Joseph Hardtmuth (13 February 1758, Asparn an der Zaya – 23 May 1816, Vienna) was a successful Austrian architect, inventor and entrepreneur. Inventions In 1789, he invented a new kind of earthenware with a lead-free glaze for the tableware production, the so-called Vienna ware. In 1810, he invented an artificial pumice and years later, a version of stoneware which was used to make mortars, funnels and other utensils. A flexible, unbreakable blackboard was also produced. In 1792, Hardtmuth established a pencil factory in Vienna after he succeeded in creating an artificial graphite pencil by mixing powdered graphite with clay. Until that time, whole pieces, cut from graphite, were glued in between wood and were imported from England. With the new method, graphite of inferior quality could be used in pencil manufacturing, lowering the price and making the product more accessible for the masses. His company Koh-i-Noor Hardtmuth still exists. References
Petroski, Henry (1990). The Pencil: a history of design and circumstance. Random House. pp. 385–407. ISBN 0-394-57422-2.
The Koh-i-noor website – current website for the company THE KOH-I-NOOR HARDTMUTH story, a tradition of innovation - ChartPak's write up
WorldCat Identities VIAF: 62348049 LCCN: n93028027 ISNI: 0000 0000 5539 4204 GND: 11894777X BNF: cb123037834 (data)
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