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Joshua
Joshua
(/ˈdʒɒʃuə/) or Jehoshua (Hebrew: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ‬ Yehōšuʿa)[a] is the central figure in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible's Book of Joshua. According to the books of Exodus, Numbers and Joshua, he was Moses' assistant and became the leader of the Israelite
Israelite
tribes after the death of Moses.[3] His name was Hoshe'a (הוֹשֵׁעַ) the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, but Moses
Moses
called him Joshua
Joshua
(Numbers 13:16), the name by which he is commonly known. The name is shortened to Yeshua in Nehemiah (Nehemiah 8:17). According to the Bible he was born in Egypt
Egypt
prior to the Exodus.[2] According to the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, Joshua
Joshua
was one of the twelve spies of Israel
Israel
sent by Moses
Moses
to explore the land of Canaan. In Numbers 13:1–16, and after the death of Moses, he led the Israelite
Israelite
tribes in the conquest of Canaan, and allocated the land to the tribes. According to Biblical chronology, Joshua
Joshua
lived some time in the late Bronze Age. According to Joshua
Joshua
24:29, Joshua
Joshua
died at the age of 110. Joshua
Joshua
also holds a position of respect among Muslims. According to Islamic tradition, he was, along with Caleb, one of the two believing spies whom Moses
Moses
had sent to spy the land of Canaan.[4] All Muslims also see Joshua
Joshua
as the leader of the Israelites, following the death of Moses. Some Muslims also believe Joshua
Joshua
to be the "attendant" of Moses
Moses
mentioned in the Quran, before Moses
Moses
meets Khidr
Khidr
and Joshua plays a significant role in Islamic literature
Islamic literature
with significant narration in the Hadith, therefore he is a point of study in comparative religion, see Joshua
Joshua
in Islam.

Contents

1 Name 2 Biblical narrative

2.1 The Exodus 2.2 Conquest of Canaan 2.3 Death

3 Historicity 4 Views

4.1 In rabbinical literature 4.2 In Christianity 4.3 In Islam

5 In art and literature 6 Yahrtzeit 7 Yom HaAliyah 8 Joshua
Joshua
tree 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Name[edit] The English name "Joshua" is a rendering of the Hebrew
Hebrew
language "Yehoshua", meaning " Yahweh
Yahweh
is salvation".[5][6] The vocalization of the second name component may be read as Hoshea—the name used in the Torah
Torah
before Moses
Moses
added the divine name (Numbers 13:16).[7] "Jesus" is the English derivative of the Greek transliteration of "Yehoshua" via Latin. In the Septuagint, all instances of the word "Yehoshua" are rendered as "Ἰησοῦς" (Iēsoūs), the closest Greek pronunciation of the Aramaic: ישוע‎ Yeshua, Nehemiah 8:17).[8][9] Thus, in modern Greek, Joshua
Joshua
is called " Jesus
Jesus
son of Naue" (τοῦ Ναυή) to differentiate him from Jesus. This is also true in the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
following the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
tradition (e.g. "Иисус Навин", Iisús Navín, in Bulgarian, Serbian and Russian). Biblical narrative[edit] See also: History of ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah The Exodus[edit]

"The Children of Israel
Israel
Crossing the Jordan" by Benjamin West, 1800

Joshua
Joshua
was a major figure in the events of the Exodus. He was charged by Moses
Moses
with selecting and commanding a militia group for their first battle after exiting Egypt, against the Amalekites
Amalekites
in Rephidim
Rephidim
(Exodus 17:8-16), in which they were victorious. He later accompanied Moses
Moses
when he ascended biblical Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
to commune with God,[10] visualize God's plan for the Israelite tabernacle and receive the Ten Commandments. Joshua
Joshua
was with Moses when he descended from the mountain, heard the Israelites' celebrations around the Golden Calf,[11] and broke the tablets bearing the words of the commandments. Similarly, in the narrative which refers to Moses
Moses
being able to speak with God
God
in his tent of meeting outside the camp, Joshua
Joshua
is seen as custodian of the tent ('tabernacle of meeting') when Moses
Moses
returned to the Israelite
Israelite
encampment.[12] However, when Moses
Moses
returned to the mountain to re-create the tablets recording the Ten Commandments, Joshua
Joshua
was not present, as the biblical text states 'no man shall come up with you'.[13] Later, Joshua
Joshua
was identified as one of the twelve spies sent by Moses to explore and report on the land of Canaan
Canaan
(Numbers 13:16-17), and only he and Caleb
Caleb
gave an encouraging report, a reward for which would be that only these two of their entire generation would enter the promised land (Numbers 14:22-24). According to Joshua
Joshua
1:1-9, God
God
appointed Joshua
Joshua
to succeed Moses
Moses
as leader of the Israelites
Israelites
along with giving him a blessing of invincibility during his lifetime ( Joshua
Joshua
1:5).[14][15] The first part of the book of Joshua
Joshua
covers the period when he led the conquest of Canaan. Conquest of Canaan[edit] Main article: Book of Joshua

Joshua
Joshua
Commanding the Sun to Stand Still upon Gibeon by John Martin

At the Jordan
Jordan
River, the waters parted, as they had for Moses
Moses
at the Red Sea. The first battle after the crossing of the Jordan
Jordan
was the Battle of Jericho. Joshua
Joshua
led the destruction of Jericho, then moved on to Ai, a small neighboring city to the west. However, they were defeated with thirty-six Israelite
Israelite
deaths. The defeat was attributed to Achan taking an "accursed thing" from Jericho; and was followed by Achan and his family and animals being stoned to death to restore God's favor. Joshua
Joshua
then went to defeat Ai. The Israelites
Israelites
faced an alliance of five Amorite
Amorite
kings from Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon. At Gibeon, Joshua
Joshua
asked Yahweh
Yahweh
to cause the sun and moon to stand still, so that he could finish the battle in daylight. This event is most notable because "There has been no day like it before or since, when the Lord heeded the voice of a man, for the Lord fought for Israel." ( Joshua
Joshua
10:14) God
God
also fought for the Israelites
Israelites
in this battle, for he hurled huge hailstones from the sky which killed more Canaanites than those which the Israelites slaughtered. From there on, Joshua
Joshua
was able to lead the Israelites
Israelites
to several victories, securing much of the land of Canaan. He presided over the Israelite
Israelite
gatherings at Gilgal
Gilgal
and Shiloh which allocated land to the tribes of Israel
Israel
( Joshua
Joshua
14:1-5 and 18:1-10), and the Israelites
Israelites
rewarded him with the Ephraimite city of Timnath-heres
Timnath-heres
or Timnath-serah, where he settled ( Joshua
Joshua
19:50). Death[edit]

Joshua's Tomb in Kifl Haris, April 2007

Joshua's Tomb in Jordan

When he was "old and well advanced in years",[16] Joshua
Joshua
convened the elders and chiefs of the Israelites
Israelites
and exhorted them to have no fellowship with the native population, because it could lead them to be unfaithful to God.[17] At a general assembly of the clans at Shechem, he took leave of the people, admonishing them to be loyal to their God, who had been so mightily manifested in the midst of them. As a witness of their promise to serve God, Joshua
Joshua
set up a great stone under an oak by the sanctuary of God. Soon afterward he died, at the age of 110, and was buried at Timnath-heres, in the hill country of Ephraim, north of Mount Gaash.[18] Historicity[edit] See also: The Exodus
The Exodus
§ Historicity, and History of ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah The prevailing scholarly view is that Joshua
Joshua
is not a factual account of historical events.[19] The apparent setting of Joshua
Joshua
is the 13th century BCE,[19] a time of widespread city-destruction, but with a few exceptions (Hazor, Lachish) the destroyed cities are not the ones the Bible associates with Joshua, and the ones it does associate with him show little or no sign of even being occupied at the time.[20] There is a consensus that the Joshua
Joshua
traditions in the Pentateuch are secondary additions. The spy story of Numbers 13–14; Deut. 1:34–7, in an earlier form only mentioned Caleb. E. Meyer and G. Hoelscher deny Joshua's existence as a historical reality and conclude that he is the legendary hero of a Josephite clan.[21] Carolyn Pressler, in her 2002 commentary for the Westminster Bible Companion series, suggests that readers of the Book of Joshua
Book of Joshua
should give priority to its theological message ("what passages teach about God") and be aware of what these would have meant to audiences in the 7th and 6th centuries BCE.[22] Richard Nelson explains, "The needs of the centralised monarchy favoured a single story of origins combining old traditions of an exodus from Egypt, belief in a national god as 'divine warrior,' and explanations for ruined cities, social stratification and ethnic groups, and contemporary tribes."[23] Authorship of the biblical Joshua
Joshua
narrative is ascribed to Joshua himself by Bava Batra 15a (Talmud) and early church fathers, but in 1943 Martin Noth published an argument that behind Joshua
Joshua
and other books was a unified "Deuteronomistic history", composed in the early part of the Babylonian captivity
Babylonian captivity
(6th century BCE). Most scholars today believe in some such composite, containing the epic history of the premonarchical period.[24] Internal evidence of the book of Joshua, and the repeated use of the phrase 'to this day' suggests that the events that it recounts took place some time before they were recorded.[25] The first record of the name Israel
Israel
occurs in the Merneptah
Merneptah
stele, erected for Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah
Merneptah
c. 1209 BCE, " Israel
Israel
is laid waste and his seed is not."[26] William Dever sees this "Israel" in the central highlands as a cultural and probably political entity, well enough established to be perceived by the Egyptians as a possible challenge to their hegemony, but an ethnic group rather than an organised state.[27] The number of villages in the highlands increased to more than 300 by the end of Iron Age I[28] (more and larger in the north), with the settled population rising from 20,000 in the twelfth century to 40,000 in the eleventh.[29] The villagers probably shared the highlands with other communities such as pastoral nomads, but only villagers left sufficient remains to determine their settlement patterns.[30] Archaeologists and historians see more continuity than discontinuity between these highland settlements and the preceding Late Bronze Age Canaanite culture.[31] Certain features, such as ceramic repertoire and agrarian settlement plans, have been said to be distinctives of highland sites,[32] and collar-rimmed jars and four-roomed houses have been said to be intrinsically "Israelite", but have also been said to belong to a commonly shared culture throughout Iron I Canaan.[33] While some archaeologists interpret the absence of pig bones from the highland sites as an indicator of ethnicity,[34] this is not certain.[35] Villages had populations of up to 300 or 400,[29][36] which lived by farming and herding and were largely self-sufficient;[37] economic interchange was prevalent.[38] According to Ann E. Killebrew, "Most scholars today accept that the majority of the conquest narratives in the book of Joshua
Joshua
are devoid of historical reality".[39][40][41][42] The question of the date and degrees of conquest and/or assimilation of the indigenous population is uncertain, as academics and archaeologists differ in their interpretation of the archaeological and other evidence.[43] Views[edit]

Joshua
Joshua
and the Israelite
Israelite
people, Karolingischer Buchmaler, c. 840

In rabbinical literature[edit] In rabbinic literature Joshua
Joshua
is regarded as a faithful, humble, deserving, wise man. Biblical verses illustrative of these qualities and of their reward are applied to him. "He that waits on his master shall be honored" ( Pro.
Pro.
xxvii. 18) is construed as a reference to Joshua
Joshua
( Midrash Numbers Rabbah
Midrash Numbers Rabbah
xii.), as is also the first part of the same verse, "Whoso keepes the fig-tree shall eat the fruit thereof" (Midrash Yalk., Josh. 2; Numbers Rabbah xii. 21). That "honor shall uphold the humble in spirit" ( Pro.
Pro.
xxix. 23) is proved by Joshua's victory over Amalek ( Midrash Numbers Rabbah
Midrash Numbers Rabbah
xiii). Not the sons of Moses—as Moses
Moses
himself had expected—but Joshua
Joshua
was appointed successor to the son of Amram ( Midrash Numbers Rabbah
Midrash Numbers Rabbah
xii). Moses
Moses
was shown how Joshua
Joshua
reproved that Othniel
Othniel
(Yalḳ., Num. 776). In Christianity[edit] Most modern Bibles translate Hebrews 4:8–10 to identify Jesus
Jesus
as a better Joshua, as Joshua
Joshua
led Israel
Israel
into the rest of Canaan, but Jesus leads the people of God
God
into "God's rest". Among the early Church Fathers, Joshua
Joshua
is considered a type of Jesus
Jesus
Christ.[44] In Islam[edit] Joshua
Joshua
is not mentioned by name in the Qur’ān, but his name appears in other Islamic literature. In the Qur'anic
Qur'anic
account of the conquest of Canaan, Joshua
Joshua
and Caleb
Caleb
are referenced, but not named, as two "Allah-fearing men", on whom God
God
"had bestowed His grace".[45]

They said: "O Moses! In this land are a people of exceeding strength: Never shall we enter it until they leave it: if (once) they leave, then shall we enter." (But) among (their) Allah-fearing men were two on whom Allah had bestowed His grace. They said: "Assault them at the (proper) Gate: when once ye are in, victory will be yours; but on Allah put your trust if ye have faith." — Qur'an, sura 5 (Al-Ma'ida), ayah 22–23[4]

Although Joshua
Joshua
was regarded by some classical scholars as the prophetic successor to Moses
Moses
(موسى‎),[46] Tabari relates in his History of the Prophets and Kings that Joshua
Joshua
was one of the twelve spies and Muslim
Muslim
scholars believe that the two believing spies referred to in the Qur’ān
Qur’ān
are Joshua
Joshua
and Caleb. Joshua
Joshua
was exceptional among the Israelites
Israelites
for being one of the few faithful followers of Allah. Joshua
Joshua
is further mentioned in Islamic literature, and significant events from his Muslim
Muslim
narratives include the crossing of the Jordan river and the conquest of Bait al-Maqdis.[47] But Muslim
Muslim
literature also preserves traditions of Joshua
Joshua
not found in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible. Joshua
Joshua
is credited with being present at Moses's death and literature records that Moses's garments were with Joshua
Joshua
at the time of his departure.[48] In Sahih Bukhari
Sahih Bukhari
and Sahih Muslim, Joshua
Joshua
is mentioned as Yusha' bin Nun and is the attendant to Moses
Moses
during his meeting with Khidr.[49][50][51] Joshua
Joshua
is believed by some Muslims to be buried on Joshua's Hill in the Beykoz
Beykoz
district of Istanbul.[52] Alternative traditional sites for the Prophet's tomb are situated in Israel
Israel
(the Shia shrine at Al-Nabi Yusha'), Jordan
Jordan
(An-Nabi Yusha’ bin Noon, a Sunni shrine near the city of Al-Salt[53][54]) and Iraq
Iraq
(the Nabi Yusha' shrine of Baghdad[53]). In art and literature[edit]

In the literary tradition of medieval Europe, Joshua
Joshua
is known as one of the Nine Worthies. In The Divine Comedy
The Divine Comedy
Joshua's spirit appears to Dante in the Heaven of Mars, where he is grouped with the other "warriors of the faith."[55] Baroque
Baroque
composer Georg Frideric Handel
Georg Frideric Handel
composed the oratorio "Joshua" in 1747. Composer Franz Waxman composed an oratorio "Joshua" in 1959.

Yahrtzeit[edit] The annual commemoration of Joshua's yahrtzeit (the anniversary of his death) is marked on the 26th of Nisan
Nisan
on the Hebrew
Hebrew
calendar. Thousands make the pilgrimage to the Tomb of Joshua
Tomb of Joshua
in Kifl Haris
Kifl Haris
on the preceding night. Yom HaAliyah[edit] Yom HaAliyah
Yom HaAliyah
(Aliyah Day) (Hebrew: יום העלייה‎) is an Israeli national holiday celebrated annually on the tenth of the Hebrew
Hebrew
month of Nisan
Nisan
to commemorate Joshua
Joshua
having led the Israelites across the Jordan River
Jordan River
into the Land of Israel
Israel
while carrying the Ark of the Covenant. Joshua
Joshua
tree[edit] Legend has it that Mormon pioneers in the United States first referred to the yucca brevifolia agave plant as the Joshua
Joshua
tree because its branches reminded them of Joshua
Joshua
stretching his arms upward in supplication, guiding the travelers westward.[56] See also[edit]

Joshua
Joshua
Roll

Notes[edit]

^ Aramaic: ישוע‎ Yēšuʿa; Syriac: ܝܫܘܥ‎ Yešua; Greek: Ἰησοῦς, Arabic: يوشع بن نون‎ Yušaʿ ibn Nūn; Latin: Iosue

References[edit]

^ (in Greek) "Ὁ Ἅγιος Ἰησοῦς ὁ Δίκαιος". Megas Synaxaristis. ^ a b "Righteous Joshua
Joshua
the son of Nun (Navi)". ocafs.oca.org. Retrieved 8 January 2018.  ^ Michael D. Coogan, A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament, pages 166–167, Oxford University Press, 2009 ^ a b Quran 5:22–23 ^ A Hebrew
Hebrew
and English Lexicon of the Old Testament Francis Brown, with S.R. Driver and C.A. Briggs, based on the lexicon of William Gesenius. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 221 & 446 ^ "Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Bible Dictionary - StudyLight.org". Retrieved 8 January 2018.  ^ Joshua, New Bible Dictionary, second edition. 1987. Douglas JD, Hillyer N, eds., Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Wheaton, IL, USA ISBN 0-8423-4667-8 ^ cf Numbers 13:16 LXX καὶ ἐπωνόμασεν Μωυσῆς τὸν Αὐσῆ υἱὸν Ναυῆ Ἰησοῦν (and Moses named Hosea, son of Naue, Jesus) ^ "Online Greek OT (Septuagint/LXX) UTF8 Bible. Zechariah Chapter 3:1-10". bibledatabase.net. Retrieved 8 January 2018.  ^ Exodus 24:13 ^ Exodus 32:17 ^ Exodus 33:11 ^ Exodus 34:3 ^ " Joshua
Joshua
Chapter 1". sacred-texts.com. Retrieved October 2014.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Joshua
Joshua
Chapter 1 : Honour is here put upon Joshua, and great power lodged in his hand, by him that is ... him the administration, by virtue of his solemn ordination in Moses's life-time. ..... and it will entitle them to the best blessings: God
God
shall give them the desire of ... be done, how invincible soever the difficulties may seem that lie in the way. ^ Joshua
Joshua
23:1-2 ^ Joshua
Joshua
23:7-8, 23:12-13 ^ Joshua
Joshua
24:29-30 ^ a b McConville (2010), p.4 ^ Miller&Hayes, pp. 71–2. ^ Yohanan Aharoni, S. David
David
Sperling. Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed. Volume 11. p. 442. ^ Pressler, pp.5–6 ^ Nelson, p.5 ^ Dever, William, "What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?" (Eerdmans, 2001) 2001, p. 100. ^ Raymond B. Dillard; Tremper Longman (1994). An Introduction to the Old Testament. Zondervan. p. 109.  ^ Stager in Coogan 1998, p. 91. ^ Dever 2003, p. 206. ^ McNutt 1999, p. 47. ^ a b McNutt 1999, p. 70. ^ McNutt 1999, p. 69. ^ Bright 2000, p. 472. ^ Killebrew 2005, p. 13. ^ Miller 1986, p. 72. ^ Killebrew 2005, p. 176. ^ Bright 2000, p. 473. ^ Miller 2005, p. 98. ^ McNutt 1999, p. 72. ^ Miller 2005, p. 99. ^ Ann E. Killebrew (2005). Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity: An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines, and Early Israel, 1300–1100 B.C.E. Society of Biblical Lit. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-58983-097-4.  ^ Miller 1977, 87–93; Van Seters 1983, 322–37; Schoors 1987, 77-92; Na'aman 1994b, 218-30, 249-50 ^ Robert L. Hubbard, Jr. (30 August 2009). Joshua. Zondervan. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-310-59062-0. The current scholarly consensus follows the conclusion of Kenyon: Except for a small, short-lived settlement (c. 1400 B.C.), Jericho
Jericho
was completely uninhabited c. 1550–1100 B.C.  ^ Dever, William G. (1990) [1989]. "2. The Israelite
Israelite
Settlement in Canaan. New Archeological Models". Recent Archeological Discoveries and Biblical Research. Washington state: University of Washington Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-295-97261-0. Retrieved 2013-01-07. (Of course, for some, that only made the Biblical story more miraculous than ever— Joshua
Joshua
destroyed a city that wasn't even there!)  ^ "Introduction to the Old Testament, chapter on Joshua, by T. Longman and R. Dillard, Zondervan Books (2006) ^ Nichols, Aidan (2007). Lovely, Like Jerusalem: The Fulfillment of the Old Testament in Christ and the Church. Ignatius Press. p. 195. ISBN 9781586171681.  ^ Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary, Note. 726 to verse 23: "Among those who returned after spying out the land were two men who had faith and courage. They were Joshua
Joshua
and Caleb. Joshua
Joshua
afterwards succeeded Moses
Moses
in the leadership after 40 years. These two men pleaded for an immediate entry through the proper Gate, which I understand to mean, "after taking all due precautions and making all due preparations." Cf. 2:189 and n. 203. But of course, they said, they must put their trust in Allah for victory." ^ Joshua
Joshua
is mentioned as a prophet in Ibn Kathir's Stories of the Prophets ^ Tabari, History of the Prophets and Kings, Vol. I: 414–429, 498–499, 503–516 ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. XI, pg. 351, Yusha ibn Nun [Joshua, son of Nun] ^ Bukhari, Book 6, Volume 60, Hadiths 249, 250, 251: Prophetic Commentary on the Qur'an (Tafseer of the Prophet
Prophet
(pbuh)) ^ Bukhari, Book 1, Volume 3, Hadith 124: Knowledge ^ Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5864: The Book Pertaining to the Excellent Qualities of the Holy Prophet
Prophet
(may Peace be upon them) and His Companions (Kitab Al-Fada'il) ^ "ISTANBUL, Extended On Two Continents". Retrieved 8 January 2018.  ^ a b Mazar Hazrat Yusha’ bin Noon, on the website of the Islamic Supreme Council of Canada [1] ^ Tomb of Prophet
Prophet
Yusha' (photo of the tomb; Islamic view on Prophet Yusha'/Joshua) [2] ^ Simons, Dorothy Lister (8 January 2018). "The Individual Human Dramatis Personae of the "Divine Comedy"". Modern Philology. 16 (7): 371–380. Retrieved 8 January 2018 – via JSTOR.  ^ " Joshua
Joshua
Tree National Park", nps.gov, National Park Service, retrieved 2013-05-27  contribution= ignored (help)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Joshua.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Book of Joshua

The Book of Joshua, Douay Rheims Bible Version with annotations By Bishop Challoner Book of Joshua
Book of Joshua
at BibleGateway Smith’s Bible Dictionary Easton's Bible Dictionary & Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia de Pury, Albert, Römer, Thomas, Macchi, Jean-Daniel "Israël constructs its history: Deuteronomistic historiography in recent research" (Sheffield Academic Press, 2000) Garbini, G., "Myth and history in the bible" (Sheffield Academic Press, 2003) Graham, M.P, and McKenzie, Steven L., "The Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
today: an introduction to critical issues" (Westminster John Knox Press, 1998) Killebrew, Ann E., "Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity: An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, and Early Israel, 1300-1100 BCE" (Society of Biblical Literature, 2005) Coogan, Michael D. (ed), "The Oxford History of the Biblical World (Oxford University Press, 1998) Oxford Bible Commentary (ed. John Barton, John Muddiman, Oxford University Press, 2001) The biblical world, Volume 2, John Barton, Taylor & Francis, 2004. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible (ed. James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson, Eerdmans, 2003) Day, John, " Yahweh
Yahweh
and the gods and goddesses of Canaan" (Sheffield Academic Press, 2002) Dever, William, "What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?" (Eerdmans, 2001) Dever, William, "Who Were the Early Israelites
Israelites
and Where Did They Come From?" (Eerdmans, 2003, 2006) Finkelstein, Israel; Mazar, Amihay; Schmidt, Brian B., "The Quest for the Historical Israel" (Society of Biblical Literature, 2007) Brettler, Marc Zvi, "How to read the Bible" (Jewish Publication Society, 2005) Joshua, an Introduction and Commentary, by Richard Hess, Inter-Varsity press (1996) Auzou, Georges. Le Don d'une conquête: étude du livre de Josué (Édition de l'Orante, 1964), in series, "Connaissance de la Bible", 4. Bright, John (2000). A History of Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22068-6.  McNutt, Paula (1999). Reconstructing the Society of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22265-9.  Miller, James Maxwell; Hayes, John Haralson (1986). A History of Ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-21262-X.  Miller, Robert D. (2005). Chieftains of the Highland Clans: A History of Israel
Israel
in the 12th and 11th Centuries B.C. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-0988-9. 

Joshua Tribe of Ephraim

Preceded by Moses Judge of Israel Succeeded by Othniel

v t e

Prophets in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible

Pre-Patriarchal

Abel Kenan Enoch Noah (in rabbinic literature)

Patriarchs / Matriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Levi Joseph Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah

Israelite
Israelite
prophets in the Torah

Moses (in rabbinic literature) Aaron Miriam Eldad and Medad Phinehas

Mentioned in the Former Prophets

Joshua Deborah Gideon Eli Elkanah Hannah Abigail Samuel Gad Nathan David Solomon Jeduthun Ahijah Shemaiah Elijah Elisha Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Jahaziel Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Huldah

Major

Isaiah (in rabbinic literature) Jeremiah Ezekiel Daniel (in rabbinic literature)

Minor

Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah (in rabbinic literature) Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Noahide

Beor Balaam Job (in rabbinic literature)

Other

Amoz Beeri Baruch Agur Uriah Buzi Mordecai Esther (in rabbinic literature) Oded Azariah

Italics indicate persons whose status as prophets is not universally accepted.

v t e

Extra-Quranic Prophets of Islam

In Stories of the Prophets

Enoch Eber Khidr Joshua Samuel Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Ezra Daniel

In Islamic tradition

Seth Shem Eli Ahijah Shemaiah Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Urijah Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah Berechiah Samī Joel Amos Obadiah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Malachi Hanzalah Khaled bin Sinan

In Quranic exegesis

Abel Saduq, Masduq, and Shalum Hosea Zechariah, son of Berechiah

v t e

Ark of the Covenant
Ark of the Covenant
topics

People

Moses Kohanim High Priest of Israel Israelites Levites Bezalel Tribe of Judah Oholiab Kehath Tribe of Levi Jeremiah Joshua Samuel Solomon Menelik I

Contents

Tablets of Stone Ten Commandments Manna Aaron's rod Cherub

Locations

Mount Sinai Jericho Jordan
Jordan
River Holy of Holies Tabernacle Ai Shiloh Gibeah Gilgal Eben-Ezer Philistia Beth Shemesh Kiriath-Jearim Temple Mount Dome of the Rock Well of Souls Cathedral of Chartres Tana Qirqos Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion

Related

The Sign and the Seal
The Sign and the Seal
(1992 book)

Authority control

GND: 11864

.