PAUL JOSEPH GOEBBELS (German: ( listen ); 29 October 1897 – 1
May 1945) was a German politician and Reich Minister of
Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. He was one of
Adolf Hitler 's close
associates and most devoted followers, and was known for his skills in
public speaking and his deep, virulent antisemitism , which was
evident in his publicly voiced views. He advocated progressively
harsher discrimination, including the extermination of the Jews in the
Goebbels, who aspired to be an author, obtained a Doctor of
Philosophy degree from the
University of Heidelberg in 1921. He joined
Nazi Party in 1924, and worked with
Gregor Strasser in their
northern branch. He was appointed as _
Gauleiter _ (district leader)
Berlin in 1926, where he began to take an interest in the use of
propaganda to promote the party and its programme. After the Nazi
Seizure of Power in 1933, Goebbels'
Propaganda Ministry quickly gained
and exerted controlling supervision over the news media, arts, and
information in Germany. He was particularly adept at using the
relatively new media of radio and film for propaganda purposes. Topics
for party propaganda included antisemitism, attacks on the Christian
churches, and (after the start of the Second World War) attempting to
Goebbels began to pressure Hitler to introduce measures that
would produce _total war _, including closing businesses not essential
to the war effort, conscripting women into the labour force, and
enlisting men in previously exempt occupations into the
Hitler finally appointed him as Reich Plenipotentiary for Total War on
23 July 1944, whereby
Goebbels undertook largely unsuccessful measures
to increase the number of people available for armaments production
and the Wehrmacht.
As the war drew to a close and
Nazi Germany faced defeat, Magda
Goebbels and the
Goebbels children joined him in Berlin. They moved
into the underground _
Vorbunker _, part of Hitler's underground bunker
complex, on 22 April 1945. Hitler committed suicide on 30 April. In
accordance with Hitler\'s will ,
Goebbels succeeded him as Chancellor
Germany ; he served one day in this post. The following day,
Goebbels and his wife committed suicide, after poisoning their six
children with cyanide.
* 1 Early life
* 2 Nazi activist
* 3 Propagandist in
* 4.1 Workings of the Ministry
* 4.2 Church struggle
World War II
World War II
* 6 Plenipotentiary for total war
* 7 Defeat and death
Antisemitism and the Holocaust
* 9 Family life
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 11.1 Explanatory notes
* 11.2 Citations
* 11.3 Bibliography
* 12 Further reading
* 13 External links
Goebbels was born on 29 October 1897 in
Rheydt , an
industrial town south of
Düsseldorf . Both of
his parents were Catholics with modest family backgrounds. His father
Fritz was a factory clerk; his mother Katharina (_née_ Odenhausen)
was ethnically Dutch .
Goebbels had five siblings: Konrad
(1893–1947), Hans (1895–1949), Maria (1896–1896), Elisabeth
(1901–1915), and Maria (1910–1949), who married the German
Max W. Kimmich in 1938. In 1932,
Goebbels published a
pamphlet of his family tree to refute the rumors that his grandmother
was of Jewish ancestry.
Goebbels suffered from ill health, which included a
long bout of inflammation of the lungs. He had a deformed right foot
that turned inwards, due to a congenital deformity . It was thicker
and shorter than his left foot. He underwent a failed operation to
correct it just prior to starting grammar school.
Goebbels wore a
metal brace and special shoe because of his shortened leg, and walked
with a limp. He was rejected for military service in
World War I
World War I due
to his deformity.
Goebbels in 1916
Goebbels was educated at a Christian _Gymnasium _, where he completed
Abitur _ (university entrance examination) in 1917. He was the
top student of his class and was given the traditional honor to speak
at the awards ceremony. His parents initially hoped that he would
become a Catholic priest, and
Goebbels seriously considered it. He
studied literature and history at the universities of Bonn , Würzburg
, Freiburg , and Munich , aided by a scholarship from the Albertus
Magnus Society. By this time
Goebbels had begun to distance himself
from the church.
Richard J. Evans and
Roger Manvell , speculate
that Goebbels' lifelong pursuit of women may have been in compensation
for his physical disabilities. At Freiburg, he met and fell in love
with Anka Stalherm, who was three years his senior. She went on to
Würzburg to continue school, as did Goebbels. In 1921 he wrote a
semi-autobiographical novel, _Michael _, a three-part work of which
only Parts I and III have survived.
Goebbels felt he was writing his
"own story". Antisemitic content and material about a charismatic
leader may have been added by
Goebbels shortly before the book was
published in 1929 by
Eher-Verlag , the publishing house of the Nazi
Party (National Socialist German Workers' Party; NSDAP). By 1920, the
relationship with Anka was over. The break-up filled
thoughts of suicide.
University of Heidelberg ,
Goebbels wrote his doctoral thesis
Wilhelm von Schütz , a minor 19th century romantic dramatist. He
had hoped to write his thesis under the supervision of Friedrich
Gundolf , who at that time was a well known literary historian. It did
not seem to bother
Goebbels that Gundolf was Jewish. However, Gundolf
was no longer performing teaching duties, so he directed
Max Freiherr von Waldberg . Waldberg was also
Jewish. It was Waldberg who recommended
Goebbels write his thesis on
Wilhelm von Schütz. After submitting the thesis and passing his oral
Goebbels earned his
PhD in 1921.
Goebbels then returned home and worked as a private tutor. He also
found work as a journalist and was published in the local newspaper.
His writing during that time reflected his growing antisemitism and
dislike for modern culture. In the summer of 1922, he met and began a
love affair with Else Janke, a schoolteacher. After she revealed to
him that she was half-Jewish,
Goebbels stated the "enchantment
ruined." Nevertheless, he continued to see her on and off until 1927.
He continued for several years to try to become a published author.
His diaries , which he began in 1923 and continued for the rest of his
life, provided an outlet for his desire to write. The lack of income
from his literary works (he wrote two plays in 1923, neither of which
sold ) forced him to take jobs as a caller on the stock exchange and
as a bank clerk in
Cologne , a job he detested. He was dismissed
from the bank in August 1923 and returned to Rheydt. During this
period, he read avidly and was influenced by the works of Oswald
Fyodor Dostoyevsky , and
Houston Stewart Chamberlain , the
British-born German writer whose book _The Foundations of the
Nineteenth Century _ (1899) was one of the standard works of the
extreme right in Germany. He also began to study the "social
question" and read the works of
Karl Marx ,
Friedrich Engels , Rosa
August Bebel and
Gustav Noske . According to German
Peter Longerich , Goebbels\' diary entries from late 1923 to
early 1924 reflected the writings of a man who was isolated,
preoccupied by "religious-philosophical" issues, and lacked a sense of
direction. Diary entries of mid-December 1923 forward show Goebbels
was moving towards the _völkisch _ nationalist movement.
Goebbels first took an interest in
Adolf Hitler and
Nazism in 1924.
In February 1924, Hitler's trial for treason began in the wake of his
failed attempt to seize power in the
Beer Hall Putsch of November
8–9, 1923. The trial attracted widespread press coverage and gave
Hitler a platform for propaganda. Hitler was sentenced to five years
prison, but was released on 20 December 1924, after serving just over
Goebbels was drawn to the NSDAP mostly because of Hitler's
charisma and commitment to his beliefs. He joined the NSDAP around
this time, becoming member number 8762. In late 1924, Goebbels
offered his services to
Karl Kaufmann , who was _
Gauleiter _ (NSDAP
district leader) for the Rhine-Ruhr District. Kaufmann put him in
Gregor Strasser , a leading Nazi organizer in northern
Germany, who hired him to work on their weekly newspaper and to do
secretarial work for the regional party offices. He was also put to
work as party speaker and representative for
Members of Strasser's northern branch of the NSDAP, including
Goebbels, had a more socialist outlook than the rival Hitler group in
Munich. Strasser disagreed with Hitler on many parts of the party
platform, and in November 1926 began working on a revision.
Hitler viewed Strasser's actions as a threat to his authority, and
summoned 60 _Gauleiters_ and party leaders, including Goebbels, to a
special conference in Bamberg , in Streicher's _Gau _ of
where he gave a two-hour speech repudiating Strasser's new political
programme. Hitler was opposed to the socialist leanings of the
northern wing, stating it would mean "political bolshevization of
Germany." Further, there would be "no princes, only Germans," and a
legal system with no "... Jewish system of exploitation ... for
plundering of our people." The future would be secured by acquiring
land, not through expropriation of the estates of the former nobility,
but through colonizing territories to the east.
horrified by Hitler's characterisation of socialism as "a Jewish
creation," and his assertion that a Nazi government would not
expropriate private property. "I no longer fully believe in Hitler.
That's the terrible thing: my inner support has been taken away," he
wrote in his diary.
In hopes of winning over the opposition, Hitler arranged meetings in
Munich with the three Greater Ruhr _Gau_ leaders, including Goebbels.
Goebbels was impressed when Hitler sent his own car to meet them at
the railway station. That evening Hitler and
Goebbels both gave
speeches at a beer hall rally. The following day, Hitler offered his
hand in reconciliation to the three men, encouraging them to put their
differences behind them. Hitler also gave
Goebbels "new insight" into
the "social question".
Goebbels capitulated completely, offering
Hitler his total loyalty – a pledge that was clearly sincere, and
that he adhered to until the end of his life. "I love him ... He has
thought through everything,"
Goebbels wrote. "Such a sparkling mind
can be my leader. I bow to the greater one, the political genius."
Later he wrote: "Adolf Hitler, I love you because you are both great
and simple at the same time. What one calls a genius." As a result of
the Bamberg and Munich meetings, Strasser's new draft of the party
programme was discarded. The original
National Socialist Program of
1920 was retained unchanged, and Hitler's position as party leader was
PROPAGANDIST IN BERLIN
At Hitler's invitation,
Goebbels spoke at party meetings in Munich
and at the annual Party Congress , held in Weimar in 1926. For the
following year's event,
Goebbels was involved in the planning for the
first time. He and Hitler arranged for the rally to be filmed.
Receiving praise for doing well at these events led
Goebbels to shape
his political ideas to match Hitler's, and to admire and idolize him
Goebbels was first offered the position of party _Gauleiter_ for the
Berlin section in August 1926. He travelled to
Berlin in mid-September
and by the middle of October accepted the position. Thus Hitler's plan
to divide and dissolve the northwestern _Gauleiters_ group that
Goebbels had served in under Strasser was successful. Hitler gave
Goebbels great authority over the area, allowing him to determine the
course for organisation and leadership for the _Gau_.
given control over the local _
Sturmabteilung _ (SA) and _Schutzstaffel
_ (SS) and answered only to Hitler. The party membership numbered
about 1,000 when
Goebbels arrived, and he reduced it to a core of 600
of the most active and promising members. To raise money, he
instituted membership fees and began charging admission to party
meetings. Aware of the value of publicity (both positive and
negative), he deliberately provoked beer-hall battles and street
brawls, including violent attacks on the
Communist Party of Germany .
Goebbels adapted recent developments in commercial advertising to the
political sphere, including the use of catchy slogans and subliminal
cues. His new ideas for poster design included using large type, red
ink, and cryptic headers that encouraged the reader to examine the
fine print to determine the meaning.
Goebbels speaks at a
political rally (1932). This body position, with arms akimbo , was
intended to show the speaker as being in a position of authority.
Goebbels giving a speech in
Berlin (1934). This hand gesture was used
while delivering a warning or threat.
Goebbels practiced his public speaking skills in front
of a mirror. Meetings were preceded by ceremonial marches and singing,
and the venues were decorated with party banners. His entrance (almost
always late) was timed for maximum emotional impact. He usually
meticulously planned his speeches ahead of time, using pre-planned and
choreographed inflection and gestures, but he was also able to
improvise and adapt his presentation to make a good connection with
Goebbels' tactic of using provocation to bring attention to the
NSDAP, along with violence at the public party meetings and
demonstrations, led the
Berlin police to ban the NSDAP from the city
on 5 May 1927. Violent incidents continued, including young Nazis
randomly attacking Jews in the streets.
Goebbels was subjected to a
public speaking ban until the end of October. During this period, he
founded the newspaper _
Der Angriff _ (_The Attack_) as a propaganda
vehicle for the
Berlin area. It was a modern-style newspaper with an
aggressive tone. To Goebbels' disappointment, circulation was
initially small, only 2,000. Material in the paper was highly
anti-communist and antisemitic. Among the paper's favourite targets
was the Jewish Deputy Chief of the
Berlin Police Bernhard Weiß .
Goebbels gave him the derogatory nickname "Isidore" and subjected him
to a relentless campaign of Jew-baiting in the hope of provoking a
crackdown he could then exploit.
Goebbels continued to try to break
into the literary world, with a revised version of his book _Michael_
finally being published, and the unsuccessful production of two of his
plays (_Der Wanderer_ and _Die Saat_ (_The Seed_)). The latter was his
final attempt at playwriting. During this period in
Berlin he had
relationships with many women, including his old flame Anka Stalherm,
who was now married and had a small child. He was quick to fall in
love, but easily tired of a relationship and moved on to someone new.
He worried too about how a committed personal relationship might
interfere with his career.
The ban on the NSDAP was lifted in early 1928, in time for the
Reichstag elections, held on 20 May. Results were poor, with the
NSDAP losing nearly 100,000 voters and earning only 2.6 per cent of
the vote nationwide. Results in
Berlin were even worse, where they
attained only 1.4 per cent of the vote.
Goebbels was one of twelve
NSDAP members to gain election to the Reichstag. This gave him
immunity from prosecution for a long list of outstanding charges,
including a three-week jail sentence he received in April for
insulting the deputy police chief Weiß. The Reichstag changed the
immunity regulations in February 1931, and
Goebbels was forced to pay
fines for libellous material he had placed in _Der Angriff_ over the
course of the previous year.
In his newspaper _Berliner Arbeiterzeitung_ (_
Gregor Strasser was highly critical of Goebbels' failure
to attract the urban vote. However, the party as a whole did much
better in rural areas, attracting as much as 18 per cent of the vote
in some regions. This was partly because Hitler had publicly stated
just prior to the election that Point 17 of the party programme, which
mandated the expropriation of land without compensation, would apply
only to Jewish speculators and not private landholders. After the
election, the party refocused their efforts to try to attract still
more votes in the agricultural sector. In May, shortly after the
election, Hitler considered appointing
Goebbels as party propaganda
chief. But he hesitated, as he worried that the removal of Gregor
Strasser from the post would lead to a split in the party. Goebbels
considered himself well suited to the position, and began to formulate
ideas about how propaganda could be used in schools and the media.
Goebbels used the death of
Horst Wessel in 1930 as a propaganda tool
against "Communist subhumans".
By 1930, the violence between the
Nazis and communists led to local
SA troop leader
Horst Wessel being shot by two members of the
Communist Party of Germany . He later died in hospital. Exploiting
Goebbels turned him into a martyr for the Nazi
movement. He officially declared Wessel's march _Die Fahne hoch_
(_Raise the flag_), renamed as the _
Horst-Wessel-Lied _, to be the
Great Depression greatly impacted
Germany and by 1930 there was a
dramatic increase in unemployment. During this time, the Strasser
brothers started publishing a new daily newspaper in Berlin, the
_Nationaler Sozialist_. Like their other publications, it conveyed
the brothers' own brand of Nazism, including nationalism,
anti-capitalism, social reform, and anti-Westernism. Goebbels
complained vehemently about the rival Strasser newspapers to Hitler,
and admitted that their success was causing his own
to be "pushed to the wall". In late April 1930, Hitler publicly and
firmly announced his opposition to
Gregor Strasser and appointed
Goebbels to replace him as Reich leader of NSDAP propaganda. One of
Goebbels' first acts was to ban the evening edition of the _Nationaler
Goebbels was also given control of other Nazi papers
across the country, including the party's national newspaper, the
Völkischer Beobachter _ (_People's Observer_). He still had to wait
until 3 July for
Otto Strasser and his supporters to announce they
were leaving the NSDAP. Upon receiving the news,
Goebbels was relieved
the "crisis" with the Strassers was finally over and glad that Otto
Strasser had lost all power.
The rapid deterioration of the economy led to the resignation on 27
March 1930 of the coalition government that had been elected in 1928.
A new cabinet was formed, and
Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg used his power as
president to govern via emergency decrees . He appointed Heinrich
Brüning as chancellor .
Goebbels took charge of the NSDAP's national
campaign for Reichstag elections called for 14 September 1930.
Campaigning was undertaken on a huge scale, with thousands of meetings
and speeches held all over the country. Hitler's speeches focused on
blaming the country's economic woes on the
Weimar Republic ,
particularly its adherence to the terms of the
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles ,
which required war reparations that had proven devastating to the
German economy. He proposed a new German society based on race and
national unity. The resulting success took even Hitler and Goebbels
by surprise: the party received 6.5 million votes nationwide and took
107 seats in the Reichstag, making it the second largest party in the
Goebbels and his daughter Helga with
In late 1930
Goebbels met Magda Quandt , a divorcée who had joined
the party a few months earlier. She worked as a volunteer in the party
offices in Berlin, helping
Goebbels organize his private papers. Her
flat on the _Reichskanzlerplatz_ soon became a favourite meeting place
for Hitler and other NSDAP officials.
Goebbels and Quandt married on
19 December 1931.
For two further elections held in 1932,
Goebbels organized massive
campaigns that included rallies, parades, speeches, and Hitler
travelling around the country by airplane with the slogan "the Führer
Goebbels also undertook numerous speaking tours during
these election campaigns.
Goebbels had some of their speeches
published on gramophone records and as pamphlets. He was also involved
in the production of a small collection of silent films that could be
shown at party meetings, though they did not yet have enough equipment
to widely use this medium. Many of Goebbels' campaign posters used
violent imagery such as a giant half-clad male destroying political
opponents or other perceived enemies such as "International High
Finance". His propaganda characterized the opposition as "November
criminals ", "Jewish wire-pullers", or a communist threat. Support
for the party continued to grow, but neither of these elections led to
a majority government. In an effort to stabilize the country and
improve economic conditions, Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Reich
chancellor on 30 January 1933.
To celebrate Hitler's appointment as chancellor,
Goebbels organized a
torchlit parade in
Berlin on the night of 30 January of an estimated
60,000 men, many in the uniforms of the SA and SS. The spectacle was
covered by a live state radio broadcast, with commentary by longtime
party member and future Minister of Aviation
Hermann Göring .
Goebbels was disappointed to not be given a post in Hitler's new
Bernhard Rust was appointed as Minister of Culture , the post
Goebbels was expecting to receive. Like other NSDAP officials,
Goebbels had to deal with Hitler's leadership style of giving
contradictory orders to his subordinates, while placing them into
positions where their duties and responsibilities overlapped. In this
way, Hitler fostered distrust, competition, and infighting among his
subordinates to consolidate and maximise his own power. The NSDAP
took advantage of the
Reichstag fire of 27 February 1933, with
Hindenburg passing the
Reichstag Fire Decree the following day at
Hitler's urging. This was the first of several pieces of legislation
that dismantled democracy in
Germany and put a totalitarian
dictatorship—headed by Hitler—in its place. On 5 March, yet
another Reichstag election took place, the last to be held before the
defeat of the
Nazis at the end of the Second World War. While the
NSDAP increased their number of seats and percentage of the vote, it
was not the landslide expected by the party leadership. Goebbels
finally received Hitler's appointment to the cabinet, officially
becoming head of the newly created Reich Ministry of Public
Propaganda on 14 March.
Nazi book burning , 10
The role of the new ministry, which set up its offices in the
Ordenspalais across from the Reich Chancellery, was to
centralise Nazi control of all aspects of German cultural and
Goebbels hoped to increase popular support of the
party from the 37 per cent achieved at the last free election held in
Germany on 25 March 1933 to 100 per cent support. An unstated goal was
to present to other nations the impression that the NSDAP had the full
and enthusiastic backing of the entire population. One of Goebbels'
first productions was staging the Day of Potsdam, a ceremonial passing
of power from Hindenburg to Hitler, held in
Potsdam on 21 March. He
composed the text of Hitler's decree authorizing the Nazi boycott of
Jewish businesses , held on 1 April. Later that month, Goebbels
travelled back to Rheydt, where he was given a triumphal reception.
The townsfolk lined the main street, which had been renamed in his
honour. On the following day,
Goebbels was declared a local hero.
Goebbels converted the 1 May holiday from a celebration of workers'
rights (observed as such especially by the communists) into a day
celebrating the NSDAP. In place of the usual ad hoc labour
celebrations, he organized a huge party rally held at Tempelhof Field
in Berlin. The following day, all trade union offices in the country
were forcibly disbanded by the SA and SS, and the Nazi-run German
Labour Front was created to take their place. "We are the masters of
Germany," he commented in his diary entry of 3 May. Less than two
weeks later, he gave a speech at the
Nazi book burning in
Berlin on 10
Meanwhile, the NSDAP began passing laws to marginalize Jews and
remove them from German society. The Law for the Restoration of the
Professional Civil Service , passed on 7 April 1933, forced all
non-Aryans to retire from the legal profession and civil service.
Similar legislation soon deprived Jewish members of other professions
of their right to practise. The first Nazi concentration camps
(initially created to house political dissenters) were founded shortly
after Hitler seized power. In a process termed _
(co-ordination), the NSDAP proceeded to rapidly bring all aspects of
life under control of the party. All civilian organisations, including
agricultural groups, volunteer organisations, and sports clubs, had
their leadership replaced with Nazi sympathisers or party members. By
June 1933, virtually the only organisations not in the control of the
NSDAP were the army and the churches. In a move to manipulate
Germany's middle class and shape popular opinion, the regime passed on
4 October 1933 the _Schriftleitergesetz_ (Editor's Law), which became
the cornerstone of the Nazi Party's control of the popular press.
Modeled to some extent on the system in
Benito Mussolini 's Italy, the
law defined a _Schriftleiter_ as anyone who wrote, edited, or selected
texts and/or illustrated material for serial publication. Individuals
selected for this position were chosen based on experiential,
educational, and racial criteria. The law required journalists to
"regulate their work in accordance with National Socialism as a
philosophy of life and as a conception of government."
At the end of June 1934, top officials of the SA and opponents of the
regime, including Gregor Strasser, were arrested and killed in a purge
later called the
Night of Long Knives .
Goebbels was present at the
arrest of SA leader
Ernst Röhm in Munich. On 2 August 1934,
President von Hindenburg died. In a radio broadcast, Goebbels
announced that the offices of president and chancellor had been
combined, and Hitler had been formally named as _
Reichskanzler _ (leader and chancellor).
WORKINGS OF THE MINISTRY
The propaganda ministry was organized into seven departments:
administration and legal; mass rallies, public health, youth, and
race; radio; national and foreign press; films and film censorship ;
art, music, and theatre; and protection against counter-propaganda,
both foreign and domestic.
Goebbels style of leadership was
tempestuous and unpredictable. He would suddenly change direction and
shift his support between senior associates; he was a difficult boss
and liked to berate his staff in public.
Goebbels was successful at
his job, however; _Life_ wrote in 1938 that "ersonally he likes
nobody, is liked by nobody, and runs the most efficient Nazi
The Reich Film Chamber, which all members of the film industry were
required to join, was created in June 1933.
Goebbels promoted the
development of films with a Nazi slant, and ones that contained
subliminal or overt propaganda messages. Under the auspices of the
Reichskulturkammer _ (Reich Chamber of Culture), created in
Goebbels added additional sub-chambers for the fields of
broadcasting, fine arts, literature, music, the press, and the
theatre. As in the film industry, anyone wishing to pursue a career
in these fields had to be a member of the corresponding chamber. In
this way anyone whose views were contrary to the regime could be
excluded from working in their chosen field and thus silenced. In
addition, journalists (now considered employees of the state) were
required to prove
Aryan descent back to the year 1800, and if married,
the same requirement applied to the spouse. Members of any chamber
were not allowed to leave the country for their work without prior
permission of their chamber. A committee was established to censor
books, and works could not be re-published unless they were on the
list of approved works. Similar regulations applied to other fine arts
and entertainment; even cabaret performances were censored. Many
German artists and intellectuals left
Germany in the pre-war years
rather than work under these restrictions. Free radios were
Berlin on Goebbels' birthday in 1938. Hitler was
the focal point at the 1934
Nuremberg Rally .
Leni Riefenstahl and her
crew are visible in front of the podium.
Goebbels was particularly interested in controlling radio, which was
then still a fairly new mass medium . Sometimes under protest from
individual states (particularly
Prussia , headed by Göring), Goebbels
gained control of radio stations nationwide, and placed them under the
Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft _ (German National Broadcasting
Corporation) in July 1934. Manufacturers were urged by
produce inexpensive home receivers, called _
(people's receiver), and by 1938 nearly ten million sets had been
sold. Loudspeakers were placed in public areas, factories, and
schools, so that important party broadcasts would be heard live by
nearly all Germans. On 2 September 1939 (the day after the start of
Goebbels and the Council of Ministers proclaimed it illegal
to listen to foreign radio stations. Disseminating news from foreign
broadcasts could result in the death penalty.
Albert Speer , Hitler's
architect and later Minister for Armaments and War Production, later
said the regime "made the complete use of all technical means for
domination of its own country. Through technical devices like the
radio and loudspeaker, 80 million people were deprived of independent
A major focus of
Nazi propaganda was Hitler himself, who was
glorified as a heroic and infallible leader and became the focus of a
cult of personality . Much of this was spontaneous, but some was
stage-managed as part of Goebbels' propaganda work. Adulation of
Hitler was the focus of the 1934 Nuremberg Rally, where his moves were
carefully choreographed. The rally was the subject of the film
Triumph of the Will _, one of several
Nazi propaganda films directed
Leni Riefenstahl . It won the Gold Medal at the 1935 Venice Film
Festival . At the 1935 Nazi party congress rally at Nuremberg,
Goebbels declared that "Bolshevism is the declaration of war by
Jewish-led international subhumans against culture itself."
Goebbels was involved in planning the staging of the 1936 Summer
Olympics , held in Berlin. It was around this time that he met and
started having an affair with the actress
Lída Baarová , whom he
continued to see until 1938. A major project in 1937 was the
Degenerate Art Exhibition , organised by Goebbels, which ran in Munich
from July to November. The exhibition proved wildly popular,
attracting over two million visitors. A degenerate music exhibition
took place the following year. Meanwhile,
Goebbels was disappointed
by the lack of quality in the National Socialist artwork, films, and
Nazi persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany
In 1933, Hitler signed the _
Reichskonkordat _ (Reich Concordat), a
treaty with the Vatican that required the regime to honour the
independence of Catholic institutions and prohibited clergy from
involvement in politics. However, the regime continued to target the
Christian churches and to try to weaken their influence. Throughout
1935 and 1936, hundreds of clergy and nuns were arrested, often on
trumped up charges of currency smuggling or sexual offenses.
Goebbels widely publicised the trials in his propaganda campaigns,
showing the cases in the worst possible light. Restrictions were
placed on public meetings, and Catholic publications faced censorship.
Catholic schools were required to reduce religious instruction and
crucifixes were removed from state buildings. Hitler often
vacillated on whether or not the _
Kirchenkampf _ (church struggle)
should be a priority, but his frequent inflammatory comments on the
issue were enough to convince
Goebbels to intensify his work on the
issue; in February 1937 he stated he wanted to eliminate the
In response to the persecution,
Pope Pius XI had the _"Mit brennender
Sorge "_ ("With Burning Concern") Encyclical smuggled into
Passion Sunday 1937 and read from every pulpit. It denounced the
systematic hostility of the regime toward the church. In response,
Goebbels renewed the regime's crackdown and propaganda against
Catholics. His speech of 28 May in
Berlin in front of 20,000 party
members, which was also broadcast on the radio, attacked the Catholic
church as morally corrupt. As a result of the propaganda campaign,
enrolment in denominational schools dropped sharply, and by 1939 all
such schools were disbanded or converted to public facilities.
Harassment and threats of imprisonment led the clergy to be much more
cautious in their criticism of the regime. Partly out of foreign
policy concerns, Hitler ordered a scaling back of the church struggle
by the end of July 1937.
WORLD WAR II
As early as February 1933, Hitler announced that rearmament must be
undertaken, albeit clandestinely at first, as to do so was in
violation of the Versailles Treaty. A year later he told his military
leaders that 1942 was the target date for going to war in the east.
Goebbels was one of the most enthusiastic supporters of Hitler
aggressively pursuing Germany's expansionist policies sooner rather
than later. At the time of the Reoccupation of the
Rhineland in 1936,
Goebbels summed up his general attitude in his diary: "ow is the time
for action. Fortune favors the brave! He who dares nothing wins
nothing." In the lead-up to the
Sudetenland crisis in 1938, Goebbels
took the initiative time and again to use propaganda to whip up
sympathy for the Sudeten Germans while campaigning against the Czech
Goebbels was well aware there was a growing "war
Germany and so by July had the press conduct propaganda
efforts at a lower level of intensity. After the western powers
acceded to Hitler's demands concerning Czechoslovakia in 1938,
Goebbels soon redirected his propaganda machine against Poland. From
May onwards, he orchestrated a campaign against Poland, fabricating
stories about atrocities against ethnic Germans in
Danzig and other
cities. Even so, he was unable to persuade the majority of Germans to
welcome the prospect of war. He privately held doubts about the
wisdom of risking a protracted war against Britain and France by
Invasion of Poland
Invasion of Poland in 1939,
Goebbels used his propaganda
ministry and the Reich chambers to control access to information
domestically. To his chagrin, his rival
Joachim von Ribbentrop , the
Minister for Foreign Affairs , continually challenged Goebbels'
jurisdiction over the dissemination of international propaganda.
Hitler declined to make a firm ruling on the subject, so the two men
remained rivals for the remainder of the Nazi era.
Goebbels did not
participate in the military decision making process, nor was he made
privy to diplomatic negotiations until after the fact.
Production of a newsreel at the front lines, January 1941
Propaganda Ministry took over the broadcasting facilities of
conquered countries immediately after surrender, and began
broadcasting prepared material using the existing announcers as a way
to gain the trust of the citizens. Most aspects of the media, both
domestically and in the conquered countries, were controlled by
Goebbels and his department. The German Home Service, the Armed
Forces Programme, and the German European Service were all rigorously
controlled in everything from the information they were permitted to
disseminate to the music they were allowed to play. Party rallies,
speeches, and demonstrations continued; speeches were broadcast on the
radio and short propaganda films were exhibited using 1,500 mobile
film vans. Hitler made fewer public appearances and broadcasts as the
war progressed, so
Goebbels increasingly became the voice of the Nazi
regime for the German people. From May 1940 he wrote frequent
editorials that were published in _Das Reich _ which were later read
aloud over the radio. He found films to be his most effective
propaganda medium, after radio. At his insistence, initially half the
films made in wartime
Germany were propaganda films (particularly on
antisemitism) and war propaganda films (recounting both historical
wars and current exploits of the
Goebbels became preoccupied with morale and the efforts of the people
on the home front. He believed that the more the people at home were
involved in the war effort, the better their morale would be. For
example, he initiated a programme for the collection of winter
clothing and ski equipment for troops on the eastern front. At the
Goebbels implemented changes to have more "entertaining
material" in radio and film produced for the public, decreeing in late
1942 that 20 per cent of the films should be propaganda and 80 per
cent light entertainment. As _Gauleiter_ of Berlin,
with increasingly serious shortages of necessities such as food and
clothing, as well as the need to ration beer and tobacco, which were
important for morale. Hitler suggested watering the beer and degrading
the quality of the cigarettes so that more could be produced, but
Goebbels refused, saying the cigarettes were already of such low
quality that it was impossible to make them any worse. Through his
propaganda campaigns, he worked hard to maintain an appropriate level
of morale among the public about the military situation, neither too
optimistic nor too grim. The series of military setbacks the Germans
suffered in this period – the thousand-bomber raid on
1942), the Allied victory at the
Second Battle of El Alamein (November
1942), and especially the catastrophic defeat at the Battle of
Stalingrad (February 1943) – were difficult matters to present to
the German public, who were increasingly weary of the war and
skeptical that it could be won. On 15 January 1943, Hitler appointed
Goebbels as head of the newly created Air Raid Damage committee, which
Goebbels was nominally in charge of nationwide civil air
defenses and shelters as well as the assessment and repair of damaged
buildings. In actuality, the defence of areas other than Berlin
remained in the hands of the local _Gauleiters_, and his main tasks
were limited to providing immediate aid to the affected civilians and
using propaganda to improve their morale.
By early 1943, the war produced a labour crisis for the regime.
Hitler created a three-man committee with representatives of the
State, the army, and the Party in an attempt to centralise control of
the war economy. The committee members were
Hans Lammers (head of the
Reich Chancellery), Field Marshal
Wilhelm Keitel , chief of the
Wehrmacht _ (Armed Forces High Command; OKW), and
Martin Bormann , who controlled the Party. The committee was intended
to independently propose measures regardless of the wishes of various
ministries, with Hitler reserving most final decisions to himself. The
committee, soon known as the _Dreierausschuß_ (Committee of Three),
met eleven times between January and August 1943. However, they ran up
against resistance from Hitler's cabinet ministers, who headed deeply
entrenched spheres of influence and were excluded from the committee.
Seeing it as a threat to their power, Goebbels, Göring, and Speer
worked together to bring it down. The result was that nothing changed,
and the Committee of Three declined into irrelevance by September
Sportpalast speech , 18 February 1943
Partly in response to being excluded from the Committee of Three,
Goebbels pressured Hitler to introduce measures that would produce
"total war ", including closing businesses not essential to the war
effort, conscripting women into the labour force, and enlisting men in
previously exempt occupations into the Wehrmacht. Some of these
measures were implemented in an edict of 13 January, but to Goebbels'
dismay, Göring demanded that his favourite restaurants in Berlin
should remain open, and Lammers successfully lobbied Hitler to have
women with children exempted from conscription, even if they had child
care available. After receiving an enthusiastic response to his
speech of 30 January 1943 on the topic,
Goebbels believed he had the
support of the German people in his call for total war. His next
Sportpalast speech of 18 February 1943, was a passionate
demand for his audience to commit to total war, which he presented as
the only way to stop the
Bolshevik onslaught and save the German
people from destruction. The speech also had a strong antisemitic
element and hinted at the extermination of the Jewish people that was
already underway. The speech was presented live on radio and was
filmed as well. Goebbels' efforts had little impact for the time
being, as while Hitler was in principle in favour of total war, he was
not prepared to implement changes over the objections of his
ministers. The discovery around this time of a mass grave of Polish
officers that had been killed by the Red Army in the 1940 Katyn
massacre was made use of by
Goebbels in his propaganda in an attempt
to drive a wedge between the Soviets and the other western allies.
PLENIPOTENTIARY FOR TOTAL WAR
9 March 1945:
Goebbels awards 16-year-old
Hitler Youth Willi
Iron Cross for the defence of
Allied invasion of Sicily (July 1943) and the strategic
Soviet victory in the
Battle of Kursk (July–August 1943), Goebbels
began to recognize that the war could no longer be won. Following the
Allied invasion of Italy and the fall of Mussolini in September, he
raised with Hitler the possibility of a separate peace, either with
the Soviets or with Britain. Hitler rejected both of these proposals.
As Germany's military and economic situation grew steadily worse, on
25 August 1943 _
Heinrich Himmler took over the post
of interior minister, replacing
Wilhelm Frick . Intensive air raids
Berlin and other cities took the lives of thousands of people.
Luftwaffe attempted to retaliate with air raids on London in
early 1944, but they no longer had sufficient aircraft to make much of
an impact. While Goebbels' propaganda in this period indicated that a
huge retaliation was in the offing, the V-1 flying bombs , launched on
British targets beginning in mid-June 1944, had little effect, with
only around 20 per cent reaching their intended targets. To boost
Goebbels continued to publish propaganda to the effect that
further improvements to these weapons would have a decisive impact on
the outcome of the war. Meanwhile, in the
Normandy landings of 6 June
1944, the Allies successfully gained a foothold in France.
Goebbels (centre) and Armaments Minister
Albert Speer (to Goebbels'
left) observe tests at Peenemünde , August 1943
Goebbels and Speer continued to press Hitler to
bring the economy to a total war footing. The
20 July plot , where
Hitler was almost killed by a bomb at his field headquarters in East
Prussia , played into the hands of those who had been pushing for
change: Bormann, Goebbels, Himmler, and Speer. Over the objections of
Goebbels was appointed on 23 July as Reich Plenipotentiary
for Total War, charged with maximising the manpower for the Wehrmacht
and the armaments industry at the expense of sectors of the economy
not critical to the war effort. Through these efforts, he was able to
free up an additional half a million men for military service.
However, as many of these new recruits came from the armaments
industry, the move put him in conflict with armaments minister Speer.
Untrained workers from elsewhere were not readily absorbed into the
armaments industry, and likewise the new
Wehrmacht recruits waited in
barracks for their turn to be trained.
At Hitler's behest, the _
Volkssturm _ (People's Storm) – a
nationwide militia of men previously considered unsuitable for
military service – was formed on 18 October 1944.
in his diary that 100,000 recruits were sworn in from his _Gau_ alone.
However, the men, mostly age 45 to 60, received only rudimentary
training and many were not properly armed. Goebbels' notion that these
men could effectively serve on the front lines against Soviet tanks
and artillery was unrealistic at best. The programme was deeply
DEFEAT AND DEATH
In the last months of the war, Goebbels' speeches and articles took
on an increasingly apocalyptic tone. By the beginning of 1945, with
the Soviets on the
Oder River and the Western Allies preparing to
cross the Rhine , he could no longer disguise the fact that defeat was
Berlin had little in the way of fortifications or
artillery (or even _Volkssturm_ units, 'civilian soldiers'), as almost
everything had been sent to the front.
Goebbels noted in his diary on
21 January that millions of Germans were fleeing westward. He
tentatively discussed with Hitler the issue of making peace overtures
to the western allies, but Hitler again refused. Privately, Goebbels
was conflicted at pushing the case with Hitler since he did not want
to lose the confidence of his Führer.
When other Nazi leaders urged Hitler to leave
Berlin and establish a
new centre of resistance in the
National Redoubt in Bavaria, Goebbels
opposed this, arguing for a heroic last stand in Berlin. His family
(except for Magda's son Harald, who had served in the
been captured by the Allies) moved into their house in
Berlin to await
the end. He and Magda may have discussed suicide and the fate of
their young children in a long meeting on the night of 27 January. He
knew how the outside world would view the criminal acts committed by
the regime, and had no desire to subject himself to the "debacle" of a
trial. He burned his private papers on the night of 18 April.
Goebbels knew how to play on Hitler's fantasies, encouraging him to
see the hand of providence in the death of
United States President
Franklin D. Roosevelt on 12 April. Whether Hitler really saw this
event as a turning point as
Goebbels proclaimed is not known. By this
Goebbels had gained the position he had wanted so long – at
the side of Hitler. Göring was utterly discredited, although he was
not stripped of his offices until 23 April. Himmler, whose
appointment as commander of
Army Group Vistula had led to disaster on
the Oder, was also in disgrace with Hitler. Most of Hitler's inner
circle, including Göring, Himmler, Ribbentrop, and Speer, prepared to
Berlin immediately after Hitler's birthday celebration on 20
April. Even Bormann was "not anxious" to meet his end at Hitler's
side. On 22 April, Hitler announced that he would stay in Berlin
until the end and then shoot himself.
Goebbels moved with his family
into the _
Vorbunker _, connected to the lower _
Führerbunker _ under
the Reich Chancellery garden in central Berlin, that same day. He
Hans-Erich Voss that he would not entertain the idea
of either surrender or escape. On 23 April,
Goebbels made the
following proclamation to the people of Berlin:
I call on you to fight for your city. Fight with everything you have
got, for the sake of your wives and your children, your mothers and
your parents. Your arms are defending everything we have ever held
dear, and all the generations that will come after us. Be proud and
courageous! Be inventive and cunning! Your _Gauleiter_ is amongst you.
He and his colleagues will remain in your midst. His wife and children
are here as well. He, who once captured the city with 200 men, will
now use every means to galvanize the defense of the capital. The
Berlin must become the signal for the whole nation to rise
up in battle ..."
After midnight on 29 April, with the Soviets advancing ever closer to
the bunker complex, Hitler married
Eva Braun in a small civil ceremony
within the _Führerbunker_. Afterwards, Hitler hosted a modest
wedding breakfast with his new wife. Hitler then took secretary
Traudl Junge to another room and dictated his last will and testament
Goebbels and Bormann were two of the witnesses.
In his last will and testament, Hitler named no successor as Führer
or leader of the Nazi Party. Instead, he appointed
Goebbels as Reich
Chancellor; Grand Admiral
Karl Dönitz , who was at
Flensburg near the
Danish border, as Reich President; and Bormann as Party Minister.
Goebbels wrote a postscript to the will stating that he would disobey
Hitler's order to leave Berlin: "For reasons of humanity and personal
loyalty", he had to stay. Further, his wife and children would be
staying, as well. They would end their lives "side by side with the
In the mid-afternoon of 30 April, Hitler shot himself . After
Goebbels was depressed. Voss later recounted
Goebbels as saying: "It is a great pity that such a man is not with us
any longer. But there is nothing to be done. For us, everything is
lost now and the only way out left for us is the one which Hitler
chose. I shall follow his example."
On 1 May,
Goebbels completed his sole official act as Chancellor. He
dictated a letter to General
Vasily Chuikov and ordered German General
Hans Krebs to deliver it under a white flag . Chuikov, as commander of
Soviet 8th Guards Army
Soviet 8th Guards Army , commanded the Soviet forces in central
Berlin. Goebbels' letter informed Chuikov of Hitler's death and
requested a ceasefire. After this was rejected,
Goebbels decided that
further efforts were futile.
Later on 1 May, Vice-Admiral Voss saw
Goebbels for the last time:
"... While saying goodbye I asked
Goebbels to join us. But he replied:
'The captain must not leave his sinking ship. I have thought about it
all and decided to stay here. I have nowhere to go because with little
children I will not be able to make it, especially with a leg like
mine...' " The
Goebbels family. In this vintage manipulated
image , Goebbels' stepson
Harald Quandt (who was absent due to
military duty) was added to the group portrait.
On the evening of 1 May 1945,
Goebbels arranged for an SS dentist,
Helmut Kunz , to inject his six children with morphine so that when
they were unconscious, an ampule of cyanide could be then crushed in
each of their mouths. According to Kunz's later testimony, he gave
the children morphine injections but it was
Magda Goebbels and
Ludwig Stumpfegger , Hitler's personal
doctor, who administered the cyanide.
At around 20:30,
Goebbels and Magda left the bunker and walked up to
the garden of the Chancellery, where they committed suicide. There
are several different accounts of this event. According to one
Goebbels shot Magda and then himself. Another account was
that they each bit on a cyanide ampule and were given a coup de grâce
immediately afterwards. Goebbels' SS adjutant Günther Schwägermann
testified in 1948 that they walked ahead of him up the stairs and out
into the Chancellery garden. He waited in the stairwell and heard the
shots sound. Schwägermann then walked up the remaining stairs and,
once outside, saw their lifeless bodies. Following Goebbels' prior
order, Schwägermann had an SS soldier fire several shots into his
body, which did not move.
The bodies were then doused with petrol , but they were only
partially burned and not buried. A few days later, Voss was brought
back to the bunker by the Soviets to identify the partly burned bodies
of Joseph and
Magda Goebbels and their children. The remains of the
Goebbels' family, Hitler, Braun, General Krebs, and Hitler\'s dogs
were repeatedly buried and exhumed. The last burial was at the SMERSH
Magdeburg on 21 February 1946. In 1970,
KGB director Yuri
Andropov authorised an operation to destroy the remains. On 4 April
1970, a Soviet
KGB team used detailed burial charts to exhume five
wooden boxes at the
SMERSH facility. Those were burned,
crushed, and scattered into the Biederitz river, a tributary of the
ANTISEMITISM AND THE HOLOCAUST
A ruined synagogue in Munich after
Like many Germans of that time,
Goebbels was antisemitic from a young
age. After joining the NSDAP and meeting Hitler, his antisemitism
grew and became more radical. He began to see the Jews as a
destructive force with a negative impact on German society. After the
Nazis seized power, he repeatedly urged Hitler to take action against
the Jews. Despite his extreme antisemitism,
Goebbels spoke of the
"rubbish of race-materialism" and of the unnecessity of biological
racism for the Nazi ideology. He also described Himmler's ideology as
"in many regards, mad" and thought
Alfred Rosenberg 's theories were
The Nazi party's goal was to remove Jews from German cultural and
economic life, and eventually to remove them from the country
altogether. In addition to his propaganda efforts,
promoted the persecution of the Jews through pogroms, legislation, and
other actions. Discriminatory measures he instituted in
Berlin in the
early years of the regime included bans against their using public
transport and requiring that Jewish shops be marked as such.
In November 1938, the German diplomat
Ernst vom Rath was killed in
Paris by a young Jewish man. In response,
Goebbels arranged for
inflammatory antisemitic material to be released by the press, and the
result was the start of a pogrom . Jews were attacked and synagogues
destroyed all over Germany. The situation was further inflamed by a
Goebbels gave at a party meeting on the night of 8 November,
where he obliquely called for party members to incite further violence
against Jews while making it appear to be a spontaneous series of acts
by the German people. At least a hundred Jews were killed, several
hundred synagogues were damaged or destroyed, and thousands of Jewish
shops were vandalized in an event called _
Kristallnacht _ (Night of
Broken Glass). Around 30,000 Jewish men were sent to concentration
camps. The destruction stopped after a conference held on 12
November, where Göring pointed out that the destruction of Jewish
property was in effect the destruction of German property, since the
intention was that it would all eventually be confiscated.
Goebbels continued his intensive antisemitic propaganda campaign that
culminated in Hitler's 30 January 1939 Reichstag speech, which
Goebbels helped to write:
Yellow badge made mandatory by the
Nazis in France
If international finance Jewry in and outside Europe should succeed
in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result
will not be the bolshevization of the earth and thereby the victory of
Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!
Goebbels had been pressing for expulsion of the
since 1935, there were still 62,000 living in the city in 1940. Part
of the delay in their deportation was that they were needed as workers
in the armaments industry. Deportations of German Jews began in
October 1941, with the first transport from
Berlin leaving on 18
October. Some Jews were shot immediately on arrival in destinations
Kaunas . In preparation for the deportations,
Goebbels ordered that all German Jews were required by law to wear an
identifying yellow badge as of 5 September 1941. On 6 March 1942,
Goebbels received a copy of the minutes of the
Wannsee Conference .
The document made the Nazi policy clear: the Jewish population of
Europe was to be sent to extermination camps in occupied areas of
Poland and killed. His diary entries of the period show that he was
well aware of the fate of the Jews. "In general, it can probably be
established that 60 percent of them will have to be liquidated, while
only 40 percent can be put to work. ... A judgment is being carried
out on the Jews which is barbaric but thoroughly deserved," he wrote
on 27 March 1942.
Goebbels had frequent discussions with Hitler about the fate of the
Jews, a subject they discussed almost every time they met. He was
aware throughout that the Jews were being exterminated, and completely
supported this decision. He was one of the few top Nazi officials to
do so publicly.
Post-reconciliation photo commissioned by Hitler, 1938
Hitler was very fond of
Magda Goebbels and the children. He enjoyed
staying at the Goebbels'
Berlin apartment, where he could relax.
Magda had a close relationship with Hitler, and became a member of his
small coterie of female friends. She also became an unofficial
representative of the regime, receiving letters from all over Germany
from women with questions about domestic matters or child custody
Goebbels met the Czech actress
Lída Baarová and by the
winter of 1937 began an intense affair with her. Magda had a long
conversation with Hitler about it on 15 August 1938. Unwilling to put
up with a scandal involving one of his top ministers, Hitler demanded
Goebbels break off the relationship. Thereafter, Joseph and
Magda seemed to reach a truce until the end of September. The couple
had another falling out at that point, and once again Hitler became
involved, insisting the couple stay together. Hitler arranged for
publicity photos to be taken of himself with the reconciled couple in
October. Magda too had affairs, including a relationship with Kurt
Ludecke in 1933 and
Karl Hanke in 1938.
Goebbels family included
Harald Quandt (Magda's son from her
first marriage; born 1921), plus Helga (1932), Hilde (1934), Helmuth
(1935), Holde (1937), Hedda (1938), and Heide (1940). Harald was the
only member of the family to survive the war.
* Glossary of
* List of
Nazi Party leaders and officials
* ^ Among Goebbels' school papers offered for auction in 2012 were
more than 100 love letters written between
Goebbels and Stalherm. _The
Telegraph_ 2012 .
* ^ Hitler later removed the restriction on crucifixes, as it was
damaging morale. Rees -webkit-column-width: 20em; column-width: 20em;
* ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary: _Goebbels_
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Longerich 2015 , p. 5.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 2.
* ^ Hull 1969 , p. 149.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 299.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 6.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Longerich 2015 , p. 14.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 7.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 10.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 6.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , pp. 10–11, 14.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , pp. 6–7.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 14.
* ^ Evans 2003 , p. 204.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 164.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 12, 13.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Longerich 2015 , p. 16.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , pp. 19, 26.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 20, 21.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 17.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Longerich 2015 , p. 21.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 21, 22.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 22–25.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Longerich 2015 , p. 24.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 72, 88.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , pp. 32–33.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 3.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 32.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 33.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 25–26.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 27.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 24–26.
* ^ Reuth 1994 , p. 28.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 43.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 28, 33, 34.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 33.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 36.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 127–131.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 133–135.
* ^ Evans 2003 , pp. 196, 199.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 36, 37.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , pp. 40–41.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 46.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 167.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Kershaw 2008 , p. 169.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 168–169.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 66.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Longerich 2015 , p. 67.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 68.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Kershaw 2008 , p. 171.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , pp. 61, 64.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 94.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 62.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 71, 72.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 75.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 75.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , pp. 75–77.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 81.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , pp. 76, 80.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Longerich 2015 , p. 82.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , pp. 75–79.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 79.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 93, 94.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 84.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 89.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 82.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , pp. 80–81.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 95, 98.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 108–112.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 99–100.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Evans 2003 , p. 209.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 94.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 147–148.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 100–101.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 189.
* ^ Evans 2003 , pp. 209, 211.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 116.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Longerich 2015 , p. 124.
* ^ Siemens 2013 , p. 143.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 123.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 127.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Longerich 2015 , pp. 125, 126.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 200.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 128.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 129.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 130.
* ^ Evans 2003 , pp. 249–250.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 199.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kershaw 2008 , p. 202.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 151–152.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 94.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 167.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 227.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 172, 173, 184.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 125.
* ^ Evans 2003 , pp. 290–291.
* ^ Evans 2003 , p. 293.
* ^ Evans 2003 , p. 307.
* ^ Evans 2003 , pp. 310–311.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 206.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 131.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 323.
* ^ Evans 2003 , pp. 332–333.
* ^ Evans 2003 , p. 339.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 212.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 121.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 212–213.
* ^ Evans 2005 , p. 121.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 214.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 218.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 221.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 128–129.
* ^ Evans 2003 , p. 358.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 224.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Longerich 2010 , p. 40.
* ^ Evans 2003 , p. 344.
* ^ Evans 2005 , p. 14.
* ^ Hale 1973 , pp. 83–84.
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* ^ Hale 1973 , p. 86.
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* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 370.
* ^ LIFE Magazine 1938 .
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* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 157.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 142.
* ^ Evans 2005 , p. 138.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , pp. 142–143.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 140.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 127.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 226.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 434.
* ^ Snell 1959 , p. 7.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 292–293.
* ^ Evans 2005 , pp. 122–123.
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* ^ Thacker 2010 , pp. 184, 201.
* ^ Evans 2005 , pp. 171, 173.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 351.
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* ^ _A_ _B_ Thacker 2010 , p. 189.
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* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 382.
* ^ Longerich 2012 , p. 223.
* ^ Shirer 1960 , pp. 234–235.
* ^ Evans 2005 , pp. 241–243.
* ^ Evans 2005 , p. 244.
* ^ Evans 2005 , pp. 245–247.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 334.
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* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 352, 353.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 380–382.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 381, 382.
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* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 212.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , pp. 155, 180.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 422, 456–457.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , pp. 185–186.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 693.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 188.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 181.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 470.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 190.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 468–469.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Longerich 2015 , p. 509.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 510, 512.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , pp. 235–236.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 502–504.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , pp. 246–251.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 567.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 615.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , pp. 269–270.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 749–753.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 549–550.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 553–554.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 555.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 255.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 256.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 577.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , pp. 256–257.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 594.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 607, 609.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 611.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , pp. 268–270.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 627–628.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 634.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 637.
* ^ Evans 2008 , pp. 623–624.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 637–639.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 643.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 282.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 651.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 660.
* ^ Evans 2008 , p. 675.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 284.
* ^ Evans 2008 , p. 676.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 292.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 892, 893, 897.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Thacker 2010 , p. 290.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 288.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 897, 898.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 924, 925, 929, 930.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 289.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 291.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 295.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 918.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 918, 919.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 913, 933.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 891, 913–914.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 296.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 932.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 929.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 298.
* ^ Vinogradov 2005 , p. 154.
* ^ Dollinger 1967 , p. 231.
* ^ Beevor 2002 , pp. 342, 343.
* ^ Beevor 2002 , p. 343.
* ^ Beevor 2002 , pp. 343, 344.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 950.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 949, 950.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Longerich 2015 , p. 686.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 955.
* ^ Vinogradov 2005 , p. 157.
* ^ Vinogradov 2005 , p. 324.
* ^ Vinogradov 2005 , p. 156.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor 2002 , pp. 380, 381.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Joachimsthaler 1999 , p. 52.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor 2002 , p. 381.
* ^ Vinogradov 2005 , pp. 111, 333.
* ^ Vinogradov 2005 , p. 333.
* ^ Vinogradov 2005 , pp. 335, 336.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 24–25.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 39–40.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 145.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Michael 2006 , p. 177.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 454–455.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 156.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 454.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 455–459.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 400–401.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 205.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 469.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 464–466.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 236.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 235.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 513.
* ^ Longerich 2010 , pp. 309–310.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 514.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 328.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , pp. 326–329.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 391.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 159, 160.
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* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 179.
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* ^ _A_ _B_ Longerich 2015 , p. 392.
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* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 392–395.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , pp. 391, 395.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 317.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 204.
* ^ Longerich 2015 , p. 152.
* ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010 , p. 165.
* ^ Thacker 2010 , p. 149.
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