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Joséphine de Beauharnais
Joséphine de Beauharnais
(pronounced [ʒo.ze.fin də‿bo.aʁ.nɛ]; née Marie-Josèphe-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie; 23 June 1763 – 29 May 1814) was the first wife of Napoleon
Napoleon
I, and thus the first Empress of the French (commonly called Empress Joséphine or just Joséphine). Although she is often referred to as "Joséphine de Beauharnais", it is not a name she ever used in her lifetime, as "Beauharnais" is the name of her first husband, which she ceased to use upon her marriage to Napoleon, taking the last name "Bonaparte"[1] while she did not use the name "Joséphine" before meeting Napoleon, who was the first to begin calling her such, perhaps from a middle name of "Josephe". In her life before Napoleon, the woman now known as Joséphine went by the name of Rose, or Marie-Rose, Tascher de la Pagerie, later de Beauharnais, and she sometimes reverted to using her maiden-name of Tascher de la Pagerie in later life. After her marriage to the then General Bonaparte, she adopted the name Joséphine Bonaparte and the name of "Rose" faded into her past. The misnomer "Joséphine de Beauharnais" first emerged during the restoration of the Bourbons, who were hesitant to refer to her by either Napoleon's surname or her Imperial title and settled instead on the surname of her late first husband. Her marriage to Napoleon
Napoleon
I was her second; her first husband, Alexandre de Beauharnais, was guillotined during the Reign of Terror, and she was imprisoned in the Carmes prison until five days after his execution. Her two children by Beauharnais
Beauharnais
became significant to royal lineage. Through her daughter, Hortense, she was the maternal grandmother of Napoléon
Napoléon
III. Through her son, Eugène, she was the great-grandmother of later Swedish and Danish kings and queens. The reigning houses of Belgium, Norway and Luxembourg also descend from her. She did not bear Napoleon
Napoleon
any children; as a result, he divorced her in 1810 to marry Marie Louise of Austria. Joséphine was the recipient of numerous love letters written by Napoleon, many of which still exist. Her Château de Malmaison
Château de Malmaison
was noted for its magnificent rose garden, which she supervised closely, owing to her passionate interest in roses, collected from all over the world.

Contents

1 Early life and first marriage 2 Marriage to Napoléon 3 Empress of the French 4 Later life and death 5 Disputed birthplace 6 Descendants 7 Nature and appearance 8 Patroness of roses 9 Titles, styles, and arms

9.1 Titles and styles 9.2 Arms

10 Ancestry 11 In popular culture

11.1 Statue 11.2 Fiction books 11.3 Television 11.4 Music

12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Early life and first marriage[edit]

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Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de La Pagerie was born in Les Trois-Îlets, Martinique
Martinique
to a wealthy white Creole family that owned a sugarcane plantation, which is now a museum.[2] She was the eldest daughter of Joseph-Gaspard Tascher (1735–1790), knight, Seigneur de (lord of) la Pagerie, lieutenant of Troupes de Marine, and his wife, the former Rose-Claire des Vergers de Sannois (1736–1807), whose maternal grandfather, Anthony Brown, may have been Irish. The family struggled financially after hurricanes destroyed their estate in 1766. Edmée (French, Desirée), Joséphine's paternal aunt, had been the mistress of François, Vicomte de Beauharnais, a French aristocrat. When François's health began to fail, Edmée arranged the advantageous marriage of her niece, Catherine-Désirée, to François's son Alexandre. This marriage would be highly beneficial for the Tascher family, because it would keep the Beauharnais
Beauharnais
money in their hands; however, 12-year-old Catherine died on 16 October 1777, before she could leave Martinique
Martinique
for France. In service to their aunt Edmée's goals, Catherine was replaced by her older sister, Joséphine. In October 1779, Joséphine went to France
France
with her father. She married Alexandre on 13 December 1779, in Noisy-le-Grand. They had two children: a son, Eugène de Beauharnais
Eugène de Beauharnais
(1781–1824), and a daughter, Hortense de Beauharnais
Hortense de Beauharnais
(1783–1837) (who later married Napoléon's brother Louis Bonaparte
Louis Bonaparte
in 1802). Joséphine and Alexandre's marriage was not a happy one, leading to a court-ordered separation during which she and the children lived at Alexandre's expense in the Pentemont Abbey. On 2 March 1794, during the Reign of Terror, the Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety
ordered the arrest of her husband. He was jailed in the Carmes prison in Paris. Considering Joséphine as too close to the counter-revolutionary financial circles, the Committee ordered her arrest on 18 April 1794. A warrant of arrest was issued against her on 2 Floréal, year II (April 21, 1794), and she was imprisoned in the Carmes prison until 10 Thermidor, year II (28 July 1794). Her husband was accused of having poorly defended Mainz in July 1793, and being considered an aristocratic "suspect", was sentenced to death and guillotined, with his cousin Augustin, on 23 July 1794, on the Place de la Révolution (today's Place de la Concorde) in Paris. Joséphine was freed five days later, thanks to the fall and execution of Robespierre, which ended the Reign of Terror. On 27 July 1794 (9 Thermidor), Tallien
Tallien
arranged the liberation of Thérèse Cabarrus, and soon after that of Joséphine. In June 1795, a new law allowed her to recover the possessions of Alexandre. Marriage to Napoléon[edit]

Bust of Josephine Bonaparte, c. 1808 CE. Marble, from Paris, France. By Joseph Chinard. Bequeathed by Miss F.H. Spiers. The Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Madame de Beauharnais
Beauharnais
had affairs with several leading political figures, including Paul François Jean Nicolas Barras. In 1795, she met Napoléon
Napoléon
Bonaparte, six years her junior, and became his mistress. In a letter to her in December, he wrote, "I awake full of you. Your image and the memory of last night’s intoxicating pleasures has left no rest to my senses." In January 1796, Napoléon Bonaparte proposed to her and they were married on 9 March. Until meeting Bonaparte, she was known as Rose, but Bonaparte preferred to call her Joséphine, the name she adopted from then on.

Prominent in Parisian social circles during the 1790s, Joséphine married the young general Napoléon
Napoléon
Bonaparte

The marriage was not well received by Napoléon's family, who were shocked that he had married an older widow with two children. His mother and sisters were especially resentful of Joséphine, as they felt clumsy and unsophisticated in her presence.[3] Two days after the wedding, Bonaparte left Paris to lead a French army into Italy. During their separation, he sent her many love letters. In February 1797, he wrote: “You to whom nature has given spirit, sweetness, and beauty, you who alone can move and rule my heart, you who know all too well the absolute empire you exercise over it!”[4] Joséphine, left behind in Paris, in 1796 began an affair with a handsome Hussar
Hussar
lieutenant, Hippolyte Charles.[5] Rumors of the affair reached Napoléon; he was infuriated, and his love for her changed entirely.[6] In 1798, Napoléon
Napoléon
led a French army to Egypt. During this campaign, Napoléon
Napoléon
started an affair of his own with Pauline Fourès, the wife of a junior officer, who became known as "Napoléon's Cleopatra." The relationship between Joséphine and Napoléon
Napoléon
was never the same after this.[7] His letters became less loving. No subsequent lovers of Joséphine are recorded, but Napoléon
Napoléon
had sexual affairs with several other women. In 1804, he said, "Power is my mistress."[8] In December 1800, Joséphine was nearly killed in the Plot of the rue Saint-Nicaise, an attempt on Napoléon's life with a bomb planted in a parked cart. On December 24, she and Napoleon
Napoleon
went to see a performance of Joseph Haydn's Creation at the Opéra, accompanied by several friends and family. The party travelled in two carriages. Joséphine was in the second, with her daughter, Hortense; her pregnant sister-in-law, Caroline Murat; and General Jean Rapp.[9] Joséphine had delayed the party while getting a new silk shawl draped correctly, and Napoléon
Napoléon
went ahead in the first carriage.[10] The bomb exploded as her carriage was passing. The bomb killed several bystanders and one of the carriage horses, and blew out the carriage's windows; Hortense was struck in the hand by flying glass. There were no other injuries and the party proceeded to the Opéra.[11] Empress of the French[edit]

Imperial monogram

Joséphine kneels before Napoléon
Napoléon
during his coronation at Notre Dame. Detail from the oil painting (1806–7) by David and Rouget

The coronation ceremony, officiated by Pope Pius VII, took place at Notre Dame de Paris, on 2 December 1804. Following a pre-arranged protocol, Napoléon
Napoléon
first crowned himself, then put the crown on Joséphine's head, proclaiming her empress. In her role as empress, Napoleon
Napoleon
had a court appointed to her and reinstated the offices which composed the household of the queen before the French revolution, with Adélaïde de La Rochefoucauld
Adélaïde de La Rochefoucauld
as Première dame d'honneur, Émilie de Beauharnais
Émilie de Beauharnais
as Dame d'atour, and the wives of his own officials and generals, Jeanne Charlotte du Lucay, Madame de Rémusat, Elisabeth Baude de Talhouët, Lauriston, d'Arberg, Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
Duchâtel, Sophie de Segur, Séran, Colbert, Savary and Aglaé Louise Auguié Ney, as Dame de Palais.[12] Shortly before their coronation, there was an incident at the Château de Saint-Cloud that nearly sundered the marriage between the two. Joséphine caught Napoléon
Napoléon
in the bedroom of her lady-in-waiting, Élisabeth de Vaudey, and Napoléon
Napoléon
threatened to divorce her as she had not produced an heir. Eventually, however, through the efforts of her daughter Hortense, the two were reconciled.[citation needed] When after a few years it became clear she could not have a child, Napoléon, while still loving Joséphine, began to think very seriously about the possibility of divorce. The final die was cast when Joséphine's grandson Napoléon Charles Bonaparte
Napoléon Charles Bonaparte
who had been declared Napoléon's heir, died of croup in 1807. Napoleon
Napoleon
began to create lists of eligible princesses. At dinner on 30 November 1809, he let Joséphine know that—in the interest of France—he must find a wife who could produce an heir. Joséphine agreed to the divorce so the Emperor could remarry in the hope of having an heir. The divorce ceremony took place on 10 January 1810 and was a grand but solemn social occasion, and each read a statement of devotion to the other.[13]

Miniature portrait of the Empress by Jean Baptiste Isabey on an 18k gold snuff box crafted by the Imperial goldsmith Adrien-Jean-Maximilien Vachette. Circa 1810

On March 11, Napoléon
Napoléon
married Marie-Louise of Austria
Marie-Louise of Austria
by proxy; the formal ceremony took place at the Louvre
Louvre
in April. Napoléon
Napoléon
once remarked after marrying Marie-Louise that despite her quick infatuation with him "he had married a womb".[citation needed] Even after their separation, Napoleon
Napoleon
insisted Joséphine retain the title of empress. "It is my will that she retain the rank and title of empress, and especially that she never doubt my sentiments, and that she ever hold me as her best and dearest friend." Later life and death[edit]

Plate showing statues of Amenhotep III at Luxor, Egypt. Commissioned by Napoleon
Napoleon
as a present to Josephine but she rejected it. From France. The Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Divorce letter from Joséphine to Napoléon, 1809

Portrait of Joséphine later in life by Andrea Appiani

After the divorce, Joséphine lived at the Château de Malmaison, near Paris. She remained on good terms with Napoléon, who once said that the only thing to come between them was her debts. (Joséphine remarked privately, "The only thing that ever came between us was my debts; certainly not his manhood."—Andrew Roberts, Napoleon) In March 1811 Marie Louise delivered a long-awaited heir, to whom Napoleon
Napoleon
gave the title "King of Rome". Two years later Napoleon arranged for Joséphine to meet the young prince "who had cost her so many tears". Joséphine died in Rueil-Malmaison
Rueil-Malmaison
on 29 May 1814, soon after walking with Tsar
Tsar
Alexander in the gardens of Malmaison. She was buried in the nearby church of Saint Pierre-Saint Paul[14] in Rueil. Her daughter Hortense is interred near her. Napoleon
Napoleon
learned of her death via a French journal while in exile on Elba, and stayed locked in his room for two days, refusing to see anyone. He claimed to a friend, while in exile on Saint Helena, that "I truly loved my Joséphine, but I did not respect her."[15] Despite his numerous affairs, eventual divorce, and remarriage, the Emperor's last words on his death bed at St. Helena were: "France, the Army, the Head of the Army, Joséphine."("France, l'armée, tête d'armée, Joséphine").[16] Disputed birthplace[edit] Henry H. Breen, First Mayor of Castries, published The History of St. Lucia in 1844 and stated on page 159 that:

"I have met with several well-informed persons in St. Lucia, who entertain the conviction that Mademoiselle Tascher de La Pagerie, better known as Empress Josephine, was born in the island of Saint Lucia and not Martinique
Martinique
as commonly supposed. Amongst others the late Sir John Jeremie appears to have been strongly pressed with the idea. The grounds of belief rest upon the following circumstances to which I find allusions are made in a St. Lucia newspaper in 1831: 'It is alleged that the de Taschers were among the French families that settled in St. Lucia after the Peace of 1763; that upon a small estate on the acclivity of Morne Paix Bouche (which was called La Cauzette), where the future Empress first saw light on the 23rd of June of that year; and they continued to reside there until 1771, at which period the father was selected for the important office of the Intendant of Martinique, whither he immediately returned with his family.' These circumstances are well known to many respectable St. Lucian families, including the late Mme. Darlas Delomel and M. Martin Raphael who were among Josephine's playmates at Morne Paix Bouche. M. Raphael being in France
France
many years after, was induced to pay a visit to Malmaison on the strength of his former acquaintance, and met with a gracious reception from the Empress-Queen Dowager." Henry Breen also received confirmation from Josephine's former slave nanny called "Dede", who claimed she nursed Josephine at La Cauzette. Josephine's baptism was administered by Pere Emmanuel Capuchin at Trois-Ilets but he has only stated she had been baptized there but not born. Dom Daviot, parish priest in Gros Islet, wrote a letter to one of his friends in Haute-Saône
Haute-Saône
in 1802 in which he states: "it is in the vicinity of my parish that the wife of the first consul was born," at the time, Paix Bouche was a part of Castries; he asserts that he was well acquainted with Josephine's cousin who was a parishioner. It is also interesting to note that Josephine's father owned an estate in Soufriere Quarter
Soufriere Quarter
called Malmaison, the name of her now famous French residence. It is also assumed that the de Taschers estate in Martinique
Martinique
was a pied-a-terre [occasional lodging] with his mother-in-law. St Lucia switched hands between England and France
France
14 times and at the time of Joesphine's birth there were no civil registers on the island that would explain her baptism in Martinique; however, St. Lucia's frequent change of ownership between England and France
France
could be seen as the reason Josephine's birthplace was left out on her Birth record as it would have affected her nationality. Descendants[edit]

Joséphine's eldest granddaughter, Joséphine, Queen consort of Sweden and Norway. Portrait by Fredric Westin.

Hortense's son became Napoléon
Napoléon
III, Emperor of the French. Eugène's son Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg
Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg
married into the Russian Imperial family, was granted the style of Imperial Highness and founded the Russian line of the Beauharnais
Beauharnais
family, while Eugene's daughter Joséphine married King Oscar I of Sweden, the son of Napoléon's one-time fiancée, Désirée Clary. Through her, Joséphine is a direct ancestor of the present heads of the royal houses of Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Luxembourg, Norway and Sweden and of the grandducal house of Baden.[17] A number of jewels worn by modern-day royals are often said to have been worn by Joséphine. Through the Leuchtenberg
Leuchtenberg
inheritance, the Norwegian royal family possesses an emerald and diamond parure said to have been Joséphine's.[18][19] The Swedish royal family owns several pieces of jewelry frequently linked to Joséphine, including the Leuchtenberg
Leuchtenberg
Sapphire Parure,[20][21] a suite of amethyst jewels,[22] and the Cameo Parure, worn by Sweden's royal brides.[23] However, a number of these jewels were probably never a part of Joséphine's collection at all, but instead belonged to other members of her family.[24] Another of Eugène's daughters, Amélie de Beauharnais
Beauharnais
von Leuchtenberg, married Emperor Pedro I of Brazil
Pedro I of Brazil
(also former king Pedro IV of Portugal) in Rio de Janeiro, and became Empress of Brazil, and they had one surviving daughter. Time journalist Nathalie Alexandria Kotchoubey de Beauharnais, was a direct descendant of Joséphine through her son Eugène and the Russian line founded by Josephine's grandson Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg. She married André Laguerre, longtime managing editor of Sports Illustrated
Sports Illustrated
in 1955 and had two daughters, Michèle and Claudine.[25] Joséphine de Beauharnais's extended family member Stéphanie de Beauharnais
Beauharnais
is an ancestor to the reigning Prince of Monaco[26], through her daughter Princess Marie Amelie of Baden, and of the present heads of the princely house of Hohenzollern and royal houses of Romania, Yugoslavia and Italy, through her daughter Princess Josephine of Baden.[27] Nature and appearance[edit] Biographer Carolly Erickson wrote, “In choosing her lovers Rose [Josephine] followed her head first, then her heart”,[28] meaning that she was adept in terms of identifying the men who were most capable of fulfilling her financial and social needs. She was not unaware of Napoleon's potential. Joséphine was a renowned spendthrift and Barras may have encouraged the relationship with Général Bonaparte in order to get her off his hands. Josephine was naturally full of kindness, generosity and charm, and was praised as an engaging hostess. Joséphine was described as being of average height, svelte, shapely, with silky, long, chestnut-brown hair, hazel eyes, and a rather sallow complexion. Her nose was small and straight, and her mouth was well-formed; however she kept it closed most of the time so as not to reveal her bad teeth.[29] She was praised for her elegance, style, and low, "silvery", beautifully modulated voice.[30] Patroness of roses[edit] In 1799 while Napoleon
Napoleon
was in Egypt, Josephine purchased the Chateau de Malmaison.[31] She had it landscaped in an “English” style, hiring landscapers and horticulturalists from the United Kingdom. These included Thomas Blaikie, a Scottish horticultural expert, another Scottish gardener, Alexander Howatson, the botanist, Ventenat, and the horticulturist, Andre Dupont. The rose garden was begun soon after purchase; inspired by Dupont’s love of roses. Josephine took a personal interest in the gardens and the roses, and learned a great deal about botany and horticulture from her staff. Josephine wanted to collect all known roses so Napoleon
Napoleon
ordered his warship commanders to search all seized vessels for plants to be forwarded to Malmaison. Pierre-Joseph Redouté
Pierre-Joseph Redouté
was commissioned by her to paint the flowers from her gardens. Les Roses was published 1817–20 with 168 plates of roses; 75–80 of the roses grew at Malmaison. The English nurseryman Kennedy was a major supplier, despite England and France
France
being at war, his shipments were allowed to cross blockades. Specifically, when Hume’s Blush Tea-Scented China was imported to England from China, the British and French Admiralties made arrangements in 1810 for specimens to cross naval blockades for Josephine’s garden.[32] Sir Joseph Banks, Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, also sent her roses. The general assumption is that she had about 250 roses in her garden when she died in 1814. Unfortunately the roses were not catalogued during her tenure. There may have been only 197 rose varieties in existence in 1814, according to calculations by Jules Gravereaux of Roseraie de l’Haye. There were 12 species, about 40 centifolias, mosses and damasks, 20 Bengals, and about 100 gallicas. The botanist Claude Antoine Thory, who wrote the descriptions for Redouté’s paintings in Les Roses, noted that Josephine’s Bengal rose R. indica had black spots on it.[33] She produced the first written history of the cultivation of roses, and is believed to have hosted the first rose exhibition, in 1810.[34]

'Souvenir de la Malmaison'

Modern hybridization of roses through artificial, controlled pollination began with Josephine’s horticulturalist Andre Dupont.[31] Prior to this, most new rose cultivars were spontaneous mutations or accidental, bee-induced hybrids, and appeared rarely. With controlled pollination, the appearance of new cultivars grew exponentially. Of the roughly 200 types of roses known to Josephine, Dupont had created 25 while in her employ. Subsequent French hybridizers created over 1000 new rose cultivars in the 30 years following Josephine's death. In 1910, less than 100 years after her death, there were about 8000 rose types in Gravereaux's garden. Bechtel also feels that the popularity of roses as garden plants was boosted by Josephine’s patronage. She was a popular ruler and fashionable people copied her. Brenner and Scanniello call her the "Godmother of modern rosomaniacs" and attribute her with our modern style of vernacular cultivar names as opposed to Latinized, pseudo-scientific cultivar names. For instance, R. alba incarnata became "Cuisse de Nymphe Emue" in her garden. After Josephine’s death in 1814 the house was vacant at times, the garden and house ransacked and vandalised, and the garden’s remains were destroyed in a battle in 1870. The rose 'Souvenir de la Malmaison' appeared in 1844, 30 years after her death, named in her honor by a Russian Grand Duke planting one of the first specimens in the Imperial Garden in St. Petersburg.[33] Titles, styles, and arms[edit] Titles and styles[edit]

23 June 1763 – 13 December 1779: Mademoiselle Rose Tascher de la Pagerie 13 December 1779 – 23 July 1794: Madame The Viscountess de Beauharnais 23 July 1794 – 9 March 1796: Madame The Dowager Viscountess de Beauharnais 9 March 1796 – 18 May 1804: Madame Napoléon
Napoléon
Bonaparte 18 May 1804 – 26 May 1805: Her Imperial Majesty The Empress of the French 26 May 1805 – 10 January 1810: Her Imperial and Royal Majesty The Empress of the French, Queen of Italy 10 January 1810 – 9 April 1810: Her Imperial Majesty Empress Joséphine 9 April 1810 – 29 May 1814: Her Imperial Majesty Empress Joséphine, Duchess of Navarre

Arms[edit]

Coat of arms of Josephine de Beauharnais

Ancestry[edit]

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Ancestors of Empress Joséphine

16. François de Tascher, seigneur de La Pagerie

8. Gaspard de Tascher, seigneur de La Pagerie

17. Marie Pétronille Sophie d'Arnoul

4. Gaspard Joseph Tascher de La Pagerie

18. Henri du Plessis, seigneur de Savonnières

9. Edmée Henriette Madeleine du Plessis de Savonnières

19. Agathe de Thienne

2. Joseph-Gaspard Tascher de La Pagerie

20. Jacques Bourreau, seigneur de La Guesserie

10. François Bourreau, seigneur de La Chevalerie

21. Anne Hubert

5. Françoise Bourreau de La Chevalerie

22. Jacques Jaham des Prés

11. Marie Thérèse Jaham des Prés

23. Adrienne Dyel de Graville

1. Joséphine de Beauharnais

24. Domique Florimund des Vergers de Sannois

12. Joseph des Vergers de Sannois

25. Anne-Catherine Taudier de Lafond, dame de L'Espérance

6. Joseph François des Vergers de Sannois

26. Guillaume de Maigne du Plat

13. Élisabeth de Maigne du Plat

27. Marie d'Orange

3. Rose Claire des Vergers de Sannois

28. George Brown

14. Anthony Brown

29. Gertrude Morley

7. Catherine Marie Brown

30. Dominique Florimund des Vergers de Sannois (= 24)

15. Catherine des Vergers de Sannois

31. Anne-Catherine Taudier de Lafond, dame de L'Espérance (= 25)

In popular culture[edit] Statue[edit] In 1859 Napoleon
Napoleon
III commissioned a statue of Josephine for La Savane Park in downtown Fort-de-France, Martinique. In 1991 it was decapitated and shortly afterwards spattered with red paint. These acts were said to be for Josephine's alleged role in convincing Napoleon
Napoleon
to reinstitute slavery in the French colonies.[35] (Although in fact Martinique, under first Royalist, then English, rule never accepted the emancipation degree issued by the Revolutionary government.)[36] The head has never been found. Fiction books[edit]

Fields, Bertram (2015). Destiny: A Novel Of Napoleon
Napoleon
& Josephine.  Gulland, Sandra (1995). The Many Lives & Secret Sorrows of Josephine B.  ——— (1998). Tales of Passion, Tales of Woe.  ——— (2000). The Last Great Dance on Earth.  Selinko, Annemarie (1958) Desirée Webb, Heather (2013). Becoming Josephine.  Winterson, Jeanette (1987). The Passion.  Kenyon, F. W. (1952) The Emperor's Lady Mossiker, Frances (1971) More than a queen; The story of Josephine Bonaparte.

Television[edit]

Napoléon
Napoléon
is a historical DVD TV miniseries of Napoleon's life, in which Josephine features prominently, portrayed by Isabella Rossellini. In 2015 and 2017, an episode of Horrible Histories called "Naughty Napoleon" and "Ridiculous Romantics" featured Natalie Walter
Natalie Walter
and Gemma Whelan, portraying Joséphine de Beauharnais.

Music[edit]

The love song "Josephine" from The Magnetic Fields' 1991 album Distant Plastic Trees: "If I were Napoleon, you could be my Josephine ..." The song "Josephine" from Frank Turner's 2015 album Positive Songs for Negative People references Josephine — as well as Josephine Brunsvik — to portray Turner's wish that he has his own muse to influence him.

Fashion

Galliano said that his inspiration was dressing the pregnant rock star Madonna — and then thinking "Empress Josephine."[37] See also[edit]

Kingdom of France
France
portal Biography portal

Aimée du Buc de Rivéry Notre Dame de Paris Tuileries Palace

References[edit]

^ Branda, Pierre (2016). Josephine: Le Paradoxe du Cygne. Paris: Perrin. p. 9.  ^ http://www.lonelyplanet.com/martinique/trois-ilets/sights/other/musee-de-la-pagerie ^ Epton, Nina (1975). Josephine, the Empress and Her Children. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., pp. 54, 66–67. ^ Napoléon
Napoléon
Bonaparte, "Bonaparte to Joséphine (Headquarters, Tolentino, 19 February 1797)" Napoleon: Symbol for an Age, A Brief History with Documents, ed. Rafe Blaufarb (New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008), p. 40. ^ Hippolyte Charles Archived August 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Theo Aronson, Napoleon
Napoleon
and Josephine: A Love Story. ^ "Madame Pauline Fourès-Napoleon's Cleopatra".  ^ " Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte & Josephine Beauharnais".  ^ Epton, p. 94. ^ Epton, pp. 94–95. ^ Epton, p. 95. ^ Andrea Stuart: Josephine: The Rose of Martinique. ^ E. Bruce, Napoleon
Napoleon
and Josphine, London : Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1995, pg.445 ^ "Empress Josephine's short biography in Napoleon
Napoleon
& Empire website, displaying photographs of the castle of Malmaison and the grave of Josephine". Napoleon-empire.com. 2011-06-11. Retrieved 2012-06-06.  ^ Markham, Felix, Napoleon, p. 245. ^ https://www.gutenberg.org/files/40804/40804-h/40804-h.htm#Page_220 ^ "Joséphine's Jewels: Myths and Legends The Court Jeweller". www.thecourtjeweller.com. Retrieved 2016-05-16.  ^ Kay, Ella. "Tiara Timeline: The Norwegian Emerald Parure Tiara". The Court Jeweller. Retrieved 30 May 2015.  ^ "Empress Joséphine's Emerald Tiara". Order of Splendor.  ^ Kay, Ella. "Tiara Timeline: The Leuchtenberg
Leuchtenberg
Sapphire Tiara". The Court Jeweller. Retrieved 30 May 2015.  ^ "The Leuchtenberg
Leuchtenberg
Sapphire Parure". Order of Splendor.  ^ "Queen Josephine's Amethyst Tiara". Order of Splendor.  ^ "The Cameo Tiara". Order of Splendor.  ^ Kay, Ella. "Joséphine's Jewels: Myths and Legends". The Court Jeweller. Retrieved 30 May 2015.  ^ "Person Page 6746". thePeerage.com. 2004-09-22. Retrieved 2010-04-14.  ^ "Gift by HRH the Prince of Monaco to the Fondation Napoléon
Napoléon
- napoleon.org". Retrieved 2016-08-29.  ^ (in French) Études biographiques - Les descendants de la duchesse de Leuchtenberg
Leuchtenberg
et sa parenté, www.napoleon.org. Retrieved 2017-09-13. ^ Erickson, Carolly (2000). Josephine: A Life of the Empress. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. p. 82. ISBN 0-312-26346-5.  ^ Epton, Nina (1975). Josephine, The Empress and Her Children. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. p. 3. ^ Mossiker, Frances, Napoleon
Napoleon
and Josephine, p. 48. ^ a b Bechtel, Edwin de Turk. 1949, reprinted 2010. "Our Rose Varieties and their Malmaison Heritage". The OGR and Shrub Journal, The American Rose Society. 7(3) ^ Thomas, Graham Stuart (2004). The Graham Stuart Thomas Rose Book. London, England: Frances Lincoln Limited. ISBN 0-7112-2397-1. ^ a b Brenner, Douglas, and Scanniello, Stephen (2009). A Rose by Any Name. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Algonquin Books. ^ Bowermaster, Russ (1993). "Judging: From Whence to Hence". The American Rose Annual: 72–73.  ^ Uncommon Attraction: Beheaded Statue of Empress Josephine ^ Statue of Empress Josephine ^ Menkes, Suzy (1996-07-08). "Galliano's Empire Line Shines for Givenchy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-09-08. 

Aronson, Theo (1990). Napoleon
Napoleon
and Josephine: A Love Story. St Martins Pr. ISBN 0-312-05135-2.  Brent, Harrison. (1946). Pauline Bonaparte, A Woman of Affairs. NY and Toronto Rinehart. Bruce, Evangeline. (1995). Napoleon
Napoleon
and Josephine: An Improbable Marriage. NY: Scribner. ISBN 0-02-517810-5 Castelot, André (2009). Josephine. Ishi Press. ISBN 4-87187-853-8.  Chevallier, Bernard; Pincemaille, Christophe. Douce et incomparable Joséphine. éd. Payot & Rivages, coll. «Petite bibliothèque Payot», Paris, 2001. ISBN 2-228-90029-X Chevallier, Bernard; Pincemaille, Christophe. L'impératrice Joséphine. Presses de la Renaissance, Paris, 1988., 466 p.,ISBN 978-2-85616-485-3 Delorme, Eleanor P. (2002). Josephine: Napoleon's Incomparable Empress. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 978-0-8109-1229-8 Epton, Nina. (1975). Josephine: the Empress and Her Children. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-393-07500-7 Erickson, Carolly (1998). Josephine; A Life of the Empress. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 1-86105-637-0.  Fauveau, Jean-Claude. Joséphine l'impératrice créole. L'esclavage aux Antilles et la traite pendant la Révolution française. Éditions L'Harmattan 2010. 390 p. ISBN 978-2-296-11293-3. Knapton, Ernest John. (1963). Empress Josephine Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-671-51346-7 de Montjouven, Philippe. Joséphine: Une impératrice de légendes. Timée-éditions; 2010, 141 p. ISBN 978-2-35401-233-5 Mossiker, Frances (1964). Napoleon
Napoleon
and Josephine; the Biography of a Marriage. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-00-000000-2.  Schiffer, Liesel. Femmes remarquables au XIX siècle. Vuibert éd. Vuibert, Paris, 2008, 305 p. ISBN 978-2711744428 Sergeant, Philip (1909). The Empress Josephine, Napoleon's Enchantress. NY: Hutchinson's Library of Standard Lives.  Stuart, Andrea. (2005). The Rose of Martinique: A Life of Napoleon's Josephine. Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-4202-3 Wagener, Françoise, L'Impératrice Joséphine (1763–1814). Flammarion; Paris, 1999, 504 p.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Joséphine de Beauharnais.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Empress Joséphine

The Heroines of History public domain audiobook at LibriVox Empress Josephine by Ernest John Knapton. Complete transcription of the 1963 biography. Joséphine de Beauharnais
Joséphine de Beauharnais
(de Tascher de la Pagerie) (in French). Site published by the current members of the family Tascher de la Pagerie. Château de Malmaison
Château de Malmaison
(in French), Joséphine's residence from 1799 to 1814, the site of her death. Memoirs of the Empress Josephine (Volume 1) at archive.org Memoirs of the Empress Josephine (Volume 2) at archive.org

Empress Joséphine Tascher de La Pagerie Born: 23 June 1763 Died: 29 May 1814

Royal titles

Preceded by Marie Antoinette as Queen consort of the French Empress consort of the French 18 May 1804 – 10 January 1810 Vacant Title next held by Marie Louise of Austria

Preceded by Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
of Naples and Sicily Queen consort of Italy 26 May 1805 – 10 January 1810

French nobility

New title Duchess of Navarre 9 April 1810 – 29 May 1814 Succeeded by Auguste de Beauharnais

v t e

Queens and empresses of France

Adelaide of Aquitaine Rozala of Italy Bertha of Burgundy Constance of Arles Matilda of Frisia Anne of Kiev Bertha of Holland Bertrade de Montfort Adelaide of Maurienne Eleanor of Aquitaine Constance of Castile Adela of Champagne Isabella of Hainault Ingeborg of Denmark Agnes of Merania Blanche of Castile Margaret of Provence Isabella of Aragon Maria of Brabant Joan I of Navarre Margaret of Burgundy Clementia of Hungary Joan II of Burgundy Blanche of Burgundy Marie of Luxembourg Jeanne d'Évreux Joan the Lame Blanche of Navarre Joan I of Auvergne Joanna of Bourbon Isabeau of Bavaria Marie of Anjou Charlotte of Savoy Anne of Brittany Joan of France Mary Tudor Claude of France Eleanor of Austria Catherine de' Medici Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots Elisabeth of Austria Louise of Lorraine Margaret of Valois Marie de' Medici Anne of Austria Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
of Spain Marie Leszczyńska Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
of Austria Marie Joséphine of Savoy* Joséphine de Beauharnais Marie Louise of Austria Marie Thérèse of France* Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily Eugénie de Montijo

*disputed

v t e

Queens of Italy

Audofleda (493–526) Amalasuntha (526–534) Matasuntha (536–540) Berthora (549–552) Chlothsind (560s) Rosamund (567–573) Chlodoswintha (580s) Theodelinda (589–616) Gundiberga (626–652) Guntrude (712–744) Tassia (744–749) Ansa (756–774) Hildegard of the Vinzgau (774–783) Fastrada of Franconia (784–794) Luitgard of Sundgau (794–800) Bertha of Gellone (?) Cunigunda of Laon (?) Ermengarde of Tours (821–851) Engelberga of Parma (851–875) Richilde of Provence (875–877) Richardis
Richardis
of Swabia (879–888) Bertila of Spoleto (888–889) Ageltrude of Benevento (889–894) Ota of Neustria (896–899) Anna of Constantinople (900–905) Bertila of Spoleto [905–915) Anna of Provence (915–924) Bertha of Swabia [922–926) Alda (924–932) Marozia of Tusculum [932–933) Bertha of Swabia (937–948) Adelaide of Italy (948–950) Willa of Tuscany (950–953) Gerberga of Mâcon (960–963) Adelaide of Italy [951–973) Theophanu
Theophanu
of Constantinople (972–983) Berta di Luni (1002–14) Cunigunde of Luxembourg (1004–24) Gisela of Swabia (1026–39) Agnes of Poitou (1043–56) Bertha of Savoy (1080–87) Eupraxia of Kiev (1089–93) Constance of Sicily (1095–98) Matilda of England (1114–25) Richenza of Northeim (1128–37) Beatrice I of Burgundy (1156–84) Constance of Sicily (1191–97) Beatrice of Hohenstaufen (1212) Maria of Brabant (1214–15) Constance of Aragon (1212–22) Isabella II of Jerusalem (1225–28) Isabella of England (1235–41) Bianca Lancia (1244?) Margaret of Brabant (1311) Margaret II of Hainaut (1327–47) Anna of Świdnica (1355–62) Elizabeth of Pomerania (1363–78) Joanna of Bavaria (1378–86) Sophia of Bavaria (1389–1410) Barbara of Cilli (1431–37) Elisabeth of Bohemia (1438–39) Eleanor of Portugal (1452–67) Bianca Maria Sforza (1508–10) Isabella of Portugal (1530–39) Anne of Bohemia and Hungary (1556–47) Maria of Austria (1564–76) Anna of Austria (1612–18) Eleonora Gonzaga (1622–37) Maria Anna of Austria (1637–46) Maria Leopoldine of Austria (1648–49) Eleonora Gonzaga (1651–57) Margarita Teresa of Austria (1666–73) Claudia Felicitas of Austria (1673–76) Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg (1676–1705) Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1705–11) Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1711–40) Maria Amalia of Austria (1742–45) Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
of Austria (1745–65) Maria Josepha of Bavaria (1765–67) Maria Luisa of Spain (1790–92) Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
of Naples and Sicily (1792–1806) Joséphine de Beauharnais (1805–10) Marie Louise of Austria (1810–14) Margherita of Savoy (1878–1900) Elena of Montenegro (1900–46) Marie José of Belgium (1946)

v t e

Beauharnais

Generations are numbered from Claude de Beauharnais, seigneur de Beaumont.

1st generation

François V, Marquis de La Ferté-Beauharnais Claude, 1st Count of Roches-Baritaud m. Françoise Mouchard

2nd generation

François François VI, Marquis de La Ferté- Beauharnais
Beauharnais
m. Françoise de Beauharnais Claude, 2nd Count of Roches-Baritaud Anne, Countess de Barral Alexandre, Viscount of Beauharnais
Beauharnais
m. Joséphine Tascher de La Pagerie (later Empress of the French)

3rd generation

Adélaïde Françoise Émilie, Countess of Lavalette Eugène, Duke of Leuchtenberg* m. Princess Augusta of Bavaria Amedee Hortense, Queen of Holland* Alberic Stéphanie, Grand Duchess of Baden* Josephine, Marquise de Quiqueran-Beaujeu Eugénie Hortense, Countess de Querelles Auguste

4th generation

Joséphine, Queen of Sweden and Norway** Eugénie, Princess of Hohenzollern-Hechingen** Auguste, Duke of Leuchtenberg** m. Queen Maria II of Portugal Amélie, Empress of Brazil** Théodolinde, Countess of Württemberg** Carolina** Maximilian, Duke of Leuchtenberg**^ m. Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia

5th generation

Alexandra**^ Marie, Princess William of Baden**^ Nicholas, Duke of Leuchtenberg**^ Eugenia, Duchess Alexander of Oldenburg**^ Eugen, Duke of Leuchtenberg**^ Sergei**^ Georgi, Duke of Leuchtenberg**^ m. 1st Duchess Therese Petrovna of Oldenburg, m. 2nd Princess Anastasia of Montenegro

6th generation

Nicholas de Beauharnais** Daria, Princess Leon Kotchoubey George** Alexander, Duke of Leuchtenberg**^ Sergei, Duke of Leuchtenberg**^ Elena, Countess Stefan Tyszkiewicz**^

7th generation

Nicholas de Beauharnais** Dimitri** Nadezhda, Mrs. Mogilevsky** Maximilian** Natalie, Baroness Vladimir Meller-Zakomelsky** Tamara, Mrs. Constantin Karanfilov** Sergei** Andrei** Michael** Constantine** Marie, Countess Nikolai Mengden-Altenwoga**

8th generation

Elena** Maria Magdalen, Mrs. Joseph de Pasquale** George** Anna, Mrs. Stout** Eugénie Élisabeth, Mrs. von Bruch** Xenia, Countess Dimitri Grabbe** Olga, Mrs. Ronald Newburgh** Olga, Mrs. Oleg Gaydeburov** Nicholas** Serge** Elizabeth, Mrs. John Craft**

9th generation

Nicholas Maxiliam Constantine

* also a Prince or Princess des Francais ** also a Prince or Princess of Leuchtenberg
Leuchtenberg
and Eichstädt ^also a Prince Romanovsky or Princess Romanovskaja

v t e

Imperial House of France
France
of the First French Empire

Emperor and immediate family

Napoleon, Emperor of the French Joséphine, Empress of the French Marie Louise, Empress of the French Napoleon, King of Rome

French Princes

Joseph Bonaparte Louis Bonaparte Joachim Murat Eugène de Beauharnais Elisa Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Lucien Bonaparte

Several family members held additional titles in vassal states

v t e

French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre
Robespierre
guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon
Napoléon
Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 22181438 LCCN: n50038062 ISNI: 0000 0001 2123 6811 GND: 118558420 SELIBR: 212474 SUDOC: 030170249 BNF: cb12164162n (data) ULAN: 500289647 NDL: 00

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