José Javier de Baquíjano y Carrillo de Córdoba, III Count of
Vistaflorida (March 12, 1751, Lima, Peru—January 24, 1817, Seville,
Spain) was a Spanish/Peruvian economist and jurist, writer and
politician, and one of the first great intellectuals of the
Viceroyalty of Peru.
He was the second son of Juan Bautista de Baquíjano y Urigoen, I
Count of Vistaflorida, and María Ignacia Carrillo de Córdova y
Garcés de Mansilla.
Baquíjano inherited the Vistaflorida title from his older brother in
1809, becoming 3rd Count of Vistaflorida.
Baquíjano earned a doctorate in law from the University of San Marcos
in Lima. In 1773-76 he traveled to Spain, where he met Pablo de
Olavide and Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos. Upon his return to Peru, he
took on the task of protector of the Indigenous, and became a
professor of law.
1 El elogio a Jáuregui
2 Economic thought
3 Academic and literary work
6 External links
El elogio a Jáuregui
He was celebrated for his speech welcoming the new viceroy Agustín de
Lima in 1780. This was published in 1781 as El elogio a
Jáuregui, and was mixed with strong criticism of the viceregal
government. His veiled attack on the economic and Indigenous policy of
Visitador (Royal Inspector)
José Antonio de Áreche was
unprecedented. He quoted Montesquieu, Raynal, Machiavelli y Las Casas
in defense of his positions. Áreche called his doctrines "execrable".
The Argentine Balthasar Maciel attempted a rebuttal of the speech.
Baquíjano was a mercantilist economic thinker, although he was also
influenced by the English economist Josiah Child, a qualified exponent
of free trade. Baquíjano believed that free trade and the separation
Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata
Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata were the causes of the economic
Peru at the end of the eighteenth century. He supported the
position that the Peruvian economy depended on the export of precious
Academic and literary work
He led a reformist group at the University, arguing for the
Scholasticism with the thought of men such as
Descartes, Newton and Juan Heinecio. This group also supported the
Encyclopedists and freedom of the press. In 1783 Baquíjano lost an
election for rector. Thus he was not able to put his reforms into
effect in the University, but he did so in the Colegio de San Carlos.
He became vice-rector of San Marcos in 1791.
From 1791 to 1795 he was editor of the Mercurio Peruano, which
rejected the radicalism of the French Revolution. In the Mercurio,
Baquíjano published histories of the Audiencia of Lima, of the
University, and of the mines in Potosí, as well as a dissertation on
the economy of Peru. In 1793 he became president of the Sociedad
Académica de Amantes del País (Academic Society of Lovers of the
He returned to
Spain for some years around this time. In Cádiz he
became friends with Bernardo O'Higgins. He was the mentor of a Criollo
political movement seeking autonomy for the colony and equality
between Criollos and Peninsulares.
Back in Lima, he became oidor (judge) of the Audiencia in 1807. Also
that year he became third count of Vistaflorida. In 1814 he was in
Madrid, and that year he became a magistrate of the Council of the
Indies. Later he became an honorary council member.
He criticized the Spanish policy against the insurgents in Peru,
calling it foolish and arguing for an end of hostilities. Yet he was a
loyalist in his way, not a separatist. He argued for judicial,
ecclesiastical and economic autonomy, but under the Crown of Spain.
Still, his strong criticism of the viceregal system and his support of
liberal principles lent support to the independence movement. For that
reason, he is recognized as a precursor of Peruvian independence.
(in Spanish) Riva Agüero, J. de la, "José Baquíjano y Carrillo", in
Historia del Perú, vol. II, 3rd ed., Lima, 1953.
(in Spanish) Maticorena Estrada, M., Nuevas noticias y documentos de
D. José Baquíjano y Carrillo, Lima, 1960.
(in Spanish) Deustua, C., José Baquíjano, Lima, 1964.
(in Spanish) Gran Enciclopedia Rialp
(in Spanish) Encarta (Archived 2009-10-31)