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Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, GCB, PRS (24 February [O.S. 13 February] 1743 – 19 June 1820)[1] was an English naturalist, botanist and patron of the natural sciences. Banks made his name on the 1766 natural history expedition to Newfoundland and Labrador. He took part in Captain James Cook's first great voyage (1768–1771), visiting Brazil, Tahiti, and, after 6 months in New Zealand, Australia, returning to immediate fame. He held the position of President of the Royal Society
President of the Royal Society
for over 41 years. He advised King George III
King George III
on the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and by sending botanists around the world to collect plants, he made Kew the world's leading botanical gardens. Banks advocated British settlement in New South Wales
New South Wales
and colonisation of Australia, as well as the establishment of Botany
Botany
Bay as a place for the reception of convicts, and advised the British government on all Australian matters. He is credited with introducing the eucalyptus, acacia, and the genus named after him, Banksia, to the Western world. Approximately 80 species of plants bear his name. He was the leading founder of the African Association
African Association
and a member of the Society of Dilettanti
Society of Dilettanti
which helped to establish the Royal Academy.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Education

2 Newfoundland and Labrador 3 Endeavour voyage 4 Return home 5 Colonisation
Colonisation
of New South Wales 6 Later life 7 Legacy 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

10.1 Primary resources 10.2 Secondary resources

10.2.1 Select unpublished monographs 10.2.2 Fiction

11 External links

Early life[edit]

A 1757 portrait of Banks with a botanical illustration. Unknown artist, but attributed to Lemuel Francis Abbott
Lemuel Francis Abbott
or Johann Zoffany[2]

Banks was born on Argyle Street in London[3] to William Banks, a wealthy Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
country squire and member of the House of Commons, and his wife Sarah, daughter of William Bate. He had a younger sister, Sarah Sophia Banks, born in 1744. Education[edit] Banks was educated at Harrow School
Harrow School
from the age of 9 and at Eton College from 1756; his fellow students included his future shipmate Constantine Phipps. As a boy, Banks enjoyed exploring the Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
countryside and developed a keen interest in nature, history and botany. When he was 17, he was inoculated with smallpox, but he became ill and did not return to school. In late 1760, he was enrolled as a gentleman-commoner at the University of Oxford. At Oxford, he matriculated at Christ Church, where his studies were largely focused on natural history rather than the classical curriculum. Determined to receive botanical instruction, he paid the Cambridge botanist Israel Lyons to deliver a series of lectures at Oxford in 1764.[4] Banks left Oxford for Chelsea in December 1763. He continued to attend the university until 1764, but left that year without taking a degree.[5] His father had died in 1761, so when he turned 21 he inherited the impressive estate of Revesby Abbey, in Lincolnshire, becoming the local squire and magistrate, and sharing his time between Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
and London. From his mother's home in Chelsea he kept up his interest in science by attending the Chelsea Physic Garden
Chelsea Physic Garden
of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries
Worshipful Society of Apothecaries
and the British Museum, where he met Daniel Solander. He began to make friends among the scientific men of his day and to correspond with Carl Linnaeus, whom he came to know through Solander. As Banks's influence increased, he became an adviser to King George III
King George III
and urged the monarch to support voyages of discovery to new lands, hoping to indulge his own interest in botany. He became a Freemason sometime before 1769.[6] Newfoundland and Labrador[edit] In 1766 Banks was elected to the Royal Society, and in the same year, at 23, he went with Phipps aboard the frigate HMS Niger to Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
with a view to studying their natural history. He made his name by publishing the first Linnean descriptions of the plants and animals of Newfoundland and Labrador. His diary, describing his expedition to Newfoundland, was rediscovered recently in the Royal Geographical Society of South Australia.[7][8] Banks also documented 34 species of birds, including the great auk, which became extinct in 1844. On 7 May, he noted a large number of "penguins" swimming around the ship on the Grand Banks, and a specimen he collected in Chateau Bay, Labrador, was later identified as the great auk.[9] Endeavour voyage[edit]

Dr Daniel Solander, Sir Joseph Banks, Captain James Cook, Dr John Hawkesworth and Earl Sandwich by John Hamilton Mortimer, 1771.[10] Use a cursor to see who is who.[11]

Main article: First voyage of James Cook Banks was appointed to a joint Royal Navy/ Royal Society
Royal Society
scientific expedition to the south Pacific Ocean on HMS Endeavour, 1768–1771. This was the first of James Cook's voyages of discovery in that region. Banks funded seven others to join him: the Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander, the Finnish naturalist Herman Spöring, two artists, a scientific secretary, and two black servants from his estate.[12] The voyage went to Brazil, where Banks made the first scientific description of a now common garden plant, bougainvillea (named after Cook's French counterpart, Louis Antoine de Bougainville), and to other parts of South America. The voyage then progressed to Tahiti (where the transit of Venus was observed,[13] the overt purpose of the mission), to New Zealand and to the east coast of Australia, where Cook mapped the coastline and made landfall at Botany
Botany
Bay then at Round Hill (23-25 May 1770) which is now known as Seventeen Seventy and at Endeavour River
Endeavour River
(near modern Cooktown) in Queensland, where they spent almost seven weeks ashore while the ship was repaired after becoming holed on the Great Barrier Reef.[8] While they were in Australia, Banks, Daniel Solander
Daniel Solander
and the Finnish botanist Dr. Herman Spöring Jr. made the first major collection of Australian flora, describing many species new to science. Almost 800 specimens were illustrated by the artist Sydney Parkinson
Sydney Parkinson
and appear in Banks' Florilegium, finally published in 35 volumes between 1980 and 1990.

Satire on Banks titled "The Botanic Macaroni", by Matthew Darly, 1772. A macaroni was a pejorative term used for a follower of exaggerated continental fashion in the 18th century

Return home[edit] Banks arrived back in England on 12 July 1771 and immediately became famous. He intended to go with Cook on his second voyage, which began on 13 May 1772, but difficulties arose about Banks' scientific requirements on board Cook's new ship, Resolution. The Admiralty regarded Banks' demands as unacceptable and without prior warning withdrew his permission to sail. In July of the same year he and Daniel Solander
Daniel Solander
visited the Isle of Wight, Iceland
Iceland
and the western islands of Scotland.[8] aboard Sir Lawrence and returned with many botanical specimens. In 1773, he toured south Wales in the company of artist Paul Sandby.[14] When he settled in London he began work on his Florilegium. He kept in touch with most of the scientists of his time, was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1773, and added a fresh interest when he was elected to the Dilettante Society in 1774. He was afterwards secretary of this society from 1778 to 1797. On 30 November 1778 he was elected President of the Royal Society,[8] a position he was to hold with great distinction for over 41 years.

Banks as painted by Benjamin West
Benjamin West
in 1773.

In March 1779, Banks married Dorothea Hugessen, daughter of W. W. Hugessen, and settled in a large house at 32 Soho Square.[15] It continued to be his London residence for the remainder of his life. There he welcomed the scientists, students and authors of his period, and many distinguished foreign visitors. His sister Sarah Sophia Banks lived in the house with Banks and his wife. He had as librarian and curator of his collections Solander, Jonas Carlsson Dryander
Jonas Carlsson Dryander
and Robert Brown in succession. Also in 1779, Banks took a lease on an estate called Spring Grove, the former residence of Elisha Biscoe (1705–1776),[16] which he eventually bought outright from Biscoe's son also Elisha in 1808. The picture shows the house in 1815. Its thirty-four acres ran along the northern side of the London Road, Isleworth
Isleworth
and contained a natural spring, which was an important attraction to him. Banks spent much time and effort on this secondary home. He steadily created a renowned botanical masterpiece on the estate, achieved primarily with many of the great variety of foreign plants he had collected on his extensive travels around the world, particularly to Australia and the South Seas. The surrounding district became known as 'Spring Grove'.

Banks' house in Isleworth

The house was substantially extended and rebuilt by later owners and is now part of West Thames College. Banks was made a baronet in 1781,[8][17] three years after being elected president of the Royal Society. During much of this time he was an informal adviser to King George III
King George III
on the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, a position that was formalised in 1797. Banks dispatched explorers and botanists to many parts of the world, and through these efforts Kew Gardens became arguably the pre-eminent botanical gardens in the world, with many species being introduced to Europe through them and through Chelsea Physic Garden
Chelsea Physic Garden
and their head gardener John Fairbairn. He directly fostered several famous voyages, including that of George Vancouver
George Vancouver
to the northeastern Pacific (Pacific Northwest); and William Bligh's voyages (one entailing the infamous mutiny on the Bounty) to transplant breadfruit from the South Pacific to the Caribbean islands. Banks was also a major financial supporter of William Smith in his decade-long efforts to create a geological map of England, the first geological map of an entire country. He also chose Allan Cunningham for voyages to Brazil
Brazil
and the north and northwest coasts of Australia to collect specimens.

Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
(center), together with Omai
Omai
(left) and Daniel Solander, painted by William Parry, c. 1775–76.

Colonisation
Colonisation
of New South Wales[edit] It was Banks's own time in Australia, however, that led to his interest in the British colonisation of that continent. He was to be the greatest proponent of settlement in New South Wales. A genus of Proteaceae
Proteaceae
was named in his honour as Banksia.[8] In 1779 Banks, giving evidence before a committee of the House of Commons, had stated that in his opinion the place most eligible for the reception of convicts "was Botany
Botany
Bay, on the coast of New Holland", on the general grounds that, "it was not to be doubted that a Tract of Land such as New Holland, which was larger than the whole of Europe, would furnish Matter of advantageous Return".[18] His interest did not stop there, for when the settlement started, and for twenty years afterwards, his fostering care and influence was always being exercised. He was in fact the general adviser to the government on all Australian matters. He arranged that a large number of useful trees and plants should be sent out in the supply ship HMS Guardian which was unfortunately wrecked, as well as other boats; many of these were supplied by Hugh Ronalds from his nursery in Brentford.[19] Every vessel that came from New South Wales
New South Wales
brought plants or animals or geological and other specimens to Banks. He was continually called on for help in developing the agriculture and trade of the colony, and his influence was used in connection with the sending out of early free settlers, one of whom, a young gardener George Suttor, later wrote a memoir of Banks. The three earliest governors of the colony, Arthur Phillip, John Hunter, and Philip Gidley King, were in continual correspondence with him. Banks produced a significant body of papers, including one of the earliest Aboriginal Australian words lists compiled by a European.[20] Bligh was also appointed governor of New South Wales
New South Wales
on Banks's recommendation. Banks followed the explorations of Matthew Flinders, George Bass
George Bass
and Lieutenant James Grant, and among his paid helpers were George Caley, Robert Brown and Allan Cunningham. However, Banks backed William Bligh
William Bligh
to be installed as the new governor of New South Wales
New South Wales
and to crack down on the New South Wales Corps (a.k.a. Rum Corps) which made a fortune on the trading of rum. This brought him in direct confrontation with post- Rum Rebellion
Rum Rebellion
de facto leaders such as John Macarthur and George Johnston. This backing led to the Rum Rebellion
Rum Rebellion
in Sydney, whereby governor was overthrown by the two men. This became an embarrassment for Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
also because years earlier he campaigned that John Macarthur not be granted 10,000 acres of land near Sydney
Sydney
in the cow pastures, which was later granted by Lord Camden. The next governor, Lachlan Macquarie
Lachlan Macquarie
was asked to arrest Macarthur and Johnston, only to realise that they had left Sydney
Sydney
for London to defend themselves. What was humiliating was that Macarthur and Johnston were acquitted from all charges in London and both later returned to Sydney. Later life[edit]

This 1812 print depicts Banks as president of the Royal Society, wearing the insignia of the Order of the Bath

In The great South Sea Caterpillar, transform'd into a Bath Butterfly (1795), James Gillray
James Gillray
caricatured Banks's investiture with the Order of the Bath as a result of his expedition.

Banks met the young Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
in 1790, when Banks was already the President of the Royal Society.[21] Before Humboldt and his scientific travel companion and collaborator Aimé Bonpland
Aimé Bonpland
left for what became a five-year journal of exploration and discovery, Humboldt requested a British passport for Bonpland, should the two encounter British warships.[22] On their travels, Humboldt arranged for specimens be sent to Banks, should they be seized by the British.[23] Banks and Humboldt remained in touch until Banks's death, aiding Humboldt by mobilizing his wide network of scientific contacts to forward information to the great German scientist.[24] Both men believed in the internationalism of science. Banks was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1788.[25] Among other activities, Banks found time to serve as a trustee of the British Museum
British Museum
for 42 years.[26] He was High Sheriff of Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
in 1794. He worked with Sir George Staunton in producing the official account of the British mission to the Chinese Imperial court. This diplomatic and trade mission was headed by George, Earl Macartney. Although the Macartney Embassy
Macartney Embassy
returned to London without obtaining any concession from China, the mission could have been termed a success because it brought back detailed observations. This multi-volume work was taken chiefly from the papers of Lord Macartney and from the papers of Sir Erasmus Gower, who was Commander of the expedition. Banks was responsible for selecting and arranging engraving of the illustrations in this official record.[27] Banks was invested as a Knight of the Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath
(KB) on 1 July 1795,[28] which became Knight Grand Cross
Knight Grand Cross
(GCB) when the order was restructured in 1815.[29] Banks's health began to fail early in the 19th century
19th century
and he suffered from gout[8] every winter. After 1805 he practically lost the use of his legs and had to be wheeled to his meetings in a chair, but his mind remained as vigorous as ever. He had been a member of the Society of Antiquaries nearly all his life, and he developed an interest in archaeology in his later years. He was made an honorary founding member of the Wernerian Natural History Society
Wernerian Natural History Society
of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
in 1808. In 1809 he became associated member of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands.[30] In 1809, his friend Alexander Henry dedicated his travel book to him. In May 1820 he forwarded his resignation as president of the Royal Society, but withdrew it at the request of the council. He died on 19 June 1820 in Spring Grove House, Isleworth, London, and was buried at St Leonard's Church, Heston. Lady Banks survived him, but there were no children.[8] Legacy[edit]

1967 Australian paper note obverse featuring Joseph Banks

Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
by Anne Seymour Damer, British Library

Portrait of Banks by Thomas Phillips
Thomas Phillips
(1810).

Banks was a major supporter of the internationalist nature of science, being actively involved both in keeping open the lines of communication with continental scientists during the Napoleonic Wars, and in introducing the British people to the wonders of the wider world. He was honoured with many place names in the South Pacific: Banks Peninsula
Banks Peninsula
on the South Island, New Zealand; the Banks Islands
Banks Islands
in modern-day Vanuatu; the Banks Strait between Tasmania
Tasmania
and the Furneaux Islands; Banks Island
Banks Island
in the Northwest Territories, Canada; and the Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
Group in South Australia.[31] The Canberra
Canberra
suburb of Banks, the electoral Division of Banks, and the Sydney
Sydney
suburbs of Bankstown, Banksia
Banksia
and Banksmeadow are all named after him. An image of Banks was featured on the Australian paper $5 note before it was replaced by the later polymer currency.

Banks' house was used for the offices of the Zoological Society of London.

In 1986 Banks was honoured by his portrait being depicted on a postage stamp issued by Australia Post.[32] In Lincoln, England, The Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
Conservatory is located at The Lawn, Lincoln
The Lawn, Lincoln
adjacent to Lincoln Castle. Its tropical hot house has numerous plants related to Banks's voyages, with samples from across the world, including Australia. A plaque was installed in Lincoln Cathedral
Lincoln Cathedral
in his honour. In Boston, Lincolnshire, Banks was Recorder for the town. His portrait, painted in 1814 by Thomas Phillips, was commissioned by the Corporation of Boston, as a tribute to one whose 'judicious and active exertions improved and enriched this borough and neighbourhood'. It cost them 100 guineas. The portrait is now hanging in the Council Chamber of the Guildhall Museum. The Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
Centre is located in Horncastle, Lincolnshire, housed in a Grade II listed building which was recently restored by the Heritage Trust of Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
to celebrate Banks' life. Horncastle is located a few miles from Banks' Revesby estate and the naturalist was the town's Lord of the Manor. The centre is located in Bridge Street. It boasts research facilities, historic links to Australia, and a garden in which rare plants can be viewed and purchased. Situated in the Sydney
Sydney
suburb of Revesby, Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
High School is a NSW Government
NSW Government
school named after Banks. At the 2011 Chelsea Flower Show, an exhibition garden celebrated the historic link between Banks and the botanical discoveries of flora and fauna on his journey through South America, Tahiti, New Zealand and eventually Australia on Captain Cook's ship Endeavour. The competition garden was the entry of Melbourne's Royal Botanic Gardens with an Australian theme. It was based on the metaphorical journey of water through the continent, related to the award-winning Australian Garden at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Cranbourne. The design won a gold medal.[33] In 1911 London County Council
London County Council
marked Banks' house at 32 Soho Square with a blue plaque. This was replaced in 1938 with a rectangular stone plaque commemorating Banks as well as botanists David Don and Robert Brown and meetings of the Linnean Society.[34] Banks appears in the historical novel Mutiny on the Bounty, by Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall. Banks appears briefly as a contact with British naval intelligence in the historical novel Post Captain, from the Aubrey–Maturin series
Aubrey–Maturin series
by Patrick O'Brian. He is also featured in Elizabeth Gilbert's 2013 best-selling novel,The Signature of All Things.and is a major character in Martin Davies 2005 novel "The Conjuror's Bird". The standard author abbreviation Banks is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.[35] See also[edit]

African Association, a British society led by Joseph Banks, which was dedicated to the exploration of West Africa European and American voyages of scientific exploration List of Notable Freemasons History of Australia

Notes[edit]

^ Sir Joseph Banks, Baronet. Britannica.com. Retrieved on 22 June 2015. ^ O'Brian, Patrick (1993) Joseph Banks: A Life. London: David R. Godine, pp. 23–24, ISBN 0-87923-930-1. ^ http://www.royalsoced.org.uk/cms/files/fellows/biographical_index/fells_indexp1.pdf ^ John Gascoigne, Banks, Sir Joseph, baronet (1743–1820), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University
Oxford University
Press, September 2004 doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/1300. ^ Banks was however awarded an honorary degree by Oxford University upon his return from his voyage to the South Seas. See; Banks, Sir Joseph,Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Scribner, 1970. ^ Jackson, John (October 2007). "Specialist Lodges". MQ Magazine (27): ns.  ^ Tuck, Leslie. Montevecchi, William. Nuttall Ornithological Club (1987). Newfoundland Birds, Exploitation, Study, Conservation, Harvard University. ^ a b c d e f g h Gilbert, L. A. (1966). "Banks, Sir Joseph (1743–1820)". Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 1. MUP. pp. 52–55. Retrieved 6 November 2007.  ^ Lysaght, Averil M. (1971) Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
in Newfoundland and Labrador, 1766 Berkeley: University of California Press, p. 168, ISBN 0-520-01780-3. ^ Digital Collection, National Library of Australia ^ Catalogue, National Library of Australia, accessed February 2010 ^ Richard Holmes (2009). The Age of Wonder. HarperPress. , p. 10. Holmes incorrectly states that Green's first name was William, not Charles. ^ Holmes 2008, pp. 1-54. ^ Colley, Linda (2009), "Men at arms", The Guardian, 7 November 2009. ^ Holmes 2008, pp. 54. ^ Susan Reynolds (editor) Heston
Heston
and Isleworth, A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 3: Victoria County History, 1962 ^ "No. 12172". The London Gazette. 20 March 1781. p. 5.  ^ Journals of the House of Commons, 19 Geo. III, 1779, Vol. 37, p. 311. [1] ^ Ronalds, B.F. (2017). "Ronalds Nurserymen in Brentford
Brentford
and Beyond". Garden History. 45: 82–100.  ^ 1414, scheme=AGLSTERMS.AglsAgent; corporateName=State Library of New South Wales; address=Macquarie Street, Sydney, NSW 2000; contact=+61 2 9273 (2016-06-29). "Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
Collection". www.sl.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 2017-01-18.  ^ Andrea Wulf, The Invention of Nature: Alexander von Humboldt's New World. New York: Alfred A. Knopf 2015, p. 19. ^ Wulf, The Invention of Nature, p. 44. ^ Wulf, The Invention of Nature, p. 76. ^ Wulf, The Invention of Nature, p. 136. ^ " Book
Book
of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 17 May 2011.  ^ Anderson, R. G. W. (2008). " Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
and the British Museum, The World of Collecting, 1770–1830". Journal of the History of Collections. 20: 151. doi:10.1093/jhc/fhm040.  ^ Banks, Joseph. Papers of Sir Joseph Banks; Section 12: Lord Macartney's embassy to China; Series 62: Papers concerning publication of the account of Lord Macartney's Embassy to China, ca 1797. [State Library of New South Wales.] ^ "No. 13792". The London Gazette. 30 June 1795. p. 688.  ^ "No. 16972". The London Gazette. 4 January 1815. pp. 17–20.  ^ "Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
(1743–1820)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 19 July 2015.  ^ Flinders, Matthew (1966) [1814]. A Voyage to Terra Australis : undertaken for the purpose of completing the discovery of that vast country, and prosecuted in the years 1801, 1802, and 1803 in His Majesty's ship the Investigator, and subsequently in the armed vessel Porpoise and Cumberland Schooner; with an account of the shipwreck of the Porpoise, arrival of the Cumberland at Mauritius, and imprisonment of the commander during six years and a half in that island (Facsimile ed.). Adelaide; Reprint of: London : G. and W. Nicol, 1814 ed. In two volumes, with an Atlas (3 volumes): Libraries Board of South Australia. p. 234. Retrieved 24 December 2013.  ^ Australian 90c postal stamp. JPG image. ^ Gadd, Denise (25 May 2011). "In full bloom at Chelsea". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 25 May 2011.  ^ "BANKS, SIR JOSEPH (1743–1820), BROWN, ROBERT (1773–1858), DON, DAVID (1800–1841)". English Heritage. Retrieved 5 January 2016.  ^ IPNI.  Banks. 

References[edit] Primary resources[edit]

State Library of New South Wales. Papers of Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
and The Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks, 1768–1771 National Library of Australia
National Library of Australia
(NLA). Papers of Sir Joseph Banks Royal Geographical Society of South Australia Journal of a voyage to Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
commencing 7 April and ending 17 November 1766

Secondary resources[edit]

Carter, Harold Burnell (1988) Sir Joseph Banks, 1743–1820 London: British Museum
British Museum
of Natural History ISBN 0-565-00993-1; Durt, Tania (2007) "Joseph Banks", pp. 173–181 in The Great Naturalists, edited by Robert Huxley. London: Thames & Hudson with the Natural History Museum. Fara, Patricia (2004) Sex, Botany
Botany
& Empire: The Story Of Carl Linnaeus And Joseph Banks. New York: Columbia University Press ISBN 0-231-13426-6 Gascoigne, John (1994) Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
and the English Enlightenment: Useful Knowledge and Polite Culture Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-54211-1 Gascoigne, John (1998) Science in the Service of Empire: Joseph Banks, The British State and the Uses of Science in the Age of Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-55069-6 Hawkesworth, John; Byron, John; Wallis, Samuel; Carteret, Philip; Cook, James; Banks, Joseph (1773). An account of the voyages undertaken by the order of His present Majesty for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere, and successively performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret, and Captain Cook, in the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavour drawn up from the journals which were kept by the several commanders, and from the papers of Joseph Banks, esq. London Printed for W. Strahan and T. Cadell. , Volume I, Volume II-III Holmes, Richard (2008) ' Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
in Paradise', in The Age of Wonder: How the Romantic Generation Discovered the Beauty and Terror of Science. Vintage Books, New York. ISBN 978-1-4000-3187-0. Kryza, Frank T. (207) The Race to Timbuktu: In Search of Africa's City of Gold. New York: HarperCollins ISBN 0-06-056065-7 O'Brian, Patrick 1993 Joseph Banks: A Life. London: David R. Godine, 1993. ISBN 0-87923-930-1, reprinted by University of Chicago Press, 1997 ISBN 0-226-61628-2 ——— 1987 Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
London: Harvill Press. ISBN 0-00-272340-9

Select unpublished monographs[edit]

Cameron, H. C. (1952) Sir Joseph Banks, K.B., P.R.S.; the Autocrat of the Philosophers, University of London. Carter, H. B. (1964) His Majesty's Spanish Flock: Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
and the Merinos of George III of England, University of Sydney. Dawson, W. R. (ed) (1958) The Banks Letters, University of London. Duncan, A. (1821) A Short Account of the Life of the Right Honourable Sir Joseph Banks, University of Edinburgh. Gilbert, L. (1962) Botanical Investigation of Eastern Seaboard Australia, 1788–1810, B.A. thesis, University of New England, Australia. Mackaness, G. (1936) Sir Joseph Banks. His Relations with Australia, University of Sydney.

Fiction[edit] Novels based on a mix of historical fact and conjecture about Banks' early life include:

Davies, Martin (2005) The Conjurer's Bird New York: Shaye Areheart/Random House. ISBN 1-4000-9733-9 O'Brian, Patrick Aubrey–Maturin series Richards, D. Manning. Destiny in Sydney: An epic novel of convicts, Aborigines, and Chinese embroiled in the birth of Sydney, Australia. First book in Sydney
Sydney
series. Washington DC: Aries Books, 2012. ISBN 978-0-9845410-0-3

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Joseph Banks.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Joseph Banks

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Banksia.

Works by Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
at Project Gutenberg Australia Journal of the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
during Captain Cook's first voyage in H.M.S. Endeavour in 1768–71 to Terra del Fuego, Otahite, New Zealand, Australia, the Dutch East Indies, etc. Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
and J. D. Hooker. Macmillan, 1896. Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Correspondence concerning Iceland: written to Sir Joseph Banks, 1772–1818, from the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Lovell, Jennifer. "A Bath Butterfly Botany
Botany
and Eighteenth Century Sexual Politics." National Library of Australia
National Library of Australia
News 15.7 (April 2005). Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
Society. "New Society based in Lincolnshire, England" British Museum: Bronze portrait bust of Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
by Anne Seymour Damer (1814) BBC: Historic figures; BBC-Radio4: Science at Sea "Archival material relating to Joseph Banks". UK National Archives.  Papers of Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
– State Library of New South Wales William Bligh's letters to Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
concerning the first Breadfruit
Breadfruit
Expedition

v t e

Presidents of the Royal Society

17th century

Viscount Brouncker (1662) Joseph Williamson (1677) Christopher Wren
Christopher Wren
(1680) John Hoskyns (1682) Cyril Wyche
Cyril Wyche
(1683) Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys
(1684) Earl of Carbery (1686) Earl of Pembroke (1689) Robert Southwell (1690) Charles Montagu (1695) Lord Somers (1698)

18th century

Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
(1703) Hans Sloane
Hans Sloane
(1727) Martin Folkes
Martin Folkes
(1741) Earl of Macclesfield (1752) Earl of Morton (1764) James Burrow
James Burrow
(1768) James West (1768) James Burrow
James Burrow
(1772) John Pringle
John Pringle
(1772) Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
(1778)

19th century

William Hyde Wollaston
William Hyde Wollaston
(1820) Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
(1820) Davies Gilbert
Davies Gilbert
(1827) Duke of Sussex (1830) Marquess of Northampton (1838) Earl of Rosse (1848) Lord Wrottesley (1854) Benjamin Collins Brodie (1858) Edward Sabine
Edward Sabine
(1861) George Biddell Airy
George Biddell Airy
(1871) Joseph Dalton Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker
(1873) William Spottiswoode
William Spottiswoode
(1878) Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
(1883) George Gabriel Stokes (1885) William Thomson (1890) Joseph Lister
Joseph Lister
(1895)

20th century

William Huggins
William Huggins
(1900) Lord Rayleigh (1905) Archibald Geikie
Archibald Geikie
(1908) William Crookes
William Crookes
(1913) J. J. Thomson
J. J. Thomson
(1915) Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington
(1920) Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
(1925) Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
(1930) William Henry Bragg
William Henry Bragg
(1935) Henry Hallett Dale
Henry Hallett Dale
(1940) Robert Robinson (1945) Edgar Adrian (1950) Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
(1955) Howard Florey
Howard Florey
(1960) Patrick Blackett (1965) Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
(1970) Lord Todd (1975) Andrew Huxley
Andrew Huxley
(1980) George Porter
George Porter
(1985) Sir Michael Atiyah
Michael Atiyah
(1990) Sir Aaron Klug
Aaron Klug
(1995)

21st century

Robert May (2000) Martin Rees (2005) Sir Paul Nurse
Paul Nurse
(2010) Sir Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
(2015)

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Captain James Cook

Voyages

First voyage Second voyage Third voyage

Vessels

HMS Adventure HMS Discovery HMS Eagle HMS Endeavour HMS Grenville HMS Pembroke HMS Resolution

Associates

Joseph Banks William Bayly William Bligh Alexander Buchan James Burney Charles Clerke James Colnett Alexander Dalrymple Georg Forster Johann Reinhold Forster Tobias Furneaux John Gore Charles Green Zachary Hickes James King John Ledyard David Nelson Omai Hugh Palliser Sydney
Sydney
Parkinson Nathaniel Portlock Edward Riou Henry Roberts David Samwell Daniel Solander Herman Spöring William Taylor James Trevenen John Watts John Webber

Artworks

Paintings of the death of Cook

Zoffany's Death of Cook

Statue in The Mall, London

Related

1769 Transit of Venus
Transit of Venus
observed from Tahiti Kidnapping of Kalaniʻōpuʻu Birthplace Museum Cooks' Cottage James Cook
James Cook
Collection: Australian Museum Memorial Museum

v t e

Natural history

Pioneering naturalists

Classical antiquity

Aristotle
Aristotle
(History of Animals) Theophrastus
Theophrastus
(Historia Plantarum) Aelian (De Natura Animalium) Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(Natural History) Dioscorides (De Materia Medica)

Renaissance

Gaspard Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin
(Pinax theatri botanici) Otto Brunfels Hieronymus Bock Andrea Cesalpino Valerius Cordus Leonhart Fuchs Conrad Gessner
Conrad Gessner
(Historia animalium) Frederik Ruysch William Turner (Avium Praecipuarum, New Herball) John Gerard
John Gerard
(Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes)

Enlightenment

Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
(Micrographia) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek William Derham Hans Sloane Jan Swammerdam Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
(Systema Naturae) Georg Steller Joseph Banks Johan Christian Fabricius James Hutton John Ray
John Ray
(Historia Plantarum) Comte de Buffon (Histoire Naturelle) Bernard Germain de Lacépède Gilbert White
Gilbert White
(The Natural History of Selborne) Thomas Bewick
Thomas Bewick
(A History of British Birds) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
(Philosophie Zoologique)

19th century

George Montagu (Ornithological Dictionary) Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
(Le Règne Animal) William Smith Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
(On the Origin of Species) Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
(The Malay Archipelago) Henry Walter Bates
Henry Walter Bates
(The Naturalist
Naturalist
on the River Amazons) Alexander von Humboldt John James Audubon
John James Audubon
(The Birds of America) William Buckland Charles Lyell Mary Anning Jean-Henri Fabre Louis Agassiz Philip Henry Gosse Asa Gray William Jackson Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker William Jardine (The Naturalist's Library) Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
(Kunstformen der Natur) Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
(The Royal Natural History)

20th century

Abbott Thayer (Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom) Hugh B. Cott
Hugh B. Cott
(Adaptive Coloration in Animals) Niko Tinbergen (The Study of Instinct) Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
(On Aggression) Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
(The Dancing Bees) Ronald Lockley
Ronald Lockley
(Shearwaters)

Topics

Natural history
Natural history
museums (List) Parson-naturalists (List) Natural History Societies List of natural history dealers

v t e

Premier Grand Lodge of England

Grand Masters

Anthony Sayer
Anthony Sayer
(1717–1718) George Payne (1718–1719) John Theophilus Desaguliers
John Theophilus Desaguliers
(1719–1720) George Payne (1720–1721) Duke of Montagu (1721–1723) Duke of Wharton (1723) Earl of Dalkeith (1723–1724) Duke of Richmond (1724) Lord Paisley (1724–1725) Earl of Inchiquin (1726–1727) Baron Colerane (1727–1728) Baron Kingston (1728–1730) Duke of Norfolk (1730–1731) Baron Lovell (1731–1732) Viscount Montagu (1732–1733) Earl of Strathmore (1733–1734) Earl of Crawford (1734–1735) Lord Weymouth (1735–1736) Earl of Loudoun (1736–1737) Earl of Darnley (1737–1738) Marquis of Carnarvon (1738–1739) Baron Raymond (1739–1740) Earl of Kintore (1740–1741) Earl of Morton (1741–1742) Baron Ward (1742–1744) Lord Cranstoun (1744–1747) Baron Byron (1747–1752) Baron Carysfort (1752–1753) Marquis of Carnarvon (1754–1757) Lord Aberdour (1757–1762) Earl Ferrers (1762–1764) Baron Blayney (1764–1767) Duke of Beaufort (1767–1772) Baron Petre (1772–1777) Duke of Manchester (1777–1782) Duke of Cumberland (1782–1790) George, Prince of Wales (1792–1813) Duke of Sussex (1813)

Related articles

History of Freemasonry Antient Grand Lodge of England United Grand Lodge of England James Anderson's The Constitutions of the Free-Masons (1723) Freemasons' Tavern Freemasons' Hall, London Royal Society Society of Antiquaries of London Royal College of Physicians Worshipful Society of Apothecaries Spalding Gentlemen's Society Newtonianism English Enlightenment Order of the Bath Walpole ministries Whiggism
Whiggism
(Kit-Cat Club) Gormogons Hellfire Club Foundling Hospital Unlawful Societies Act

Members

James Anderson John Byrom William Stukeley William Jones William Cowper Charles Delafaye Baron Carpenter William Billers Sir Thomas Prendergast, 2nd Baronet Brook Taylor Martin Folkes John Arbuthnot Charles Cox Earl Cornwallis Richard Cantillon John Machin William Rutty James Vernon John Senex James Thornhill Earl of Macclesfield John Browne James Jurin James Douglas Alexander Stuart Ephraim Chambers Richard Manningham Frank Nicholls Richard Rawlinson Charles Stanhope James Cavendish Earl of Hopetoun William Richardson William Becket John Anstis Duke of Ancaster Charles Hayes Edmund Prideaux George Shelvocke John Woodward John Ward John Baptist Grano Baron King Jacques Leblon Adolphus Oughton Sir Robert Rich, 4th Baronet Viscount Cobham Francis Columbine Hugh Warburton Earl of Pembroke Viscount Townshend Martin Bladen Earl Waldegrave Duke of Kingston Earl of Burlington Earl of Essex Duke of Queensberry Earl of Deloraine Earl of Portmore Duke of Marlborough Baron Baltimore Duke of Atholl Marquess of Lothian Earl of Balcarres Earl of Winchilsea Sir Arthur Acheson, 5th Baronet Sir Robert Lawley, 4th Baronet Alexander Brodie William Hogarth Charles Labelye Walter Calverley-Blackett Frederick, Prince of Wales Thomas Wright Edward Gibbon Baron Hervey Thomas Dunckerley William Preston Marquess of Hastings James Moore Smythe Robert Boyle-Walsingham Sir Robert de Cornwall Batty Langley Thomas Arne John Soane Joseph Banks Johan Zoffany John Coustos Hipólito da Costa Meyer Löw Schomberg Moses Mendes Meyer Solomon Moses Montefiore Nathan Mayer Rothschild

Prime Ministers

Robert Walpole Duke of Newcastle

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 46830189 LCCN: n50036748 ISNI: 0000 0001 2131 0954 GND: 118808818 SELIBR: 176722 SUDOC: 03213570X BNF: cb12322420k (data) ULAN: 500313846 NLA: 35154307 Botanist: Banks RKD: 448

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