The Info List - Joseph Deniker

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Joseph Deniker
Joseph Deniker
(6 March 1852 in Astrakhan – 18 March 1918 in Paris) was a French naturalist and anthropologist, known primarily for his attempts to develop highly detailed maps of race in Europe.


1 Life 2 Deniker's classification system 3 Selected works 4 References 5 External links

Life[edit] Deniker was born in 1852 to French parents in Astrakhan, Russian Empire. He first studied at the university and technical institute of St. Petersburg, where he adopted engineering as a profession, and in this capacity traveled extensively in the petroleum districts of the Caucasus, in Central Europe, Italy
and Dalmatia. Settling at Paris, France
in 1876, he studied at the Sorbonne, where he received a doctorate in natural science in 1886. In 1888 he was appointed chief librarian of the Natural History Museum in Paris. Deniker became one of the chief editors of the Dictionnaire de geographie universelle, and published many papers in the anthropological and zoological journals of France. In 1904 he was invited by the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain to give the Huxley Memorial Lecture. He died in Paris
in 1918. Deniker's classification system[edit]

Deniker's "Races de l'Europe" from 1899, listing as "principal races": Nordic, Littoral, Oriental, Dinaric, Iberic, Occidental and as "secondary races": Subnordic, Nord-Occidental, Vistulian, Subadriatic. Towards the north and east, boundaries to the territory settled by non-European races are shown: the Sami (Lap) (north), Eastern Finns (Finno-Ugrians) (east) and Turco-Mongols
(east and south-east)

Deniker's complicated maps of European races, of which he sometimes counted upwards of twenty, were widely referenced in his day, if only to illustrate the extremes of arbitrary racial classification.[1] Deniker had an extensive debate with another racial cartographer, William Z. Ripley, over the nature of race and the number of races. At the time, Ripley maintained that the peoples of Europe were composed of three main racial stocks, while Deniker held there were six primary European races (besides four secondary or subsidiary races). The six primary races are:

Nordic, in the Germanic core territory in Scandinavia, Northern Germany and Frisia, the British Isles and the Baltic. Littoral or Atlanto-Mediterranean, in the Pyrenees and parts of Spain, western and southern France
and north-western Italy Oriental; also called Eastern, in the Slavic core territory (Belarus, Ukraine and eastern Poland) Adriatic or Dinaric, around the Adriatic Sea, with widespread remnants in parts of France, Austria, Ukraine and Ciscaucasia. Ibero-Insular in the Iberian Peninsula, western France, southern Italy and the Mediterranean islands. Occidental (also called Cevenole); corresponding to Czekanowski's Lapponoid race, was supposedly the race of the paleolithic inhabitants of Europe, with scattered remnants throughout the continent

The four subtypes are:

Sub-Nordic, on the fringes of Germanic settlement in southern Britain, Germany and the Baltic North-Occidental, in the contact zone of Celtic and Germanic, in the British Isles and northern France Vistulian, named for the Vistula, in the Germanic-Slavic contact zone in Poland Sub-Adriatic; corresponding to Ripley's Alpine race, was primarily met in the Alps
and the historical Continental Celtic
Continental Celtic
core territory

According to Jan Czekanowski, both Deniker and Ripley omitted the existence of Armenoid race, which Czekanowski claims to be one of the four main races of Europe, met especially among the Eastern and Southern Europeans.[2] Deniker's most lasting contribution to the field of racial theory was the designation of one of his races as la race nordique. While this group had no special place in Deniker's racial model, this "Nordic race" would be elevated by the famous eugenicist and anthropologist Madison Grant
Madison Grant
in his Nordic theory
Nordic theory
to the engine of civilization. Grant adopted Ripley's three-race model for Europeans, but disliked Ripley's use of the "Teuton" for one of the races. Grant transliterated la race nordique into "Nordic", and promoted it to the top of his racial hierarchy in his own popular racial theory of the 1910s and 1920s. Deniker proposed that the concept of race was too confusing, and instead proposed the use of the word "ethnic group" instead, which was later adopted prominently in the work of Julian Huxley
Julian Huxley
and Alfred C. Haddon. Ripley argued that Deniker's idea of a race should be rather called a "type", since it was far less biologically rigid than most approaches to the question of race. Selected works[edit]

Recherches anatomiques et embryologiques sur les singes anthropoides (1886) Etude sur les Kalmouks (1883) Les Ghiliaks (1883) Races et peuples de la terre (1900) The races of man: an outline of anthropology and ethnography (1900)

The author abbreviation Deniker is used to indicate this individual as the author when citing a botanical name.[3] References[edit]

^ Ripley, William Z. (1899). "Deniker's Classification of the Races of Europe". The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 28: 166–173. Retrieved 2016-01-22.  ^ Czekanowski, Jan (1934). Człowiek w Czasie i Przestrzeni (eng. A Human in Time and Space) - The lexicon of biological anthropology. Kraków, Poland: Trzaska, Ewert i Michalski - Bibljoteka Wiedzy.  ^ http://www.genres.de/CF/ipgri_cwr/demo/authors.cfm?searchVal=Deniker[permanent dead link]

Arthur Keith and Alfred C. Haddon, "Obituary: Dr. Joseph Deniker" Man 18 (May 1918): 65-67. Ashley Montagu, "The Concept of Race," American Anthropologist 64:5 (October 1962): 919-928.

External links[edit]

The races of man: an outline of anthropology and ethnography at the Internet Archive Les Ghiliaks at Gallica

Find more aboutJoseph Denikerat's sister projects

Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata

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Historical race concepts

By color

Black Bronze Brown Red White Yellow


Australoid Capoid Caucasoid Mongoloid Negroid


Alpine Arabid Armenoid Atlantid Borreby Brunn Caspian Dinaric East Baltic Ethiopid Hamitic Dravidian Irano-Afghan Japhetic Malay Mediterranean Neo-Mongoloid Neo-Danubian Nordic Northcaucasian Ladogan Lappish Pamirid Proto-Mongoloid Semitic Turanid


Miscegenation Ethnogenesis List of racially mixed groups


Louis Agassiz John Baker Erwin Baur John Beddoe Robert Bennett Bean François Bernier Renato Biasutti Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Franz Boas Paul Broca Alice Mossie Brues Halfdan Bryn Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon Charles Caldwell Petrus Camper Samuel A. Cartwright Houston Stewart Chamberlain Sonia Mary Cole Carleton S. Coon Georges Cuvier Jan Czekanowski Charles Davenport Joseph Deniker Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt Anténor Firmin Eugen Fischer John Fiske Francis Galton Stanley Marion Garn Reginald Ruggles Gates George Gliddon Arthur de Gobineau Madison Grant John Grattan Hans F. K. Günther Ernst Haeckel Frederick Ludwig Hoffman Earnest Hooton Julian Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley Calvin Ira Kephart Robert Knox Robert E. Kuttner Georges Vacher de Lapouge Fritz Lenz Carl Linnaeus Cesare Lombroso Bertil Lundman Felix von Luschan Dominick McCausland John Mitchell Ashley Montagu Lewis H. Morgan Samuel George Morton Josiah C. Nott Karl Pearson Oscar Peschel Isaac La Peyrère Charles Pickering Ludwig Hermann Plate Alfred Ploetz James Cowles Prichard Otto Reche Gustaf Retzius William Z. Ripley Alfred Rosenberg Benjamin Rush Henric Sanielevici Heinrich Schmidt Ilse Schwidetzky Charles Gabriel Seligman Giuseppe Sergi Samuel Stanhope Smith Herbert Spencer Morris Steggerda Lothrop Stoddard William Graham Sumner Thomas Griffith Taylor Paul Topinard John H. Van Evrie Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer Rudolf Virchow Voltaire Alexander Winchell Ludwig Woltmann


An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in Different Climates (1744) The Outline of History of Mankind (1785) Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question (1849) An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
(1855) The Races of Europe (Ripley, 1899) The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899) Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
(1907) Heredity in Relation to Eugenics
(1911) Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916) The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race
(1916) The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
(1920) The Myth of the Twentieth Century
The Myth of the Twentieth Century
(1930) Annihilation of Caste
Annihilation of Caste
(1936) The Races of Europe (Coon, 1939) An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus (1943) The Race Question
The Race Question


Eugenics Great chain of being Monogenism Polygenism Pre-Adamite


History of anthropometry Racial categorization

in India in Latin America

in Brazil in Colombia

in Singapore in the United States

Scientific racism

Nazism and race

Racial hygiene Olive skin Whiteness

in the United States



Passing Racial stereotypes Martial race Master race Color names



Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 69061515 LCCN: n2001080451 ISNI: 0000 0000 8148 8626 GND: 116071389 SUDOC: 032184565 BNF: cb129475315 (data) NLA: 35256016 Léonore: LH/731/1 BNE: XX1248