JON ELSTER (born February 22, 1940,
* 1 Biography * 2 Philosophy * 3 Selected writings * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links
Elster earned his PhD from the
He is a member of the
Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters . He
is also a member of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences , of the
American Philosophical Society , of the
Elster is doctor honoris causa at the universities of Valencia , Stockholm , Trondheim , Louvain-la-Neuve , Torcuato di Tella , and the National University of Colombia . He is honorary professor at the University of Chongqing .
Much of Elster's writing is characterized by attempts to use analytical theories, especially rational choice theory , as a springboard for philosophical and ethical analysis, with numerous examples from literature and history. "Elster has made important contributions to several fields," Daniel Little wrote in a review essay. "The breadth and depth of his writings are striking in a time of high specialisation; he is read and discussed by political scientists,legal scholars, economists and philosophers. His work is difficult to summarise in a slogan, but ... it is generally informed by a broad and deep acquaintance with relevant literature in economics, political science, history, philosophy, and psychology."
A student of the philosophy of social science (a topic he
investigated through case studies in Explaining Technical Change),
Elster strongly argued that social scientific explanations had to be
built on top of methodological individualism (the belief that only
individuals, not larger entities like "organizations" or "societies",
can actually do things) and microfoundations (explaining big societal
changes in terms of individual actions). He criticized Marxists and
other social scientists for believing in functionalism (the belief
that institutions exist because of their effect on society) and
instead tried to give
Elster wrote numerous books attempting to use rational choice theory
for a wide variety of social explanations. "
Rational choice theory is
far more than a technical tool for explaining behaviour," he once
wrote. "It is also, and very importantly, a way of coming to grips
with ourselves - not only what we should do, but even what we should
be." He attempted to apply it to topics as varied as politics
(Political Psychology), bias and constrained preferences (Sour
Grapes), emotions (Alchemies of the Mind), self-restraint (Ulysses and
the Sirens, which was selected for the
Norwegian Sociology Canon ),
In doing so, he elucidated many issues with simplistic notions of rational choice: endogenous preference formation (certain actions today can change preferences tomorrow, so how does one decide which preferences one prefers?), framing (people express different preferences when the same question is asked different ways), imperfect rationality (weakness of the will, emotion, impulsiveness, habit, self-deception) and our adjustments for it, and time preferences , among others.
As time went on Elster began to sour on rational choice. A 1991 review in the London Review of Books noted "Elster has lost his bearings, or at least his faith. , he says, 'reflects an increasing disillusion with the power of reason'." His magisterial 500-page book Explaining Social Behavior includes something of a recantation:
I now believe that rational-choice theory has less explanatory power than I used to think. Do real people act on the calculations that make up many pages of mathematical appendixes in leading journals? I do not think so. ... There is no general nonintentional mechanism that can simulate or mimic rationality. ... At the same time, the empirical support ... tends to be quite weak. This is of course a sweeping statement. ... let me simply point out the high level of disagreement among competent scholars ... fundamental, persistent disagreements among 'schools.' We never observe the kind of many-decimal-points precision that would put controversy to rest.
The book discusses both rational behavior, but also irrational behavior, which Elster says is "widespread and frequent not inevitable ... we want to be rational". In a recent book, Le désintéressement (part of a two-volume Traité critique de l’homme économique) explores the ramifications of these insights for the possibility of disinterested action.
* Leibniz et la formation de l'esprit capitaliste (Paris, 1975) ISBN
* Leibniz and the development of economic rationality (Oslo, 1975)
* Logic and Society (New York, 1978)
* Ulysses and the Sirens (Cambridge, 1979)
* "Sour grapes - studies in the subversion of rationality" in Sen,
Amartya ; Williams, Bernard , eds. (1982). Utilitarianism and beyond.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 219–238. ISBN
* Explaining Technical Change : a Case Study in the Philosophy of
Science (Oslo, 1983)
Making Sense of Marx (Cambridge, 1985)
* An Introduction to
* ^ Yeghiayan, Eddie. "JON ELSTER A Selected Bibliography". UCI Department of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-04-18. * ^ "Gruppe 3: Idéfag" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters . Retrieved 28 October 2009. * ^ Chapter on Jon Elster by Daniel Little in New Horizons in Economic Thought: Appraisals of Leading Economists, edited by Warren Samuels (Edward Elgar Publishing, 1992) ISBN 1-85278-379-6 . Also available as download * ^ Elster, Jon (1993). "Some unresolved problems in the theory of rational behaviour". Acta Sociologica . 36 (3): 179–189 . doi :10.1177/000169939303600303 . * ^ Hollis, Martin , Why Elster is stuck and needs to recover his faith, London Review of Books, 13 January 1991 * ^ Explaining Social Behaviour, pp. 5, 25ff * ^ Explaining Social Behaviour, p. 232 * ^ Review of Le désintéressement, by