TITUS FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS (/dʒoʊˈsiːfəs/ ; 37 – c. 100), born
YOSEF BEN MATITYAHU (Hebrew : יוסף הכהן בן מתתיהו,
Yosef ben Matityahu; Greek: Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου), was a
first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer , who
was born in
Jerusalem —then part of Roman Judea —to a father of
priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
He initially fought against the Romans during the First
Jewish–Roman War as head of Jewish forces in
Galilee , until
surrendering in 67 CE to Roman forces led by
Vespasian after the
six-week siege of
Josephus claimed the Jewish Messianic
prophecies that initiated the First Roman-Jewish War made reference to
Emperor of Rome . In response
Vespasian decided to
Josephus as a slave and interpreter. After
Emperor in 69 CE, he granted
Josephus his freedom, at which time
Josephus assumed the emperor's family name of Flavius.
Josephus fully defected to the Roman side and was granted
Roman citizenship . He became an advisor and friend of Vespasian's son
Titus , serving as his translator when
Titus led the Siege of
Jerusalem . Since the siege proved ineffective at stopping the Jewish
revolt, the city\'s destruction and the looting and destruction of
Herod\'s Temple (Second Temple) soon followed.
Jewish history , with special emphasis on the first
century CE and the First Jewish–Roman War, including the Siege of
Masada . His most important works were
The Jewish War
The Jewish War (c. 75) and
Antiquities of the Jews
Antiquities of the Jews (c. 94).
The Jewish War
The Jewish War recounts the Jewish
revolt against Roman occupation (66–70). Antiquities of the Jews
recounts the history of the world from a Jewish perspective for an
ostensibly Roman audience. These works provide valuable insight into
Judaism and the background of
Early Christianity . (See
Josephus on Jesus ).
* 1 Biography
* 2 Scholarship
* 2.1 Manuscripts, textual criticism, and editions
* 2.2 Josephus\'s audience
* 3 Historiography and
* 4 Works
The Jewish War
The Jewish War
* 5 See also
* 6 Notes and references
* 7 Sources
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links
Galilee , site of Josephus's governorship, before the First
Josephus introduces himself in Greek as Iōsēpos (Ιώσηπος),
son of Matthias , an ethnic Jewish Priest . He was the second-born son
of Matthias. His older full-blooded brother was also called Matthias .
Their mother was an aristocratic woman who descended from the royal
and formerly ruling
Hasmonean dynasty . Josephus's paternal
Josephus and his wife—an unnamed Hebrew
noblewoman, distant relatives of each other and direct descendants of
Simon Psellus . Josephus's family was wealthy. He descended through
his father from the priestly order of the
Jehoiarib , which was the
first of the 24 orders of priests in the Temple in
Josephus was a descendant of the high priest Jonathon. Born and
raised in Jerusalem,
Josephus was educated alongside his brother. In
his early twenties, he traveled to negotiate with Emperor
Nero for the
release of 12 Jewish priests.
Upon his return to Jerusalem, at the outbreak of the First
Jewish-Roman War ,
Josephus was appointed the military governor of
Galilee , but eventually he strove with
John of Gischala over the
control of Galilee, who like Josephus, had amassed to himself a large
band of supporters from
Gischala (Gush Halab) and Gabara , including
the support of the
Sanhedrin in Jerusalem.
Roman army in Galilee, until he was captured by the Romans
during the height of the war.
After the Jewish garrison of Yodfat fell under siege, the Romans
invaded, killing thousands; the survivors committed suicide. According
to Josephus, he was trapped in a cave with 40 of his companions in
July 67 CE. The Romans (commanded by Flavius
Vespasian and his son
Titus , both subsequently Roman emperors ) asked the group to
surrender, but they refused.
Josephus suggested a method of collective
suicide; they drew lots and killed each other, one by one, counting
to every third person. Two men were left (this method as a
mathematical problem is referred to as the
Josephus problem , or Roman
roulette), who surrendered to the Roman forces and became prisoners.
In 69 CE,
Josephus was released. According to his account, he acted
as a negotiator with the defenders during the Siege of
Jerusalem in 70
CE, in which his parents and first wife died.
While being confined at Yodfat (Jotapata),
Josephus claimed to have
experienced a divine revelation, that later led to his speech
Vespasian would become emperor. After the prediction came
true, he was released by Vespasian, who considered his gift of
prophecy to be divine.
Josephus wrote that his revelation had taught
him three things: that God, the creator of the Jewish people, had
decided to "punish" them, that "fortune" had been given to the Romans,
and that God had chosen him "to announce the things that are to come".
In 71 CE, he went to Rome in the entourage of Titus, becoming a Roman
citizen and client of the ruling
Flavian dynasty (hence he is often
referred to as Flavius Josephus—see below). In addition to Roman
citizenship, he was granted accommodation in conquered Judaea and a
decent, if not extravagant, pension. While in Rome and under Flavian
Josephus wrote all of his known works. Although he uses
"Josephus", he appears to have taken the Roman praenomen
nomen Flavius from his patrons. This was standard practice for "new"
Vespasian arranged for the widower
Josephus to marry a captured
Jewish woman, who ultimately left him. About 71 CE,
an Alexandrian Jewish woman as his third wife. They had three sons, of
Flavius Hyrcanus survived childhood.
Josephus later divorced
his third wife. Around 75 CE, he married his fourth wife, a Greek
Jewish woman from
Crete , who was a member of a distinguished family.
They had a happy married life and two sons,
Flavius Justus and Flavius
Simonides Agrippa .
Josephus's life story remains ambiguous. He was described by Harris
in 1985 as a law-observant Jew who believed in the compatibility of
Graeco-Roman thought, commonly referred to as Hellenistic
Judaism . Before the 19th century, the scholar Nitsa Ben-Ari notes
that his work was shunned like that of converts, then banned as those
of a traitor, whose work was not to be studied or translated into
Hebrew. His critics were never satisfied as to why he failed to
commit suicide in Galilee, and after his capture, accepted the
patronage of Romans.
The historian E. Mary Smallwood writes:
was conceited, not only about his own learning, but also about the
opinions held of him as commander both by the Galileans and by the
Romans; he was guilty of shocking duplicity at Jotapata, saving
himself by sacrifice of his companions; he was too naive to see how he
stood condemned out of his own mouth for his conduct, and yet no words
were too harsh when he was blackening his opponents; and after
landing, however involuntarily, in the Roman camp, he turned his
captivity to his own advantage, and benefited for the rest of his days
from his change of side.
Author Joseph Raymond calls
Josephus "the Jewish
Benedict Arnold "
for betraying his own troops at Jotapata.
The 1st-century Roman portrait bust said to be of Josephus,
conserved in the
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek , Copenhagen, Denmark
The works of
Josephus provide crucial information about the First
Jewish-Roman War and also represent important literary source material
for understanding the context of the
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls and late Temple
Josephan scholarship in the 19th and early 20th centuries became
focused on Josephus's relationship to the sect of the
Pharisees . It
consistently portrayed him as a member of the sect, and as a traitor
to the Jewish nation—a view which became known as the classical
concept of Josephus. In the mid-20th century a new generation of
scholars challenged this view and formulated the modern concept of
Josephus. They consider him a Pharisee, but restore his reputation in
part as patriot and a historian of some standing. In his 1991 book,
Steve Mason argued that
Josephus was not a Pharisee but an orthodox
Aristocrat-Priest who became associated with the philosophical school
Pharisees as a matter of deference, and not by willing
The works of
Josephus include material about individuals, groups,
customs, and geographical places. Some of these, such as the city of
Seron , receive no mention in the surviving texts of any other ancient
authority. His writings provide a significant, extra-Biblical account
of the post-Exilic period of the
Maccabees , the
and the rise of
Herod the Great
Herod the Great . He refers to the Sadducees , Jewish
High Priests of the time,
Essenes , the Herodian Temple,
Quirinius ' census and the
Zealots , and to such figures as Pontius
Herod the Great
Herod the Great ,
Agrippa I and
Agrippa II , John the Baptist
, James the brother of
Jesus , and to
Jesus (for more see
Josephus represents an important source for studies of
Judaism and the context of early Christianity .
A careful reading of Josephus's writings and years of excavation
Ehud Netzer , an archaeologist from
Hebrew University , to
discover what he considered to be the location of Herod\'s Tomb ,
after a search of 35 years. It was above aqueducts and pools, at a
flattened desert site, halfway up the hill to the
Herodium , 12 km
south of Jerusalem—as described in Josephus's writings. In October
2013, archaeologists Joseph Patrich and Benjamin Arubas challenged the
identification of the tomb as that of Herod. According to Patrich and
Arubas, the tomb is too modest to be Herod's and has several unlikely
features. Roi Porat, who replaced Netzer as excavation leader after
the latter's death, stood by the identification.
MANUSCRIPTS, TEXTUAL CRITICISM, AND EDITIONS
For many years, printed editions of the works of
only in an imperfect
Latin translation from the original Greek. Only
in 1544 did a version of the standard Greek text become available in
French, edited by the Dutch humanist
Arnoldus Arlenius . The first
English translation, by
Thomas Lodge , appeared in 1602, with
subsequent editions appearing throughout the 17th century. The 1544
Greek edition formed the basis of the 1732 English translation by
William Whiston , which achieved enormous popularity in the
English-speaking world. It was often the book—after the Bible—that
Christians most frequently owned. A cross-reference apparatus for
Whiston's version of
Josephus and the biblical canon also exists.
Whiston claimed that certain works by
Josephus had a similar style to
the Epistles of St Paul (Saul).
Later editions of the Greek text include that of
Benedikt Niese , who
made a detailed examination of all the available manuscripts, mainly
from France and Spain.
Henry St. John Thackeray used Niese's version
Loeb Classical Library edition widely used today.
The standard editio maior of the various Greek manuscripts is that of
Benedictus Niese , published 1885–95. The text of Antiquities is
damaged in some places. In the Life, Niese follows mainly manuscript
P, but refers also to AMW and R.
Henry St. John Thackeray for the Loeb
Classical Library has a Greek text also mainly dependent on P. André
Pelletier edited a new Greek text for his translation of Life. The
ongoing Münsteraner Josephus-Ausgabe of
Münster University will
provide a new critical apparatus. There also exist late Old Slavonic
translations of the Greek, but these contain a large number of
Scholars debate about Josephus's main and secondary audiences. For
Antiquities of the Jews
Antiquities of the Jews could be written for Jews—"a few
scholars from Laqueur onward have suggested that
Josephus must have
written primarily for fellow-Jews (if also secondarily for Gentiles.)
The most common motive suggested is repentance: in later life he felt
so badly about the traitorous War that he needed to demonstrate …
his loyalty to Jewish history, law and culture." However, Josephus's
"countless incidental remarks explaining basic Judean language,
customs and laws … assume a Gentile audience. He does not expect his
first hearers to know anything about the laws or Judean origins." The
issue of who would read this multivolume work is unresolved. Other
possible motives for writing Antiquities could be to dispel the
misrepresentation of Jewish origins or as an apologetic to Greek
cities of the Diaspora in order to protect Jews and to Roman
authorities to garner their support for the Jews facing persecution.
Unfortunately, neither motive explains why the proposed Gentile
audience would read this large body of material.
HISTORIOGRAPHY AND JOSEPHUS
In the Preface to Jewish Wars,
Josephus criticizes historians who
misrepresent the events of the Jewish–Roman War , writing that "they
have a mind to demonstrate the greatness of the Romans, while they
still diminish and lessen the actions of the Jews."
that his intention is to correct this method but that he "will not go
to the other extreme … will prosecute the actions of both parties
Josephus suggests his method will not be wholly
objective by saying he will be unable to contain his lamentations in
transcribing these events; to illustrate this will have little effect
on his historiography,
Josephus suggests, "But if any one be
inflexible in his censures of me, let him attribute the facts
themselves to the historical part, and the lamentations to the writer
His preface to Antiquities offers his opinion early on, saying, "Upon
the whole, a man that will peruse this history, may principally learn
from it, that all events succeed well, even to an incredible degree,
and the reward of felicity is proposed by God." After inserting this
Josephus contradictorily declares, "I shall accurately
describe what is contained in our records, in the order of time that
belongs to them … without adding any thing to what is therein
contained, or taking away any thing therefrom." Interestingly, he
notes the difference between history and philosophy by saying, "hose
that read my book may wonder how it comes to pass, that my discourse,
which promises an account of laws and historical facts, contains so
much of philosophy."
In both works,
Josephus emphasizes that accuracy is crucial to
historiography. Louis H. Feldman notes that in Wars,
himself to critical historiography, but in Antiquities, Josephus
shifts to rhetorical historiography, which was the norm of his time.
Feldman notes further that it is significant that
Josephus called his
later work "Antiquities" (literally, archaeology) rather than history;
in the Hellenistic period, archaeology meant either "history from the
origins or archaic history." Thus, his title implies a Jewish
peoples' history from their origins until the time he wrote. This
distinction is significant to Feldman, because "in ancient times,
historians were expected to write in chronological order," while
"antiquarians wrote in a systematic order, proceeding topically and
logically" and included all relevant material for their subject.
Antiquarians moved beyond political history to include institutions
and religious and private life.
Josephus does offer this wider
perspective in Antiquities.
To compare his historiography with another ancient historian,
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Dionysius of Halicarnassus . Feldman lists these
similarities: "Dionysius in praising Rome and
Josephus in praising
Jews adopt same pattern; both often moralize and psychologize and
stress piety and role of divine providence; and the parallels between
… Dionysius's account of deaths of
Romulus and Josephus's
description of the death of
Moses are striking."
The works of
Josephus are major sources of our understanding of
Jewish life and history during the first century. The works of
Josephus translated by
Thomas Lodge (1602).
* (c. 75)
War of the Jews , or
The Jewish War
The Jewish War , or
Jewish Wars , or
History of the Jewish War (commonly abbreviated JW, BJ or War)
* (date unknown) Josephus\'s Discourse to the
Hades (spurious; adaptation of "Against Plato, on the Cause of the
Hippolytus of Rome )
* (c. 94)
Antiquities of the Jews
Antiquities of the Jews , or
Jewish Antiquities , or
Antiquities of the Jews/Jewish Archeology (frequently abbreviated AJ,
AotJ or Ant. or Antiq.)
* (c. 97) Flavius
Against Apion , or
Against Apion , or
Contra Apionem , or Against the Greeks, on the antiquity of the Jewish
people (usually abbreviated CA)
* (c. 99)
The Life of Flavius Josephus , or Autobiography of Flavius
Josephus (abbreviated Life or Vita)
THE JEWISH WAR
The Jewish War
The Jewish War
His first work in Rome was an account of the Jewish War, addressed to
certain "upper barbarians"—usually thought to be the Jewish
Mesopotamia —in his "paternal tongue" (War I.3),
arguably the Western
Aramaic language . In 78 CE he finished a
seven-volume account in Greek known as the Jewish War (
Judaicum or De Bello Judaico). It starts with the period of the
Maccabees and concludes with accounts of the fall of
Jerusalem , and
the succeeding fall of the fortresses of Herodion, Macharont and
Masada and the Roman victory celebrations in Rome, the mopping-up
operations, Roman military operations elsewhere in the Empire and the
uprising in Cyrene . Together with the account in his Life of some of
the same events, it also provides the reader with an overview of
Josephus's own part in the events since his return to
Jerusalem from a
brief visit to Rome in the early 60s (Life 13–17).
In the wake of the suppression of the Jewish revolt,
have witnessed the marches of
Titus 's triumphant legions leading
their Jewish captives, and carrying treasures from the despoiled
Jerusalem . It was against this background that Josephus
wrote his War, claiming to be countering anti-Judean accounts. He
disputes the claim that the Jews served a defeated God, and were
naturally hostile to Roman civilization. Rather, he blames the Jewish
War on what he calls "unrepresentative and over-zealous fanatics"
among the Jews, who led the masses away from their traditional
aristocratic leaders (like himself), with disastrous results. Josephus
also blames some of the Roman governors of Judea , representing them
as atypically corrupt and incompetent administrators. According to
Josephus, the traditional Jew was, should be, and can be a loyal and
peace-loving citizen. Jews can, and historically have, accepted Rome's
hegemony precisely because their faith declares that God himself gives
empires their power.
Antiquities of the Jews
Antiquities of the Jews
The next work by
Josephus is his twenty-one volume Antiquities of the
Jews , completed during the last year of the reign of the Emperor
Domitian , around 93 or 94 CE. In expounding Jewish history,
law and custom, he is entering into many philosophical debates current
in Rome at that time. Again he offers an apologia for the antiquity
and universal significance of the Jewish people.
Josephus claims to be
writing this history because he "saw that others perverted the truth
of those actions in their writings," those writings being the history
of the Jews. In terms of some of his sources for the project, Josephus
says that he drew from and "interpreted out of the Hebrew Scriptures"
and that he was an eyewitness to the wars between the Jews and the
Romans, which were earlier recounted in Jewish Wars.
Jewish history beginning with the creation, as passed
down through Jewish historical tradition.
Abraham taught science to
the Egyptians , who, in turn, taught the
Moses set up a
senatorial priestly aristocracy, which, like that of Rome, resisted
monarchy . The great figures of the
Tanakh are presented as ideal
philosopher-leaders. He includes an autobiographical appendix
defending his conduct at the end of the war when he cooperated with
the Roman forces.
Louis H. Feldman outlines the difference between calling this work
Antiquities of the Jews
Antiquities of the Jews instead of History of the Jews. Although
Josephus says that he describes the events contained in Antiquities
"in the order of time that belongs to them," Feldman argues that
Josephus "aimed to organize material systematically rather than
chronologically" and had a scope that "ranged far beyond mere
political history to political institutions, religious and private
Against Apion is a two-volume defence of
classical religion and philosophy , stressing its antiquity, as
opposed to what
Josephus claimed was the relatively more recent
tradition of the Greeks. Some anti-Judaic allegations ascribed by
Josephus to the Greek writer
Apion , and myths accredited to Manetho
are also addressed.
Josephus on Jesus
Josephus problem – a mathematical problem named after Josephus
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ "Josephus".
Collins English Dictionary
Collins English Dictionary . HarperCollins
* ^ Mason 2000 .
Josephus refers to himself in his Greek works as
Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς, Iōsēpos Matthiou pais
Josephus the son of Matthias).
Josephus spoke Aramaic , Hebrew and
Simon Claude Mimouni , Le Judaïsme ancien du VIe siècle avant
notre ère au IIIe siècle de notre ère : Des prêtres aux rabbins,
Paris, P.U.F., coll. « Nouvelle Clio », 2012, p. 133.
* ^ A B C Harris 1985 .
* ^ Mason 2000 , p. 12–13.
* ^ Nodet 1997 , p. 250.
* ^ "JOSEPHUS LINEAGE" (PDF). History of the Daughters (Fourth
ed.). Sonoma, California: L P Publishing. December 2012. pp.
* ^ A B Schürer 1973 , p. 45–46.
* ^ Mason 2000 , p. 13.
* ^ Goldberg, G. J. "The Life of Flavius Josephus". Josephus.org.
* ^ Klausner, J. (1934). "Qobetz". Journal of the Jewish
Palestinian Exploration Society (in Hebrew). 3: 261–263.
* ^ Rappaport, Uriel (2013). John of Gischala, from the mountains
Galilee to the walls of Jerusalem. p. 44 .
* ^ Safrai, Ze\'ev (1985). The
Galilee in the time of the Mishna
and Talmud (in Hebrew) (2nd ed.). Jerusalem. pp. 59–62.
* ^ Josephus,
The Life of Flavius Josephus , (abbreviated Life or
Vita), § 25; § 38; Josephus. "The Life of Josephus". doi
:10.4159/DLCL.josephus-life.1926 . Retrieved 31 May 2016. – via
Loeb Classical Library (subscription required)
* ^ Josephus, The Jewish War. Book 3, Chapter 8, par. 7
* ^ Cf. this example, Roman Roulette. Archived February 21, 2007,
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Jewish War IV.622–629
* ^ Gray 1993 , p. 35–38.
* ^ Aune 1991 , p. 140.
* ^ Gnuse 1996 , p. 136–142.
* ^ Attested by the third-century Church theologian
* ^ Ben-Ari, Nitsa (2003). "The double conversion of Ben-Hur: a
case of manipulative translation" (PDF). Target. 14 (2): 263–301.
Retrieved 28 November 2011. The converts themselves were banned from
society as outcasts and so was their historiographic work or, in the
more popular historical novels, their literary counterparts. Josephus
Flavius, formerly Yosef Ben Matityahu (34-95), had been shunned, then
banned as a traitor.
* ^ Josephus, Flavius (1981). The Jewish War. Translated by
Williamson, G. A.. Introduction by E. Mary Smallwood. New York:
Penguin. p. 24.
* ^ Raymond 2010 , p. 222.
* ^ Millard 1997 , p. 306.
* ^ Mason, Steve (April 2003). "Flavius
Josephus and the
Pharisees". The Bible and Interpretation. Retrieved 2012-05-18.
* ^ Whealey, Alice (2003).
Josephus on Jesus: The Testimonium
Flavianum Controversy from Late Antiquity to Modern Times. Peter Lang
Publishing . ISBN 978-0-8204-5241-8 . In the sixteenth century the
authenticity of the text was publicly challenged, launching a
controversy that has still not been resolved today
* ^ Kraft, Dina (May 9, 2007). "
Archaeologist Says Remnants of King
Herod’s Tomb Are Found".
NYTimes . Retrieved 24 September 2015.
* ^ Murphy 2008 , p. 99.
* ^ A B C Hasson, Nir (October 11, 2013). "Archaeological stunner:
Not Herod\'s Tomb after all?". Haaretz. Archived from the original on
27 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
* ^ Clontz, T.; Clontz, J. (2008). The Comprehensive New Testament.
Cornerstone Publications. ISBN 978-0-9778737-1-5 .
* ^ Bennett, Rick (November 30, 2011). "New Release: Comprehensive
Crossreferences". Accordancebible.com. Retrieved 2012-05-18.
* ^ Maier 1999 , p. 1070.
* ^ Bowman 1987 , p. 373.
* ^ Mason 1998 , p. 66.
* ^ Mason 1998 , p. 67.
* ^ Mason 1998 , p. 68.
* ^ Mason 1998 , p. 70.
* ^ JW preface. 3.
* ^ A B JW preface. 4.
* ^ A B C Ant. preface. 3.
* ^ Ant. preface. 4.
* ^ Feldman 1998 , p. 9.
* ^ A B Feldman 1998 , p. 10.
* ^ A B C Feldman 1998 , p. 13.
* ^ Ehrman 1999 , p. 848–849.
* ^ A B Ant. preface. 1.
* ^ Ant. preface. 2.
* ^ Feldman 1998 , p. 232.
* ^ A large village in
Galilee during the 1st century CE., located
to the north of Nazareth. In antiquity, the town was called "Garaba",
but in Josephus' historical works of antiquity, the town is mentioned
by its Greek corruption, "Gabara".
* Aune, David Edward (1991) .
Early Christianity and the
Ancient Mediterranean World. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
ISBN 0-8028-0635-X .
* Bowman, Steven (1987). "
Josephus in Byzantium". In Feldman, Louis
H. ; Hata, Gōhei. Josephus,
Judaism and Christianity. Wayne State
University Press. ISBN 90-04-08554-8 .
* Ehrman, Bart D. (1999). Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New
Millennium (Kindle ed.).
* Feldman, Louis H. (1998). Josephus's Interpretation of the Bible.
University of California Press
University of California Press .
* Gnuse, Robert Karl (1996). Dreams & Dream Reports in the Writings
of Josephus: A Traditio-Historical Analysis.
E. J. Brill . ISBN
* Gray, Rebecca (1993). Prophetic Figures in Late Second Temple
Jewish Palestine: The Evidence from Josephus. Oxford University Press
. ISBN 0-19-507615-X .
* Harris, Stephen L. (1985). Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto:
* Maier, Paul L., ed. (1999). "Appendix: Dissertation 6 (by
Whiston)". The New Complete Works of Josephus. Kregel Academic. ISBN
978-0-8254-9692-9 . Retrieved 2013-05-07.
* Mason, Steve , ed. (1998). "Should Any Wish to Enquire Further
(Ant. 1.25): The Aim and Audience of Josephus's Judean
Antiquities/Life". Understanding Josephus: Seven Perspectives.
Sheffield Academic Press .
* Mason, Steve , ed. (2000). Flavius Josephus: Translation and
Commentary (10 vols. in 12 ed.). Leiden: BRILL .
* Millard, Alan Ralph (1997). Discoveries From Bible Times:
Archaeological Treasures Throw Light on The Bible. Lion Publishing.
ISBN 0-7459-3740-3 .
* Murphy, Catherine M. (2008). The Historical
Jesus For Dummies.
Wiley Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-0-470-16785-4 .
* Nodet, Etienne (1997). A Search for the Origins of Judaism: From
Joshua to the Mishnah.
Continuum International Publishing Group .
* Raymond, Joseph (2010). Herodian Messiah: Case For
Grandson of Herod. Tower Grover Publishing.
* Schürer, Emil (1973) . Vermes, Géza ; Millar, Fergus ; Black,
Matthew , eds. The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus
Christ (175 B.C. - A.D. 135). Continuum International Publishing Group
* The Works of Josephus, Complete and Unabridged New Updated
Edition. Translated by Whiston, William ; Peabody, A. M. (Hardcover
ed.). M. A. Hendrickson Publishers, Inc. 1987. ISBN 0-913573-86-8 .
(The Works of Josephus, Complete and Unabridged New Updated Edition
(Paperback ed.). ISBN 1-56563-167-6 . )
* Hillar, Marian (2005). "Flavius
Josephus and His Testimony
Concerning the Historical Jesus". Essays in the
Philosophy of Humanism
. Washington, DC: American Humanist Association. 13: 66–103.
* O\'Rourke, P. J. (1993). "The 2000 Year Old Middle East Policy
Expert". Give War A Chance. Vintage.
* Pastor, Jack; Stern, Pnina; Mor, Menahem, eds. (2011). Flavius
Josephus: Interpretation and History. Leiden: Brill . ISBN
978-90-04-19126-6 . ISSN 1384-2161 .
* Bilde, Per. Flavius
Jerusalem and Rome: his life,
his works and their importance. Sheffield: JSOT, 1988.
* Shaye J. D. Cohen.
Galilee and Rome: his vita and
development as a historian. (Columbia Studies in the Classical
Tradition; 8). Leiden: Brill, 1979.
Louis Feldman . "Flavius
Josephus revisited: the man, his
writings, and his significance". In: Aufstieg und Niedergang der
römischen Welt 21.2 (1984).
* Mason, Steve: Flavius
Josephus on the Pharisees: a
composition-critical study. Leiden: Brill, 1991.
* Rajak, Tessa: Josephus: the
Historian and His Society. 2nd ed.
London: 2002. (Oxford D.Phil. thesis, 2 vols. 1974.)
Josephus Trilogy, a novel by
* Der jüdische Krieg (Josephus), 1932
* Die Söhne (The Jews of Rome), 1935
* Der Tag wird kommen (The day will come,
Josephus and the Emperor),
Josephus Eyewitness to Rome's first-century conquest of
Judea, Mireille Hadas-lebel, Macmillan 1993, Simon and Schuster 2001
Josephus and the New Testament: Second Edition, by Steve Mason,
Hendrickson Publishers, 2003.
* Making History:
Josephus and Historical Method, edited by Zuleika
Rodgers (Boston: Brill, 2007).
* Josephus, the Emperors, and the City of Rome: From Hostage to
Historian, by William den Hollander (Boston: Brill, 2014).
* Josephus, the Bible, and History, edited by Louis H. Feldman and
Gohei Hata (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1988).
* Josephus: The Man and the Historian, by H. St. John Thackeray (New
York: Ktav Publishing House, 1967).
* A Jew Among Romans: The Life and Legacy of Flavius Josephus, by
Frederic Raphael (New York: Pantheon Books, 2013).
* A Companion to Josephus, edited by Honora Chapman and Zuleika
Rodgers (Oxford, 2016).
Find more aboutJOSEPHUSat's sister projects
* Media from Commons
* Quotations from Wikiquote
* Texts from Wikisource