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Judeo-Persian, or Jidi (/ˈdʒiːdiː/; also spelled Dzhidi or Djudi), refers to both a group of Jewish dialects
Jewish dialects
spoken by the Jews living in Iran
Iran
and Judeo-Persian texts (written in Hebrew alphabet). As a collective term, Dzhidi refers to a number of Judeo-Iranian languages spoken by Jewish communities throughout the formerly extensive Persian Empire.[citation needed] On a more limited scale, Dzhidi refers to the Judeo-Persian dialect spoken by the Jewish communities of the area around Tehran
Tehran
and Mashhad.

Contents

1 Persian words in Hebrew and Aramaic 2 Literature

2.1 Biblical epics 2.2 Mishnah and midrash 2.3 Biblical commentaries 2.4 Historical texts 2.5 Religious poems

3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Persian words in Hebrew and Aramaic[edit] The earliest evidence of the entrance of Persian words into the language of the Israelites
Israelites
is found in the Bible. The post-exilic portions, Hebrew as well as Aramaic, contain besides many Persian proper names and titles, a number of nouns (as "dat" or "daad" in current Persian = "law"; "genez" or "Ganj" in current Persian = "treasure"; "pardes" or "Pardis" or "ferdos" in current Persian= "park, which is the main root of English word "Paradise") which came into permanent use at the time of the Achaemenid Empire. More than five hundred years after the end of that dynasty the Jews of the Babylonian diaspora again came under the dominion of the Persians; and among such Jews the Persian language
Persian language
held a position similar to that held by the Greek language
Greek language
among the Jews of the West. Persian became to a great extent the language of everyday life among the Jews of Babylonia; and a hundred years after the conquest of that country by the Sassanids
Sassanids
an amora of Pumbedita, Rab Joseph (d. 323), declared that the Babylonian Jews had no right to speak Aramaic, and should instead use either Hebrew or Persian. Aramaic, however, remained the language of the Jews in Israel
Israel
as well as of those in Babylonia, although in the latter country a large number of Persian words found their way into the language of daily intercourse and into that of the schools, a fact which is attested by the numerous Persian derivatives in the Babylonian Talmud. But in the Aramaic
Aramaic
Targum
Targum
there are very few Persian words, because after the middle of the third century the Targumim on the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
and the Prophets were accepted as authoritative and received a fixed textual form in the Babylonian schools. In this way they were protected from the introduction of Persian elements. Literature[edit] There is an extensive Judeo-Persian poetic religious literature, closely modeled on classical Persian poetry. The most famous poet was Mowlānā Shāhin-i Shirāzi (14th century CE), who composed epic versifications of parts of the Bible, such as the Musā-nāmah (an epic poem recounting the story of Moses); later poets composed lyric poetry of a Sufi
Sufi
cast. Much of this literature was collected around the beginning of the twentieth century by the ּּBukharian rabbi Shimon Hakham, who founded a printing press in Israel. Biblical epics[edit]

Mowlānā Shāhin-i Shirāzi[3]

Bereshit-nāmah (The Book of Genesis) Musā-nāmah (The Book of Moses) Ardashir-nāmah (The Book of Ardashir): Describing the story of Esther Ezra-nāmah (The Book of Ezra)

Emrāni

Fath-nāmah (The Book of Conquest): Details Joshua's conquest of Jericho The Book of Ruth

Aharon b. Mashiach

Shoftim-nāmah (The Book of Judges)

Khwājah Bukhārā'i

Dāniyāal-nāamah (The Book of Daniel)

Mishnah and midrash[edit]

Emrāni: Ganj-nāmah (The Book of Treasure): Poetic elaboration on the mishnaic tractate of Abot[4]

Biblical commentaries[edit]

Shimon Hakham: Commentary on Exodus 3-4

Historical texts[edit]

Bābāi b. Lutf: Kitab-i Anusi (The Book of a Forced Convert) Bābāi b. Farhād: Kitāb-i Sar guzasht-i Kāshān (The Book of Events in Kashan)

Religious poems[edit]

Haft Baradam: A poem read on the fast of Tish'a BeAb based on the story of Hannah and her seven sons [5] Sheshom Dar (ששום דר): A poem read on the festival of Shavuot detailing the commandments, based on the Azharot literature [6] Shira-ye Hatani, or Shira, often beginning with the words "Shodi hātān mobarak bād" (שדִי חתן מבארך באד): Verses sung at weddings and festive occasions. Originally composed for the groom during the Shabbat Hatan (the shabbat following the wedding) [7] Aminā:

In Praise of Moses[3] A Ghazal on the Twelve Tribes[3]

See also[edit]

Judeo-Tat
Judeo-Tat
language Persian Jews

Notes[edit]

^ Dzhidi at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Judeo-Persian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ a b c Moreen, Vera Basch (tr. and ed.), In Queen Esther's Garden: An Anthology of Judeo-Persian Literature (Yale Judaica): Yale 2000, ISBN 978-0-300-07905-0 ^ Yeroushalmi, David. "The Judeo-Persian Poet'Emrani and His Book of Treasure." Leiden: Brill (1995). ^ Loeb, Laurence D. Outcaste: Jewish Life in Southern Iran. Vol. 31. Routledge, 2011. ^ נצר, אמנון. "מוסיקה של קודש ושל חול בקרב יהודי פרס." פעמים: רבעון לחקר (in Hebrew). קהילות ישראל במזרח. 1984. pp. 163–181.  ^ Chehabi, Houchang Esfandiar; Soroudi, Sorour Sarah. Persian literature and Judeo-Persian culture: collected writings of Sorour S. Soroudi. Harvard University Press, 2010.

References[edit]

Judæo-Persian (from the 1906 Public Domain Jewish Encyclopedia) Vera Basch Moreen (tr. and ed.), In Queen Esther's Garden: An Anthology of Judeo-Persian Literature (Yale Judaica): Yale 2000, ISBN 978-0-300-07905-0 Moreen, Vera B. "The Legend of Adam in the Judeo-Persian Epic" Bereshit [Nāmah]"(14th Century)." Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research. American Academy of Jewish Research, 1990.

External links[edit]

Judeo-Persian Literature, Encyclopædia Iranica Judeo-Persian Language, Encyclopædia Iranica Jewish dialect of Isfahan, Encyclopædia Iranica Judæo- Persian literature
Persian literature
(from Jewish Encyclopedia) Article from Jewish Languages site A tantalising find from the Jews of medieval Afghanistan On Judeo-Persian Language and Literature Part One: State of the Field Video Archive of Authentic Dialects 7dorim.com (Persian)

v t e

Persian language

History

Old Persian Middle Persian Modern Persian

Dialects

Western (Iranian) Dari (Afghanistan) Tajik Hazaragi Aimaq Kuwaiti Persian Tat Judeo-Persian (Dzhidi) Judeo-Tat
Judeo-Tat
(Juhuri) Judeo-Tajik (Bukhori) Sistani Barbari

Language features

Vocabulary

Nouns Verbs

Phonology

Grammar

Persian grammar Tajik grammar

Writing system

Old Persian
Old Persian
cuneiform Pahlavi scripts Persian alphabet

Persian calligraphy

Tajik alphabet Romanized Persian alphabet

Fingilish

Persian Braille

Literature

Persian literature Middle Persian
Middle Persian
literature Tajik literature

Other topics

List of English words of Persian origin Persian language
Persian language
in South Asia

v t e

Jewish languages

Afro-Asiatic

Hebrew

Eras

Biblical Mishnaic Medieval Modern

Dialects

Ashkenazi Sephardi Mizrahi Yemenite Tiberian Samaritan Hebrew

Judeo-Aramaic

Aramaic

Biblical Targum Talmudic Barzani Hulaulá Lishana Deni Lishán Didán Lishanid Noshan Betanure Jewish Neo-Aramaic Samaritan Aramaic

Judeo-Arabic

Arabic

Judaeo-Iraqi Judaeo-Moroccan Judaeo-Tripolitanian Judaeo-Tunisian Judaeo-Yemeni

Others

Kayla / Qwara (Cushitic) Judaeo-Berber (Berber)

Indo-European

Germanic

Yiddish

Dialects / Argots

Eastern Western Litvish Poylish Ukrainish Galitzish Yiddish
Yiddish
Dutch Scots Yiddish Alsatian Yiddish Klezmer-loshn ganovim-loshn balagole-loshn katsoves-loshn Sabesdiker losn Judendeutsch Yiddish
Yiddish
sign language Lachoudisch

Jewish English

Yeshivish Yinglish Heblish

Romance

Judaeo-Romance

Judaeo-Catalan Judaeo-Italian Judaeo-Piedmontese Judaeo-Spanish Haketia Tetuani Judeo-Latin Judaeo-Occitan Judaeo-French Judaeo-Portuguese Judaeo-Aragonese

Indo-Iranian

Judaeo-Iranian

Bukhori Juhuri Dzhidi Judaeo-Hamedani Judaeo-Shirazi Judaeo-Esfahani Judaeo-Kurdish Judaeo-Yazdi Judaeo-Kermani Judaeo-Kashani Judaeo-Borujerdi Judaeo-Khunsari Judaeo-Golpaygani Judaeo-Nehevandi

Others

Yevanic (Hellenic) Knaanic (Slavic) Judaeo-Marathi (Indo-Aryan)

Other

Krymchak / Karaim (Turkic) Judaeo-Malayalam (Dravidian) Judaeo-Georgian (Kartvelian)

v t e

Iranian languages

Old

Western

Old Persian Median

Eastern

Avestan Old Scythian

Middle

Western

Middle Persian Parthian

Eastern

Bactrian Khwarezmian Ossetic

Jassic

Saka Scythian Sogdian

Modern

North

Old Azari Balochi Central Iran Zoroastrian Dari Fars Gilaki Gorani Kurdic

Sorani Kurmanji Southern group Laki

Mazandarani Semnani Taleshi Deilami Tati Zazaki

Eastern

Pamir

Ishkashimi Sanglechi Wakhi Munji Yidgha Vanji Yazghulami Shughni Roshani Khufi Bartangi Sarikoli

Others

Ossetian

Digor Iron

Pashto

Central Northern Southern Wanetsi

Yaghnobi Ormuri Parachi

Western

South

Persian

Caucasian Tat Dari Tajik

Luri

Feyli Bakhtiari Kumzari

Larestani Bashkardi

Italics indicate

.