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JUDEO-PERSIAN, or JIDI (/ˈdʒiːdiː/ ; also spelled Dzhidi or Djudi), refers to both a group of Jewish dialects spoken by the Jews living in Iran
Iran
and Judeo-Persian texts (written in Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
). As a collective term, Dzhidi refers to a number of Judeo-Iranian languages spoken by Jewish communities throughout the formerly extensive Persian Empire
Persian Empire
. On a more limited scale, Dzhidi refers to the Judeo-Persian dialect spoken by the Jewish communities of the area around Tehran
Tehran
and Mashhad
Mashhad
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Persian words in Hebrew and Aramaic
Aramaic

* 2 Literature

* 2.1 Biblical Epics * 2.2 Mishnah and Midrash * 2.3 Biblical Commentaries * 2.4 Historical Texts * 2.5 Religious Poems

* 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links

PERSIAN WORDS IN HEBREW AND ARAMAIC

The earliest evidence of the entrance of Persian words into the language of the Israelites
Israelites
is found in the Bible
Bible
. The post-exilic portions, Hebrew as well as Aramaic
Aramaic
, contain besides many Persian proper names and titles, a number of nouns (as "dat" or "daad" in current Persian = "law"; "genez" or "Ganj" in current Persian = "treasure"; "pardes" or "Pardis" or "ferdos" in current Persian= "park, which is the main root of English word "Paradise") which came into permanent use at the time of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
.

More than five hundred years after the end of that dynasty the Jews of the Babylonian diaspora again came under the dominion of the Persians; and among such Jews the Persian language
Persian language
held a position similar to that held by the Greek language
Greek language
among the Jews of the West. Persian became to a great extent the language of everyday life among the Jews of Babylonia; and a hundred years after the conquest of that country by the Sassanids
Sassanids
an amora of Pumbedita
Pumbedita
, Rab Joseph (d. 323), declared that the Babylonian Jews had no right to speak Aramaic, and should instead use either Hebrew or Persian. Aramaic, however, remained the language of the Jews in Israel
Israel
as well as of those in Babylonia
Babylonia
, although in the latter country a large number of Persian words found their way into the language of daily intercourse and into that of the schools, a fact which is attested by the numerous Persian derivatives in the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
. But in the Aramaic
Aramaic
Targum
Targum
there are very few Persian words, because after the middle of the third century the Targumim on the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
and the Prophets were accepted as authoritative and received a fixed textual form in the Babylonian schools. In this way they were protected from the introduction of Persian elements.

LITERATURE

There is an extensive Judeo-Persian poetic religious literature, closely modeled on classical Persian poetry. The most famous poet was Mowlānā Shāhin-i Shirāzi (14th century C.E.), who composed epic versifications of parts of the Bible, such as the Musā-nāmah (an epic poem recounting the story of Moses); later poets composed lyric poetry of a Sufi
Sufi
cast. Much of this literature was collected around the beginning of the twentieth century by the ּּBukharian rabbi Shimon Hakham
Shimon Hakham
, who founded a printing press in Israel.

BIBLICAL EPICS

* Mowlānā Shāhin-i Shirāzi

* Bereshit-nāmah (The Book of Genesis) * Musā-nāmah (The Book of Moses) * Ardashir-nāmah (The book of Ardashir): Describing the story of Esther
Esther
* Ezra-nāmah (The Book of Ezra)

* Emrāni

* Fath-nāmah (The Book of Conquest): Details Joshua's conquest of Jericho * The Book of Ruth

* Aharon b. Mashiach

* Shoftim-nāmah (The Book of Judges)

* Khwājah Bukhārā'i

* Dāniyāal-nāamah (The Book of Daniel)

MISHNAH AND MIDRASH

* Emrāni: Ganj-nāmah (The Book of Treasure): Poetic elaboration on the mishnaic tractate of Abot

BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES

* Shimon Hakham
Shimon Hakham
: Commentary on Exodus 3-4

HISTORICAL TEXTS

* Bābāi b. Lutf: Kitab-i Anusi (The Book of a Forced Convert) * Bābāi b. Farhād: Kitāb-i Sar guzasht-i Kāshān (The Book of Events in Kashan)

RELIGIOUS POEMS

* Haft Baradam : A poem read on the fast of Tish\'a BeAb based on the story of Hannah and her seven sons * Sheshom Dar (ששום דר): A poem read on the festival of Shavuot detailing the commandments, based on the Azharot literature * Shira-ye Hatani , or Shira, often beginning with the words "Shodi hātān mobarak bād" (שדִי חתן מבארך באד): Verses sung at weddings and festive occasions. Originally composed for the groom during the Shabbat Hatan (the shabbat following the wedding)

* Aminā:

* In Praise of Moses * A Ghazal on the Twelve Tribes

SEE ALSO

* Judeo-Tat language * Persian Jews
Persian Jews

NOTES

* ^ Dzhidi at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Judeo-Persian". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Vera Basch Moreen (tr. and ed.), In Queen Esther's Garden: An Anthology of Judeo-Persian Literature (Yale Judaica): Yale 2000, ISBN 978-0-300-07905-0 * ^ Yeroushalmi, David. "The Judeo-Persian Poet'Emrani and His Book of Treasure." Leiden: Brill (1995). * ^ Loeb, Laurence D. Outcaste: Jewish Life in Southern Iran. Vol. 31. Routledge, 2011. * ^ נצר, אמנון. "מוסיקה של קודש ושל חול בקרב יהודי פרס." פעמים: רבעון לחקר קהילות ישראל במזרח (1984): 163-181. * ^ Chehabi, Houchang Esfandiar, and Sorour Sarah Soroudi. Persian literature and Judeo-Persian culture: collected writings of Sorour S. Soroudi. Harvard University Press, 2010. * ^ Vera Basch Moreen (tr. and ed.), In Queen Esther's Garden: An Anthology of Judeo-Persian Literature (Yale Judaica): Yale 2000, ISBN 978-0-300-07905-0 * ^ Vera Basch Moreen (tr. and ed.), In Queen Esther's Garden: An Anthology of Judeo-Persian Literature (Yale Judaica): Yale 2000, ISBN 978-0-300-07905-0

REFERENCES

* Judæo-Persian (from the 1906 Public Domain Jewish Encyclopedia) * Vera Basch Moreen (tr. and ed.), In Queen Esther's Garden: An Anthology of Judeo-Persian Literature (Yale Judaica): Yale 2000, ISBN 978-0-300-07905-0 * Moreen, Vera B. "The Legend of Adam in the Judeo-Persian Epic" Bereshit "(14th Century)." Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research. American Academy of Jewish Research, 1990.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Judeo-Persian Literature, Encyclopedia Iranica * Judeo-Persian Language, Encyclopedia Iranica * Jewish dialect