Juilliard School (/ˌdʒuːliˈɑːrd/), informally referred to as
Juilliard and located in the
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts on
Upper West Side
Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is a performing arts
conservatory established in 1905. The school trains about 850
undergraduate and graduate students in dance, drama, and music. It is
widely regarded as one of the world's leading music and dance schools,
with some of the most prestigious arts programs. In 2016, QS
Quacquarelli Symonds ranked it as the world's best institution for
Performing Arts in their inaugural global ranking of the
3.1 Pre-College Division
Music Technology Center
3.3 Juilliard Electric Ensemble
4 Performing ensembles
6 Notable people
8 Further reading
9 External links
The Juilliard School
In 1905, the Institute of Musical Art, Juilliard's predecessor
institution, was founded on the premise that the United States did not
have a premier music school and too many students were going to Europe
to study music. The Institute opened in the former Lenox Mansion,
Fifth Avenue and 12th Street, on October 11. It moved in 1910 to 120
Claremont Avenue in the
Morningside Heights neighborhood of Manhattan,
onto a property purchased from Bloomingdale Insane Asylum. In 1920,
the Juilliard Foundation was created, named after textile merchant
Augustus D. Juilliard, who bequeathed a substantial amount of money
for the advancement of music in the United States. In 1924, the
foundation purchased the
Vanderbilt family guesthouse at 49 E. 52nd
Street, and established the Juilliard Graduate School. In 1926, the
Juilliard School of
Music was created through a merger of the
Institute of Musical Art and the Juilliard Graduate School. The two
schools shared a common Board of Directors and President (Columbia
University professor John Erskine) but retained their distinct
identities. The conductor and music-educator
Frank Damrosch continued
as the Institute's dean, and the Australian pianist and composer
Ernest Hutcheson was appointed dean of the Graduate School. In 1937,
Hutcheson succeeded Erskine as president of the two institutions, a
job he held until 1945. In 1946, the Institute of Musical Art and the
Juilliard Graduate School completely merged to form a single
institution. The president of the school at that time was William
Schuman, the first winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Music. Schuman
Juilliard String Quartet
Juilliard String Quartet in 1946 and the Dance
Division in 1951, under the direction of Martha Hill.
William Schuman graduated from Columbia's Teachers College (BS 1935,
MA 1937) and attended the Juilliard Summer School in 1932, 1933 and
1936. While attending Juilliard Summer School, he developed a personal
dislike for traditional music theory and ear training curricula,
finding little value in counterpoint and dictation. Soon after being
appointed as president of the
Juilliard School of
Music in 1945,
William Schuman created a new curriculum called the Literature and
Music (L&M), designed for composers to teach. L&M
was Schuman's reaction against more formal theory and ear training,
and as a result did not have a formal structure. The general mandate
was "to give the student an awareness of the dynamic nature of the
materials of music." The quality and degree of each student's
education in harmony, music history, or ear training was dependent on
how each composer-teacher decided to interpret this mandate.
William Schuman resigned as president of Juilliard after being elected
president of Lincoln Center in 1962. Peter Mennin, another composer
with directorial experience at the Peabody Conservatory, was elected
as his successor. Mennin made significant changes to the L&M
program—ending ear training and music history and hiring the well
known pedagogue Renée Longy to teach solfège. In 1968, Mennin hired
John Houseman to manage a new
Drama Division, and in 1969 oversaw
Juilliard's relocation from
Claremont Avenue to Lincoln Center. The
School's name was changed to The
Juilliard School to reflect its
broadened mission to educate musicians, directors, and actors.
Joseph W. Polisi became president of Juilliard in 1984, after
Peter Mennin died. Polisi's many accomplishments include philanthropic
successes, broadening of the curriculum and establishment of
dormitories for Juilliard's students. In 2001, the school established
a jazz performance training program. In September 2005, Colin Davis
conducted an orchestra that combined students from the Juilliard and
London's Royal Academy of
Music at the BBC Proms, and during 2008 the
Juilliard Orchestra embarked on a successful tour of China, performing
concerts as part of the Cultural Olympiad in Beijing, Suzhou, and
Shanghai under the expert leadership of Maestro Xian Zhang.
In 1999, the
Juilliard School was awarded the National Medal of
In 2006, Juilliard received a trove of precious music manuscripts from
board chair and philanthropist Bruce Kovner. The collection includes
autograph scores, sketches, composer-emended proofs and first editions
of major works by Mozart, Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Schumann, Chopin,
Schubert, Liszt, Ravel, Stravinsky, Copland, and other masters of the
classical music canon. Many of the manuscripts had been unavailable
for generations. Among the items are the printer's manuscript of
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, complete with Beethoven's handwritten
amendments, that was used for the first performance in
Vienna in 1824;
Mozart's autograph of the wind parts of the final scene of The
Marriage of Figaro; Beethoven's arrangement of his monumental Große
Fuge for piano four hands; Schumann's working draft of his Symphony
No. 2; and manuscripts of Brahms's Symphony No. 2 and Piano Concerto
No. 2. The entire collection has since been digitized and can be
viewed online. In 2010 philanthropist
James S. Marcus donated 10
million dollars to the school to establish the Ellen and James S.
Marcus Institute for Vocal Arts at the school.
On September 28, 2015, The
Juilliard School announced a major
Tianjin during a visit by China's first lady, Peng
Liyuan, the institution's first such full-scale foray outside the
United States, with plans to offer a master's degree program.
In May 2017, retired
New York City
New York City Ballet principal dancer Damian
Woetzel was named President, replacing Joseph W. Polisi.
Admittance into The
Juilliard School is highly competitive. In 2007,
the school received 2,138 applications for admission, of which 162
were admitted for a 7.6% acceptance rate. For the fall semester of
2009, the school had an 8.0% acceptance rate. In 2011, the school
accepted 5.5% of applicants. For Fall 2012, 2,657 undergraduate
applicants were received by the college division and 7.2% were
accepted. Juilliard admits both degree program seekers and pre-college
division. All applicants who wish to enroll in the Music
Advancement Program, for the Pre-College Division, must perform an
audition in person before members of the faculty and administration
and must be between ages 8 and 14. Before being scheduled for an
audition, each applicant must submit a complete application for
admission. After auditions, the school invites select applicants to
meet with a program administrator. The 75th percentile accepted into
Juilliard in 2012 had a GPA of 3.96 and an SAT score of 1970.
The school offers courses in dance, drama and music.
Dance Division was established in 1951 by
William Schuman with
Martha Hill as its director. It offers a
Bachelor of Fine Arts or a
Drama Division was established in 1968 by the actor John Houseman
and Michel Saint-Denis. Its acting programs offer a Bachelor of Fine
Arts, a Diploma and, beginning Fall 2012, a Master of Fine Arts.
Until 2006, when James Houghton became Director of the
there was a "cut system" that would remove up to one-third of the
second-year class. The Lila Acheson Wallace American Playwrights
Program, begun in 1993, offers one-year, tuition-free, graduate
fellowships; selected students may be offered a second-year extension
and receive an Artist Diploma. The
Andrew W. Mellon
Andrew W. Mellon Artist Diploma
Program for Theatre Directors was a two-year graduate fellowship that
began in 1995 (expanded to three years in 1997) this was discontinued
from autumn 2006.
Music Division is the largest of the school's divisions. Available
degrees are Bachelor of
Music or Diploma, Master of
Music or Graduate
Diploma, Artist Diploma and Doctor of Musical Arts. Academic majors
are brass, collaborative piano, composition, guitar, harp, historical
performance, jazz studies, orchestral conducting, organ, percussion,
piano, strings, voice, and woodwinds. The collaborative piano,
historical performance, and orchestral conducting programs are solely
at the graduate level; the opera studies and music performance
subprograms only offer Artist Diplomas. The Juilliard Vocal Arts
department now incorporates the former Juilliard Opera Center.
All Bachelor and Master courses require credits from the Liberal Arts
Joseph W. Polisi is a member of the Liberal Arts faculty.
The Pre-College Division teaches students enrolled in elementary,
junior high, and high school. The Pre-College Division is conducted
every Saturday from September to May in the Juilliard Building at
All students study solfège and music theory in addition to their
primary instrument. Vocal majors also must study diction and
performance. Similarly, pianists must study piano performance. String,
brass and woodwind players as well as percussionists also participate
with orchestra. The pre-college has two orchestras, the Pre-College
Symphony (PCS) and the Pre-College Orchestra (PCO). Placement is by
age and students may elect to study conducting, chorus and chamber
The Pre-College Division began as the Preparatory Centers (later the
Preparatory Division), part of the Institute of Musical Art since
1916. The Pre-College Division was established in 1969 with Katherine
McC. Ellis as its first director. Olegna Fuschi served as director
from 1975 to 1988. The Fuschi/Mennin partnership allowed the
Pre-College Division to thrive, affording its graduates training at
the highest artistic level (with many of the same teachers as the
college division), as well as their own commencement ceremony and
diplomas. In addition to Fuschi, directors of Juilliard's Pre-College
Division have included composer Dr. Andrew Thomas. The current
director of the Pre-College Division is Yoheved Kaplinsky.
Music Technology Center
Music Technology Center at the
Juilliard School was created in
1993 to provide students with the opportunity to use digital
technology in the creation and performance of new music. Since then,
the program has expanded to include a wide offering of classes such
as, Introduction to
Music Production, Film Scoring,
Computers In Performance and an Independent Study In Composition.
In 2009, the
Music Technology Center moved to a new, state of the art
facility that includes a mix and record suite and a digital "playroom"
for composing and rehearsing with technology. Together with the
Willson Theater, the
Music Technology Center is the home of
interdisciplinary and electro-acoustic projects and performances at
the Juilliard School.
Juilliard Electric Ensemble
The Juilliard Electric Ensemble was created in 2003 to provide
students from all three of Juilliard’s divisions (dance, drama, and
music) with an opportunity to use new technology in the creation and
performance of interactive and multi-disciplinary work.
In past performances, the Juilliard Electric Ensemble has used
interactive technology to expand the range of their instruments,
control audio and visual elements with electronic tools, shape video
and projection design in real-time by moving through a virtual field,
and interact with artists and computers around the world via the web.
Since its debut, the Electric Ensemble has performed works by over 50
composers including Joan La Barbara, Kenji Bunch, Eric Chasalow,
Sebastian Currier, Avner Dorman, Jonathan Harvey, Jocelyn Pook, Steve
Reich, Daniel Bernard Roumain, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Morton
Subotnick, Alejandro Viñao, Jacob ter Veldhuis, David Wallace, Mark
Wood, and Peter Wyer.
Morse Hall, one of the performing spaces inside the Juilliard School
Juilliard School has a variety of ensembles, including chamber
music, jazz, orchestras, and vocal/choral groups. Juilliard's
orchestras include the Juilliard Orchestra, the New Juilliard
Ensemble, the Juilliard Theatre Orchestra, and the Conductors'
Orchestra. The Axiom Ensemble is a student directed and managed group
dedicated to well-known 20th century works.
In addition, several ensembles of Juilliard Faculty, called Resident
Ensembles, perform frequently at the school. These groups include the
Juilliard String Quartet, the American Brass Quintet, the New York
Woodwind Quintet, and Juilliard Baroque.
The Juilliard Second Century Fund aims to raise $300 million to
Juilliard School to sustain its eminence in performing arts
education well into the school’s next century. The tuition
expected for 2011 is about $48,670 for the school year. Expanded and
renamed on Juilliard’s 100th anniversary, the fund supports six
components that help Juilliard continue to recruit the world’s best
young artists and faculty, offer educational programs that maintain
the quality of a Juilliard education, and increase the size and
functionality of Juilliard's physical plant.
Fundraising specifically targeted to the Pre-College Division began
during 2004 with a benefit concert given by the Park Avenue Chamber
Symphony. The event raised $90,000 to establish a Pre-College Parents'
Association Scholarship Fund. During 2005, Juilliard produced its own
benefit concert for the Pre-College Division featuring its own
students directed by faculty member
Itzhak Perlman and hosted by
Bill Cosby to add to this fund.
In April 2009, it was announced that the
Music Advancement Program
(MAP) would be curtailed due to budget reductions. After strong
opposition to the reductions, the program, which helps inner-city
children get music lessons, was then reinstated after several donors
pledged money to support it.
Main article: List of
Juilliard School people
For a list of notable faculty, see List of
Juilliard School people
§ Notable teachers.
For a list of notable alumni, see List of
Juilliard School people
§ Notable alumni.
^ "Still 'best reputation' for Juilliard at 100". The Washington
Times. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
^ Frank Rich (2003). Juilliard. Harry N. Abrams. p. 10.
ISBN 0810935368. Juilliard grew up with both the country and its
burgeoning cultural capital of New York to become an internationally
recognized synonym for the pinnacle of artistic achievement.
^ "The Top 25
Drama Schools in the World". The Hollywood Reporter.
Retrieved September 15, 2013.
^ "QS World University Rankings by Subject 2016 - Performing Arts".
Top Universities. QS Quacquarelli Symonds. Retrieved 14 September
^ "About Juilliard: A Brief History". The Juilliard School. January 4,
2009. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
^ "Historical Significance". morningsideheights.org. Archived from the
original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
^ Jeni Dahmus (March 2010). "Time Capsule". The Juilliard Journal
Online. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
^ A Brief History, The Juilliard School. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
^ Juilliard School, The, The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
Columbia University Press, found in Infoplease. Retrieved June
^ "Lifetime Honors: National Medal of Arts". National Endowment for
the Arts. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved March
^ "Juilliard Manuscript Collection".
^ Fred Plotkin (July 7, 2015). "Remembering James S. Marcus". WQXR
^ Michael Cooper (September 28, 2015). "Juilliard's China Plans Move
Forward". The New York Times. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
^ "Juilliard Names
Damian Woetzel as Its New President". The New York
Times. 10 May 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
^ "The Juilliard School, New York". Citytowninfo.com. Retrieved May 9,
^ "Juilliard School". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved
^ Finnegan, Leah (March 30, 2011). "College Admissions Rates Drop For
The Class Of 2015". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on
March 27, 2014. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
^ "About Juilliard". The Juilliard School. Retrieved November 25,
^ "Juilliard school". Parchment.com. Retrieved November 25,
^ "Dance". The Juilliard School. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
^ "Drama". The Juilliard School. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
^ "Liberal Arts". The Juilliard School. Retrieved September 7,
^ "Juilliard Pre-College". The Juilliard School. Retrieved September
^ "Center for Innovation in the Arts". The Juilliard School. Retrieved
September 7, 2016.
^ Lisa Robinson (February 2008). "New Gifts—and New Venue
Names—for Juilliard". The Juilliard Journal Online. Retrieved
September 8, 2016.
Ten Years of American Opera Design at the
Juilliard School of Music,
published by New York Public Library, 1941.
The Juilliard Report on Teaching the Literature and Materials of
Juilliard School of Music. Published by Norton, 1953.
The Juilliard Review, by Richard Franko Goldman, published by
Juilliard School of Music, 1954.
The Juilliard Journal, published by the Juilliard School, 1985.
Nothing But the Best: The Struggle for Perfection at the Juilliard
School, by Judith Kogan. Published by Random House, 1987.
Guide to the
Juilliard School Archives, by
Juilliard School Archives,
Jane Gottlieb, Stephen E. Novak, Taras Pavlovsky. Published by The
Juilliard: A History, by Andrea Olmstead. Published by University of
Illinois Press, 2002, ISBN 0-252-07106-9.
A Living Legacy: Historic Stringed Instruments at the Juilliard
School, by Lisa Brooks Robinson, Itzhak Perlman. Amadeus Press, 2006.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Juilliard School.
Juilliard School – its history at 100
Andrea Olmstead papers, 1970-2013
Music Division, The New York Public
Library. Olmstead's papers hold the research she carried out for her
book on Juilliard, and include recorded interviews with various
faculty, former students, and staff.
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