JOSEPH VISSARIONOVICH STALIN (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was
a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian ethnicity. Governing
Raised into a poor family in Gori ,
Stalin's government promoted Marxism–
Leninism abroad through the
Widely considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures,
Stalin was the subject of a pervasive personality cult within the
international Marxist–Leninist movement, for whom Stalin was a
champion of socialism and the working class. Since the fall of the
* 1 Early life
* 1.1 Childhood: 1878–1899
* 1.2 Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party: 1899–1904
* 1.3 The
Revolution of 1905 and its aftermath: 1905–1912
* 1.4 Editing
* 2 In Lenin\'s government
* 2.1 Consolidating power: 1917–1918 * 2.2 Military Command: 1918–1921 * 2.3 Lenin\'s final years: 1921–1923
* 3 Rise to power
* 3.1 Succeeding Lenin: 1924–1927
* 3.2 Dekulakisation, collectivisation, and industrialisation: 1927–1931
* 3.2.1 Economic policy * 3.2.2 Cultural and foreign policy
* 3.3 Major crises: 1932–1939
* 4.1 Pact with Hitler: 1939–1941 * 4.2 German invasion: 1941–1942 * 4.3 Soviet counter-attack: 1942–1945 * 4.4 Victory: 1945
* 5 Post-war era
* 5.1 Post-war reconstruction and famine: 1945–1947
* 5.2.1 The Eastern Bloc * 5.2.2 Asia * 5.2.3 Policy towards Jews and Israel
* 5.3 Final years: 1950–1953 * 5.4 Death and funeral: 1953 * 5.5 Aftermath: 1953–1961
* 6 Political ideology
* 7 Personal life and characteristics
* 7.1 Personality * 7.2 Relationships and family
* 8 Legacy
* 8.1 Death toll and allegations of genocide
* 8.2 In the
* 9 See also * 10 Notes
* 11 References
* 11.1 Footnotes * 11.2 Bibliography * 11.3 Further reading
* 12 External links
Main article: Early life of Joseph Stalin
Stalin was born Ioseb Jughashvili in Gori on 18 December 1878.
He was the son of Besarion "Beso" Jughashvili and Ekaterina "Keke"
Geladze , who had married in May 1872, and had lost two sons in
infancy prior to Stalin's birth. They were ethnically Georgian and
Stalin grew up speaking the
Beso was also an alcoholic , and drunkenly beat his wife and son. To escape the abusive relationship , Keke took Stalin and moved into the house of a family friend, Father Christopher Charkviani. She worked as a house cleaner and launderer for several local families who were sympathetic to her plight. Keke was determined to send her son to school, something that none of the family had previously achieved. In late 1888, aged 10 he enrolled at the Gori Church School. This was normally reserved for the children of clergy, although Charkviani ensured that Stalin received a place. Stalin excelled academically, displaying talent in painting and drama classes, writing his own poetry , and singing as a choirboy. He got into many fights, and a childhood friend later noted that Stalin "was the best but also the naughtiest pupil" in the class. Stalin faced several severe health problems; in 1884, he contracted smallpox and was left with facial pock scars. Aged 12, he was seriously injured after being hit by a phaeton , resulting in a lifelong disability to his left arm.
At his teachers' recommendation, Stalin proceeded to the Spiritual Seminary in Tiflis . He enrolled at the school in August 1894, enabled by a scholarship that allowed him to study at a reduced rate. Here he joined 600 trainee priests who boarded at the seminary. Stalin was again academically successful and gained high grades. He continued writing poetry ; five of his poems were published under the pseudonym of "Soselo" in Ilia Chavchavadze 's newspaper Iveria ("Georgia"). Thematically, they dealt with topics like nature, land, and patriotism. According to Stalin's biographer Simon Sebag Montefiore , they became "minor Georgian classics", and were included in various anthologies of Georgian poetry over the coming years. As he grew older, Stalin lost interest in his studies; his grades dropped, and he was repeatedly confined to a cell for his rebellious behaviour. Teachers complained that he declared himself an atheist , chatted in class and refused to doff his hat to monks.
Stalin had joined a forbidden book club active at the school; he was
particularly influenced by
Nikolay Chernyshevsky 's 1863
pro-revolutionary novel What Is To Be Done? . Another influential
Alexander Kazbegi 's
The Patricide , with Stalin adopting the
nickname "Koba" from that of the book's bandit protagonist. He also
RUSSIAN SOCIAL-DEMOCRATIC LABOUR PARTY: 1899–1904
Stalin in 1902
In October 1899, Stalin began work as a meteorologist at a Tiflis observatory, a position that allowed him to read while on duty. Stalin gave classes in socialist theory and attracted a group of young men around him. He co-organised a secret mass meeting of workers for May Day 1900, at which he successfully encouraged many of the men to take strike action. By this point, the empire's secret police—the Okhrana —were aware of Stalin's activities within Tiflis' revolutionary milieu. They attempted to arrest him in March 1901, but he escaped and went into hiding, living off the donations of friends and sympathisers. Remaining underground, he helped to plan a demonstration for May Day 1901, in which 3,000 marchers clashed with the authorities. He continued to evade arrest by using aliases and sleeping in different apartments. In November 1901, he was elected to the Tiflis Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), a Marxist party founded in 1898.
That month he travelled to the port city of
THE REVOLUTION OF 1905 AND ITS AFTERMATH: 1905–1912
In January 1905, government troops massacred protesters in Saint
Petersburg . Unrest soon spread across the
In November 1905, the Georgian
Bolsheviks elected Stalin as one of
their delegates to a
Bolshevik conference in Saint Petersburg. On
arrival, he met Lenin's wife
Nadezhda Krupskaya , who informed them
that the venue had been moved to
Tampere in the Grand Duchy of Finland
. At the conference Stalin met Lenin for the first time. Although
Stalin held Lenin in deep respect, he was vocal in his disagreement
with Lenin's view that the
Bolsheviks should field candidates for the
forthcoming election to the State Duma ; Stalin saw the parliamentary
process as a waste of time. In April 1906, Stalin attended the RSDLP
Fourth Congress in
Kato Svanidze in a church ceremony at
After the heist, Stalin settled in
In March 1908, Stalin was arrested and interred in Bailov Prison, where he led the imprisoned Bolsheviks, organised discussion groups, and ordered the killing of suspected informants. He was eventually sentenced to two years exile in the village of Solvychegodsk , Vologda Province , arriving there in February 1909. In June, he escaped the village and made it to Kotlas disguised as a woman and from there to Saint Petersburg. In March 1910, he was arrested again, and sent back to Solvychegodsk. There he had affairs with at least two women; his landlady, Maria Kuzakova, later gave birth to his second son, Konstantin . In June 1911, Stalin was given permission to move to Vologda , where he stayed for two months, having a relationship with Pelageya Onufrieva. He proceeded to Saint Petersburg, where he was arrested in September 1911, and sentenced to a further three-year exile in Vologda.
EDITING PRAVDA AND THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE: 1912–1917
Stalin in 1911 mugshots taken by the Tsarist secret police .
Bolshevik Central Committee had been elected at the Prague
Conference , after which Lenin and
During a brief period back in Tiflis, Stalin and the Outfit planned
the ambush of a mail coach, during which most of the group—although
not Stalin—were apprehended by the authorities. Stalin returned to
Saint Petersburg, where he continued editing and writing articles for
Pravda. After the October 1912 Duma elections resulted in six
Bolsheviks and six
Mensheviks being elected, Stalin wrote articles
calling for reconciliation between the two Marxist factions, for
which he was criticised by Lenin. In late 1912, he twice crossed into
Austro-Hungarian Empire to visit Lenin in
In January 1913 Stalin travelled to
In February 1913, Stalin was arrested while back in Saint Petersburg.
He was sentenced to four years exile in
Turukhansk , a remote part of
Siberia from which escape was particularly difficult. In August, he
arrived in the village of Monastyrskoe , although after four weeks was
relocated to the hamlet of Kostino . In March 1914, concerned over a
potential escape attempt, the authorities moved Stalin to the hamlet
of Kureika on the edge of the
THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION: 1917
While Stalin was in exile, Russia entered the
First World War
Stalin helped to organise the
July Days uprising, an armed display of
Bolshevik supporters. After the armed demonstration was
suppressed, the Provisional Government initiated a crackdown on the
Bolsheviks, raiding Pravda. During this raid, Stalin smuggled Lenin
out of the newspaper's office and took charge of the Bolshevik
leader's safety, moving him between Petrograd safe houses before
smuggling him to
Razliv . In Lenin's absence, Stalin continued
On 24 October, police raided the
Bolshevik newspaper offices,
smashing machinery and presses; Stalin salvaged some of this equipment
in order to continue his activities. In the early hours of 25
October, Stalin joined Lenin in a Central Committee meeting in the
Smolny Institute , from where the
Bolshevik coup—the October
Revolution —was directed.
Bolshevik militia seized Petrograd's
electric power station, main post office, state bank, telephone
exchange, and several bridges. A Bolshevik-controlled ship, the
Aurora , opened fire on the
IN LENIN\'S GOVERNMENT
CONSOLIDATING POWER: 1917–1918
On 26 October, Lenin formed a new government, the Council of
People\'s Commissars ("Sovnarkom"), which he led as Chairman. Stalin
was among the
Bolsheviks who backed Lenin's decision not to form a
coalition with the
Socialist Revolutionary Party ,
although they did form a coalition government with the Left Socialist
Revolutionaries . Stalin was soon part of an informal foursome
leading the government, alongside Lenin, Trotsky, and Sverdlov; of
these, Sverdlov was regularly absent, and died in March 1919.
Stalin's office was based near to Lenin's in the Smolny Institute,
and he and Trotsky were the only individuals allowed access to Lenin's
study without an appointment. Although not so publicly well known as
Lenin or Trotsky, Stalin's importance among the
Bolsheviks grew. He
co-signed Lenin's decrees shutting down hostile newspapers, and with
Sverdlov chaired the sessions of the committee drafting a constitution
for the new
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic . He
strongly supported Lenin's formation of the
Having dropped his editorship of Pravda, Stalin was appointed as the
People's Commissar for Nationalities. In November, he signed the
Decree on Nationality, according ethnic and national minorities living
in Russia the right of secession and self-determination. The purpose
of this decree was primarily strategic, designed to woo the support of
ethnic minorities for the
Bolshevik cause; the
Bolsheviks hoped that
the minorities would not actually desire independence. That month, he
As a result of the ongoing First World War, in which Russia was fighting the Central Powers , Lenin's government relocated from Petrograd to Moscow in March 1918. Stalin brought Nadezhda Alliluyeva with him as his secretary; he had been a longstanding friend of her parents. At some point, the couple married, although the exact date of their wedding is unknown. Lenin wanted to sign an armistice with the Central Powers regardless of the cost in territory, and was supported in this by Stalin. Stalin thought it necessary because he was unconvinced that Europe itself was on the verge of proletarian revolution , a view that irked Lenin. Lenin eventually convinced the other senior Bolsheviks of the need for a peace treaty, resulting in the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918. The treaty gave vast areas of land and resources to the Central Powers and angered many in Russia; the Left Socialist Revolutionaries abandoned the coalition government over the issue.
MILITARY COMMAND: 1918–1921
Bolsheviks seized power, both right and left-wing armies
rallied against them, generating the
Russian Civil War . To secure
access to the dwindling food supply, in May 1918 Sovnarkom sent Stalin
to Tsaritsyn to take charge of food procurement in southern Russia.
Eager to prove himself as a commander, once there he took control of
regional military operations. He befriended two military figures,
In December 1918, Stalin was sent to
The civil war was over by the end of 1919, having resulted in a Bolshevik victory. Sovnarkom turned its attention to spreading proletarian revolution abroad, to this end forming the Communist International in March 1919; Stalin was present at its inaugural ceremony. Although Stalin did not share Lenin's belief that the European proletariat were on the verge of revolution, he acknowledged that as long as it stood alone, Soviet Russia remained vulnerable. In December 1918, he had drawn up decrees recognising Marxist-governed Soviet republics in Estonia , Lithuania , and Latvia , however these Marxist governments had been overthrown and the Baltic countries became fully independent of Russia, an act which he regarded as illegitimate. In February 1920, Stalin was appointed to head the Workers\' and Peasants\' Inspectorate ; that same month he was also transferred to the Caucasian Front.
Following earlier clashes between Polish and Russian troops, the
LENIN\'S FINAL YEARS: 1921–1923
Stalin believed that each nation and ethnic group should have the right to self-expression, facilitating this through "autonomous republics " within the Russian state in which ethnic minorities could oversee various regional affairs. Some Communists accused him of bending too much to "petit-bourgeois " nationalisms, while others accused him of remaining too Russocentric by seeking to maintain these nations within the Russian state. Stalin's native Caucasus posed a particular problem due to its highly multi-cultural mix. Stalin opposed the idea of separate Georgian, Armenian, and Azerbaijani autonomous republics, arguing that these would likely oppress the many minorities within their territory; instead he called for the formation of a Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic . The Georgian Communist Party opposed the idea, resulting in the Georgian Affair . In the summer of 1921, he returned to the southern Caucasus, there calling on Georgian Communists to avoid the chauvinistic Georgian nationalism which he believed marginalised the Abkhazian , Ossetian , and Adjarian minorities. On this trip, Stalin met with his son Yakov, and brought him back to Moscow with them; Nadya had given birth to another of Stalin's sons, Vasily , in March 1921.
After the civil war, workers' strikes and peasant uprisings broke out across Russia, largely in opposition to Sovnarkom's food requisitioning project; as an antidote, Lenin introduced a level of market-oriented reform as the New Economic Policy (NEP). There was also internal turmoil in the Communist Party, as Trotsky led a faction calling for the abolition of trade unions; Lenin opposed this and Stalin helped him to drum up support against Trotsky's position. Stalin also agreed to supervise the Department of Agitation and Propaganda in the Central Committee Secretariat. At the 11th Party Congress in 1922, Lenin nominated Stalin as the party's new General Secretary . Although concerns were expressed that adopting this new post on top of his others would both overstretch his workload and give him too much power, Stalin was appointed to the position. For Lenin, it was advantageous to have one of his allies in a post crucial for the maintenance of his policies. Stalin is too crude, and this defect which is entirely acceptable in our milieu and in relationships among us as communists, becomes unacceptable in the position of General Secretary. I therefore propose to comrades that they should devise a means of removing him from this job and should appoint to this job someone else who is distinguished from comrade Stalin in all other respects only by the single superior aspect that he should be more tolerant, more polite and more attentive towards comrades, less capricious, etc. Lenin, 4 January 1923
In May 1922, Lenin had a massive stroke and was partially paralysed. Residing at his Gorki dacha , Lenin's main connection to Sovnarkom was through Stalin, who was a regular visitor. Lenin twice asked Stalin to procure poison so that he may commit suicide, but Stalin never did so. Despite this comradeship, Lenin disliked what he referred to as Stalin's "Asiatic" manner, and told his sister Maria that Stalin was "not intelligent". Lenin and Stalin argued on the issue of foreign trade; Lenin believed that the Soviet state should have a monopoly on foreign trade, but Stalin supported Grigori Sokolnikov 's view that doing so was impractical at that stage. Another disagreement came over the Georgian Affair, with Lenin backing the Georgian Central Committee's desire for a Georgian Soviet Republic over Stalin's idea of a Transcaucasian one.
They also disagreed on the nature of the Soviet state. Lenin called
for the country to be renamed the "Union of Soviet Republics of Europe
and Asia", reflecting his desire for expansion across the two
continents. Stalin believed that this would encourage independence
sentiment among non-Russians, instead arguing that ethnic minorities
would be content as "autonomous republics" within the Russian Soviet
Federative Socialist Republic. Lenin accused Stalin of "Great Russian
chauvinism"; Stalin accused Lenin of "national liberalism". A
compromise was reached, in which the country would be renamed the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
RISE TO POWER
Main article: Rise of Joseph Stalin
SUCCEEDING LENIN: 1924–1927
Lenin died in January 1924. Stalin took charge of the funeral and
was one of its pallbearers; against the wishes of Lenin's widow, the
Politburo embalmed his corpse and placed it within a mausoleum in
Stalin saw Trotsky as the main obstacle to his rise to dominance
within the Communist Party, and while Lenin had been ill he had
forged an anti-Trotsky alliance with Kamenev and
In the autumn of 1924, Stalin also removed Kamenev and Zinoviev's supporters from key positions. In 1925, Kamenev and Zinoviev moved into open opposition of Stalin and Bukharin. They attacked one another at the 14th Party Congress , where Stalin accused Kamenev and Zinoviev of reintroducing factionalism—and thus instability—into the party. In the summer of 1926, Kamenev and Zinoviev joined with the Trotskyites to form the United Opposition against Stalin; in October they agreed to stop factional activity under threat of expulsion, and later publicly recanted their views under Stalin's command. The factionalist arguments continued, with Stalin threatening to resign in both December 1926 and December 1927. In October 1927, Zinoviev and Trotsky were removed from the Central Committee; the latter was exiled to Kazakhstan and later deported from the country in 1929. Some of those United Opposition members who were repentant were later rehabilitated and allowed to return to government. Stalin had established himself as the party's supreme leader, although was not the head of government , a task he entrusted to key ally Vyacheslav Molotov . Other important supporters on the Politburo were Voroshilov, Lazar Kaganovich , and Sergo Ordzhonikidze , with Stalin ensuring that his allies ran the various state institutions. According to Montefiore, at this point "Stalin was the leader of the oligarchs but he was far from a dictator".
In 1924, Georgian nationalists seeking independence launched the
DEKULAKISATION, COLLECTIVISATION, AND INDUSTRIALISATION: 1927–1931
We have fallen behind the advanced countries by fifty to a hundred
years. We must close that gap in ten years. Either we do this or we'll
This is what our obligations before the workers and peasants of the
By the latter half of the 1920s, the
In early 1928 Stalin travelled to
In 1929, the Politburo announced the mass collectivisation of agriculture , establishing both kolkhozy collective farms and sovkhoz state farms. Stalin stipulated that kulaks would be barred from joining these collectives. Although officially voluntary, many peasants joined the collectives out of fear they would face the fate of the kulaks; others joined amid intimidation and violence from party loyalists. By 1932, about 62% of households involved in agriculture were part of collectives, and by 1936 this had risen to 90%. Many of the peasants who had been collectivised resented the loss of their private farmland, and productivity slumped. Famine broke out in many areas, with the Politburo frequently ordering the distribution of emergency food relief to these regions. Armed peasant uprisings against dekulakisation and collectivisation broke out in Ukraine, northern Caucasus, southern Russia, and central Asia, reaching their apex in March 1930; these were repressed by the Red Army. Stalin responded to the uprisings with an article insisting that collectivisation was voluntary and blaming any violence and other excesses on local officials. Bukharin expressed concerns about these policies; he regarded them as a return to Lenin's old "war communism " policy and believed that it would fail. However, by the summer of 1928 he was unable to rally sufficient support in the party to oppose the reforms. In November 1929 Stalin removed him from the Politburo.
Cultural And Foreign Policy
Photograph taken of the 1931 demolition of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow in order to make way for the Palace of the Soviets
In 1928, Stalin declared that class war between the proletariat and
their enemies would intensify as socialism developed. He warned of a
"danger from the right", including in the Communist Party itself. The
first major show trial in the
Stalin desired a "cultural revolution", entailing both the creation
of a culture for the "masses" and the wider dissemination of
previously elite culture. He oversaw the proliferation of schools,
newspapers, and libraries, as well as the advancement of literacy and
Throughout the 1920s and beyond, Stalin placed a high priority on
foreign policy. He personally met with a range of Western visitors,
George Bernard Shaw
Stalin faced problems in his family life. In 1929, his son Yakov unsuccessfully attempted suicide; his failure earned Stalin's contempt. His relationship with Nadya was also strained amid their arguments and her mental health problems. In November 1932, after a group dinner in the Kremlin in which Stalin flirted with other women, Nadya shot herself. Publicly, it was claimed that Nadya died of appendicitis ; Stalin also concealed the real cause of death from his children. Stalin's friends noted that he underwent a significant change following her suicide, becoming emotionally harder.
MAJOR CRISES: 1932–1939
Famine In Ukraine
Within the Soviet Union, there was widespread civic disgruntlement
against Stalin's government. Social unrest, previously restricted
largely to the countryside, was increasingly evident in urban areas,
prompting Stalin to ease on some of his economic policies in 1932. In
May 1932, he introduced a system of kolkhoz markets where peasants
could trade their surplus produce. At the same time, penal sanctions
became more severe; at Stalin's instigation, in August 1932 a measure
was introduced meaning that the theft of even a handful of grain could
be a capital offense. The second five-year plan had its production
quotas reduced from that of the first, with the main emphasis now
being on improving living conditions. It therefore emphasised the
expansion of housing space and the production of consumer goods. Like
its predecessor, this Plan was repeatedly amended to meet changing
situations; there was for instance an increasing emphasis placed on
armament production after
Such policies nevertheless failed to stop the famine which peaked in
the winter of 1932–33 . Between five and seven million people died;
many resorted to cannibalising the dead to survive. Worst affected
were Ukraine and the North Caucuses, although the famine also impacted
Kazakhstan and several Russian provinces. The 1932 harvest had been a
poor one, and had followed several years in which lower productivity
had resulted in a gradual decline in output. Stalin blamed the famine
on hostile elements and wreckers within the peasantry. According to
Alan Bullock , "the total Soviet grain crop was no
worse than that of 1931 ... it was not a crop failure but the
excessive demands of the state, ruthlessly enforced, that cost the
lives of as many as five million Ukrainian peasants." Stalin refused
to release large grain reserves that could have alleviated the famine,
while continuing to export grain, and he strictly enforced new
draconian anti-theft laws on the collective farm. Other historians
hold the view that it was largely the insufficient harvests of 1931
and 1932 caused by a variety of natural disasters that resulted in
famine, with the successful harvest of 1933 ending the famine. The
Ukrainian famine is sometimes referred to as the
In 1935–36, Stalin oversaw a new constitution; its dramatic liberal
features were designed as propaganda weapons, for all power rested in
the hands of Stalin and his Politburo. He declared that "socialism,
which is the first phase of communism, has basically been achieved in
this country". In 1938, The History of the Communist Party of the
Seeking improved international relations, in 1934 the Soviet Union
secured membership of the
League of Nations
The Great Terror
Stalin on building of Moscow-Volga canal . It was constructed
from 1932 to 1937 by
Regarding state repressions, Stalin often provided conflicting signals. In May 1933, he ordered the release of many criminals convicted of minor offenses from the overcrowded prisons and ordered the security services not to enact further mass arrests and deportations. In September 1934, he ordered the Politburo to establish a commission to investigate any false imprisonments; however, that same month he called for the execution of workers at the Stalin Metallurgical Factory accused of spying for Japan. This mixed approach began to change in December 1934, when the prominent party member Sergey Kirov was murdered. After Kirov's murder, Stalin became increasingly attentive of the possibility of murder and subsequently improved his own personal security, including being heavily guarded at all times and rarely going out in public.
Kirov's killing was followed by an intensification of state
repression; Stalin issued a decree establishing NKVD troikas which
could mete out rulings without involving the courts. Just as the
de-kulakisation policy had sought to rid rural areas of
anti-government forces, so Stalin sought to do the same in the cities
and towns. In 1935, the NKVD was ordered to expel suspected
counter-revolutionaries, particularly those who had been aristocrats,
landlords, or businesspeople before the October Revolution. In the
early months of 1935, over 11,000 people were expelled from Leningrad,
to live in isolated rural areas. In 1936,
Stalin orchestrated the arrest of many former opponents in the Communist Party: denounced as Western-backed mercenaries, many were imprisoned or exiled internally. The first Moscow Trial took place in August 1936; Kamenev and Zinoviev were among those accused of plotting assassinations, found guilty in a show trial, and executed. The second Moscow Show Trial took place in January 1937, and the third in March 1938, in which Bukharin and Rykov were accused of involvement in the alleged Trotskyite-Zinovievite terrorist plot and sentenced to death. By late 1937, all remnants of collective leadership were gone from the Politburo, which was controlled entirely by Stalin. There were mass expulsions from the party, with Stalin commanding foreign communist parties to also purge anti-Stalinist elements. During the 1930s and 1940s, NKVD groups assassinated defectors and opponents abroad; in August 1940, Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico, eliminating the last of Stalin's opponents among the former Party leadership. In May, this was followed by the arrest of most members of the military Supreme Command and mass arrests throughout the military, often on fabricated charges. These purges replaced most of the party's old guard with younger officials who did not remember a time before Stalin's leadership and who were regarded as more personally loyal to him. Party functionaries readily carried out their commands and sought to ingratiate themselves with Stalin to avoid becoming the victim of the purge. Such functionaries often carried out a greater number of arrests and executions than their quotas set by Stalin's central government.
Repressions further intensified in December 1936 and remained at a high level until November 1938, a period known as the Great Purge . By the latter part of 1937, the purges had moved beyond the party and were affecting the wider population. In July 1937, the Politburo ordered a purge of "anti-Soviet elements" in society, affecting Bolsheviks who had opposed Stalin, former Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries, priests, former soldiers in the White Army, and common criminals. That month, Stalin and Yezhov signed Order No. 00447 , listing 268,950 people for arrest, of whom 75,950 were executed. He also initiated "national operations", the ethnic cleansing of non-Soviet ethnic groups—among them Poles, Germans, Latvians, Finns, Greeks, Koreans, and Chinese—through internal or external exile. During these years, approximately 1.6 million people were arrested. 700,000 were shot, and an unknown number died under NKVD torture.
Stalin initiated all of the key decisions during the Terror, personally directing many of its operations and taking an interest in the details of their implementation. His motives in doing so have been much debated by historians. His personal writings from the period were—according to Khlevniuk—"unusually convoluted and incoherent", filled with claims about conspiracies and enemies encircling him. He was particularly concerned at the success that right-wing forces had in overthrowing the leftist Spanish government, worried that domestic anti-Stalinist elements would become a fifth column in the event of a future war with Japan and Germany. The Great Terror ended when Yezhov was removed as the head of the NKVD, to be replaced by Lavrentiy Beria . Yezhov was arrested in April 1939 and executed in 1940. The Terror had damaged the Soviet Union's reputation abroad, particularly among previously sympathetic leftists, and as the Terror wound down, so Stalin sought to deflect responsibility away from himself. He later claimed that the Terror's "excesses" and "violations of law" were Yezhov's fault.
WORLD WAR II
PACT WITH HITLER: 1939–1941
As a Marxist–Leninist, Stalin expected an inevitable Second World
War between competing capitalist powers; as
As Britain and France seemed unwilling to commit to an alliance with
the Soviet Union, Stalin saw a better deal with the Germans. In May
1939, Germany began negotiations with the Soviets, proposing that
Stalin suggested a territorial exchange with Germany, giving them the
ethnic Polish-dominated areas of Lublin Province and part of Warsaw
Province, and in return receiving Lithuania; Stalin had desired the
reintegration of the three Baltic states into the Soviet Union. This
was agreed in 28 September. A
German–Soviet Frontier Treaty
The speed of the German victory over and occupation of France in
summer 1940 took Stalin by surprise. He increasingly focused on
appeasement with Germany to delay any conflict with them. After the
Tripartite Pact was signed by
GERMAN INVASION: 1941–1942
With all the men at the front, Moscow women dig anti-tank trenches around Moscow in 1941
In June 1941, Germany invaded the
Against his generals' advice, Stalin emphasised attack over defence.
In June 1941, he ordered a scorched earth policy of destroying
infrastructure and food supplies before the Germans could seize them,
also commanding the NKVD to kill around 100,000 political prisoners in
The Soviets allied with the United Kingdom and United States; although the US joined the war against Germany in 1941, little direct assistance reached the Soviets until late 1942. Responding to the invasion, the Soviets intensified their industrial enterprises in central Russia, focusing almost entirely on production for the military. They achieved high levels of industrial productivity, outstripping that of Germany. During the war, Stalin was more tolerant of the Russian Orthodox Church, allowing it to resume some of its activities and meeting with Patriarch Sergius in September 1943. He also permitted a wider range of cultural expression, notably permitting formerly suppressed writers and artists like Anna Akhmatova and Dmitri Shostakovich to disperse their work more widely. The Internationale was dropped as the country's national anthem , to be replaced with a more patriotic replacement . There was an increased criticism of cosmopolitanism , particularly the idea of "rootless cosmopolitanism", an approach with particular repercussions for Soviet Jews. Comintern was dissolved in 1943, and Stalin encouraged foreign Marxist–Leninist parties to emphasise nationalism over internationalism to broaden their domestic appeal. The Soviet government also began to increasingly promote Pan-Slavist sentiment. Stalin exploited Nazi anti-Semitism, and in April 1942 he sponsored the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC) to garner Jewish and foreign support for the Soviet war effort.
In April 1942 Stalin overrode
Stavka by ordering the Soviets' first
serious counter-attack, an attempt to seize German-held
eastern Ukraine. This attack proved unsuccessful. That year, Hitler
shifted his primary goal from an immediate victory in the East, to the
more long-term goal of securing the southern
SOVIET COUNTER-ATTACK: 1942–1945
By November 1942, the Soviets had begun to repulse the important German strategic southern campaign and, although there were 2.5 million Soviet casualties in that effort, it permitted the Soviets to take the offensive for most of the rest of the war on the Eastern Front. Germany attempted an encirclement attack at Kursk , which was successfully repulsed by the Soviets. By the end of 1943, the Soviets occupied half of the territory taken by the Germans from 1941 to 1942. Soviet military industrial output also had increased substantially from late 1941 to early 1943 after Stalin had moved factories well to the East of the front, safe from German invasion and air attack.
In Allied countries, Stalin was increasingly depicted in a positive light over the course of the war. In 1941, the London Philharmonic Orchestra performed a concert to celebrate his birthday, and in 1942, Time magazine named him "Man of the Year ". When Stalin learned that people in Western countries affectionately called him "Uncle Joe" he was initially offended, regarding it as undignified. There remained mutual suspicions between Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill , and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt , who were together known as the "Big Three". Churchill flew to Moscow to visit Stalin in August 1942 and again in October 1944. Stalin scarcely left Moscow throughout the war, with Roosevelt and Churchill frustrated with his reluctance to travel to meet them.
In November 1943, Stalin met with Churchill and Roosevelt in Tehran ,
a location of Stalin's choosing. There, Stalin and Roosevelt got on
well, with both desiring the post-war dismantling of the British
Empire . At Tehran, the trio agreed that to prevent Germany rising to
military prowess yet again, the German state should be broken up.
Roosevelt and Churchill also agreed to Stalin's demand that the German
Konigsberg be declared Soviet territory. Stalin was impatient
for the UK and US to open up a Western Front to take the pressure off
of the East; they eventually did so in the summer of 1944. Stalin
insisted that, after the war, the
In 1944, the
In February 1945, the three leaders met at the
Yalta Conference .
Roosevelt and Churchill conceded to Stalin's demand that Germany pay
In April 1945, the
With Germany defeated, Stalin switched his focus to the ongoing war
with Japan, transferring half a million troops to the far east.
Stalin was aware that the
Stalin attended the
POST-WAR RECONSTRUCTION AND FAMINE: 1945–1947
After the war, Stalin was—according to Service—at the "apex of
his career". Within the
Despite his strengthened international position, Stalin was cautious
about internal dissent and desire for change among the population. He
was also concerned about his returning armies, who had been exposed to
a wide range of consumer goods in Germany, much of which they had
looted and brought back with them. In this he recalled the 1825
Decembrist Revolt by Russian soldiers returning from having defeated
France in the
The NKVD were ordered to catalogue the scale of destruction during
the war. It was established that 1,710 Soviet towns and 70,000
villages had been destroyed. They recorded that between 26 and 27
million Soviet citizens had been killed , with millions more being
wounded, malnourished, or orphaned. In the war's aftermath, some of
Stalin's associates suggested modifications to government policy.
Post-war Soviet society was more tolerant than its pre-war phase in
various respects. Stalin allowed the Russian Orthodox Church to retain
the churches it had opened during the war. Academia and the arts were
also allowed greater freedom than they had prior to 1941. Recognising
the need for drastic steps to be taken to combat inflation and promote
economic regeneration, in December 1947 Stalin's government devalued
the ruble and abolished the ration-book system.
Stalin's health was deteriorating, and heart problems forced a
two-month vacation in the latter part of 1945. He grew increasingly
concerned that senior political and military figures might try to oust
him; he prevented any of then from becoming powerful enough to rival
him and had their apartments bugged with listening devices. He
demoted Molotov, and increasingly favoured Beria and Malenkov for key
positions. In 1949, he brought
In the post-war period there were often food shortages in Soviet
cities, and the
COLD WAR POLICY: 1947–1950
In the aftermath of the Second World War, the British Empire
declined, leaving the US and
The US began pushing its interests on every continent, acquiring air
force bases in Africa and Asia and ensuring pro-U.S. regimes took
power across Latin America. It launched the
In 1948, Stalin edited and rewrote sections of Falsifiers of History
, published as a series of
The Eastern Bloc
The Eastern Bloc until 1989
After the war, Stalin sought to retain Soviet dominance across
Churchill observed that an "
Iron Curtain " had been drawn across
Europe, separating the east from the west. In September 1947, a
meeting of East European leaders was held in
Szklarska Poręba ,
Poland, from which was formed
Cominform to co-ordinate the Communist
Stalin suggested that a unified, but demilitarised, German state be
established, hoping that it would either come under Soviet influence
or remain neutral. When the US and UK remained opposed to this,
Stalin sought to force their hand by blockading Berlin in June 1948.
He gambled that the others would not risk war, but they airlifted
supplies into West Berlin until May 1949, when Stalin relented and
ended the blockade. In September 1949 the Western powers transformed
Western Germany into an independent
Federal Republic of Germany ; in
response the Soviets formed
In October 1949, Mao took took power in China. With this
accomplished, Marxist governments now controlled a third of the
world's land mass. Privately, Stalin revealed that he had
underestimated the Chinese Communists and their ability to win the
civil war, instead encouraging them to make another peace with the
KMT. In December 1949, Mao visited Stalin. Initially Stalin refused
to repeal the Sino-Soviet Treaty of 1945, which significantly
After the Second World War, the
Policy Towards Jews And Israel
Stalin's increasing tolerance of anti-Semitism may have stemmed from
his increasing Russian nationalism or from the recognition that
anti-Semitism had proved a useful mobilising tool for Hitler and that
he could do the same; he may have increasingly viewed the Jewish
people as a "counter-revolutionary" nation whose members were loyal to
the U.S. There were rumours, although they have never been
substantiated, that Stalin was planning on deporting all Soviet Jews
Jewish Autonomous Region
FINAL YEARS: 1950–1953
January 20, 1953. Soviet ukaz awarding Lydia Timashuk the Order of Lenin for "unmasking doctors-killers." It was revoked after Stalin's death later that year.
In his later years, Stalin was in poor health. He took increasingly
long holidays; in 1950 and again in 1951 he spent almost five months
vacationing at his Abkhazian dacha. Stalin nevertheless mistrusted
his doctors; in January 1952 he had one imprisoned after they
suggested that he should retire to improve his health. In September
1952, several Kremlin doctors were arrested for allegedly plotting to
kill senior politicians in what came to be known as the Doctors\' Plot
; the majority of the accused were Jewish. He instructed the
arrested doctors to be tortured to ensure confession. In November,
From 1946 until his death, Stalin only gave three public speeches,
two of which lasted only a few minutes. The amount of written
material that he produced also declined. In 1950, Stalin issued the
DEATH AND FUNERAL: 1953
On 1 March 1953, Stalin's staff found him semi-conscious on the bedroom floor of his Volynskoe dacha, having urinated on himself. He had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage . He was moved onto a couch and remained there for three days. He was hand-fed using a spoon, given various medicines and injections, and leeches were applied to him . Svetlana and Vasily were called to the dacha on 2 March; the latter was drunk and angrily shouted at the doctors, resulting in him being sent home. Stalin died on 5 March 1953. According to Svetlana, it had been "a difficult and terrible death".
An autopsy revealed that he had died of a cerebral haemorrhage and that he also suffered from severe damage to his cerebral arteries due to atherosclerosis . It is possible that Stalin was murdered. Beria has been suspected of murder, although no firm evidence has ever appeared. Supporting the idea of an assassination, the neurosurgeon Miguel A. Faria later suggested that Stalin's symptoms might suggest an overdose of the drug warfarin .
Stalin's death was announced on 6 March. The body was embalmed for
long-term preservation, and then placed on display in Moscow's House
of Unions for three days. Crowds were such that a crush killed around
100 people. The subsequent funeral involved the body being laid to
rest in Lenin\'s Mausoleum in
Stalin left no anointed successor nor a framework within which a
transfer of power could take place. The Central Committee met on the
day of his death, with Malenkov, Beria, and Khruschev emerging as the
party's key figures. The system of collective leadership was
restored, and measures introduced to prevent any one member attaining
autocratic domination again. Reforms to the Soviet system were
immediately implemented. Economic reform scaled back the mass
construction projects, placed a new emphasis on house building, and
eased the levels of taxation on the peasantry to stimulate production.
The new leaders sought rapprochement with Yugoslavia and a less
hostile relationship with the U.S., pursuing a negotiated end to the
In March, Malenkov denounced the Stalin personality cult. Pravda restrained its praise of Stalin and began to criticise his personality cult. Stalingrad was renamed Volgograd, while Svetlana changed her surname from Stalin to Allilueva. In 1956, Khruschev gave his "Secret Speech", titled " On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences ", to a closed session of the Party\'s 20th Congress . There, Khrushchev denounced Stalin for both his mass repression and his personality cult. He repeated these denunciations at the 22nd Party Congress in October 1962. In October 1961, Stalin's body was removed from the mausoleum and buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis next to the Kremlin walls , the location marked only by a simple bust.
Chinese Marxists celebrate Stalin's seventieth birthday
Stalin claimed to have embraced
As a Marxist, Stalin believed in an inevitable class war between the
world's working and middle classes. He believed that the working
classes would prove successful in this struggle and would establish a
dictatorship of the proletariat , regarding the
Stalin claimed to be a loyal Leninist . Nevertheless, he
was—according to Service—"not a blindly obedient Leninist".
Stalin respected Lenin, but not uncritically, and spoke out when he
believed that Lenin was wrong. During the period of his revolutionary
activity, Stalin regarded some of Lenin's views and actions as being
the self-indulgent activities of a spoiled émigré, deeming them
counterproductive for those
Bolshevik activists based within the
Stalinism was a development of Leninism, and while Stalin avoided using the term "Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism", he allowed others to do so. Following Lenin's death, Stalin contributed to the theoretical debates within the Communist Party, namely by developing the idea of "socialism in one country". This concept was intricately linked to factional struggles within the party, particularly against Trotsky. He first developed the idea in December 1924 and elaborated upon in his writings of 1925–26. Stalin's doctrine held that socialism could be completed in Russia but that its final victory there could not be guaranteed because of the threat from capitalist intervention. For this reason, he retained the Leninist view that world revolution was still a necessity to ensure the ultimate victory of socialism. Although retaining the Marxist belief that the state would wither away as socialism transformed into pure communism, he believed that the Soviet state would remain until the final defeat of international capitalism. This concept synthesised Marxist and Leninist ideas with nationalist ideals, and served to discredit Trotsky—who promoted the idea of "permanent revolution "—by presenting the latter as a defeatist with little faith in Russian workers' abilities to construct socialism.
Stalin viewed nations as contingent entities which were formed by
capitalism and could merge into others. Ultimately he believed that
all nations would merge into a single, global human community, and
regarded all nations as inherently equal. Stalin argued that the Jews
possessed a "national character" but were not a "nation" and were thus
unassimilable. He argued that Jewish nationalism, particularly Zionism
, was hostile to socialism. In his work, he stated that "the right of
secession" should be offered to the ethnic-minorities of the Russian
Empire, but that they should not be encouraged to take that option.
He was of the view that if they became fully autonomous, then they
would end up being controlled by the most reactionary elements of
their community; as an example he cited the largely illiterate Tatars
, whom he claimed would end up dominated by their mullahs . Khlevniuk
therefore argued that Stalin reconciled
PERSONAL LIFE AND CHARACTERISTICS
Stalin was a killer. He was also an intellectual, an administrator, a statesman and a party leader; he was a writer, editor, and statesman. Privately he was, in his own way, a dedicated as well as bad-tempered husband and father. But he was unhealthy in mind and body. He had many talents, and used his intelligence to act out the roles he thought suited to his interests at any given time. He baffled, appalled, enraged, attracted and entranced his contemporaries. Most men and women of his lifetime, however, underestimated Stalin. —Robert Service
In adulthood, Stalin measured 5 feet 4 inches (1.63 m) tall. To give the impression that he was taller, he wore stacked shoes, and stood on a small wooden platform during parades. His mustached face was pock-marked from smallpox during childhood. He was born with a webbed left foot, and his left arm had been permanently injured in childhood which left it shorter than his right and lacking in flexibility, which was probably the result of being hit, at the age of 12, by a horse-drawn carriage.
During his youth, Stalin usually wore a red satin shirt, grey coat, and red fedora, or alternatively a traditional Georgian chokha and white hood. At the time he grew his hair long and often had a beard. His cultivation of a scruffy appearance deliberately sought to reject middle-class aesthetic values. After the summer of 1918 until his death he took to wearing military-style clothing, in particular long black boots and a light-coloured collarless tunics, and also carried a gun. He had few material demands and lived plainly, with simple and inexpensive clothing and furniture; his interest was in power rather than wealth. He was a lifelong smoker, who smoked both a pipe and cigarettes.
Stalin was ethnically Georgian, and had grown up speaking the Georgian language, only learning Russian when aged eight or nine. Stalin remained proud of his Georgian identity and culture, and throughout his life, he retained his Georgian accent when speaking Russian. According to Montefiore, his adoption of Russian culture has been exaggerated, and he was profoundly Georgian in his lifestyle and personality, spending much of his final years in his homeland. Montefiore was of the view that "after 1917, he became quadri-national: Georgian by nationality, Russian by loyalty, internationalist by ideology, Soviet by citizenship." Service stated that Stalin "would never be Russian", could not credibly pass as one and contrary to what has been previously suggested, he never really tried to be one. Stalin was described as "Asiatic" by his colleagues, and told a Japanese journalist, "I am not a European man, but an Asian, a Russified Georgian". He first adopted the pseudonym "Stalin" in 1912; being based on the Russian word for "steel" it has often been translated as "Man of Steel". Prior nicknames included "Koba", "Soselo", "Ivanov" and many others.
Stalin had a soft voice, and when speaking Russian he did so slowly, carefully choosing his phrasing. Although he avoided doing so in public, in private Stalin used coarse language. Described as a poor orator, according to Volkogonov, Stalin's speaking style was "simple and clear, without flights of fancy, catchy phrases or platform histrionics". He rarely spoke before large audiences, and preferred to express himself in written form. His writing style was similar, being characterised by its simplicity, clarity, and conciseness.
Stalin inspecting the first ZIS , model 101
Trotsky and several other Soviet figures promoted the idea that
Stalin was a mediocrity. This idea gained widespread acceptance
Stalin was a capable actor who could play many different roles to different audiences, and was adept at deception, often lying or deceiving others as to his true motives and aims. He was a good organiser, and judged others according to their inner strength, practicality, and cleverness. Despite his short temper and tough-talking attitude, he could be very charming; when relaxed, he cracked jokes and mimicked others. Montefiore suggested that it was his charm which represented "the foundation of Stalin's power in the Party". Several historians have seen it appropriate to follow Lazar Kaganovich 's description of there being "several Stalins" as a means of understanding his multi-faceted personality.
Stalin was ruthless, temperamentally cruel, and had a propensity for violence excessive even among the Bolsheviks. He lacked compassion, something which Volkogonov suggested might have been accentuated by his many years spent in prison and exile, although he was capable of acts of kindness to strangers, even amid the Great Terror. He never personally attended any torture sessions or executions. Service stated that Stalin "derived deep satisfaction" from degrading and humiliating people, and that he "delighted" in keeping even close associates in a state of "unrelieved fear". He was capable of self-righteous indignation, and was both resentful, and vengeful, holding onto grievances against others for many years. He was also suspicious and conspiratorial, prone to believing that people were plotting against him and that there were vast international conspiracies behind acts of dissent. Montefiore thought that Stalin's brutality marked him out as a "natural extremist"; Service suggested that he had a paranoid or sociopathic personality disorder, with this "dangerously damaged" personality supplying "the high-octane fuel for the journey to the Great Terror". Other historians have argued that Stalin's brutality should be seen not as a result of any personality traits, but through his unflinching commitment to the survival of his socialist state and the cause of international socialism. By the period of glasnost and perestroika , Soviet psychologists were openly debating whether Stalin had been insane . It is hard for me to reconcile the courtesy and consideration he showed me personally with the ghastly cruelty of his wholesale liquidations. Others, who did not know him personally, see only the tyrant in Stalin. I saw the other side as well – his high intelligence, that fantastic grasp of detail, his shrewdness and his surprising human sensitivity that he was capable of showing, at least in the war years. I found him better informed than Roosevelt, more realistic than Churchill, in some ways the most effective of the war leaders... I must confess that for me Stalin remains the most inscrutable and contradictory character I have known – and leave the final word to the judgment of history. —U.S. ambassador W. Averell Harriman
Stalin admired artistic talent, and protected several Soviet
writers, such as
Mikhail Bulgakov , even when their work was regarded
as harmful to his regime. He enjoyed listening to music, and owned
around 2,700 albums. His taste in music and theatre was conservative,
favouring classical drama, opera, and ballet over what he dismissed as
experimental "formalism ". He was a voracious reader, with a library
of over 20,000 books. Little of this was fiction, although he knew
passages from the work of
Stalin typically awoke at around 11 am, and worked late into the evening. His main meal was lunch, which took place between 3 and 5 pm, while dinner was held no earlier than 9 pm. He often chose to dine with other Politburo members and their wives who lived in the Kremlin. He spent much time in the Kremlin cinema, where he enjoyed watching films with other officials late at night; he had a particular fondness for the Western genre, although his favourite film was the 1938 film Volga Volga . Stalin enjoyed alcoholic beverages, and at dinner parties and other social events would encourage those around him to join in, hoping that in a drunken state they would reveal secrets. He enjoyed practical jokes, for instance by putting a tomato on the seat of Politburo members and waiting for them to sit on it, and encouraged singing at social events. As an infant, Stalin had displayed a love of flowers, and later in life he became a keen gardener. His dacha in the Moscow suburb of Volynskoe was surrounded by a 50-acre park, with Stalin devoting much attention to its agricultural activities. Stalin also enjoyed billiards and was an accomplished player.
Stalin disliked travel, and refused to travel by plane. As leader
of the USSR, he rarely left Moscow, unless to go to his dacha or on
holiday. His choice of favoured holiday house changed over the years,
although he holidayed in southern parts of the
Although Stalin publicly condemned anti-Semitism, he was repeatedly
accused of being anti-Semitic . People who knew Stalin, such as
Nikita Khrushchev, suggested that he had long harbored negative
sentiments toward Jews, and anti-Semitic trends in the Kremlin's
policies were further fueled by the struggle against
RELATIONSHIPS AND FAMILY
Stalin and his second wife Nadezhda Alliluyeva
Friendship was important to Stalin, and he used it to gain and
maintain power. He gave nicknames to his favourites, for instance
referring to Yezhov as "my blackberry". Stalin was sociable and
enjoyed a joke. According to Montefiore, Stalin's friendships
"meandered between love, admiration, and venomous jealousy". While
head of the
Stalin was attracted to women and there are no reports of any
homosexual tendencies; according to Montefiore, in his early life
Stalin "rarely seems to have been without a girlfriend". He was
sexually promiscuous, although rarely talked about his sex life.
Montefiore noted that Stalin's favoured types were "young, malleable
teenagers or buxom peasant women", who would be supportive and
unchallenging toward him. According to Service, Stalin "regarded
women as a resource for sexual gratification and domestic comfort".
Stalin married twice and had several offspring. He married his first
wife, Ekaterina Svanidze, in 1906. According to Montefiore, theirs was
"a true love match"; Volkogonov suggested that she was "probably the
one human being he had really loved". They had a son, Yakov, who
often frustrated and annoyed Stalin. Yakov had a daughter, Galina,
before fighting for the
Stalin's second wife was Nadezhda Alliluyeva ; theirs was not an easy relationship, and they often rowed. They had two biological children—a son, Vasiliy , and a daughter, Svetlana —and adopted another son, Artyom Sergeev , in 1921. During his marriage to Nadezhda, Stalin had affairs with many other women, most of whom were fellow revolutionaries or their wives. Nadezdha suspected that this was the case, and committed suicide in 1932. Stalin regarded Vasily as spoiled and often chastised his behaviour; as Stalin's son, Vasily nevertheless was swiftly promoted through the ranks of the Red Army and allowed a lavish lifestyle. Conversely, Stalin had an affectionate relationship with Svetlana during her childhood, and was also very fond of Artyom. In later life, he disapproved of Svetlana's various suitors and husbands, putting a strain on his relationship with her. After the Second World War he made little time for his children and his family played a decreasingly important role in his life. After Stalin's death, Svetlana defected to the U.S.
After Nadezdha's death, Stalin became increasingly close to his sister-in-law Zhenya Alliluyeva; Montefiore believed that they were probably lovers. There are unproven rumours that from 1934 onward he had a relationship with his housekeeper Valentina Istomina. Stalin had at least two illegitimate children, although he never recognised these as being his. One of these, Constantin Kuzakova, later taught philosophy at the Leningrad Military Mechanical Institute , but never met his father. The other, Alexander, was the son of Lidia Pereprygia; he was raised as the son of a peasant fisherman and the Soviet authorities made him swear never to reveal that Stalin was his biological father.
The historian Robert Conquest stated that Stalin, "perhaps more than any other determined the course of the twentieth century". Service regarded the Georgian as "one of the twentieth century's outstanding politicians". Montefiore labelled Stalin as "that rare combination: both 'intellectual' and killer", a man who was "the ultimate politician" and "the most elusive and fascinating of the twentieth-century titans". According to historian Kevin McDermott, interpretations of Stalin range from "the sycophantic and adulatory to the vitriolic and condemnatory". For most Westerners and anti-communist Russians, he is viewed overwhelmingly negatively as a mass murderer; for significant numbers of Russians and Georgians, he is regarded as a great statesman and state-builder. Poster of Stalin on the Unter-den-Linden in Berlin in 1945
Stalin strengthened and stabilised the Soviet Union. Service
suggested that without Stalin's leadership the
McDermott nevertheless cautioned about "over-simplistic stereotypes"—promoted in the fiction of writers like Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn , Vasily Grossman , and Anatoly Rybakov —that portrayed Stalin as an omnipotent and omnipresent tyrant who controlled every aspect of Soviet life through repression and totalitarianism. Service similarly warned of the portrayal of Stalin as an "unimpeded despot", noting that "powerful though he was, his powers were not limitless", and his rule depended on his willingness to conserve the Soviet structure he had inherited. Khlevniuk noted that at various points, particularly when Stalin was old and frail, there were "periodic manifestations" in which the party oligarchy threatened his autocratic control. Stalin denied to foreign visitors that he was a dictator, stating that those who labelled him such did not understand the Soviet governance structure. Stalin has also been described as a terrorist for his revolutionary activities in Georgia.
A vast literature devoted to Stalin has been produced; it is so substantial that even specialists could not read it all. During Stalin's lifetime, his approved biographies were largely hagiographic in content. Stalin ensured that these works gave very little attention to his early life, particularly because he did not wish to emphasise his Georgian origins in a state numerically dominated by Russians. A large number of Stalin biographies have been published since his death. Until the 1980s, these relied largely on the same sources of information as each other. Under the administration of Mikhail Gorbachev a number of previously classified files on Stalin's life were made available to historians; during Gorbachev's glasnost period, Stalin became "one of the most urgent and vital issues on the public agenda" in the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the Union in 1991, the rest of the archives were opened to historians, resulting in much new information about Stalin coming to light, and producing a flood of new research.
Leninists remain divided in their views on Stalin. Some view him as the authentic successor to Lenin, who continued and developed his legacy, while others believe that Stalin betrayed Lenin's ideas by deviating from them. The socio-economic nature of Stalin's Soviet Union has also been much debated, varyingly being labelled a form of state socialism , state capitalism , bureaucratic collectivism , or a totally unique mode of production.
DEATH TOLL AND ALLEGATIONS OF GENOCIDE
According to Service, Stalin was "one of the most notorious figures in history", one who ordered "the systematic killing of people on a massive scale". Khlevniuk stated that Stalin's actions "upended or utterly destroyed literally millions upon millions of lives". Official records show that 800,000 were shot in the Soviet Union between 1930 and 1952, although a larger number died during torture or as a result of poor conditions in labour camps. Many more died as a result of famines and starvation; between 5 and 7 million died during the 1932–33 famine.
Montefiore suggested that Stalin was ultimately responsible for the deaths of between 20 and 25 million people, with Khlevniuk stating that at least 60 million people faced some form of repression or discrimination under Stalin's regime. In his 2008 edition of The Great Terror , Conquest stated that "at least 15 million people" were killed by "the whole range of Soviet regime's terrors", although acknowledged that exact numbers will never be known. The historian and archival researcher Stephen G. Wheatcroft attributes roughly 3 million deaths to the Stalinist regime, including those from criminal negligence but excluding famine deaths, which he and historian R. W. Davies estimate to be around 5.5 to 6.5 million. American historian Timothy D. Snyder asserts that while the Nazi regime killed 11–12 million non-combatants, Stalin's was responsible for about 6–9 million, disputing the conventional wisdom that Stalin killed more than Hitler.
Historians continue to debate whether or not the
IN THE SOVIET UNION AND ITS SUCCESSOR STATES
Khrushchev's de-Stalinisation process in Soviet society ended when he
was replaced as leader by
Leonid Brezhnev in 1964; the latter
introduced a level of re-Stalinisation within the Soviet Union. In
1969 and again in 1979, plans were proposed for a full rehabilitation
of Stalin's legacy; both were defeated by complaints both domestically
and from foreign Communist parties. Gorbachev saw the total
denunciation of Stalin as being necessary for the regeneration of
Soviet society. After the fall of the
Amid the social and economic turmoil of the post-Soviet period, many
Russians viewed Stalin as having overseen an era of order,
predictability, and pride. He remains a revered figure among many
Russian nationalists, who feel nostalgic about the Soviet victory over
The only part of the former
Twenty-six countries have officially recognized the Ukrainian famine of 1932–33 fall under the legal definition of genocide . In 2006, the Ukrainian Parliament declared it to be genocide, and in 2010 a Ukrainian court posthumously convicted Stalin, Lazar Kaganovich , Stanislav Kosior and other Soviet leaders of genocide. In the spring of 2010 a new monument in honor of Stalin was erected in Zaporizhia . In late December 2010 the statue had his head cut off by unidentified vandals and the following New Year's Eve it was completely destroyed in an explosion. In a 2016 Kiev International Institute of Sociology poll, 38% of respondents had a negative attitude to Stalin, 26% a neutral one and 17% a positive (19% refused to answer).
* INDEX OF SOVIET UNION-RELATED ARTICLES
Joseph Stalin Museum, Gori
* ^ Russian : Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин. Stalin was born with the name Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili (Georgian : იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი), which was transliterated into Russian as Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Russian : Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Джугашви́ли). He adopted "Stalin" (/ˈstɑːlɪn/ ; Russian : Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин, tr. Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin, IPA: ) as a revolutionary noms de guerre in 1912, before employing it as his surname after October 1917. * ^ Although there is an inconsistency among published sources about Stalin's year and date of birth, Iosif Dzhugashvili is found in the records of the Uspensky Church in Gori, Georgia as born on 18 December (Old Style : 6 December) 1878. This birth date is maintained in his School Leaving Certificate, his extensive tsarist Russia police file, a police arrest record from 18 April 1902 which gave his age as 23 years, and all other surviving pre-Revolution documents. As late as 1921, Stalin himself listed his birthday as 18 December 1878 in a curriculum vitae in his own handwriting. However, after his coming to power in 1922, Stalin claimed to have been born on 21 December 1879 (Old Style date 9 December 1879). That became the day his birthday was celebrated in the Soviet Union.
* ^ "Stalin". Random House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary .
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. xxxi.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 2; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 11.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 14; Montefiore 2007 , p. 23.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 23.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 2; Volkogonov 1991 , p. 5; Service 2004 , p.
14; Montefiore 2007 , p. 19; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 11.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 14; Montefiore 2007 , p. 19.
* ^ Volkogonov 1991 , p. 5; Service 2004 , p. 16; Montefiore 2007 ,
p. 22; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 11.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 1; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 11.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 15.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 16.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 11; Service 2004 , p. 16; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 5; Service 2004 , p. 14; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 22.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 16; Montefiore 2007 , p. 32.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 11; Service 2004 , p. 19.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 30–31.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 5.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 17; Montefiore 2007 , p. 25; Khlevniuk 2015 ,
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 10; Volkogonov 1991 , p. 5; Service 2004 ,
p. 17; Montefiore 2007 , p. 29; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 12.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 12; Montefiore 2007 , p. 31.
* ^ A B Montefiore 2007 , p. 32.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 31.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 11; Service 2004 , p. 20; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 32–33.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 12; Service 2004 , p. 30; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 43–44.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 44.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 13; Service 2004 , p. 30; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 20; Montefiore 2007 , p. 36.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 45.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 12; Volkogonov 1991 , p. 5; Service 2004 ,
p. 19; Montefiore 2007 , p. 31.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 12; Service 2004 , p. 25; Montefiore 2007 ,
pp. 35, 46.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 51; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 15.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 53.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 52–53.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 54–55.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 19; Service 2004 , p. 36; Montefiore 2007 ,
p. 56; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 16.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 18; Montefiore 2007 , p. 57.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 38.
* ^ A B Montefiore 2007 , p. 58.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 69; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 18.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 19; Montefiore 2007 , p. 69; Khlevniuk 2015
, p. 19.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 70–71.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 19; Montefiore 2007 , p. 62; Khlevniuk 2015
, p. 18.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 63.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 14; Volkogonov 1991 , p. 5; Service 2004 ,
pp. 27–28; Montefiore 2007 , p. 63; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 17.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 64.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 69.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 40.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 66.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 65.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 41; Montefiore 2007 , p. 71.
* ^ A B Montefiore 2007 , p. 73.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 27; Service 2004 , p. 43; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 44.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 79.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 27; Montefiore 2007 , p. 78.
* ^ A B Montefiore 2007 , p. 78.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 27; Service 2004 , p. 45; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 82.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 28; Montefiore 2007 , p. 82.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 87.
* ^ Rieber 2005 , pp. 37–38; Montefiore 2007 , pp. 87–88.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 29; Service 2004 , p. 52; Rieber 2005 , p.
39; Montefiore 2007 , p. 101.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 91, 95.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 90–93; Khlevniuk 2015 , pp. 22–23.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 29; Service 2004 , p. 49; Montefiore 2007 ,
pp. 94–95; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 23.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 97–98.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 29; Service 2004 , p. 49; Rieber 2005 , p.
42; Montefiore 2007 , p. 98.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 52; Montefiore 2007 , p. 101.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 29; Service 2004 , p. 52; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 29; Montefiore 2007 , p. 107; Khlevniuk 2015
, p. 23.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 29; Service 2004 , p. 52; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 111.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 52; Montefiore 2007 , pp. 114–115.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 52; Montefiore 2007 , pp. 115–116.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 57; Montefiore 2007 , p. 123.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 51–52, 54; Montefiore 2007 , p. 117.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 54; Montefiore 2007 , pp. 117–118.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 33–34; Service 2004 , p. 53; Montefiore
2007 , p. 113; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 24.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 59; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 24.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 131.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 38; Service 2004 , p. 59.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 56; Montefiore 2007 , p. 126.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 56.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 58; Montefiore 2007 , pp. 128–129.
* ^ A B Montefiore 2007 , p. 129.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 131–132.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 132.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 143.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 132–133.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 135, 144.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 137.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 60; Montefiore 2007 , p. 145.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 145.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 37; Service 2004 , p. 60.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 147.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 39–40; Service 2004 , pp. 61, 62;
Montefiore 2007 , p. 156.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 40; Service 2004 , p. 62; Khlevniuk 2015 ,
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 62.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 168.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 64; Montefiore 2007 , p. 159.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 64; Montefiore 2007 , p. 167; Khlevniuk
2015 , p. 25.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 65.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 41; Service 2004 , p. 65; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 41–42; Service 2004 , p. 75.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 180.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 43–44; Service 2004 , p. 76; Montefiore
2007 , p. 184.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 190.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 186.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 189.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 191.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 44; Service 2004 , p. 71; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 194.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 74; Montefiore 2007 , p. 196.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 197–198.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 195.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 44; Service 2004 , p. 68; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 45; Montefiore 2007 , pp. 203–204.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 45; Service 2004 , p. 68; Montefiore 2007 ,
pp. 206, 208.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 46; Montefiore 2007 , p. 212.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 46; Montefiore 2007 , p. 222.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 46; Montefiore 2007 , p. 226.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 79; Montefiore 2007 , pp. 227, 229,
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 47; Service 2004 , p. 80; Montefiore 2007 ,
pp. 231, 234.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 79; Montefiore 2007 , p. 234.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 236.
* ^ A B Montefiore 2007 , p. 237.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 48; Service 2004 , p. 83; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ A B Montefiore 2007 , p. 240.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 241.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 84; Montefiore 2007 , p. 243.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 84; Montefiore 2007 , p. 247.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 51; Montefiore 2007 , p. 248.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 249.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 86; Montefiore 2007 , p. 250.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 51; Service 2004 , pp. 86–87; Montefiore
2007 , pp. 250–251.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 252–253.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 255.
* ^ A B Montefiore 2007 , p. 256.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 52; Service 2004 , pp. 87–88; Montefiore
2007 , pp. 256–259.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 263.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 54; Service 2004 , p. 89; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 89; Montefiore 2007 , pp. 264–265.
* ^ A B Montefiore 2007 , p. 266.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 53; Service 2004 , p. 85; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ A B Montefiore 2007 , p. 267.
* ^ Himmer 1986 , p. 269; Volkogonov 1991 , p. 7; Service 2004 , p.
* ^ Himmer 1986 , p. 269; Service 2004 , p. 85.
* ^ Himmer 1986 , p. 269; Volkogonov 1991 , p. 7; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ A B Himmer 1986 , p. 269.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 267–268.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 268–270; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 28.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 54; Service 2004 , pp. 102–103; Montefiore
2007 , pp. 270, 273; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 29.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 273–274.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 55; Service 2004 , pp. 105–106; Montefiore
2007 , pp. 277–278; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 29.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 107; Montefiore 2007 , pp. 282–285;
Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 30.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 292–293.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 298, 300.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 287.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 56; Service 2004 , p. 110; Montefiore 2007 ,
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 57; Service 2004 , pp. 113–114; Montefiore
2007 , p. 300.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 57; Montefiore 2007 , pp. 301–302.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 114; Montefiore 2007 , p. 302.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 57–58; Service 2004 , pp. 116–117;
Montefiore 2007 , pp. 302–303; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 42.
* ^ Volkogonov 1991 , pp. 15, 19; Service 2004 , p. 117; Montefiore
2007 , p. 304.
* ^ Volkogonov 1991 , p. 19; Service 2004 , p. 120; Montefiore 2007
, p. 310.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 59–60; Montefiore 2007 , p. 310.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 64; Service 2004 , p. 131; Montefiore 2007 ,
p. 316; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 46.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 316.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 144.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 65; Montefiore 2007 , pp. 319–320.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 322–324; Khlevniuk 2015 , pp. 48–49.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , p. 326.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 68; Service 2004 , p. 138; Montefiore 2007 ,
pp. 331–332; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 50.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 332-333, 335.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 144; Montefiore 2007 , pp. 337–338.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 145; Montefiore 2007 , p. 341.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 341–342.
* ^ Montefiore 2007 , pp. 344–346.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 145.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 147.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 144–146; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 52.
* ^ Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 53.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 147; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 52.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 148; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 52.
* ^ Volkogonov 1991 , pp. 28–29; Service 2004 , p. 148.
* ^ A B C Conquest 1991 , p. 71.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 90.
* ^ A B Montefiore 2003 , p. 27.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 150.
* ^ Montefiore 2003 , p. 157.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 149.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 155.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 158.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 148.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 70; Volkogonov 1991 , p. 30; Service 2004 ,
p. 148; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 52.
* ^ A B Conquest 1991 , p. 71; Service 2004 , p. 152.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 153.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 72; Service 2004 , pp. 150–151.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 72; Service 2004 , p. 151.
* ^ Khlevniuk 2015 , pp. 48–49.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 72; Service 2004 , p. 167; Khlevniuk 2015 ,
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 75; Service 2004 , pp. 158–161.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 159–160.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 75; Service 2004 , p. 161.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 161.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 165.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 77; Volkogonov 1991 , p. 39; Montefiore 2003
, p. 27; Service 2004 , p. 163; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 54.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 173.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 164.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 78, 82; Montefiore 2007 , p. 28; Khlevniuk
2015 , p. 55.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 81; Service 2004 , p. 170.
* ^ Volkogonov 1991 , p. 46; Montefiore 2007 , p. 27; Khlevniuk
2015 , pp. 56–57.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 78–79; Volkogonov 1991 , p. 40; Service
2004 , p. 166; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 55.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 171.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 169.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 83–84; Service 2004 , p. 172.
* ^ A B C Service 2004 , p. 172.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 85; Service 2004 , p. 172.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 173, 174.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 86; Volkogonov 1991 , p. 45.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 175.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 91; Service 2004 , p. 175.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 176.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 199.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 203, 190.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 174.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 178.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 178; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 59.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 176–177.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 177.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 87; Service 2004 , p. 179; Khlevniuk 2015 ,
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 180, 182.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 183.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 182–183.
* ^ Davies 2003 , p. 211; Service 2004 , pp. 183–185.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 202.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 199–200.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 200.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 194–196.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 194–195.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 203–205.
* ^ A B Conquest 1991 , p. 127; Service 2004 , p. 232.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 89; Service 2004 , p. 187; Khlevniuk 2015 ,
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 186.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 188.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 96; Volkogonov 1991 , pp. 78–70; Service
2004 , pp. 189–190.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 190.
* ^ Service 2000 , p. 369; Service 2004 , p. 209.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 97; Volkogonov 1991 , p. 53; Service 2004 ,
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 191–192.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 192; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 68.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 102; Service 2004 , pp. 191–192.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 98; Service 2004 , p. 193; Khlevniuk 2015 ,
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 95; Service 2004 , p. 195; Khlevniuk 2015 ,
* ^ Volkogonov 1991 , p. 71; Service 2004 , p. 194; Khlevniuk 2015
, pp. 68–69.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 98–99; Service 2004 , p. 195; Khlevniuk
2015 , p. 69.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 195.
* ^ Volkogonov 1991 , p. 74; Service 2004 , p. 206.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 99–100, 103; Volkogonov 1991 , pp.
72–74; Service 2004 , pp. 210–211; Khlevniuk 2015 , pp. 70–71.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 100–101; Volkogonov 1991 , pp. 53,
79–82; Service 2004 , pp. 208–209; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 71.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 104; Montefiore 2003 , p. 30; Service 2004 ,
p. 219; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 79.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 110; Montefiore 2003 , p. 30; Service 2004 ,
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 130; Montefiore 2003 , p. 30; Service 2004 ,
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 111–112; Service 2004 , p. 221.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 111; Service 2004 , pp. 222–224; Khlevniuk
2015 , p. 79.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 127; Service 2004 , p. 235.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 127; Service 2004 , p. 238.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 98; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 52.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 214–215, 217.
* ^ Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 87.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 225.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 227.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 228.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 340.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 240–243; Khlevniuk 2015 , pp. 82–83.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 126; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 83.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 137, 138.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 247; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 91.
* ^ Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 85.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 139, 151; Service 2004 , pp. 282–283;
Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 85.
* ^ A B C Service 2004 , p. 282.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 276.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 277–278.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 277, 280.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 278.
* ^ Montefiore 2003 , p. 39.
* ^ Rappaport 1999 , p. 97.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 130.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 244.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 392; Khlevniuk 2015 , pp. 89–90.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 273.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 256.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 172–173; Service 2004 , p. 256.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 144, 146; Service 2004 , p. 258.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 254.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 253; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 101.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 147–148; Service 2004 , pp. 257–258;
Khlevniuk 2015 , pp. 102–103.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 258; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 103.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 258.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 258; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 105.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 267.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 160.
* ^ A B Sandle 1999 , p. 231.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 265–266; Khlevniuk 2015 , pp. 110–111.
* ^ Sandle 1999 , p. 234.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 266; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 112.
* ^ Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 113.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 271.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 270.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 270; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 116.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 272; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 116.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 272.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 270; Khlevniuk 2015 , pp. 113–114.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 160; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 114.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 260.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 158; Service 2004 , p. 266.
* ^ Sandle 1999 , pp. 227, 229.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 259.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 274.
* ^ A B C Service 2004 , p. 265.
* ^ Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 118.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 186, 190.
* ^ Sandle 1999 , pp. 231–233.
* ^ Sandle 1999 , pp. 241–242.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 269.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 300.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 152–153; Sandle 1999 , p. 214; Khlevniuk
2015 , pp. 107–108.
* ^ Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 108.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 152–155; Service 2004 , p. 259; Khlevniuk
2015 , p. 107.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 268.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 155.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 324.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 326.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 301.
* ^ Sandle 1999 , pp. 244, 246.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 299.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 304.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 308.
* ^ Sandle 1999 , p. 246; Montefiore 2003 , p. 85.
* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 302–303.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 211, 276–277; Service 2004 , p. 307.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 157.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 191.
* ^ Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 325.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 379.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , pp. 183–184.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 261.
* ^ McDermott 1995 , pp. 410–411; Conquest 1991 , p. 176; Service
2004 , pp. 261, 383.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 173.
* ^ A B Service 2004 , p. 289.
* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 169; Montefiore 2003 , p. 90; Service 2004 ,
* ^ Montefiore 2003 , pp. 94, 95; Service 2004 , pp. 292, 294.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 297.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 316.
* ^ A B C D Service 2004 , p. 310.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 31.
* ^ A B C Service 2004 , p. 318.
* ^ Service 2004 , p. 312; Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 117.
* ^ A B C Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 117.
* ^ A B Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 119.
* ^ Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 120.
* ^ Bullock 1962 , p. 269.
* ^ "The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia" (PDF). 5 – The Years
of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931–1933. Palgrave Macmillan. 2004.
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* ^ Conquest 1991 , p. 218; Khlevniuk 2015 , pp. 123, 135.
* ^ Khlevniuk 2015 , p. 135.
* ^ Haslam 1979 , pp. 682–683; Conquest 1991 , p. 218; Service
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* ^ Service 2004 , pp. 392.
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Find more aboutJOSEPH STALINat's sister projects
* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Wikimedia Commons * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Data from Wikidata
* Stalin Library (with all 13 volumes of Stalin\'s works and "volume
* Library of Congress: Revelations from the Russian Archives
* Electronic archive of Stalin\'s letters and presentations
* Сollection of songs about Stalin in different languages (another
* Stalin digital archive
* Sovetika.ru – A site about the Soviet era (in Russian)
* Stalin Biography from Spartacus Educational
* A List of Key Documentary Material on Stalin
* Stalinka: The Digital Library of Staliniana
Vyacheslav Molotov Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the