Comedy of Errors
Love's Labour's Lost
Measure for Measure
The Merchant of Venice
The Merry Wives of Windsor
A Midsummer Night's Dream
Much Ado About Nothing
Pericles, Prince of Tyre*
The Taming of the Shrew
The Two Gentlemen of Verona
The Two Noble Kinsmen*
The Winter's Tale
comparison to Petrarch
A Lover's Complaint
The Phoenix and the Turtle
The Rape of Lucrece
Venus and Adonis
Arden of Faversham
The Birth of Merlin
Love's Labour's Won
The Merry Devil of Edmonton
The Second Maiden's Tragedy
Sejanus His Fall
Sir John Oldcastle
Sir Thomas More*
The Spanish Tragedy
Thomas Lord Cromwell
Thomas of Woodstock
Vortigern and Rowena
A Yorkshire Tragedy
The Passionate Pilgrim
To the Queen
Birthplace and childhood home
Complete Works of William Shakespeare
English Renaissance theatre
Lord Chamberlain's Men/King's Men
Spelling of his name
Shakespeare Birthplace Trust
Shakespeare's Globe (replica)
Titles of works taken from Shakespeare
Anne Hathaway (wife)
Susanna Hall (daughter)
Hamnet Shakespeare (son)
Judith Quiney (daughter)
Elizabeth Barnard (granddaughter)
John Shakespeare (father)
Mary Arden (mother)
Gilbert Shakespeare (brother)
Joan Shakespeare (sister)
Edmund Shakespeare (brother)
Richard Shakespeare (grandfather)
John Hall (son-in-law)
Thomas Quiney (son-in-law)
Thomas Nash (grandson-in-law)
Shakespeare and other authors
William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar
The Spread of the Eagle
The Spread of the Eagle (1963; TV)
La morte di Cesare
La morte di Cesare (1788)
Shakespeare Writing "Julius Caesar" (1907)
Die Ermordung Cäsars
Die Ermordung Cäsars (1959)
The Karaoke King
The Karaoke King (2007)
Roman Tragedies (2007)
"The dogs of war"
"Et tu, Brute?"
"Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears"
"Greek to me"
Julius Caesar (overture, 1851)
Cultural depictions of Julius Caesar
Assassination of Julius Caesar
Ides of March
Battle of Philippi
Orson Welles (2008)
Caesar Must Die (2012)