In a measure ostensibly designed to reduce sectarian violence, political parties were restricted in their activities from 1986. In the non-party "Movement" system instituted by President Yoweri Museveni, political parties continued to exist but could not campaign in elections or field candidates directly (although electoral candidates could belong to political parties). A constitutional referendum cancelled this 19-year ban on multi-party politics in July 2005.
Presidential elections were held in February 2006. Museveni ran against several candidates, of whom the most prominent was the exiled Dr. Kizza Besigye. Museveni was declared the winner. Besigye alleged fraud, and rejected the result. The Supreme Court of Uganda ruled that the election was marred by intimidation, violence, voter disenfranchisement, and other irregularities. However, the Court voted 4-3 to uphold the results of the election.
|President||Yoweri Museveni||National Resistance Movement||26 January 1986|
|Prime Minister||Ruhakana Rugunda||National Resistance Movement||18 September 2014|
The head of state in Uganda is the President, who is elected by a popular vote to a five-year term. This is currently Yoweri Museveni, who is also the head of the armed forces. The previous presidential elections were in February 2006, and in the election of February 2011, Museveni was elected with 68 percent of the vote. The cabinet is appointed by the president from among the elected legislators. The prime minister, Ruhakana Rugunda, assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet.
The Cabinet of Uganda, according to the Constitution of Uganda, "shall consist of the President, the Vice President and such number of Ministers as may appear to the President to be reasonably necessary for the efficient running of the State."
On 4 May 2005, the Ugandan Parliament voted to conduct a referendum on the reintroduction of party politics in Uganda. The referendum was held on July 28, 2005 and Ugandans voted for a return to multi-party politics.
|Candidates - nominating parties||Votes||%|
|Yoweri Museveni - National Resistance Movement||4,109,449||59.26|
|Kizza Besigye - Forum for Democratic Change||2,592,954||37.39|
|John Ssebaana Kizito - Democratic Party||109,583||1.58|
|Abed Bwanika - Independent||65,874||0.95|
|Miria Obote - Uganda People's Congress||57,071||0.82|
|Source: New Vision newspaper, Electoral Commission of Uganda|
|National Resistance Movement||142||49||14||205|
|Forum for Democratic Change||27||10||-||37|
|Uganda People's Congress||9||-||-||9|
|Uganda People's Defence Force Representatives||10|
|Total (turnout 72 %)||215||69||15||319|
|Source: Inter-Parliamentary Union|
Note on the Distribution of seats:
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The Ugandan judiciary operates as an independent branch of government and consists of magistrate's courts, high courts, courts of appeal (which organizes itself as the Constitutional Court of Uganda when hearing constitutional issues), and the Supreme Court. Judges for the High Court are appointed by the president; Judges for the Court of Appeal are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature.