JUAN MANUEL, PRINCE OF VILLENA (5 May 1282 – 13 June 1348) was a
Spanish medieval writer, nephew of
Alfonso X of Castile
* 1 Biography
* 2 Works
* 2.1 Chronological summary * 2.2 El Conde Lucanor
* 3 Children * 4 Ancestors * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links
Extension of the Seigneury of Villena at the time of Juan Manuel, around the year 1340.
Juan Manuel was born in the Castle of
Escalona , in what is now the
province of Toledo . He was a son of
Manuel of Castile (son of
Ferdinand III of Castile
In 1304 he was entrusted by the queen mother, Doña María de Molina , to conduct political negotiations with James II of Aragon on behalf of her son, Ferdinand IV , then under age. His diplomacy was successful and his marriage to James II's daughter, Constantina, added to his prestige.
Juan Manuel had constant confrontations with his king. At the time, the throne of Castile was occupied by two monarchs, Ferdinand IV and Alfonso XI . Juan Manuel's loyalty was with Alfonso, to whom Juan Manuel gave the hand of his daughter Constanza. The wedding was postponed several times, until finally Alfonso XI jailed Constanza in the Castle of Toro for unclear reasons. This incident angered Juan Manuel, who decided to turn against Alfonso. He declared war on Alfonso, beginning a long confrontation.
On the death of his wife Constantina in 1327, Don Juan Manuel
strengthened his position by marrying Doña Blanca de La Cerda y Lara
; he secured the support of Juan Núñez , alférez of Castile, by
arranging a marriage between him and Maria , daughter of Don Juan "el
Tuerto" ; he won over
Finally, the Pope brought about reconciliation between Juan Manuel and Alfonso XI. This reconciliation was not complete until 1340, when Juan Manuel and Alfonso allied against the Muslims in the Battle of Río Salado , taking the city of Algeciras . After these events, Juan Manuel left political life and retired to Murcia, where he spent his last years focused on literature. Proud of his works, he decided to compile them all in a single volume. This compilation was destroyed in a fire, with no known copy preserved.
Juan Manuel died at Peñafiel in 1348, the age of sixty-six.
House of Manuel Coat of Arms.
Throughout his life, he wrote approximately thirteen books, of which
only eight are preserved today. These works are predominantly
didactic. Following the path of his uncle,
Alfonso X of Castile
While his writings were directed largely to a literate class, it was nonetheless his assumption that they would be read aloud, as was common during the Middle Ages. He is ever conscious of propriety, and speaks carefully, both because of his elevated rank, and in case women or children should hear what he has written. His works reflect his character, ambitions, and beliefs, so that in many ways they are a mirror of his time and circumstances.
Juan Manuel's work is marked by a great preoccupation both with the practical and the spiritual life, and is directed not only to the nobility, but also to lower estates, since much of his work speaks not only of the duties of lords, but of their vassals as well. While his work is often classified under the general Medieval rubric of "the education of princes" it also begins to approach the Machiavellianism which is more characteristic of the Renaissance, by virtue of its dedication to the astute art of governing.
Of Juan Manuel's surviving writings:
* Crónica abreviada was compiled between 1319 and 1325. * The Libro de la caza was written between 1320 and 1329; and during this period of nine years the Crónica de España, the Crónica complida, and the Tratado sobre las armas were produced. * The Libro del Caballero et del escudero was finished before the end of 1326. It is striking for its curious and varied erudition of the turbulent prince who weaves his personal experiences with historical or legendary incidents, with reminiscences of Aesop and Phaedrus , with the Disciplina clericalis, with Kalilah and Dimnah, with various Oriental traditions, and with the material of anecdotic literature which he embodies in the Libro de patronio, best known by the title of El Conde Lucanor. * The Cento novelle antiche are anonymous tales, derived from popular stories diffused throughout the world, and simple, unadorned variants of folk-lore items. * The first book of the Libro de los estados was finished on 22 May 1330, while the second was begun five days later. * The first book of El Conde Lucanor was written in 1328, the second in 1330, and the fourth is dated 12 June 1335. * The devout Tractado on the Virgin, dedicated to the prior of the monastery at Peñafiel, to which Don Juan Manuel bequeathed his manuscripts, is of uncertain date, but it seems probable that the Libro de los frailes predicadores is slightly later than the Libro de los estados; that the Libro de los castigos (left unfinished, and therefore known by the alternative title of Libro infinido) was written not later than 1333, and that the treatise De las maneras de amor was composed between 1334 and 1337.
Among his lost works, the Libro de los sabios, a treatise called Engeños de Guerra and the Libro de cantares, a collection of verses, were composed between 1320 and 1327; but they have disappeared together with the Libro de la caballeria (written during the winter of 1326), and the Reglas como se debe trovar, a metrical treatise assigned to 1328–1334.
EL CONDE LUCANOR
El Conde Lucanor (the name Lucanor being taken from the prose Tristan
), also entitled the Libro de enxemplos, was first printed by Gonzalo
Argote de Molina at
It is essentially the production of a conscious artist, deliberative
and selective in his methods. Don Juan Manuel naturalizes the Eastern
apologue in Spain, and by the laconic picturesqueness of his
expression imports a new quality into Spanish prose which attains its
full development in the hands of
Juan de Valdés and Cervantes . Some
of his themes are utilized for dramatic purposes by
Lope de Vega in La
Pobreza estimada, by
Juan Ruiz de Alarcón
Castle of Villena , capital of
Seigneury of Villena .
Blanca de La Cerda and Don Juan Manuel, in a 17th-century Portuguese
painting series depicting the ancestors of the Manuel family (Ficalho
His first wife was Elizabeth, daughter of James II of Majorca . She died approximately in 1301 and they had no children.
By Constance of Aragon, daughter of James II of Aragon :
* Fernando Manuel of Villena (died c. 1350), Lord of Escalona, Peñafiel and Villena, who married 1346 Joan, a daughter of Ramón Berenguer, Count of Ampurias , himself a younger son of James II of Aragon . The couple had a daughter, Blanca Manuel (c. 1348 – 1361), heiress of Villena, Escalona and Peñafiel until 1361. * Juana Manuel of Villena (1339–1381), who married 1350 Henry II of Castile (1333–79) and became Queen of Castile.
Illegitimate by Inés de Castañeda:
* Sancho Manuel of Villena (1320–1347) * Enrique Manuel of Villena (1340–1390)
Illegitimate by unknown woman:
* Guiomar Manuel of Villena (who married Juan Martínez de Leiva, Señor de Baños, Merino Mayor de Castilla)
ANCESTORS OF JUAN MANUEL, PRINCE OF VILLENA
17. Urraca of
19. Eleanor of England
21. Beatrice I of Burgundy
22. Isaac II Angelos
23. Unknown Palaiologina?, afterwards Irene
1. JUAN MANUEL, PRINCE OF VILLENA
24. Humbert III of Savoy
25. Beatrice of Viennois
27. Beatrice de Faucigny
3. Beatrice of Savoy
28. Hugh III of Baux
14. Barral of Baux
7. Cecilia of Baux
30. Pierre Bermond, seigneur d'Anduze
15. Sibylle d'Anduze
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* ^ Aurelio Pretel Marín; Miguel Rodríguez Llopis (1998). El señorío de Villena en el siglo XIV . Albacete: Instituto de Estudios Albacetenses "Don Juan Manuel" - Excma. Diputación de Albacete. ISBN 8487136869 .
* ^ A B C D E F One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Fitzmaurice-Kelly, James (1911). "Juan Manuel, Don". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica . 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 530. Bibliography cited:
* Obras, edited by P. de Gayangos in the Biblioteca de autores Españoles, vol. li. * El Conde Lucanor (Leipzig, 1900), edited by H. Knust and A. Hirschfeld * Libro de la caza (Halle, 1880), edited by G. Baist * El libro del caballero et del escudero, edited by S. Gräfenberg in Romanische Forschungen, vol. vi. * G. Baist, Alter und Textueberlieferung der Schriften Don Juan Manuels (Halle, 1880) * F. Hanssen, Notas á la versificación de D. Juan Manuel (Santiago de Chile, 1902)
* ^ Chisholm 1911 has "Mahomet III ", but he had died in 1314.
* Ayerbe-Chaux, Reinaldo. ' ' Count Lucanor: Traditional matter and originality creadorá'. Madrid: J. Porrúa Turanzas, 1975. * Biglieri, Aníbal A. ' ' Towards a poetic one of the didactic story: Eight studies on count Lucanor. Chapel Hill: UNC Dept. of Romance Languages, 1989. * Flory, David. ' ' The Count Lucanor: Don Juan Manuel within his historical context. ' '. Madrid: Pliegos, 1995. * Giménez Soler, Andrés. ' ' Don Juan Manuel. Biography and critical study.'. Zaragoza: F. Martinez, 1932. * Hammer, Michael Floyd. "Framing the Reader: Exemplarity and Ethics in the Manuscripts of the ' Count Lucanor'." Ph.D. University of California at Los Angeles, 2004. * Lida de Malkiel, Maria Rosa . "Three notes on Don Juan Manuel." ' ' Romance Philology' ' 4,2-3 (1950): 155-94. * Wacks, David A. "Don Yllán and the Egyptian Sorcerer: Vernacular commonality and literary diversity in medieval Castile." \' \' Sefarad\' \' 65,2 (2005): 413-33. * MacPherson, Ian. ed. Juan Manuel: A Selection. London: Tamesis Texts Limited, 1980.
* Infante Don Juan Manuel (Biografía) * Text of De lo