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Juba
Juba
/ˈdʒuːbə/[1] (Arabic: جوبا‎) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of South Sudan. It also serves as the capital of Jubek State,[2] one of the 28 states of South Sudan. The city is situated on the White Nile
White Nile
and functions as the seat and metropolis of Juba
Juba
County.

Contents

1 History 2 Government 3 Infrastructure 4 Demography 5 Economy 6 Climate 7 Notable people 8 November 2015 aircraft crash 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit]

Historical affiliations

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
1922–1956   Sudan
Sudan
1956–2011   South Sudan
South Sudan
2011–present

In the 19th century, a trading post and Christian mission, called Gondokoro, was located in the vicinity of Juba. It was the southernmost outpost of the Egyptian garrison, supported by a handful of soldiers, mostly ill due to the malaria and blackwater fever that was dominant in the region. Gondokoro
Gondokoro
was also the base of the explorers and campaigners (Sir) Samuel and Florence Baker
Florence Baker
during their expeditions to what is now South Sudan
South Sudan
and northern Uganda
Uganda
from 1863 to 1865, and from 1871 to 1873.[3] The present city of Juba
Juba
was established on the site of a small Bari village, called Juba,[4] where the Church Missionary Society
Church Missionary Society
(CMS) had established a mission and the Nugent Memorial Intermediate School in 1920-21.[5][6][7] In the late 1920s, Anglo-Egyptian officials ordered Bari residents to relocate to make way for a new town, also called "Juba," to serve as the capital of Mongalla Province.[8] The site was chosen by Anglo-Egyptian officials, in part, because of the presence of the CMS Nugent Memorial Intermediate School there.[9] Major construction on Juba
Juba
was underway by 1927.[10] Traders from Rejaf relocated there in 1929, and the Governor's office of Mongalla moved there in 1930.[11] Greek merchants, who were mostly supplying the British Army at the time, played an early and central role in the establishment of Juba
Juba
in the early 1920s.[12] Although their number never exceeded 2,000 inhabitants, together with a much larger number of the native Bari tribe with whom they had an excellent relationship, the Greeks contributed in what is today visible structures downtown Juba
Juba
Market area as well as the Greek Quarters (named by the British), a small suburb that today is called Hai Jalaba. Examples of the development by the Greeks are public buildings such as the beautiful stone buildings of Ivory Bank, Notos Lounge, the old Sudan
Sudan
Airways Building, Paradise Hotel, Nile
Nile
Commercial Bank and Buffalo Commercial Bank, among others. The building of Central Bank was also built at a later stage in the mid '40s as well as the famous Juba
Juba
Hotel in the mid '30s.[13] Until 1956, Juba
Juba
was in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, which was jointly administered by the United Kingdom and Egypt. British hopes to join the southern part of Sudan
Sudan
with Uganda
Uganda
were dashed in 1947 by an agreement in Juba, also known as the Juba
Juba
Conference, to unify northern and southern Sudan. In 1955, a mutiny of southern soldiers in Torit
Torit
town sparked the First Sudanese Civil War, which did not end until 1972. During the Second Sudanese Civil War, Juba
Juba
was a strategic location that was the focus of much fighting.[citation needed] In 2005, Juba
Juba
became the interim seat and the capital of the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan, although the proposed interim capital before the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement
Comprehensive Peace Agreement
was Rumbek. With the advent of peace, the United Nations increased its presence in Juba, whereas many Southern Sudan
Southern Sudan
operations had until that time been managed from Kenya. Under the leadership of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, the United Nations established a camp known as " OCHA
OCHA
Camp", which served as a base for many United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations.[citation needed]

Aerial view of Juba

Juba
Juba
became the world's newest national capital on 9 July 2011, when South Sudan
South Sudan
formally declared its independence from the Republic of the Sudan. However, the South Sudanese government and others have expressed dissatisfaction with the city's suitability as a national capital, and the government studied a proposal that would see a new planned city built as a replacement capital elsewhere, most likely Ramciel
Ramciel
in Lakes.[14] On 5 September 2011, the government announced the capital would indeed move some 250 km away from Juba
Juba
to Ramciel, which is situated at the middle of South Sudan
South Sudan
and about 60 km from Yirol
Yirol
West County of Lakes state. As of 2016, the move has yet to occur. Government[edit] Juba
Juba
is led by a city council headed by Mayor Stephen Wani Michael.[15] This post-independence council was formed in March 2011 and Baballa appointed to lead it by Governor Clement Wani Konga. Former Yei County Commissioner David Lokonga Moses was appointed as deputy mayor. A ministerial committee to keep Juba
Juba
clean and sanitary was also created by gubernatorial decree at the same time.[16] Prior to March 2011, the area now administered by Juba
Juba
City Council was divided into Juba, Kator, and Muniki payams. It is now a standalone subdivision of Juba
Juba
County,[16] of which it is the county seat.[17] Infrastructure[edit]

Juba
Juba
Bridge.

The city is a river port and the southern terminus of traffic along the Nile, properly called the Bahr al Jabal section of the White Nile. Before the civil war, Juba
Juba
was also a transport hub, with highways connecting it to Kenya, Uganda
Uganda
and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Because of the war Juba
Juba
can hardly be called a transport hub anymore. Roads and the river harbour are currently not in use due to disrepair. The United Nations and the South Sudanese government are repairing the roads, but full repair is expected to take many years. In 2003, the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action
Swiss Foundation for Mine Action
(FSD) started to clear the roads leading from Juba
Juba
to Uganda
Uganda
and Kenya. It was expected that these roads would be completely de-mined and rebuilt in the course of 2006–2008.[citation needed] The rebuilding of the roads, which are mostly un-paved, takes a tremendous amount of effort and time because of the limited work season due to the lengthy rainy season, which lasts from March until October. The roads are important for the peace process in Sudan
Sudan
as people need them to return to their homes and to regain what they feel is a normal life. The first road that has started to be rebuilt is the road to Uganda. This road is particularly important, as many of the original inhabitants of Juba
Juba
fled to Uganda during the war. As of 2009[update], there are three paved roads in Juba, one that was re-surfaced in July. The main one is a concrete road, built by the British in the 1950s.[citation needed] As of April 2009, Juba International Airport
Juba International Airport
(IATA: JUB, ICAO: HSSJ) is the site of large numbers of flights bringing UN and NGO (non-governmental organization) aid into Southern Sudan, as well as passengers and general air freight. The airport is very busy, among the busiest in East Africa.[citation needed] The construction of a new terminal was begun in late 2007 when the oil prices were very high ($100+). Since then, with the oil prices going back down, the fate of the new terminal is uncertain. Building on the new terminal restarted in early 2014[citation needed] As of February 2014, there are daily flights to Jomo Kenyatta International Airport
Jomo Kenyatta International Airport
in Nairobi, Kenya; Khartoum International Airport in Sudan; Entebbe International Airport
Entebbe International Airport
in Entebbe, Uganda; and Bole International Airport
Bole International Airport
in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The United Nations Mission in South Sudan
South Sudan
(UNMISS) has a large compound near the Juba
Juba
Airport. Between 2008 and 2011, the Ugandan government and the South Sudanese government undertook joint efforts to develop a railway link between the Northern Ugandan city of Gulu
Gulu
and Juba, with an extension to Wau. A memorandum of understanding between the two governments was signed to that effect in August 2008.[18] The same memorandum outlined plans to develop the road network between the two countries. Recent media reports from the region suggest that the railway link from Juba
Juba
may link directly with Kenya, bypassing Uganda.[19] The city's growth in the months and years leading up to independence has been described as "chaotic".[14] Demography[edit] In 2005, Juba's population was 163,442. Based on analysis of aerial photos, the best estimate of several donors working in Juba
Juba
calculated the 2006 population at approximately 250,000. The 5th Sudan
Sudan
Population and Housing Census took place in April/May 2008, stating the population of Juba County to be 372,413 (the majority residing in Juba City, which dominates the county), but the results were rejected by the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan.[20] Juba
Juba
is developing very rapidly due to oil money and the Chinese coming for work and development.[citation needed] In 2011, the population of the city of Juba
Juba
is estimated at approximately 372,410, but may potentially be more.[21] As of 2013[update], the city's population was growing at a rate of 4.23%.[22]

Year Population

1973 (census) 56,740

1983 (census) 83,790

1993 (census) 114,980

2005 (estimate) 163,440

2006 (estimate) 250,000[23]

2008 (estimate) 250,000[22]

2011 (estimate) 372,410

2014 (estimate) 492,970

Economy[edit] Juba
Juba
has been described as undergoing an economic boom, especially in the past five years and since independence.[citation needed] The prospect of an economic boom has brought thousands of merchants to Juba, mostly from northern Sudan
Sudan
and from East Africa. As of October 2010[update], several regional and international businesses have established a presence in Juba. The Commercial Bank of Ethiopia
Commercial Bank of Ethiopia
and the Kenyan banking conglomerate Kenya
Kenya
Commercial Bank has its South Sudanese headquarters in the city and a branch network of eleven (11) branches throughout South Sudan.[24] The three indigenous South Sudanese commercial banks namely; Buffalo Commercial Bank, Ivory Bank and Nile
Nile
Commercial Bank, all maintain their headquarters in Juba. Equity Bank, another regional finance services provider also has a branch in Juba. National Insurance Corporation
National Insurance Corporation
(NIC), the leading Ugandan insurance services provider, maintains an office in the city.[25] Despite recent economic difficulties brought about by the December 15th 2013 civil war, Juba
Juba
has continued to grow and construction is still booming. This is probably due to the high demand for affordable housing and hotel accommodations. Research from the Overseas Development Institute found that markets in Juba
Juba
are transient, as many traders only come to make a quick profit and so do not invest in storage facilities or shops.[26] Climate[edit] Juba
Juba
has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen: Aw),[27] and as it lies near the equator, temperatures are hot year-round. However, little rain falls from November to March, which is also the time of the year with the hottest maximum temperatures, reaching 38 °C (100 °F) in February. From April to October, more than 100 millimetres (3.9 in) of rain falls per month. The annual total precipitation is nearly 1,000 mm (39 in).

Climate data for Juba
Juba
(1971–2000, extremes 1931–1990)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 42.2 (108) 43.0 (109.4) 43.6 (110.5) 42.4 (108.3) 43.7 (110.7) 38.5 (101.3) 37.0 (98.6) 38.5 (101.3) 39.0 (102.2) 39.6 (103.3) 40.4 (104.7) 42.8 (109) 43.7 (110.7)

Average high °C (°F) 36.8 (98.2) 37.9 (100.2) 37.7 (99.9) 35.4 (95.7) 33.5 (92.3) 32.4 (90.3) 31.1 (88) 31.6 (88.9) 33.1 (91.6) 34.0 (93.2) 34.7 (94.5) 35.9 (96.6) 34.5 (94.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 28.2 (82.8) 29.3 (84.7) 29.9 (85.8) 28.7 (83.7) 27.6 (81.7) 26.5 (79.7) 25.6 (78.1) 25.5 (77.9) 26.4 (79.5) 26.9 (80.4) 27.4 (81.3) 27.5 (81.5) 27.46 (81.43)

Average low °C (°F) 20.1 (68.2) 21.7 (71.1) 23.6 (74.5) 23.4 (74.1) 22.6 (72.7) 21.9 (71.4) 21.1 (70) 21.0 (69.8) 21.1 (70) 21.3 (70.3) 20.9 (69.6) 20.0 (68) 21.6 (70.9)

Record low °C (°F) 11.4 (52.5) 12.2 (54) 16.3 (61.3) 16.5 (61.7) 16.8 (62.2) 14.0 (57.2) 13.3 (55.9) 16.0 (60.8) 15.5 (59.9) 14.0 (57.2) 13.2 (55.8) 13.9 (57) 11.4 (52.5)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 5.1 (0.201) 11.0 (0.433) 36.7 (1.445) 111.5 (4.39) 129.9 (5.114) 117.8 (4.638) 144.7 (5.697) 127.5 (5.02) 103.7 (4.083) 114.5 (4.508) 43.1 (1.697) 8.2 (0.323) 953.7 (37.547)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.4 2.0 6.6 11.6 12.4 10.3 13.0 11.5 8.6 10.4 6.5 1.9 96.2

Average relative humidity (%) 44 42 51 64 73 76 81 80 77 73 69 53 65

Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.0 235.2 210.8 198.0 207.7 207.0 182.9 204.6 228.0 241.8 237.0 260.4 2,692.4

Percent possible sunshine 76 67 57 54 62 58 50 57 63 64 68 68 62

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization,[28]

Source #2: NOAA (sun and humidity, 1961–1990),[29] Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes, mean temperatures)[30]

Notable people[edit]

Aheu Deng, beauty queen and fashion model Bangs, rapper and YouTube personality Independent Moses Nunuh, first child born in South Sudan
South Sudan
after its independence.[31] In common with many other children in South Sudan, he died before his first birthday.[32]

November 2015 aircraft crash[edit] Main article: 2015 Juba
Juba
An-12 crash On 4 November 2015, a cargo plane, en route to the Paloich
Paloich
oil fields in Upper Nile
Nile
state, crashed directly after takeoff half a mile from Juba's international airport, killing over 40 people, mostly oil workers and their family members. A child and an adult survived. The Antonov An-12 (or 12-B) cargo plane, made in Ukraine
Ukraine
for Russia
Russia
in 1971, landed in a farming community on the eastern bank of the White Nile
Nile
River. The plane, built for moving cargo, was operated by Allied Services Limited, a logistics company based in South Sudan. The crew may be considered heroes: A man who saw the plane come down told AP he thought it might crash into a market area, but the pilot seemed to divert it at the last minute.[33] See also[edit]

South Sudan
South Sudan
portal

Equatoria

Eastern Equatoria Central Equatoria Western Equatoria

Gulu-Nimule Road Juba
Juba
Stadium Lainya
Lainya
County Railway stations in South Sudan Yei, South Sudan Anataban Campaign

References[edit]

^ "Define Juba: noun 2. a city in S Sudan, on the White Nile". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 27 October 2013.  ^ " Jubek State
Jubek State
calls upon TGoNU to protect traders". The National Mirror. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016.  ^ To The Heart of the Nile: Lady Florence Baker
Florence Baker
and the Exploration of Central Africa, by Pat Shipman ^ Richardson, J.N. (1933). "Bari Notes". Sudan
Sudan
Notes & Records. 16 (2): 181–186.  ^ Keen, Rosemary (n.d.). " Church Missionary Society
Church Missionary Society
Archive, General Introduction and Guide to the Archive". ampltd.co.uk. Adam Matthew Publications, Pelham House. Retrieved December 16, 2016.  ^ Nalder, Leonard F. (1936). Equatorial province handbook. Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
government memoranda. OCLC 3450641.  ^ Werner, Roland; et al. (2000). Day of devastation, day of contentment: the history of the Sudanese church across 2000 years Volume 10 of Faith in Sudan. Paulines Publications Africa. ISBN 9966215298. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Badiey, Naseem (2014). The State of Post-conflict Reconstruction: Land, Urban Development and State Building in Juba, Southern Sudan. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. 38.  ^ Shuichiro, Nakao (2013). "A History from Below: Malakia in Juba, South Sudan, c. 1927-1954". The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies. 31: 139–160.  ^ Badiey, Naseem (2014). The State of Post-conflict Reconstruction: Land, Urban Development and State Building in Juba, Southern Sudan. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. 38.  ^ Shuichiro, Nakao (2013). "A History from Below: Malakia in Juba, South Sudan, c. 1927-1954". The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies. 31: 139–160.  ^ Shuichiro, Nakao (2013). "A History from Below: Malakia in Juba, South Sudan, c. 1927-1954". The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies. 31: 139–160.  ^ Greek Community of Juba
Juba
Archives ^ a b "New capital city for South Sudan?". Radio Netherlands. 6 February 2011. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2011.  ^ "Kiir makes changes in Civil Aviation Authority, appoints CEO". 17 November 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2017.  ^ a b Stephen, Juma John (3 April 2011). "CES Governor Appoints Mayor For Juba
Juba
City Council". Gurtong. Retrieved 28 July 2011.  ^ "Central Equatoria
Equatoria
State". NileBuffalo Gazette. 2008. Archived from the original on 20 March 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.  ^ " Gulu
Gulu
Juba
Juba
Railway in the Offing". Pachodo.org. 20 September 2010. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2012.  ^ Thome, Wolfgang H. (14 September 2010). "Railway Link From Juba
Juba
May Go Directly To Kenya". Eturbonews.com. Retrieved 20 June 2012.  ^ Isaac Vuni (8 July 2009). " South Sudan
South Sudan
parliament throw outs census results". Sudan
Sudan
Tribune.  ^ "Estimated Population in 2011". Wolframalpha.com. Retrieved 20 June 2012.  ^ a b "The World Factbook: South Sudan". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  ^ "Estimated Population in 2006". Tripwiser.com. Retrieved 20 June 2012.  ^ "About KCB Southern Sudan". Kcbbankgroup.com. 4 March 2008. Retrieved 20 June 2012.  ^ NIC Expands Into Sudan
Sudan
Archived 16 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Irina Mosel and Emily Henderson (2015) Markets in crises: South Sudan
Sudan
case study London: Overseas Development Institute ^ "Climate: Juba
Juba
– Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 27 October 2013.  ^ "World Weather Information Service – Juba". World Meteorological Organization (UN). Retrieved 21 March 2013.  ^ " Juba
Juba
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 18 January 2016.  ^ "Klimatafel von Juba
Juba
/ Sudan" (PDF) (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 3 November 2016.  ^ "The First South Sudanese baby named Independent". CBC News. 10 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2012.  ^ Ros Wynne-Jones (7 July 2012). "Happy Birthday South Sudan?". The Independent. Retrieved 9 July 2012. Independent Moses, like one in 10 babies in South Sudan, had not reached his first birthday, dying of Africa's biggest killer, diarrhoea.  ^ "Over 40 killed in plane crash, as Juba
Juba
regrets the incident – Sudan
Sudan
Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". Sudan
Sudan
Tribune. Retrieved 2016-07-22. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Juba.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Juba.

Fisher, J. 2005, 'Southern Sudan's Front-line Town', BBC News, 20 April 2005. Holt, K. 2007, 'In pictures: Juba's Street Struggle', BBC News, 4 January 2007. Sudan
Sudan
And Uganda
Uganda
Sign MoU To Develop Infrastructure 'Gulu- Juba
Juba
rail link underway' World's Newest Nation would Start Almost from Scratch – article & video by McClatchy

v t e

Capitals of Africa

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

Abuja, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Algiers, Algeria Antananarivo, Madagascar Asmara, Eritrea Bamako, Mali Bangui, Central African Republic Banjul, Gambia Bissau, Guinea-Bissau Brazzaville, Rep. of the Congo Bujumbura, Burundi Cairo, Egypt Conakry, Guinea Dakar, Senegal Djibouti, Djibouti Dodoma, Tanzania El Aaiún(claimed)/Tifariti(factual), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1 Freetown, Sierra Leone Funchal, Madeira4 Gaborone, Botswana Harare, Zimbabwe Hargeisa, Somaliland1 Jamestown, St Helena, Ascension & Tristan da Cunha2 Juba, South Sudan Kampala, Uganda Khartoum, Sudan Kigali, Rwanda Kinshasa, D.R. Congo Libreville, Gabon Lilongwe, Malawi Lomé, Togo Luanda, Angola Lusaka, Zambia Malabo, Equatorial Guinea Mamoudzou, Mayotte3 Maputo, Mozambique Maseru, Lesotho

Mbabane
Mbabane
(executive)   Lobamba
Lobamba
(legislative), Swaziland

Mogadishu, Somalia Monrovia, Liberia Moroni, Comoros Nairobi, Kenya N'Djamena, Chad Niamey, Niger Nouakchott, Mauritania Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Port Louis, Mauritius Porto-Novo, Benin Praia, Cape Verde

Pretoria
Pretoria
(executive)   Cape Town
Cape Town
(legislative)   Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
(judicial), South Africa

Rabat, Morocco Saint-Denis, Réunion3 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
and Las Palmas, Canary Islands5 São Tomé, São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia Victoria, Seychelles Windhoek, Namibia

Yamoussoukro
Yamoussoukro
(political)   Abidjan
Abidjan
(economic), Ivory Coast

Yaoundé, Cameroon

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation 2 British Overseas Territory 3 Overseas region
Overseas region
of France 4 Autonomous region of Portugal 5 Autonomous community of Spain

v t e

Central Equatoria

State capital: Juba

Counties

Juba Lainya Morobo Terekeka Yei

Populated places

Dimo Gemaiza Gondokoro Juba Kajo Keji Kaya Lado Liria Mongalla Muni Rejaf Rejong Rokon Tali Terekeka Tindilo Tombek Yei

Universities

Catholic University of South Sudan St. Mary's University in Juba The Bridge University University of Juba

Airports

Juba
Juba
Airport Kajo Keji
Kajo Keji
Airstrip Yei Airport

Other

Bandingilo National Park Juba
Juba
Stadium

v t e

State capitals in South Sudan

Aweil (Aweil State) Wanyjok(Aweil East) Yirol
Yirol
(Eastern Lakes) Raga (Lol) Tonj
Tonj
( Tonj
Tonj
State) Juba
Juba
(Jubek) Maridi
Maridi
( Maridi
Maridi
State) Kapoeta
Kapoeta
(Namorunyang) Terekeka
Terekeka
(Terekeka) Yei (Yei River) Bentiu
Bentiu
(Northern Liech) Bor (Jonglei) Pibor
Pibor
(Boma) Kuajok
Kuajok
(Gogrial) Malakal
Malakal
(Eastern Nile) Rumbek
Rumbek
(Western Lakes) Nasir (Latjoor) Torit
Torit
(Imatong) Wau (Wau State) Yambio
Yambio
(Gbudwe) Leer (Southern Liech) Angak (Fangak) Kodok
Kodok
(Western Nile)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 71146825163007631593 LCCN: n81093

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