Jean-Baptiste
Contents 1 Biography 2 The Analytic Theory of Heat 3 Determinate equations 4 Discovery of the greenhouse effect 5 Works 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links Biography[edit]
Fourier was born at
1820 watercolor caricatures of French mathematicians Adrien-Marie
Legendre (left) and
In 1801,[4]
... the Prefect of the Department of
Hence being faithful to Napoleon, he took the office of Prefect.[4] It
was while at
Fourier had already experienced, in Egypt and Grenoble, some attacks of aneurism of the heart. At Paris, it was impossible to be mistaken with respect to the primary cause of the frequent suffocations which he experienced. A fall, however, which he sustained on the 4th of May 1830, while descending a flight of stairs, aggravated the malady to an extent beyond what could have been ever feared.[6] Shortly after this event, he died in his bed on 16 May 1830.
Fourier was buried in the
Sketch of Fourier, circa 1820. In 1822 Fourier published his work on heat flow in Théorie analytique
de la chaleur (The Analytical Theory of Heat),[8] in which he based
his reasoning on Newton's law of cooling, namely, that the flow of
heat between two adjacent molecules is proportional to the extremely
small difference of their temperatures. This book was translated,[9]
with editorial 'corrections',[10] into English 56 years later by
Freeman (1878).[11] The book was also edited, with many editorial
corrections, by Darboux and republished in French in 1888.[10]
There were three important contributions in this work, one purely
mathematical, two essentially physical. In mathematics, Fourier
claimed that any function of a variable, whether continuous or
discontinuous, can be expanded in a series of sines of multiples of
the variable. Though this result is not correct without additional
conditions, Fourier's observation that some discontinuous functions
are the sum of infinite series was a breakthrough. The question of
determining when a
Bust of Fourier in Grenoble Fourier left an unfinished work on determinate equations which was
edited by
Fourier's grave, Père Lachaise Cemetery In the 1820s Fourier calculated that an object the size of the Earth, and at its distance from the Sun, should be considerably colder than the planet actually is if warmed by only the effects of incoming solar radiation. He examined various possible sources of the additional observed heat in articles published in 1824[14] and 1827.[15] While he ultimately suggested that interstellar radiation might be responsible for a large portion of the additional warmth, Fourier's consideration of the possibility that the Earth's atmosphere might act as an insulator of some kind is widely recognized as the first proposal of what is now known as the greenhouse effect,[16] although Fourier never called it that.[17][18] In his articles, Fourier referred to an experiment by de Saussure, who lined a vase with blackened cork. Into the cork, he inserted several panes of transparent glass, separated by intervals of air. Midday sunlight was allowed to enter at the top of the vase through the glass panes. The temperature became more elevated in the more interior compartments of this device. Fourier concluded that gases in the atmosphere could form a stable barrier like the glass panes.[19] This conclusion may have contributed to the later use of the metaphor of the 'greenhouse effect' to refer to the processes that determine atmospheric temperatures.[20] Fourier noted that the actual mechanisms that determine the temperatures of the atmosphere included convection, which was not present in de Saussure's experimental device. Works[edit] Fourier, Joseph (1822). Théorie analytique de la chaleur. Paris: Firmin Didot Père et Fils. Fourier, Joseph (1824). Annales de chimie et de physique. 27. Paris: Annals of Chemistry and Physics. pp. 236–281. Fourier, Joseph (1827). Mémoire sur la température du globe terrestre et des espaces planétaires. 7. Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences of the Institut de France. pp. 569–604. Fourier, Joseph (1827). Mémoire sur la distinction des racines imaginaires, et sur l'application des théorèmes d'analyse algébrique aux équations transcendantes qui dépendant de la théorie de la chaleur. 7. Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences of the Institut de France. pp. 605–624. Fourier, Joseph (1827). Analyse des équations déterminées. 10. Firmin Didot frères. pp. 119–146. Fourier, Joseph (1827). Remarques générales sur l'application du principe de l'analyse algébrique aux équations transcendantes. 10. Paris: Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences of the Institut de France. pp. 119–146. Fourier, Joseph (1833). Mémoire d'analyse sur le mouvement de la chaleur dans les fluides. 12. Paris: Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences of the Institut de France. pp. 507–530. Fourier, Joseph (1821). Rapport sur les tontines. 5. Paris: Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences of the Institut de France. pp. 26–43. See also[edit] Fourier analysis[21] Fourier number Fourier–Deligne transform Fourier's law Heat equation List of things named after Joseph Fourier References[edit] ^ "Fourier". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ Cowie, J. (2007). Climate Change: Biological and Human Aspects. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-521-69619-7. ^ Boilly, Julien-Leopold. (1820). Album de 73 Portraits-Charge Aquarelle’s des Membres de I’Institute (watercolor portrait #29). Biliotheque de l’Institut de France. ^ a b c "Jean-Baptiste Fourier". Retrieved 4 April 2012. ^ Nowlan, Robert. A Chronicle of Mathematical People (PDF). ^ Arago, François (1857). Biographies of Distinguished Scientific Men. ^ A subscription has been launched to erect a new one. ^ Fourier, Joseph (1822). Théorie analytique de la chaleur (in French). Paris: Firmin Didot Père et Fils. OCLC 2688081. ^ Freeman, A. (1878). The Analytical Theory of Heat, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, cited by Truesdell, C.A. (1980), The Tragicomical History of Thermodynamics, 1822–1854, Springer, New York, ISBN 0-387-90403-4, page 52. ^ a b Truesdell, C.A. (1980). The Tragicomical History of Thermodynamics, 1822–1854, Springer, New York, ISBN 0-387-90403-4, page 52. ^ Gonzalez, Rafael; Woods, Richard E. (2010). Digital Image Processing (Third ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-13-234563-7. ^ Mason, Stephen F.: A History of the Sciences (Simon & Schuster, 1962), p. 169. ^ Fourier, Jean Baptiste Joseph (1820). "Sur l'usage du théorème de Descartes dans la recherche des limites des racines". Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomatique de Paris: 156–165. ^ Fourier J (1824). "Remarques Générales Sur Les Températures Du Globe Terrestre Et Des Espaces Planétaires". Annales de Chimie et de Physique. 27: 136–67. ^ Fourier J (1827). "Mémoire Sur Les Températures Du Globe Terrestre Et Des Espaces Planétaires". Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences. 7: 569–604. ^ Weart, S. (2008). The Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse Effect. Retrieved on 27 May 2008 ^ Fleming J R (1999). "Joseph Fourier, the "greenhouse effect", and the quest for a universal theory of terrestrial temperatures". Endeavour. 23 (2): 72–75. doi:10.1016/s0160-9327(99)01210-7. ^ Baum, Sr., Rudy M. (2016). "Future Calculations: The first climate change believer". Distillations. 2 (2): 38–39. Retrieved 22 March 2018. ^ Translation by W M Connolley of: Fourier 1827: MEMOIRE sur les temperatures du globe terrestre et des espaces planetaires ^ Osman, Jheni (2011), 100 Ideas that Changed the World, Random House, p. 65, ISBN 9781446417485, [Fourier] didn't call his discovery the greenhouse effect but future scientists named it that after an experiment by [de Saussure] which influenced Fourier's work . ^ Coppel, William A. (1969). "J.B. Fourier – on the occasion of his two hundredth birthday". Amer. Math. Monthly. 76: 468–483. doi:10.2307/2316953. Further reading[edit] Initial text from the public domain Rouse History of Mathematics
Fourier, Joseph. (1822). Theorie Analytique de la Chaleur. Firmin
Didot (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2009;
ISBN 978-1-108-00180-9)
Fourier, Joseph. (1878). The Analytical Theory of Heat. Cambridge
University Press (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2009;
ISBN 978-1-108-00178-6)
Fourier, J.-B.-J. (1824). Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences
de l'Institut de
External links[edit]
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Joseph Fourier O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Joseph Fourier", MacTutor
History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews .
Fourier, J. B. J., 1824, Remarques Générales Sur Les Températures
Du Globe Terrestre Et Des Espaces Planétaires., in Annales de Chimie
et de Physique, Vol. 27, pp. 136–167 – translation by Burgess
(1837).
Fourier 1827: MEMOIRE sur les températures du globe terrestre et des
espaces planétaires
Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France
v t e
Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 24601470 LCCN: n50023126 ISNI: 0000 0001 0879 2426 GND: 118684310 SELIBR: 234877 SUDOC: 026870908 BNF: cb11903259s (data) BIBSYS: 90531091 MGP: 17981 NLA: 36514055 NDL: 01032316 NKC: stk2008428682 Léonore: LH/2784/ |