HOME
The Info List - Josephus


--- Advertisement ---



Titus
Titus
Flavius Josephus
Josephus
(/dʒoʊˈsiːfəs/;[1] Greek: Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – c. 100),[2][page needed] born Yosef ben Matityahu (Hebrew: יוסף הכהן בן מתתיהו‬, Yosef ben Matityahu; Greek: Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς),[3][4] was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry. He initially fought against the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 CE to Roman forces led by Vespasian
Vespasian
after the six-week siege of Jotapata. Josephus
Josephus
claimed the Jewish Messianic prophecies that initiated the First Roman-Jewish War made reference to Vespasian
Vespasian
becoming Emperor of Rome. In response Vespasian
Vespasian
decided to keep Josephus
Josephus
as a slave and interpreter. After Vespasian
Vespasian
became Emperor in 69 CE, he granted Josephus
Josephus
his freedom, at which time Josephus
Josephus
assumed the emperor's family name of Flavius.[5] Flavius Josephus
Josephus
fully defected to the Roman side and was granted Roman citizenship. He became an advisor and friend of Vespasian's son Titus, serving as his translator when Titus
Titus
led the Siege of Jerusalem. Since the siege proved ineffective at stopping the Jewish revolt, the city's destruction and the looting and destruction of Herod's Temple
Herod's Temple
(Second Temple) soon followed. Josephus
Josephus
recorded Jewish history, with special emphasis on the first century CE and the First Jewish–Roman War, including the Siege of Masada. His most important works were The Jewish War
The Jewish War
(c. 75) and Antiquities of the Jews
Antiquities of the Jews
(c. 94).[6] The Jewish War
The Jewish War
recounts the Jewish revolt against Roman occupation (66–70). Antiquities of the Jews recounts the history of the world from a Jewish perspective for an ostensibly Roman audience. These works provide valuable insight into first century Judaism
Judaism
and the background of Early Christianity.[6] (See main article Josephus
Josephus
on Jesus).

Contents

1 Biography 2 Scholarship

2.1 Manuscripts, textual criticism, and editions 2.2 Josephus's audience

3 Historiography and Josephus 4 Works

4.1 The Jewish War 4.2 Jewish Antiquities 4.3 Against Apion 4.4 Legacy

5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 Sources 8 Further reading 9 External links

Biography

Galilee, site of Josephus's governorship, before the First Jewish–Roman War

Born into one of Jerusalem's elite families,[7] Josephus
Josephus
introduces himself in Greek as Iōsēpos (Ιώσηπος), son of Matthias, an ethnic Jewish priest. He was the second-born son of Matthias. His older full-blooded brother was also called Matthias.[8] Their mother was an aristocratic woman who descended from the royal and formerly ruling Hasmonean
Hasmonean
dynasty.[9] Josephus's paternal grandparents were Josephus
Josephus
and his wife—an unnamed Hebrew noblewoman, distant relatives of each other and direct descendants of Simon Psellus.[10] Josephus's family was wealthy. He descended through his father from the priestly order of the Jehoiarib, which was the first of the 24 orders of priests in the Temple in Jerusalem.[11] Josephus
Josephus
was a descendant of the high priest Jonathon.[11] He was raised in Jerusalem, Josephus
Josephus
was educated alongside his brother.[12] In his early twenties, he traveled to negotiate with Emperor Nero
Nero
for the release of 12 Jewish priests. Upon his return to Jerusalem, at the outbreak of the First Jewish-Roman War, Josephus
Josephus
was appointed the military governor of Galilee,[13] but eventually he strove with John of Gischala over the control of Galilee, who like Josephus, had amassed to himself a large band of supporters from Gischala
Gischala
(Gush Halab) and Gabara,[a] including the support of the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
in Jerusalem.[17] Josephus
Josephus
fortified several towns and villages in Galilee, among which were Tiberias and Tarichaea, in anticipation of a Roman onslaught, and valiantly resisted the Roman army
Roman army
in its siege of Yodfat (Jotapata) until it fell to the Roman army
Roman army
in the lunar month of Tammuz. After the Jewish garrison of Yodfat fell under siege, the Romans invaded, killing thousands; the survivors committed suicide. According to Josephus, he was trapped in a cave with 40 of his companions in July 67 CE. The Romans (commanded by Flavius Vespasian
Vespasian
and his son Titus, both subsequently Roman emperors) asked the group to surrender, but they refused. Josephus
Josephus
suggested a method of collective suicide;[18] they drew lots and killed each other, one by one, counting to every third person. Two men were left (this method as a mathematical problem is referred to as the Josephus
Josephus
problem, or Roman roulette),[19] who surrendered to the Roman forces and became prisoners. In 69 CE, Josephus
Josephus
was released.[20] According to his account, he acted as a negotiator with the defenders during the Siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 70 CE, in which his parents and first wife died. While being confined at Yodfat (Jotapata), Josephus
Josephus
claimed to have experienced a divine revelation, that later led to his speech predicting Vespasian
Vespasian
would become emperor. After the prediction came true, he was released by Vespasian, who considered his gift of prophecy to be divine. Josephus
Josephus
wrote that his revelation had taught him three things: that God, the creator of the Jewish people, had decided to "punish" them, that "fortune" had been given to the Romans, and that God had chosen him "to announce the things that are to come".[21][22][23] To many Jews, such claims were simply self-serving.[24] In 71 CE, he went to Rome in the entourage of Titus, becoming a Roman citizen and client of the ruling Flavian dynasty
Flavian dynasty
(hence he is often referred to as Flavius Josephus—see below). In addition to Roman citizenship, he was granted accommodation in conquered Judaea and a decent, if not extravagant, pension. While in Rome and under Flavian patronage, Josephus
Josephus
wrote all of his known works. Although he uses "Josephus", he appears to have taken the Roman praenomen Titus
Titus
and nomen Flavius from his patrons.[25] This was standard practice for "new" Roman citizens.[citation needed] Vespasian
Vespasian
arranged for the widower Josephus
Josephus
to marry a captured Jewish woman, who ultimately left him.[citation needed] About 71 CE, Josephus married an Alexandrian Jewish woman as his third wife. They had three sons, of whom only Flavius Hyrcanus survived childhood. Josephus
Josephus
later divorced his third wife. Around 75 CE, he married his fourth wife, a Greek Jewish woman from Crete, who was a member of a distinguished family. They had a happy married life and two sons, Flavius Justus and Flavius Simonides Agrippa. Josephus's life story remains ambiguous. He was described by Harris in 1985 as a law-observant Jew who believed in the compatibility of Judaism
Judaism
and Graeco-Roman
Graeco-Roman
thought, commonly referred to as Hellenistic Judaism.[6] Before the 19th century, the scholar Nitsa Ben-Ari notes that his work was shunned like that of converts, then banned as those of a traitor, whose work was not to be studied or translated into Hebrew.[26] His critics were never satisfied as to why he failed to commit suicide in Galilee, and after his capture, accepted the patronage of Romans. The historian E. Mary Smallwood writes:

[Josephus] was conceited, not only about his own learning, but also about the opinions held of him as commander both by the Galileans and by the Romans; he was guilty of shocking duplicity at Jotapata, saving himself by sacrifice of his companions; he was too naive to see how he stood condemned out of his own mouth for his conduct, and yet no words were too harsh when he was blackening his opponents; and after landing, however involuntarily, in the Roman camp, he turned his captivity to his own advantage, and benefited for the rest of his days from his change of side.[27]

Author Joseph Raymond calls Josephus
Josephus
"the Jewish Benedict Arnold" for betraying his own troops at Jotapata.[28] Scholarship

The 1st-century Roman portrait bust said to be of Josephus, conserved in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, Denmark

The works of Josephus
Josephus
provide crucial information about the First Jewish-Roman War and also represent important literary source material for understanding the context of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
and late Temple Judaism. Josephan scholarship in the 19th and early 20th centuries became focused on Josephus's relationship to the sect of the Pharisees.[citation needed] It consistently portrayed him as a member of the sect, and as a traitor to the Jewish nation—a view which became known as the classical concept of Josephus.[29] In the mid-20th century a new generation of scholars[who?] challenged this view and formulated the modern concept of Josephus. They consider him a Pharisee, but restore his reputation in part as patriot and a historian of some standing. In his 1991 book, Steve Mason argued that Josephus
Josephus
was not a Pharisee but an orthodox Aristocrat-Priest who became associated with the philosophical school of the Pharisees
Pharisees
as a matter of deference, and not by willing association.[30] The works of Josephus
Josephus
include material about individuals, groups, customs, and geographical places. Some of these, such as the city of Seron, receive no mention in the surviving texts of any other ancient authority. His writings provide a significant, extra-Biblical account of the post-Exilic period of the Maccabees, the Hasmonean
Hasmonean
dynasty, and the rise of Herod the Great. He refers to the Sadducees, Jewish High Priests of the time, Pharisees
Pharisees
and Essenes, the Herodian Temple, Quirinius' census and the Zealots, and to such figures as Pontius Pilate, Herod the Great, Agrippa I and Agrippa II, John the Baptist, James the brother of Jesus, and to Jesus
Jesus
(for more see Josephus
Josephus
on Jesus).[31] Josephus
Josephus
represents an important source for studies of immediate post-Temple Judaism
Judaism
and the context of early Christianity. A careful reading of Josephus's writings and years of excavation allowed Ehud Netzer, an archaeologist from Hebrew University, to discover what he considered to be the location of Herod's Tomb, after a search of 35 years.[32] It was above aqueducts and pools, at a flattened desert site, halfway up the hill to the Herodium, 12 km south of Jerusalem—as described in Josephus's writings.[33] In October 2013, archaeologists Joseph Patrich and Benjamin Arubas challenged the identification of the tomb as that of Herod.[34] According to Patrich and Arubas, the tomb is too modest to be Herod's and has several unlikely features.[34] Roi Porat, who replaced Netzer as excavation leader after the latter's death, stood by the identification.[34] Manuscripts, textual criticism, and editions For many years, printed editions of the works of Josephus
Josephus
appeared only in an imperfect Latin
Latin
translation from the original Greek. Only in 1544 did a version of the standard Greek text become available in French, edited by the Dutch humanist Arnoldus Arlenius. The first English translation, by Thomas Lodge, appeared in 1602, with subsequent editions appearing throughout the 17th century. The 1544 Greek edition formed the basis of the 1732 English translation by William Whiston, which achieved enormous popularity in the English-speaking world. It was often the book—after the Bible—that Christians most frequently owned.[citation needed] A cross-reference apparatus for Whiston's version of Josephus
Josephus
and the biblical canon also exists.[35][36] Whiston claimed that certain works by Josephus had a similar style to the Epistles of St Paul (Saul).[37] Later editions of the Greek text include that of Benedikt Niese, who made a detailed examination of all the available manuscripts, mainly from France and Spain. Henry St. John Thackeray used Niese's version for the Loeb Classical Library
Loeb Classical Library
edition widely used today. The standard editio maior of the various Greek manuscripts is that of Benedictus Niese, published 1885–95. The text of Antiquities is damaged in some places. In the Life, Niese follows mainly manuscript P, but refers also to AMW and R. Henry St. John Thackeray for the Loeb Classical Library has a Greek text also mainly dependent on P.[citation needed] André Pelletier edited a new Greek text for his translation of Life. The ongoing Münsteraner Josephus-Ausgabe of Münster University
Münster University
will provide a new critical apparatus. There also exist late Old Slavonic translations of the Greek, but these contain a large number of Christian interpolations.[38] Josephus's audience Scholars debate about Josephus's main and secondary audiences. For example, Antiquities of the Jews
Antiquities of the Jews
could be written for Jews—"a few scholars from Laqueur onward have suggested that Josephus
Josephus
must have written primarily for fellow-Jews (if also secondarily for Gentiles.) The most common motive suggested is repentance: in later life he felt so badly about the traitorous War that he needed to demonstrate … his loyalty to Jewish history, law and culture."[39] However, Josephus's "countless incidental remarks explaining basic Judean language, customs and laws … assume a Gentile audience. He does not expect his first hearers to know anything about the laws or Judean origins."[40] The issue of who would read this multivolume work is unresolved. Other possible motives for writing Antiquities could be to dispel the misrepresentation of Jewish origins[41] or as an apologetic to Greek cities of the Diaspora in order to protect Jews and to Roman authorities to garner their support for the Jews facing persecution.[42] Unfortunately, neither motive explains why the proposed Gentile audience would read this large body of material. Historiography and Josephus In the Preface to Jewish Wars, Josephus
Josephus
criticizes historians who misrepresent the events of the Jewish–Roman War, writing that "they have a mind to demonstrate the greatness of the Romans, while they still diminish and lessen the actions of the Jews."[43] Josephus states that his intention is to correct this method but that he "will not go to the other extreme … [and] will prosecute the actions of both parties with accuracy."[44] Josephus
Josephus
suggests his method will not be wholly objective by saying he will be unable to contain his lamentations in transcribing these events; to illustrate this will have little effect on his historiography, Josephus
Josephus
suggests, "But if any one be inflexible in his censures of me, let him attribute the facts themselves to the historical part, and the lamentations to the writer himself only."[44] His preface to Antiquities offers his opinion early on, saying, "Upon the whole, a man that will peruse this history, may principally learn from it, that all events succeed well, even to an incredible degree, and the reward of felicity is proposed by God."[45] After inserting this attitude, Josephus
Josephus
contradictorily declares, "I shall accurately describe what is contained in our records, in the order of time that belongs to them … without adding any thing to what is therein contained, or taking away any thing therefrom."[45] Interestingly, he notes the difference between history and philosophy by saying, "[T]hose that read my book may wonder how it comes to pass, that my discourse, which promises an account of laws and historical facts, contains so much of philosophy."[46] In both works, Josephus
Josephus
emphasizes that accuracy is crucial to historiography. Louis H. Feldman notes that in Wars, Josephus
Josephus
commits himself to critical historiography, but in Antiquities, Josephus shifts to rhetorical historiography, which was the norm of his time.[47] Feldman notes further that it is significant that Josephus called his later work "Antiquities" (literally, archaeology) rather than history; in the Hellenistic period, archaeology meant either "history from the origins or archaic history."[48] Thus, his title implies a Jewish peoples' history from their origins until the time he wrote. This distinction is significant to Feldman, because "in ancient times, historians were expected to write in chronological order," while "antiquarians wrote in a systematic order, proceeding topically and logically" and included all relevant material for their subject.[48] Antiquarians moved beyond political history to include institutions and religious and private life.[49] Josephus
Josephus
does offer this wider perspective in Antiquities. To compare his historiography with another ancient historian, consider Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Feldman lists these similarities: "Dionysius in praising Rome and Josephus
Josephus
in praising Jews adopt same pattern; both often moralize and psychologize and stress piety and role of divine providence; and the parallels between … Dionysius's account of deaths of Aeneas
Aeneas
and Romulus
Romulus
and Josephus's description of the death of Moses
Moses
are striking."[49] Works The works of Josephus
Josephus
are major sources of our understanding of Jewish life and history during the first century.[50]

The works of Josephus
Josephus
translated by Thomas Lodge
Thomas Lodge
(1602).

(c. 75) War of the Jews, or The Jewish War, or Jewish Wars, or History of the Jewish War
History of the Jewish War
(commonly abbreviated JW, BJ or War) (date unknown) Josephus's Discourse to the Greeks
Greeks
concerning Hades (spurious; adaptation of "Against Plato, on the Cause of the Universe" by Hippolytus of Rome) (c. 94) Antiquities of the Jews, or Jewish Antiquities, or Antiquities of the Jews/Jewish Archeology (frequently abbreviated AJ, AotJ
AotJ
or Ant. or Antiq.) (c. 97) Flavius Josephus
Josephus
Against Apion, or Against Apion, or Contra Apionem, or Against the Greeks, on the antiquity of the Jewish people (usually abbreviated CA) (c. 99) The Life of Flavius Josephus, or Autobiography of Flavius Josephus
Josephus
(abbreviated Life or Vita)

The Jewish War Main article: The Jewish War His first work in Rome was an account of the Jewish War, addressed to certain "upper barbarians"—usually thought to be the Jewish community in Mesopotamia—in his "paternal tongue" (War I.3), arguably the Western Aramaic language. In 78 CE he finished a seven-volume account in Greek known as the Jewish War ( Latin
Latin
Bellum Judaicum or De Bello Judaico). It starts with the period of the Maccabees
Maccabees
and concludes with accounts of the fall of Jerusalem, and the succeeding fall of the fortresses of Herodion, Macharont and Masada and the Roman victory celebrations in Rome, the mopping-up operations, Roman military operations elsewhere in the Empire and the uprising in Cyrene. Together with the account in his Life of some of the same events, it also provides the reader with an overview of Josephus's own part in the events since his return to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
from a brief visit to Rome in the early 60s (Life 13–17). In the wake of the suppression of the Jewish revolt, Josephus
Josephus
would have witnessed the marches of Titus's triumphant legions leading their Jewish captives, and carrying treasures from the despoiled Temple in Jerusalem. It was against this background that Josephus
Josephus
wrote his War, claiming to be countering anti-Judean accounts. He disputes the claim[citation needed] that the Jews served a defeated God, and were naturally hostile to Roman civilization. Rather, he blames the Jewish War on what he calls "unrepresentative and over-zealous fanatics" among the Jews, who led the masses away from their traditional aristocratic leaders (like himself), with disastrous results. Josephus also blames some of the Roman governors of Judea, representing them as atypically corrupt and incompetent administrators. According to Josephus, the traditional Jew was, should be, and can be a loyal and peace-loving citizen. Jews can, and historically have, accepted Rome's hegemony precisely because their faith declares that God himself gives empires their power.[citation needed] Jewish Antiquities Main article: Antiquities of the Jews The next work by Josephus
Josephus
is his twenty-one volume Antiquities of the Jews, completed during the last year of the reign of the Emperor Flavius Domitian, around 93 or 94 CE. In expounding Jewish history, law and custom, he is entering into many philosophical debates current in Rome at that time. Again he offers an apologia for the antiquity and universal significance of the Jewish people. Josephus
Josephus
claims to be writing this history because he "saw that others perverted the truth of those actions in their writings,"[51] those writings being the history of the Jews. In terms of some of his sources for the project, Josephus
Josephus
says that he drew from and "interpreted out of the Hebrew Scriptures"[52] and that he was an eyewitness to the wars between the Jews and the Romans,[51] which were earlier recounted in Jewish Wars. He outlines Jewish history
Jewish history
beginning with the creation, as passed down through Jewish historical tradition. Abraham
Abraham
taught science to the Egyptians, who, in turn, taught the Greeks.[53] Moses
Moses
set up a senatorial priestly aristocracy, which, like that of Rome, resisted monarchy. The great figures of the Tanakh
Tanakh
are presented as ideal philosopher-leaders. He includes an autobiographical appendix defending his conduct at the end of the war when he cooperated with the Roman forces. Louis H. Feldman outlines the difference between calling this work Antiquities of the Jews
Antiquities of the Jews
instead of History of the Jews. Although Josephus
Josephus
says that he describes the events contained in Antiquities "in the order of time that belongs to them,"[45] Feldman argues that Josephus
Josephus
"aimed to organize [his] material systematically rather than chronologically" and had a scope that "ranged far beyond mere political history to political institutions, religious and private life."[49] Against Apion Main article: Against Apion Josephus's Against Apion is a two-volume defence of Judaism
Judaism
as classical religion and philosophy, stressing its antiquity, as opposed to what Josephus
Josephus
claimed was the relatively more recent tradition of the Greeks. Some anti-Judaic allegations ascribed by Josephus
Josephus
to the Greek writer Apion, and myths accredited to Manetho are also addressed. Legacy See also

Josephus
Josephus
on Jesus Josephus problem – a mathematical problem named after Josephus Josippon Pseudo-Philo

Notes and references

^ "Josephus". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins Publishers.  ^ Mason 2000. ^ Josephus
Josephus
refers to himself in his Greek works as Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς, Iōsēpos Matthiou pais ( Josephus
Josephus
the son of Matthias). Josephus
Josephus
spoke Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek. ^ Φλαβίου Ἰωσήπου τὰ εὑρισκόμενα – Flavii Josephi Opera. Graece et latine. Recognovit Guilelmus Dindorfius [= Wilhelm Dindorf]. Volumen secundum. Paris, 1847 ^ Simon Claude Mimouni, Le Judaïsme ancien du VIe siècle avant notre ère au IIIe siècle de notre ère : Des prêtres aux rabbins, Paris, P.U.F., coll. « Nouvelle Clio », 2012, p. 133. ^ a b c Harris 1985. ^ Goodman, Martin. Rome and Jerusalem: The Clash of Ancient Civilisations. Penguin Books. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-713-99447-6. Josephus
Josephus
was born into the ruling elite of Jerusalem  ^ Mason 2000, p. 12–13. ^ Nodet 1997, p. 250. ^ "JOSEPHUS LINEAGE" (PDF). History of the Daughters (Fourth ed.). Sonoma, California: L P Publishing. December 2012. pp. 349–350.  ^ a b Schürer 1973, p. 45–46. ^ Mason 2000, p. 13. ^ Goldberg, G. J. "The Life of Flavius Josephus". Josephus.org. Retrieved 2012-05-18.  ^ Klausner, J. (1934). "Qobetz". Journal of the Jewish Palestinian Exploration Society (in Hebrew). 3: 261–263.  ^ Rappaport, Uriel (2013). John of Gischala, from the mountains of Galilee
Galilee
to the walls of Jerusalem. p. 44 [note 2].  ^ Safrai, Ze'ev (1985). The Galilee
Galilee
in the time of the Mishna and Talmud (in Hebrew) (2nd ed.). Jerusalem. pp. 59–62.  ^ Josephus, The Life of Flavius Josephus, (abbreviated Life or Vita), § 25; § 38; Josephus. "The Life of Josephus". doi:10.4159/DLCL.josephus-life.1926. Retrieved 31 May 2016.   – via digital Loeb Classical Library
Loeb Classical Library
(subscription required) ^ Josephus, The Jewish War. Book 3, Chapter 8, par. 7 ^ Cf. this example, Roman Roulette. Archived February 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Jewish War IV.622–629 ^ Gray 1993, p. 35–38. ^ Aune 1991, p. 140. ^ Gnuse 1996, p. 136–142. ^ Goodman, Martin. Rome and Jerusalem: The Clash of Ancient Civilisations. Penguin Books. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-713-99447-6. Later generations of Jews have been inclined to treat such claims as self-serving  ^ Attested by the third-century Church theologian Origen
Origen
(Comm. Matt. 10.17). ^ Ben-Ari, Nitsa (2003). "The double conversion of Ben-Hur: a case of manipulative translation" (PDF). Target. 14 (2): 263–301. Retrieved 28 November 2011. The converts themselves were banned from society as outcasts and so was their historiographic work or, in the more popular historical novels, their literary counterparts. Josephus
Josephus
Flavius, formerly Yosef Ben Matityahu (34-95), had been shunned, then banned as a traitor.  ^ Josephus, Flavius (1981). The Jewish War. Translated by Williamson, G. A.. Introduction by E. Mary Smallwood. New York: Penguin. p. 24.  ^ Raymond 2010, p. 222. ^ Millard 1997, p. 306. ^ Mason, Steve (April 2003). "Flavius Josephus
Josephus
and the Pharisees". The Bible and Interpretation. Retrieved 2012-05-18.  ^ Whealey, Alice (2003). Josephus
Josephus
on Jesus: The Testimonium Flavianum Controversy from Late Antiquity to Modern Times. Peter Lang Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8204-5241-8. In the sixteenth century the authenticity of the text [Testimonium Flavianum] was publicly challenged, launching a controversy that has still not been resolved today  ^ Kraft, Dina (May 9, 2007). " Archaeologist
Archaeologist
Says Remnants of King Herod's Tomb Are Found". NY Times. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ Murphy 2008, p. 99. ^ a b c Hasson, Nir (October 11, 2013). "Archaeological stunner: Not Herod's Tomb after all?". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ Clontz, T.; Clontz, J. (2008). The Comprehensive New Testament. Cornerstone Publications. ISBN 978-0-9778737-1-5.  ^ Bennett, Rick (November 30, 2011). "New Release: Comprehensive Crossreferences". Accordancebible.com. Retrieved 2012-05-18.  ^ Maier 1999, p. 1070. ^ Bowman 1987, p. 373. ^ Mason 1998, p. 66. ^ Mason 1998, p. 67. ^ Mason 1998, p. 68. ^ Mason 1998, p. 70. ^ JW preface. 3. ^ a b JW preface. 4. ^ a b c Ant. preface. 3. ^ Ant. preface. 4. ^ Feldman 1998, p. 9. ^ a b Feldman 1998, p. 10. ^ a b c Feldman 1998, p. 13. ^ Ehrman 1999, p. 848–849. ^ a b Ant. preface. 1. ^ Ant. preface. 2. ^ Feldman 1998, p. 232.

^ A large village in Galilee
Galilee
during the 1st century CE., located to the north of Nazareth. In antiquity, the town was called "Garaba", but in Josephus' historical works of antiquity, the town is mentioned by its Greek corruption, "Gabara".[14][15][16]

Sources

Aune, David Edward (1991) [first published 1983]. Prophecy
Prophecy
In Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8028-0635-X.  Bowman, Steven (1987). " Josephus
Josephus
in Byzantium". In Feldman, Louis H.; Hata, Gōhei. Josephus, Judaism
Judaism
and Christianity. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 90-04-08554-8.  Ehrman, Bart D. (1999). Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium (Kindle ed.).  Feldman, Louis H. (1998). Josephus's Interpretation of the Bible. Berkeley: University of California Press.  Gnuse, Robert Karl (1996). Dreams & Dream Reports in the Writings of Josephus: A Traditio-Historical Analysis. E. J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-10616-2.  Gray, Rebecca (1993). Prophetic Figures in Late Second Temple Jewish Palestine: The Evidence from Josephus. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507615-X.  Harris, Stephen L. (1985). Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield.  Maier, Paul L., ed. (1999). "Appendix: Dissertation 6 (by Whiston)". The New Complete Works of Josephus. Kregel Academic. ISBN 978-0-8254-9692-9. Retrieved 2013-05-07.  Mason, Steve, ed. (1998). "Should Any Wish to Enquire Further (Ant. 1.25): The Aim and Audience of Josephus's Judean Antiquities/Life". Understanding Josephus: Seven Perspectives. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.  Mason, Steve, ed. (2000). Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary (10 vols. in 12 ed.). Leiden: BRILL.  Millard, Alan Ralph (1997). Discoveries From Bible Times: Archaeological Treasures Throw Light on The Bible. Lion Publishing. ISBN 0-7459-3740-3.  Murphy, Catherine M. (2008). The Historical Jesus
Jesus
For Dummies. Wiley Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-0-470-16785-4.  Nodet, Etienne (1997). A Search for the Origins of Judaism: From Joshua to the Mishnah. Continuum International Publishing Group.  Raymond, Joseph (2010). Herodian Messiah: Case For Jesus
Jesus
As Grandson of Herod. Tower Grover Publishing.  Schürer, Emil (1973) [1891]. Vermes, Géza; Millar, Fergus; Black, Matthew, eds. The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C. - A.D. 135). Continuum International Publishing Group. 

Further reading

The Works of Josephus, Complete and Unabridged New Updated Edition. Translated by Whiston, William; Peabody, A. M. (Hardcover ed.). M. A. Hendrickson Publishers, Inc. 1987. ISBN 0-913573-86-8.  (The Works of Josephus, Complete and Unabridged New Updated Edition (Paperback ed.). ISBN 1-56563-167-6. ) Hillar, Marian (2005). "Flavius Josephus
Josephus
and His Testimony Concerning the Historical Jesus". Essays in the Philosophy
Philosophy
of Humanism. Washington, DC: American Humanist Association. 13: 66–103.  O'Rourke, P. J. (1993). "The 2000 Year Old Middle East Policy Expert". Give War A Chance. Vintage.  Pastor, Jack; Stern, Pnina; Mor, Menahem, eds. (2011). Flavius Josephus: Interpretation and History. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-19126-6. ISSN 1384-2161.  Bilde, Per. Flavius Josephus
Josephus
between Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Rome: his life, his works and their importance. Sheffield: JSOT, 1988. Shaye J. D. Cohen. Josephus
Josephus
in Galilee
Galilee
and Rome: his vita and development as a historian. (Columbia Studies in the Classical Tradition; 8). Leiden: Brill, 1979. Louis Feldman. "Flavius Josephus
Josephus
revisited: the man, his writings, and his significance". In: Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt 21.2 (1984). Mason, Steve: Flavius Josephus
Josephus
on the Pharisees: a composition-critical study. Leiden: Brill, 1991. Rajak, Tessa: Josephus: the Historian
Historian
and His Society. 2nd ed. London: 2002. (Oxford D.Phil. thesis, 2 vols. 1974.) The Josephus
Josephus
Trilogy, a novel by Lion Feuchtwanger

Der jüdische Krieg (Josephus), 1932 Die Söhne (The Jews of Rome), 1935 Der Tag wird kommen (The day will come, Josephus
Josephus
and the Emperor), 1942

Flavius Josephus
Josephus
Eyewitness to Rome's first-century conquest of Judea, Mireille Hadas-lebel, Macmillan 1993, Simon and Schuster 2001 Josephus
Josephus
and the New Testament: Second Edition, by Steve Mason, Hendrickson Publishers, 2003. Making History: Josephus
Josephus
and Historical Method, edited by Zuleika Rodgers (Boston: Brill, 2007). Josephus, the Emperors, and the City of Rome: From Hostage to Historian, by William den Hollander (Boston: Brill, 2014). Josephus, the Bible, and History, edited by Louis H. Feldman and Gohei Hata (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1988). Josephus: The Man and the Historian, by H. St. John Thackeray (New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1967). A Jew Among Romans: The Life and Legacy of Flavius Josephus, by Frederic Raphael (New York: Pantheon Books, 2013). A Companion to Josephus, edited by Honora Chapman and Zuleika Rodgers (Oxford, 2016).

External links

Find more aboutJosephusat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource

Works

Greek Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Josephus

PACE Josephus: text and resources in the Project on Ancient Cultural Engagement at York University, edited by Steve Mason. works by Flavius Josephus
Josephus
at Perseus digital library - Greek (Niese) and English (Whiston) 1895 editions Works by Josephus
Josephus
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Josephus
Josephus
at Internet Archive Works by Josephus
Josephus
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) The Works of Flavius Josephus
Josephus
at Christian Classics Ethereal Library (Whiston, lacks Loeb numbers) De bello judaico digitized codex (1475) at Somni

Other

Josephus.org, G. J. Goldberg Flavius Josephus
Josephus
The Jewish History Resource Center — Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University
Hebrew University
of Jerusalem Flavius Josephus, Judaea and Rome: A Question of Context Flavius Josephus
Josephus
at livius.org Flavius Josephus
Josephus
at Jewish Virtual Library

v t e

Josephus

Works

War of the Jews
War of the Jews
(c. 75) Antiquities of the Jews
Antiquities of the Jews
(c. 94) Against Apion (c. 97) The Life of Flavius Josephus (c. 99)

Views

Jesus

Family

Matthias (father) Matthias (brother) Josephus
Josephus
(grandfather) Matthias Curtus (great-grandfather) Matthias Ephlias (great-great-grandfather) Simon Psellus (great-great-great-grandfather)

Related

Discourse to the Greeks
Greeks
concerning Hades Josephus
Josephus
problem

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 22143666 LCCN: n80015583 ISNI: 0000 0001 2123 5616 GND: 118640003 SELIBR: 191979 SUDOC: 026940434 BNF: cb11909011p (data) NLA: 35254596 NDL: 00444936 NKC: jn19981001581 ICCU: ITICCUBVEV03796 BNE: XX901356 SN

.