JOSEPH PATRICK KENNEDY SR. (September 6, 1888 – November 18, 1969)
was an American businessman, investor, and politician known for his
high-profile positions in United States politics. Kennedy was married
Rose Kennedy . Three of their nine children attained distinguished
political positions: President
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy (1917–1963), Attorney
General and Senator
Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy (1925–1968), and longtime
Senator Edward M. "Ted" Kennedy (1932–2009). He was a leading member
of the Democratic Party and of the Irish Catholic community. He was
appointed by President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt to be the first chairman
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), and later
Maritime Commission . Kennedy served as the United States
Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1938 until late 1940, when he
annoyed Roosevelt by his pessimism about Britain's survival.
Born to a political family in East
Boston , Massachusetts, Kennedy
embarked on a career in business and investing, first making a large
fortune as a stock market and commodity investor, and market
manipulator. Employing tactics no longer legal on Wall Street, Kennedy
profited from the stock market crash of 1929, and thrived during the
Great Depression caused by the unscrupulous activities of "investors"
such as himself. Later, Kennedy rolled over the profits by investing
in real estate and a wide range of business industries across the
United States. During
World War I
World War I , he was an assistant general
manager of a
Bethlehem Steel shipyard, through which he
developed a friendship with Franklin D. Roosevelt, then Assistant
Secretary of the Navy
Secretary of the Navy . In the 1920s Kennedy made huge profits from
reorganizing and refinancing several
Hollywood studios, ultimately
merging several acquisitions into
Radio-Keith-Orpheum (RKO) studios.
Prohibition , Kennedy gained a reputation as an importer of
illegal liquor from overseas. After
Prohibition ended in 1933, Kennedy
consolidated an even larger fortune when he traveled to
the President's son
James Roosevelt to negotiate contracts for
distribution rights for
Scotch whisky . His company, Somerset
Importers, became the exclusive American agent for Gordon\'s Gin and
Dewar\'s Scotch. In addition, Kennedy purchased spirits-importation
Schenley Industries , a firm in
Canada . He owned the
largest office building in the country,
Merchandise Mart ,
giving his family an important base in that city and an alliance with
the Irish-American political leadership there.
In 1941, Kennedy allowed surgeons to perform a lobotomy on his
daughter Rosemary . Various reasons for the operation have been given,
but it left her permanently incapacitated.
His term as ambassador and political ambitions ended abruptly during
Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain in November 1940, with the publishing of his
controversial remarks suggesting that "Democracy is finished in
England. It may be here, ." Kennedy resigned under pressure shortly
afterwards. In later years, Kennedy worked behind the scenes to
continue building the financial and political fortunes of the Kennedy
family . After a disabling stroke in 1961, Kennedy developed aphasia
and lost all power of speech, but remained mentally intact. He was
confined to a wheelchair until his death in 1969.
* 1 Background and education
* 2 Marriage and family
* 2.1 Rosemary\'s lobotomy
* 3 Business career
* 3.1 Early ventures
* 3.2 Wall Street and stock market investments
* 3.3 1929 Wall Street Crash
* 3.4 Investments in entertainment, shipping, and real estate
* 4 SEC Chairman (1932–1935)
* 5 Disputes with Father
* 6 Ambassador to the United Kingdom (1938–1940)
* 7 Reduced influence
* 7.1 Claims of anti-Semitism
* 8 Political alliances
* 8.1 Alliance with Senator McCarthy
* 8.2 Presidential ambitions for family
* 9 Illness and death
* 10 In popular culture
* 10.1 Movies and television
* 11 Ancestry
* 12 See also
* 13 References
* 14 Bibliography
* 15 External links
BACKGROUND AND EDUCATION
This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed . (August 2014) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message )
Kennedy yearbook photo from
Boston Latin School
Joseph Patrick Kennedy was born in Boston,
Massachusetts . He was the
elder son of businessman and politician Patrick Joseph "P. J." Kennedy
and Mary Augusta Hickey. He had a younger brother Francis (who died
young), and two younger sisters, Mary and Margaret. All four of Joe's
grandparents had immigrated to
Massachusetts in the 1840s to escape
the Irish famine . He was born into a highly sectarian society, where
Irish Catholics were excluded by upper-class
Boston Brahmins . Boston
Irish thus became active in the Democratic Party , which included P.
J. and numerous relatives.
P. J. Kennedy
P. J. Kennedy was an accomplished
businessman which enabled him to provide a comfortable lifestyle for
family, as a result of his successful saloon business, investment
ventures, and an influential role in local politics. His mother
encouraged Joe to attend the
Boston Latin School , where Kennedy was a
below average scholar but was popular among his classmates, winning
election as class president and playing on the school baseball team.
Kennedy followed in the footsteps of older cousins by attending
Harvard College . He focused on becoming a social leader, working
energetically to gain admittance to the prestigious Hasty Pudding Club
. While at Harvard he joined the
Delta Upsilon International
fraternity and played on the baseball team, but was blackballed from
Porcellian Club .
In 1937, he received an honorary degree in Doctor of Laws from
Oglethorpe University .
MARRIAGE AND FAMILY
On October 7, 1914, Kennedy married Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald , the
eldest daughter of
Boston Mayor John F. "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald
(political rival of P. J.) and Mary Josephine "Josie" Hannon. The
marriage joined two of the city's most prominent political families.
The couple had nine children. As Kennedy's business success expanded,
he and his family kept homes in the
Boston area, suburban New York
City, Hyannis Port,
Massachusetts , and
Palm Beach, Florida
Palm Beach, Florida .
MARRIAGE AND CHILDREN
Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy Jr.
July 25, 1915
August 12, 1944
Never married and had no children, but was once engaged to Athalia
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy
May 29, 1917
November 22, 1963
Married in 1953, to Jacqueline Lee Bouvier , had four children
Rose Marie "Rosemary" Kennedy
September 13, 1918
January 7, 2005
Never married and had no children
Kathleen Agnes "Kick" Kennedy
February 20, 1920
May 13, 1948
Married in 1944, to William John Robert "Billy" Cavendish , never
Eunice Mary Kennedy
July 10, 1921
August 11, 2009
Married in 1953, to Robert Sargent "Sarge" Shriver Jr. , had five
Patricia Helen "Pat" Kennedy
May 6, 1924
September 17, 2006
Married in 1954, to English actor Peter Sydney Ernest Lawford , had
four children; divorced in 1966
Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy
November 20, 1925
June 6, 1968
Married in 1950, to Ethel Skakel , had eleven children
Jean Ann Kennedy
February 20, 1928
Married in 1956, to
Stephen Edward Smith , had two sons and adopted
Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy
February 22, 1932
August 25, 2009
Married in 1958, to Joan Bennett , had three children; divorced in
1982. Remarried in 1992 to Victoria Reggie ; had no children
Rosemary Kennedy §
Lobotomy The family at their home
in Hyannis Port,
Massachusetts , 1931.
Rosemary Kennedy is seated on
the far right.
Kennedy requested that surgeons perform a lobotomy (one of the
earliest in the U.S.) on his eldest daughter Rosemary in 1941. Various
reasons for the operation have been given, but it left her permanently
She died in 2005 at age 86. Rosemary's name "was never mentioned in
the house" according to Janet Des Rosiers, Kennedy's secretary and
mistress of nine years. Dr. Bertram S. Brown , director of the
National Institute of Mental Health
National Institute of Mental Health , said later that Joseph called
his daughter Rosemary mentally retarded rather than mentally ill in
order to protect John's reputation for a presidential run, and that
the family's "lack of support for mental illness is part of a lifelong
family denial of what was really so".
Kennedy pursued a career in business and investing upon graduation
from college. In his mid to late twenties, he made a large fortune as
a stock market and commodity investor and reinvesting in real estate
and a wide range of business industries. He never built a significant
business from scratch, but his timing as both buyer and seller was
usually excellent. Sometimes he made use of inside information in ways
which were legal at the time but were later outlawed. In fact, it was
Kennedy who later assisted in outlawing the very manipulations he had
once engaged in, in the course of his role on the SEC , after
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt had appointed him as its first
After Kennedy's 1969 death and only a week before his own death in
1973, Brooklyn Mafia boss
Frank Costello claimed to an
author/collaborator that he had been associated with Kennedy in
Prohibition . To this day, as Kennedy's most
recent and most thorough biographer
David Nasaw asserts, no credible
evidence has been found linking Joseph Kennedy to bootlegging
activities. When Fortune magazine published its first list of the
richest people in the United States in 1957, it placed him in the
$200–400 million group ($1.71 billion–3.41 billion today),
meaning it estimated him to be between the ninth and sixteenth richest
person in the United States.
Kennedy claimed to be America's youngest bank president,
pictured here at age 25 in 1914.
After graduating from Harvard in 1912 with an A.B. in economics , he
took his first job as a state-employed bank examiner, allowing him to
learn a great deal about the banking industry. In 1913, the Columbia
Trust Bank , in which his father held a significant share, was under
threat of takeover. Kennedy, borrowing $45,000 ($1,090,455 today)
from family and friends, bought back control and at age 25 was
rewarded by being elected the bank's president. Kennedy told the press
he was "the youngest" bank president in America.
Kennedy emerged as a highly successful entrepreneur with an eye for
value. For example, as a real estate investor, he turned a handsome
profit from ownership of Old Colony Realty Associates, Inc., which
bought distressed real estate.
World War I
World War I , President
Woodrow Wilson asked the
Intercontinental Rubber Company—owned by
Bernard Baruch , J. P.
Morgan and Kennedy—to grow guayule .
Guayule is a plant that
produces latex that can be used to make rubber. Many feared the German
navy might blockade rubber shipments from Asia. As a result,
Intercontinental established the Continental Farm and the little town
of Continental in southeastern
Arizona in 1916. The guayule growing
operations didn't last and in 1922 the Continental Farm was sold to
Wilhelmina of the Netherlands
Wilhelmina of the Netherlands , who rented the fields to cotton
farmers for several years.
Although skeptical of American involvement in the war, Kennedy sought
to participate in war-time production as an assistant general-manager
of a major
Bethlehem Steel shipyard in Quincy,
Massachusetts . There
he oversaw the production of transports and warships. Through this
job, he became acquainted with Assistant Secretary of the Navy,
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt .
WALL STREET AND STOCK MARKET INVESTMENTS
In 1919, Kennedy joined the prominent stock brokerage firm of Hayden,
Stone "> Kennedy, along with fifteen others, signed a telegram
warning that the release of
Sadie Thompson starring Gloria Swanson
would jeopardize the ability of the film industry to censor itself.
Swanson needed financing for her film production company, and Kennedy
began a three-year affair when he met her for lunch in New York after
the film's release.
Kennedy made huge profits from reorganizing and refinancing several
Hollywood film studios. Film production in the U.S. was much more
decentralized than it is today, with many different movie studios
producing film product. One small studio was Film Booking Offices of
America (or FBO), which specialized in Westerns produced cheaply. Its
owner was in financial trouble and asked Kennedy to help find a new
owner. Kennedy formed his own group of investors and bought it for
$1.5 million (about $20.5 million today).
Kennedy moved to
Hollywood in March 1926 to focus on running film
studios. Film studios were then permitted to own exhibition companies
which were necessary to get their films on local screens. With that in
mind, in a hostile buyout , he acquired the Keith-Albee-Orpheum
Theaters Corporation (KAO), which had more than 700 vaudeville
theaters across the United States that had begun showing movies. He
later purchased another production studio called Pathe Exchange, and
merged those two entities with
Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille 's Producers
Distributing Corporation in March 1927.
In August 1928, he unsuccessfully tried to run First National
Pictures. In October 1928, he formally merged his film companies FBO
and KAO to form
Radio-Keith-Orpheum (RKO) and made a large amount of
money in the process. Then, keen to buy the Pantages Theatre chain,
which had 63 profitable theaters, Kennedy made an offer of $8 million
($112 million today). It was declined. He then stopped distributing
his movies to Pantages. Still,
Alexander Pantages declined to sell.
However, when Pantages was later charged and tried for rape, his
reputation took a battering and he accepted Kennedy's revised offer of
$3.5 million ($48.8 million today). Pantages, who claimed that
Kennedy had "set him up", was later found not guilty at a second
James Roosevelt , son of President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt ,
helped Kennedy start his liquor business after Prohibition.
It is estimated that Kennedy made over $5 million ($69.7 million
today) from his investments in Hollywood. During his three-year
affair with film star
Gloria Swanson , he arranged the financing for
The Love of Sunya (1927) and the ill-fated Queen Kelly
(1928). The duo also used Hollywood's famous "body sculptor", masseuse
Hollywood . Their relationship ended when Swanson
discovered that an expensive gift from Joseph had been charged to her
A recurring story about Kennedy alleges that he made money in
bootlegging . Although there is no hard evidence of this, Kennedy did
have extensive investments in the legal importation of spirits after
Prohibition ended. The "bootlegging" story itself may be traceable to
Samuel Bronfman and to
New England bootlegger Danny
Walsh and his crime syndicate, which did in fact smuggle spirits
across the Canada–US border during this period. Post-Prohibition,
Bronfman had a bitter rivalry with Kennedy in acquiring North American
liquor distribution rights.
At the start of the Franklin Roosevelt administration, Kennedy and
James Roosevelt II founded Somerset Importers, an entity
that acted as the exclusive American agent for Haig "> Joseph and
Rose Kennedy as they arrive for dinner at The Colony Restaurant in
Manhattan, November 1, 1940. At the time, Joseph Kennedy was the US
Ambassador to the UK.
In 1938, Roosevelt appointed Kennedy as the United States Ambassador
to the Court of St. James\'s (UK ). Kennedy hugely enjoyed his
leadership position in London high society, which stood in stark
contrast to his relative outsider status in Boston. On May 6, 1944,
his daughter Kathleen married William "Billy" Cavendish , the elder
son of the Duke of Devonshire , who was the head of one of England's
grandest aristocratic families.
Kennedy rejected the beliefs of the politician
Winston Churchill that
any compromise with
Nazi Germany was impossible. Instead, Kennedy
supported Prime Minister
Neville Chamberlain 's apparent policy of
appeasement . Throughout 1938, while the Nazi persecution of the Jews
in Germany intensified, Kennedy attempted to arrange a meeting with
Adolf Hitler . Shortly before the Nazi aerial bombing of British
cities began in September 1940, Kennedy once again sought a personal
meeting with Hitler without the approval of the U. S. Department of
State, in order to "to bring about a better understanding between the
United States and Germany".
Kennedy also argued strongly against providing military and economic
aid to the United Kingdom. "Democracy is finished in England. It may
be here," he stated in the
Boston Sunday Globe of November 10, 1940.
With German troops having overrun
Norway , Belgium
Luxembourg , and
France , and with daily bombings
on Great Britain, Kennedy unambiguously and repeatedly stated his
belief that this war was not about saving democracy from National
Socialism (Nazism) or from Fascism. In an interview with two newspaper
Louis M. Lyons , of The
Boston Globe , and Ralph Coghlan,
St. Louis Post-Dispatch
St. Louis Post-Dispatch , Kennedy said:
It's all a question of what we do with the next six months. The whole
reason for aiding England is to give us time ... As long as she is in
there, we have time to prepare. It isn't that fighting for democracy.
That's the bunk. She's fighting for self-preservation, just as we will
if it comes to us..... I know more about the European situation than
anybody else, and it's up to me to see that the country gets it.
His views were becoming inconsistent and increasingly isolationist;
Josiah Wedgwood, 1st Baron Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood, 1st Baron Wedgwood , who had himself
opposed the British Government's earlier appeasement policy, said of
We have a rich man, untrained in diplomacy, unlearned in history and
politics, who is a great publicity seeker and who apparently is
ambitious to be the first Catholic president of the U.S.
In British government circles during the Blitz , Kennedy was widely
disparaged as a defeatist. He retreated to the countryside during the
bombings of London by German aircraft, at a time when the British
Royal Family, Prime Minister, government ministers, and other
ambassadors chose to stay in London. (This prompted a member of
Britain's Foreign Office to say, "I thought my daffodils were yellow
until I met Joe Kennedy.")
White House read his quotes it became clear that Kennedy was
completely out of step with Roosevelt's policies. Kennedy returned
home. Roosevelt urgently needed his support to hold the Catholic vote
and invited him to spend the night at the White House. Kennedy agreed
to make a nationwide radio speech to advocate Roosevelt's reelection.
Roosevelt was pleased with the speech because, Nasaw says, it
successfully "rallied reluctant Irish Catholic voters to his side,
buttressed his claims that he was not going to take the nation into
war, and emphasized that he alone had the experience to lead the
nation in these difficult times." After Roosevelt was reelected,
Kennedy submitted his resignation as ambassador.
Throughout the rest of the war, relations between Kennedy and the
Roosevelt Administration remained tense (especially when Joe Jr.
vocally opposed President Roosevelt's unprecedented nomination for a
third term, which began in 1941). Kennedy may have wanted to run for
president himself in 1940 or later. Having effectively removed himself
from the national stage, Joe Sr. sat out
World War II
World War II on the
sidelines. Kennedy stayed active in the smaller venues of rallying
Irish-American and Roman Catholic Democrats to vote for Roosevelt's
re-election for a fourth term in 1944. Former Ambassador Kennedy
claimed to be eager to help the war effort, but as a result of his
previous gaffes, he was neither trusted nor invited to do so.
Due to his philanthropy and a close friendship with Francis Spellman
, Archbishop of New York (later Cardinal), during this time, Joseph
Kennedy was invested as a knight of the Sovereign Military Order of
Malta , an honor which at that time he shared with just a few dozen
With his ambitions to achieve the
White House no longer viable, Joe
Kennedy held out great hope for his eldest son, Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.,
to seek the presidency. However, Joe Jr., who had become a U.S. Navy
bomber pilot, was killed over the
English Channel while undertaking
Operation Aphrodite , a high-risk, new way to use heavy bombers to
strike German missile sites in France, in 1944. The intention was to
use remote-controlled aircraft from which the pilot had bailed out
after a piloted take-off. Joe Jr's bomber exploded before he could
After grieving over his dead son, Joe Sr. then turned his attention
to his second son, John, for a run for the presidency. After serving
as a member of the House of Representatives beginning in 1946, and
then a U.S. Senator beginning in 1952, the younger Kennedy entered the
Presidential election in 1960 , and won it.
CLAIMS OF ANTI-SEMITISM
Charles Lindbergh was an antiwar spokesman for
America First Committee
America First Committee .
According to Harvey Klemmer, who served as one of Kennedy's embassy
aides, Kennedy habitually referred to Jews as "kikes or sheenies".
Kennedy allegedly told Klemmer that " individual Jews are all right,
Harvey, but as a race they stink. They spoil everything they touch."
When Klemmer returned from a trip to Germany and reported the pattern
of vandalism and assaults on Jews by Nazis, Kennedy responded, "Well,
they brought it on themselves."
On June 13, 1938, Kennedy met with
Herbert von Dirksen , the German
ambassador to the United Kingdom, in London, who claimed upon his
return to Berlin that Kennedy had told him that "it was not so much
the fact that we want to get rid of the Jews that was so harmful to
us, but rather the loud clamor with which we accompanied this purpose.
himself fully understood our Jewish policy." Kennedy's main concern
with such violent acts against German Jews as
Kristallnacht was that
they generated bad publicity in the West for the Nazi regime, a
concern that he communicated in a letter to
Charles Lindbergh .
Kennedy had a close friendship with
Viscountess Astor , (née Nancy
Langhorne), wife of
Waldorf Astor , 2nd Viscount Astor of the Astor
family . The correspondence between them is reportedly replete with
anti-Semitic statements. According to Edward Renehan:
As fiercely anti-Communist as they were anti-Semitic, Kennedy and
Astor looked upon
Adolf Hitler as a welcome solution to both of these
"world problems" (Nancy's phrase)..... Kennedy replied that he
expected the "Jew media" in the United States to become a problem,
that "Jewish pundits in New York and Los Angeles" were already making
noises contrived to "set a match to the fuse of the world".
By August 1940, Kennedy worried that a third term as the President
for Roosevelt would mean war. As Leamer reports, "Joe believed that
Roosevelt, Churchill, the Jews, and their allies would manipulate
America into approaching
Armageddon ." Nevertheless, Kennedy
supported Roosevelt's third term in return for Roosevelt's promise to
support Joseph Kennedy Jr. in a run for Governor of
1942. However, even during the darkest months of World War II,
Kennedy remained "more wary of" prominent American Jews, such as
Felix Frankfurter , than he was of Hitler.
Kennedy told the reporter Joe Dinneen:
It is true that I have a low opinion of some Jews in public office
and in private life. That does not mean that I..... believe they
should be wiped off the face of the Earth..... Jews who take an unfair
advantage of the fact that theirs is a persecuted race do not help
much..... Publicizing unjust attacks upon the Jews may help to cure
the injustice, but continually publicizing the whole problem only
serves to keep it alive in the public mind.
Kennedy used his wealth and connections to build a national network
of supporters that became the base for his sons' political careers. He
especially concentrated on the
Irish American community in large
cities, particularly Boston, New York, Chicago,
Pittsburgh and several
New Jersey cities. Kennedy also used
Arthur Krock of The New York
Times , America's most influential political columnist, for decades as
a paid speechwriter and political advisor.
A political conservative (
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy once described his father
as being to "the right of
Herbert Hoover "), Kennedy supported
Richard Nixon , who had entered Congress with John in 1947. In 1960
Kennedy approached Nixon, praised his anti-Communism, and said "Dick,
if my boy can't make it, I'm for you" for the presidential election
ALLIANCE WITH SENATOR MCCARTHY
Kennedy's close ties with Republican (GOP) Senator Joseph McCarthy
strengthened his family's position among Irish Catholics, but weakened
it among liberals who strongly opposed McCarthy. Even before McCarthy
became famous in 1950, Kennedy had forged close ties with the
Republican Senator. Kennedy often brought him to his family compound
Hyannis Port as a weekend house guest in the late 1940s. McCarthy
at one point dated
Patricia Kennedy .
When McCarthy became a dominant voice of anti-Communism starting in
1950, Kennedy contributed thousands of dollars to McCarthy, and became
one of his major supporters. In the Senate race of 1952, Kennedy
apparently worked a deal so that McCarthy, a Republican, would not
make campaign speeches for the GOP ticket in Massachusetts. In return,
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy , running for the Senate seat, would not
give any anti-McCarthy speeches that his liberal supporters wanted to
In 1953 at Kennedy's urging McCarthy hired
Robert Kennedy (age 27) as
a senior staff member of the Senate\'s investigations subcommittee ,
which McCarthy chaired. In 1954, when the Senate was threatening to
condemn McCarthy, Senator John Kennedy faced a dilemma. "How could I
demand that Joe McCarthy be censured for things he did when my own
brother was on his staff?" asked JFK.
Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy and McCarthy's chief aide
Roy Cohn had had
a falling out, and Robert no longer worked for McCarthy. John Kennedy
had a speech drafted calling for the censure of McCarthy but he never
delivered it. When the Senate voted to censure McCarthy on December 2,
1954, Senator Kennedy was in the hospital and never indicated how he
would cast his vote. Joe Kennedy strongly supported McCarthy to the
PRESIDENTIAL AMBITIONS FOR FAMILY
Kennedy wanted his eldest son, Joe Jr., to become president, but
after Joe Jr.'s death in August 1944, he became determined to make his
second son, John, president.
Kennedy was consigned to the political shadows after his remarks
World War II
World War II ("Democracy is finished"), and he remained an
intensely controversial figure among U.S. citizens because of his
suspect business credentials, his Roman Catholicism, his opposition to
Roosevelt's foreign policy, and his support for Joseph McCarthy. As a
result, his presence in John F. Kennedy's presidential campaign had to
However, Kennedy still drove the campaign behind the scenes. He
played a central role in planning strategy, fundraising, and coalition
and alliance building. Kennedy almost oversaw the entire operation,
supervising spending, helping to select advertising agencies, phoning
local and state party leaders, newsmen, and business leaders.
Kennedy connections and influence were turned directly into political
capital for the senatorial and presidential campaigns of sons John,
Robert and Ted. Historian Richard J. Whalen describes Kennedy's
influence on John Kennedy's policy decisions in his biography of Joe.
Joe was influential in creating the Kennedy Cabinet (
Robert Kennedy as
Attorney General although he had never argued or tried a case, for
example). However, in 1961, Joe Kennedy suffered a stroke that placed
even more limitations on his influence in his sons' political careers.
Kennedy expanded the
Kennedy Compound , which continues as a major
center of family get-togethers.
When John Kennedy was asked about the level of involvement and
influence that his father had held in his razor-thin presidential
victory, he would joke that on the eve before the election his father
had asked him the exact number of votes he would need to win: there
was no way he was paying "for a landslide". Kennedy was one of four
fathers (the other three being
George Tryon Harding , Nathaniel
Fillmore , and George Herbert Walker Bush ) to live through the entire
presidency of a son.
ILLNESS AND DEATH
Joseph Kennedy and family celebrate his birthday in Hyannis Port
Kennedy suffered a stroke on December 19, 1961, when he was 73. He
survived but was left paralyzed on his right side. Thereafter, he
suffered from aphasia , severely affecting his ability to speak. He
however remained mentally alert and regained certain functions with
therapy and began walking with a cane. His speech also showed some
improvement. Eventually he was forced into a wheelchair from
excessive muscular weakness. In 1964, Kennedy was taken to The
Institutes for the Achievement of Human Potential in Philadelphia, a
medical and rehabilitative center for those who have experienced brain
Kennedy's final public appearance was with his wife and his son Ted
Kennedy in a filmed message to the country following the death of his
son Robert. He died at home in
Hyannis Port on November 18, 1969, two
months after his 81st birthday, having outlived three of his four sons
and one of his five daughters. He was buried at
Holyhood Cemetery in
Massachusetts . Kennedy's widow, Rose, was buried next to
him following her death in 1995, as was their daughter, Rosemary, in
IN POPULAR CULTURE
Kennedy plays a significant role as a character in Winston\'s War ,
Michael Dobbs ' fictionalized account of the rise of Winston
Richard Condon 's thriller
Winter Kills , Pa Keegan is a
fictionalized version of Kennedy and is portrayed by
John Huston in
the film version of that novel .
In the alternate history novel Fatherland by Robert Harris set in
1964, the senior Kennedy—not his son John F. Kennedy—is president
of the United States and about to arrive in Berlin to conclude a
Adolf Hitler .
A fictionalized version of Joe Kennedy appears in the fifth season of
Boardwalk Empire . He is portrayed by
Matt Letscher .
MOVIES AND TELEVISION
Kennedy has been portrayed by:
* Stephen Elliott in the 1977 movie Young Joe, the Forgotten Kennedy
E. G. Marshall
E. G. Marshall in the 1983 miniseries Kennedy ,
Lloyd Nolan in the 1985 film
Barry Morse in the 1987 miniseries
Hoover vs. The Kennedys
William Petersen in the 1990 miniseries The Kennedys of
Josef Sommer in the second episode "The Kennedy Years" of the 1991
A Woman Named Jackie
A Woman Named Jackie
Terry Kinney in the 1993 TV miniseries JFK: Reckless Youth ,
* Jan Kohout in the 1994 TV movie Fatherland ,
* Irish actor Dan O\'Herlihy in the 1998 movie The Rat Pack ,
Tom Skerritt in the 2000 TV movie Jackie Bouvier Kennedy Onassis,
Tom Wilkinson in the 2011 miniseries The Kennedys .
* William Hope in the 2012 Upstairs, Downstairs episode "The Love
That Pays the Price".
Matt Letscher in the HBO series
Boardwalk Empire .
Tom Wilkinson in the 2017 miniseries The Kennedys: After Camelot .
ANCESTORS OF JOSEPH P. KENNEDY SR.
8. James Kennedy Sr.
4. Patrick Kennedy
9. Maria Maiden
P. J. Kennedy
P. J. Kennedy
10. Phillip Murphy
5. Bridget Murphy
11. Mary Barron
1. JOSEPH P. KENNEDY SR.
12. Michael Hickey
6. James Hickey
13. Catherine Hassett
3. Mary Augusta Hickey
14. Patrick Field
7. Margaret Martha Field
15. Mary Sheehy
* Biography portal
* Politics portal
Kennedy family tree
* ^ "Joseph P Kennedy",
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and
Museum . Retrieved January 7, 2012.
* ^ A B Richard J. Whalen, The Founding Father, 1964.
* ^ A B Shorter, Edward. The Kennedy Family and the History of
Mental Retardation. Temple University Press via Amazon.com Look
Inside. pp. 32–33. ISBN 1566397839 .
* ^ A B C Block, Jennie Weiss (2002). Copious hosting: a theology
of access for people with disabilities. Continuum International
Publishing Group. p. 56.
* ^ A B Murawski, Wendy W.; Spencer, Sally (2011). Collaborate,
Communicate, and Differentiate!: How to Increase Student Learning in
Today’s Diverse Schools. Corwin Press. p. 3.
* ^ A B
Boston Sunday Globe, November 10, 1940.
* ^ "Honorary Degrees Awarded by Oglethorpe University". Oglethorpe
University. Archived from the original on 2015-03-19. Retrieved
* ^ Shorter, Edward. The Kennedy Family and the History of Mental
Retardation. Temple University Press via Amazon.com Look Inside. pp.
32–33. ISBN 1-56639-783-9 .
* ^ Murawski and Spencer, p. 3.
* ^ Kessler, pp. 2, 247.
* ^ Kessler, pp. 252–253.
* ^ David Nasaw, The Patriarch: The Remarkable Life and Turbulent
Times of Joseph P. Kennedy (2012) pp. 66-67.
* ^ Okrent, Daniel. "The Biggest Kennedy Myth". The Newsweek/Daily
Beast Company LLC. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
* ^ Nasaw, p. 79-81.
* ^ A B C D E F G H Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community
Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–".
Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
* ^ Smith, Richard Austin (November 1, 1957). "The
Fifty-Million-Dollar Man, (sidebar: "America's Biggest Fortunes")".
* ^ Kessler, p. 25.
* ^ Kessler, p. 27.
* ^ Goorian, Philip (2002). Green Valley, Arizona. Arcadia
Publishing. ISBN 0738520721 .
* ^ Beverly Gage, The Day Wall Street Exploded, Oxford University
Press, 2009, p. 156.
* ^ Goodwin, Doris Kearns. The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys (1987)
* ^ "Ecommerce: Who wants to be a millionaire", Computer Business
Review, February 2000.
* ^ "Essay: The Merits of Speculation", Time, September 22, 1967.
* ^ Kessler, pp. 60–61.
* ^ Ilias Chrissochoidis (ed.), Spyros P. Skouras, Memoirs
(1893-1953) (Stanford, 2013), 82.
* ^ Kessler, pp. 106–107.
* ^ A B Beauchamp, Cari (2009) Joseph Kennedy Presents: His
Hollywood Years pp. 263–5, Knopf, New York. ISBN 978-1-4000-4000-1 .
* ^ Kessler, p. 86.
* ^ Michael R. Marrus, Samuel Bronfman: The Life and Times of
Seagram's Mr. Sam.
* ^ Nasaw, p. 611.
* ^ Leamer 308.
* ^ Mario R. Di Nunzio (2011).
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Third
American Revolution. ABC-CLIO. p. 55.
* ^ Nasaw, pp 204-37.
* ^ Nassau, The Patriarch, pp 226-28
* ^ Leamer 93; Brinkley 127.
* ^ Maier pp. 103–107.
* ^ Smith pp. 122, 171, 379, 502; Alan Brinkley, Voices of Protest
(1984) p. 127; Michael Kazin, The Populist Persuasion (1995) pp. 109,
* ^ Hersh 64.
* ^ A B Hersh 63.
* ^ Davis, John H. (1993). The Kennedys: Dynasty and Disaster.
S.P.I. Books. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-56171-060-7 .
* ^ Nasaw, pp 492-96, quote p 496.
* ^ Leamer pp. 152–53; William E. Leuchtenburg, In the Shadow of
FDR: From Harry Truman to George W. Bush (2001) pp. 68–72.
* ^ Leamer 115.
* ^ Hersh 64; Renehan 29.
* ^ Renehan 60.
* ^ Renehan 26–27; Leamer 136.
* ^ Renehan, "Joseph Kennedy and the Jews".
* ^ Leamer 134.
* ^ Fleming, Thomas. The New Dealers' War: F.D.R. And The War
Within World War II, Basic Books, 2001.
* ^ Renehan 311.
* ^ Leamer pp 313, 434; Adam Cohen and Elizabeth Taylor. American
Pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley -- His Battle for
Chicago and the
Nation (2001) p. 250; Timothy J. Meagher. The Columbia Guide to Irish
American History (2005) p. 150.
* ^ Leamer p. 349.
* ^ In the Shadow of FDR: From Harry Truman to George W. Bush –
William Edward Leuchtenburg – Google Books. Books.google.co.uk.
* ^ Kakutani, Michiko (1996-05-24). "Kennedy and Nixon: An Uneasy
Relationship". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
* ^ A B C D Michael O'Brien, John F. Kennedy: A Biography (2005),
250–54, 274–79, 396–400; Thomas C. Reeves, The Life and Times of
Joe McCarthy (1982), 442–3; Maier, The Kennedys 270–280.
* ^ Kessler, p. 389.
* ^ "Parents at the Inaugurations – Presidents\' Parents".
Presidentsparents.com. Retrieved 2014-05-09.
* ^ A B "People: May 22, 1964", Time, May 22, 1964.
* Brinkley, Alvin. Voices of Protest. Vintage, 1983.
* Goodwin, Doris K. The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys: An American
Saga. Simon & Schuter, 1987.
* Hersh, Seymour . The Dark Side of Camelot. Back Bay Books, 1998.
* Leamer, Laurence. The Kennedy Men: 1901–1963. Harper, 2002.
* Thomas Maier. The Kennedys: America's Emerald Kings. Basic Books,
* Kessler, Ronald . The Sins of the Father: Joseph P. Kennedy and
the Dynasty He Founded. Warner, 1996
* Nasaw, David . The Patriarch: The Remarkable Life and Turbulent
Times of Joseph P. Kennedy. The Penguin Press, 2012
* O'Brien, Michael. John F. Kennedy: A Biography. St Martin's Press,
* Renehan, Edward. The Kennedys at War: 1937–1945. Doubleday,
* Renehan, Edward. "Joseph Kennedy and the Jews". History News
Network. George Mason University, April 29, 2002.
* Schwarz, Ted . Joseph P. Kennedy: The Mogul, the Mob, the
Statesman, and the Making of an American Myth. Wiley, 2003.
* Smith, Amanda (ed.). Hostage to Fortune: The Letters of Joseph P.
Kennedy. Viking, 2001, the major collection of letters to and from
* Whalen, Richard J. The Founding Father: The Story of Joseph P.
Kennedy. The New American Library of World Literature, Inc., 1964.
Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. on
* Joe Kennedy\'s