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JOHOR (/dʒəˈhɔər, ˌdʒoʊ-/ ) or JOHORE is a Malaysian state , located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia . It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city of Johor is Johor Bahru . The royal city of the state is Muar and the old state capital is Johor Lama .

Johor is surrounded by Pahang to the north, Melaka and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest, and the Straits of Johor to the south, which separates Johor and the Republic of Singapore . The state also shares a maritime border with the Riau Archipelago from the east and Riau mainland on the west by the South China Sea and the Strait of Malacca respectively, both of Indonesian territories.

Johor is also known by its Arabic honorific, _Darul Ta'zim_, or "Abode of Dignity", and as JOHORE in English.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History

* 3 Population and demographics

* 3.1 Ethnic Breakdown * 3.2 Religion * 3.3 Language

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Climate * 4.2 Links to Singapore

* 5 Government and politics

* 5.1 Monarchy * 5.2 State government * 5.3 Districts

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Iskandar Malaysia

* 7 Education

* 7.1 Public universities * 7.2 Private universities and university colleges

* 8 Hospitals

* 9 Transportation hubs

* 9.1 Ports * 9.2 Airports

* 10 Media

* 10.1 Television * 10.2 Radio * 10.3 Newspapers

* 11 Tourism

* 11.1 Major tourist attractions * 11.2 International theme parks * 11.3 National parks and forest reserves * 11.4 Islands and beaches * 11.5 Mausoleum of _ Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Dijulang_

* 12 Culture

* 12.1 Clothing * 12.2 Songs

* 12.3 Folk dances and music

* 12.3.1 Zapin dance * 12.3.2 Kuda Kepang

* 12.4 Legends

* 12.4.1 Legend of Badang * 12.4.2 Legend of Malim Deman * 12.4.3 Legend of Gunung Ledang * 12.4.4 Awang\'s spear returned to Dayang * 12.4.5 Black Tongue Warrior

* 12.5 Hamdolok

* 12.6 Cuisine

* 12.6.1 Javanese-influenced cuisine

* 13 References * 14 Bibliography * 15 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The name "Johor" originated from the Persian word _Jauhar_, 'gem/jewel'. Malays tend to name a place after natural objects in great abundance or having visual dominance. Before the name Johor was adopted, the area south of the Muar River to Singapore island was known as _Ujong Tanah_ or 'land's end' in Malay, due to its location at the end of the Malay Peninsula . Coincidentally, Johor is the most southern point of the Asian continental mainland.

HISTORY

Main article: Sultanate of Johor See also: Sultanate of Riau-Lingga

In the early 16th century, the Sultanate of Johor was founded by the Alauddin Riayat Shah II , the son of Mahmud Shah , the last Sultan of Melaka who fled from the invading Portuguese in Melaka. Johor sultanate was one of the two successor states of the Melaka empire. On Malacca's defeat by the Portuguese in 1511, Alauddin Riayat Shah II established a monarchy in Johor, which posed a threat to the Portuguese. The Sultanate of Perak —established by Mahmud Shah's other son, Muzaffar Shah I —was the other successor state of Malacca. During Johor's peak, the whole of Pahang , present day Indonesian territories of the Riau archipelago, and part of Sumatra Island was under Johor's rule.

A series of succession struggles were interspersed with strategic alliances struck with regional clans and foreign powers, which maintained Johor's political and economic hold in the Straits. In competition with the Acehnese of northern Sumatra and the port-kingdom of Melaka under Portuguese rule, Johor engaged in prolonged warfare with their rivals, often striking alliances with friendly Malay states and with the Dutch. In 1641, Johor in co-operation with the Dutch succeeded in capturing Melaka. By 1660, Johor had become a flourishing entrepôt , although weakening and splintering of the empire in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century reduced its sovereignty.

In the 18th century, the Bugis of Sulawesi and the Minangkabau of Sumatra controlled the political powers in the Johor- Riau Empire. However, in the early 19th century, Malay and Bugis rivalry commanded the scene. In 1819, the Johor- Riau Empire was divided up into the mainland Johor, controlled by the Temenggong, and the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga , controlled by the Bugis. In 1855, under the terms of a treaty between the British in Singapore and Sultan Ali of Johor , control of the state was formally ceded to Dato' Temenggong Daing Ibrahim, with the exception of the Kesang area (Muar ), which was handed over in 1877. Temenggong Ibrahim opened up Bandar Tanjung Puteri (later to become Johor's present-day capital) in south Johor as a major town. Flag of Johor. The colour blue represents the State Government, the colour red for warriors defending the state, the white crescent and 5-sided star represent the monarchy and Islam.

Temenggong Ibrahim was succeeded by his son, Dato' Temenggong Abu Bakar, who later took the title Seri Maharaja Johor by Queen Victoria of England. In 1886, he was formally crowned the Sultan of Johor. Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor (1864–1895) implemented a state constitution, developed a British-style administration and constructed the Istana Besar , the official residence of the Sultan. For his achievements, Sultan Abu Bakar is known by the title "Father of Modern Johor". The increased demand for black pepper and gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands to the influx of Chinese immigrants, which created Johor's initial economic base. The Kangchu system was put in place with the first settlement of Kangkar Tebrau established in 1844. The decline of the Kangchu economy at the end of the 19th century coincided with the opening of the railway line connecting Johor Bahru and the Federated Malay States in 1909 and the emergence of rubber plantations throughout the state. Under the British Resident system, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar's successor, was forced to accept a British adviser in 1904. D.G. Campbell was dispatched as the first British adviser to Johor. From the 1910s to the 1940s, Johor emerged as Malaya's top rubber producing state, a position it has held until recently. Johor was also until recently the largest oil palm producer in Malaysia.

During World War II, Johor Bahru became the last city on the Malay peninsula to fall to the Japanese. Allied Forces, Australian, Malayan and Indian forces held out for four days in what was known as the Battle of Gemas, the General Yamashita Tomoyuki had his headquarters on top of Bukit Serene and coordinated the downfall of Singapore.

Johor gave birth to the Malay opposition that derailed the Malayan Union plan. Malays under Dato' Onn Jaafar's leadership formed the United Malays National Organisation ( UMNO ) in Johor on 11 May 1946. ( UMNO is currently the main component party of Malaysia's ruling Barisan Nasional coalition.) In 1948, Johor joined the Federation of Malaya , which gained Independence in 1957.

POPULATION AND DEMOGRAPHICS

Johor Bahru , the capital of Johor.

Johor is Malaysia's second-most populous state with the nation's 3rd largest conurbation , the Iskandar Malaysia . Johor's geographical position in the southern of Peninsular Malaysia contributed to the state's rapid development as Malaysia's transportation and industrial hub. This creates jobs and attracted migrants from other states as well as overseas, especially from Indonesia , the Philippines , Vietnam , Myanmar , Bangladesh , India , Pakistan and China. In recent decades, the influx of illegal immigrants , particularly from Indonesia, has further contributed to Johor's population.

SUB DIVISIONS OF JOHOR

RANK FLAG DISTRICTS SEAT POPULATION 2016

1

Johor Bahru Johor Bahru 1,334,188

2

Batu Pahat Batu Pahat 401,902

3

Kluang Kluang 288,364

4

Kulai Kulai 245,294

5

Muar Muar 239,027

6

Kota Tinggi Kota Tinggi 193,210

7

Segamat Segamat 182,985

8

Pontian Pontian Kechil 149,938

9

Tangkak Tangkak 131,890

10

Mersing Mersing 69,028

Johor has the second-largest population in Malaysia at 3,230,440 as of 2010, which increase to 3,601,690 in 2016. The state's ethnic composition consists of Malay 51.2%, Chinese 33.5%, Indian 10.7%, other ethnic groups 0.1% and non-citizens 4.5%.

ETHNIC BREAKDOWN

The following is based on Department of Statistics Malaysia 2015 figures.

ETHNIC GROUPS IN JOHOR, 2015

ETHNICITY POPULATION PERCENTAGE

Bumiputera 1,954,010 55.0%

Chinese 1,075,100 30.3%

Indian 230,700 6.5%

Others 16,900 0.5%

Non- Malaysian 276,900 7.8%

RELIGION

RELIGION IN JOHOR – 2010

religion

percent

Islam   58.2%

Buddhism   29.6%

Hinduism   6.6%

Christianity   3.3%

Chinese Ethnic Religion   0.8%

Unknown   1.0%

No religion   0.3%

Other religion   0.2%

As of 2010, the population of Johor is 58.2% Muslim , 29.5% Buddhist, 6.6% Hindu , 3.3% Christian, 0.7% Taoist or Chinese religion adherent, 1.2% follower of other religions or unknown affiliations, and 0.3% non-religious.

The state religion of Johor being Islam was one of the stipulations in 1946 put on Malaya by Johor.

LANGUAGE

The Johorean Malay , also known as Johor- Riau Malay and originally spoken in Johor, Riau , Melaka, Selangor and Singapore, has been adopted as the basis for both the Malaysian and Indonesian national languages, Malaysian and Indonesian , respectively. Due to Johor's location at the confluence of trade routes within Maritime Southeast Asia , as well as the former economic might and influence of Melaka and Johor, the dialect spread as the region's _lingua franca _ since the 15th century; hence the adoption of the dialect as the basis for the national languages of Brunei , Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. Several related languages are also spoken in the state such as Orang Seletar (spoken along the Straits of Johor as well as in northern Singapore), Orang Kanaq (spoken in small parts of southeastern Johor), Jakun (mostly inland parts of Johor), Temuan (near the border with Pahang and Negeri Sembilan ) and Orang Kuala (at the northwest coast of Johor). Terengganu Malay , a distinct variant of Malay are spoken in the district of Mersing near the border with Rompin , Pahang.

GEOGRAPHY

Panti Forest in Kota Tinggi District .

Johor is the 5th largest state by land area and 2nd most populous state in Malaysia, with a total land area of 19,210 km2 (7,420 sq mi), and a population of 3,233,434 as of 2010.

It is the southernmost state in Peninsular Malaysia , and is located between the 1°20"N and 2°35"N latitudes. The highest point in Johor is Gunung Ledang (1276 m). Gunung Ledang is also known as Mount Ophir. Johor also has a 400 km coastline on both the East and the West coasts.

Johor has 8 large islands with numerous smaller ones, namely Pulau Aur , Pulau Besar , Pulau Dayang , Pulau Lima , Pulau Pemanggil , Pulau Rawa , Pulau Sibu , Pulau Tengah and Pulau Tinggi .

CLIMATE

Johor has a tropical rainforest climate with monsoon rain from November until February blowing from the South China Sea . The average annual rainfall is 1778 mm with average temperatures ranging between 25.5 °C (78 °F) and 27.8 °C (82 °F). Humidity is between 82 and 86%.

On 19 December 2006, a continuous heavy downpour occurred in Johor, which led to the 2006-2007 Malaysian floods . Many towns such as Muar , Kota Tinggi and Segamat were seriously flooded with water levels as high as 10 feet (3.0 m) above ground level recorded in some areas. 15 lives were lost and many possessions destroyed, and this resulted in huge financial losses in Johor. More than 100,000 victims were evacuated to flood relief centres.

LINKS TO SINGAPORE

See also: Geography of Singapore Malaysia's Sultan Iskandar Customs Complex at Johor Bahru. The water pipeline at the causeway, which provides much of Singapore's water supply.

Johor is linked to Singapore via two road connections: the Johor– Singapore Causeway and the Malaysia– Singapore Second Link . The Causeway also carries a railway line, which is now part of the main rail route linking Singapore with Thailand via Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Butterworth.

The Johor– Singapore Causeway (length: 1038 m) was designed by Messrs Coode, Fizmaurice, Wilson and Mitchell of Westminster , while the construction contract was awarded to Topham, Jones the link consists of a 1920 m twin-deck bridge supporting a dual-three lane carriageway linking Kampong Ladang in Tanjung Kupang , Johor, to Jalan Ahmad Ibrahim in Tuas , Singapore.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

Royal Palace of Sultan of Johor Johor Chief Minister's Office Johor State Legislative Assembly

MONARCHY

Johor is a constitutional monarchy . Johor was the first state in Malaysia to adopt the constitutional monarchy system via _ Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor _ ( Johor State Constitution) written by Sultan Abu Bakar . The constitutional head of Johor is the Sultan . This hereditary position can only be held by a member of the Johor Royal Family , who is descended from Sultan Abu Bakar . Until 2010 the State's Sultan since 1981 had been Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj . He died 22 January 2010. Tunku Ibrahim Ismail Ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar was proclaimed as the new Sultan of Johor on 23 January 2010.

Johor was the first state and currently the only state in Malaysia that has its own military force called the Royal Johor Military Force or 'Timbalan Setia Negeri'. It is a private army of the Sultan of Johor located at Johor Bahru City.

STATE GOVERNMENT

See also: Breakdown of State Seats Representatives, elected in 2013

The state government is headed by a Chief Minister . The current Chief Minister is Dato' Mohamed Khaled Nordin of United Malays National Organisation . The Chief Minister is assisted by 10 members executive council (exco), whose members are selected from the state assembly members.

The legislative branch of Johor's government is the Johor State Legislative Assembly . The state assembly makes laws in matters regarding the state. Members of the Assembly are elected by citizens every five years by universal suffrage.

DISTRICTS

Districts in Johor State

Johor is divided into ten districts of:

* Johor Bahru 1817.8 km², population 1,386,569 (2010)

* Majlis Bandaraya Johor Bahru (Abbreviation as MBJB or City Council of Johor Bahru. It includes areas of Johor Bahru City Centre, Taman Pelangi, Pasir Pelangi, Taman Rinting, Tasek Utara, Permas Jaya, Kangkar Tebrau, Kempas, Larkin, Majidee, Taman Mount Austin and Tebrau) * Majlis Perbandaran Johor Bahru Tengah (MPJBT includes areas of Masai, Plentong, Ulu Tiram, Gelang Patah, Skudai, Pulai, Lima Kedai.) * Majlis Perbandaran Pasir Gudang (MPPG includes areas of Pasir Gudang Industrial Estate, Taman Kota Masai, Taman Pasir Putih, Air Biru, Taman Tanjung Langsat, Taman Scientex, Taman Nusa Damai, Kampung Kong Kong, Kampung Sg. Tiram.)

* Kulai 753.45 km², population: 251,650 (2010)

* Majlis Perbandaran Kulai (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kulai) (Includes areas of Senai, Kulai Town, Sedenak, Ayer Bemban)

* Pontian 919.5 km², population: 155,541 (2010)

* Majlis Daerah Pontian

* Kota Tinggi 3488.7 km², population: 193,210 (2010)

* Majlis Daerah Kota Tinggi

* Kluang 2851.8 km², population: 298,332 (2010)

* Majlis Perbandaran Kluang (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kluang Utara)(Includes the capital district of Kluang, and most of the northern part of Kluang district) * Majlis Daerah Simpang Renggam (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kluang Selatan)(Includes Simpang Renggam and most of the southern part of Kluang district

* Segamat 2851.26 km², population: 189,820 (2010)

* Majlis Daerah Segamat (Majlis Daerah Segamat Utara) (Includes areas of Jementah, Buloh Kasap, Batu Enam and Gemas Baharu) * Majlis Daerah Labis (previously known as Majlis Daerah Segamat Selatan) (Includes areas of Tenang Station, Chaah, Bekok and Pekan Air Panas)

* Muar 2346.12 km², population: 247,957 (2010)

* Majlis Perbandaran Muar (previously known as Majlis Daerah Muar Selatan) (Includes areas of Bukit Pasir, Bukit Bakri, Parit Jawa, others)

* Tangkak 970.24 km², population: 136,852 (2010)

* Majlis Daerah Tangkak (previously known as Majlis Daerah Muar Utara)(Includes areas of Bukit Gambir, Sagil, Serom, Kesang, others)

* Batu Pahat 1878 km², population: 417,458 (2010)

* Majlis Perbandaran Batu Pahat (previously known as Majlis Daerah Batu Pahat Barat)(Includes most of the western part of the district, from Semerah in the north to western Rengit in the south, and the city of Batu Pahat ,) * Majlis Daerah Yong Peng (previously known as Majlis Daerah Batu Pahat Timur)(Includes the eastern part of Batu Pahat from Ayer Hitam in the south to Parit Sulong in the north)

* Mersing 2838.6 km², population: 70,894 (2010)

* Majlis Daerah Mersing

ECONOMY

ISKANDAR MALAYSIA

The Iskandar , Johor (_also known as Iskandar Development Region and South Johor Economic Region_), encompassing Johor Bahru , Johor Bahru Tengah, Kulai , Pasir Gudang, Iskandar Puteri which is a major development zone in Johor with an area of 2,215 km² and Pontian (South). It was named after the late Sultan Iskandar Al-haj . It is intended to draw investment and business to Johor and will be among the biggest development projects in Malaysia. The state administrative capital will move to Iskandar Puteri . Residential areas include Bukit Indah and Horizon Hills townships.

EDUCATION

See also: List of schools in Johor Tun Hussein Onn University of Malaysia

Johor has several institutions of higher learning. It has three universities, namely Universiti Teknologi Malaysia situated in Skudai, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat (UTHM), Universiti Teknologi MARA Johor ( UiTM) in Segamat and UiTM City Campus in Johor Bahru and several polytechnics as an example Politeknik Ibrahim Sultan and Politeknik Mersing Johor. Johor also has two teaching colleges called IPG Kampus Temenggong Ibrahim in Johor Bahru and IPG Kampus Tun Hussien Onn in Batu Pahat. It has one non-profit community college called Southern University College situated in Skudai. Southern College was established in 1990 owing to the generous support from the communities. It is the first non-profit community college in the country wholly funded by public donation and is open to Malaysian students of all races.

_ Johor Education Foundation_ (Yayasan Pelajaran Johor) also establish tertiary education opportunity in Johor State. It offers studies from various field such as engineering, business, economics & hospitality for all Malaysian as well as qualified students from anywhere around the world. Currently, YPJ Education group is managing a 100-acre education complex in Kota Tinggi District as well as Skill colleges in Ledang, Batu Pahat, Kluang and Kota Tinggi District.

The English College Johore Bahru , also known as Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar, abbreviated as English College, EC, MSAB, The College, and sometimes dubbed "The Pride of Johore", is among old premier school in Malaysia.

At the primary level, Muslim Johorean students are required to attend Islamic religious school in addition to national school. Many Malay Johoreans have competent skills in Jawi script , the official script in Johor since 1885, which is still used in Islamic religious and Malay cultural matters.

As of 30 June 2008, there are 243 secondary schools in Johor educating 277 059 students. The total number of teachers in Johor at that time was 18212, which provided a teacher-student ratio of 15.21.

PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES

OFFICIAL NAME IN MALAY NAME IN ENGLISH ACRONYM LOCATION

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Tun Hussein Onn University of Malaysia UTHM Parit Raja

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia University of Technology, Malaysia UTM Skudai

Universiti Teknologi MARA MARA Technology University UiTM Segamat and Pasir Gudang

PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES AND UNIVERSITY COLLEGES

OFFICIAL NAME IN MALAY NAME IN ENGLISH ACRONYM WEBSITE LOCATION

Kolej Olympia Olympia College

Johor Bahru

Kolej Universiti Southern Southern University College SUC

Skudai

Universiti Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur University UniKL

Masai

Institut Sains "> Sultanah Fatimah Specialist Hospital

There are public hospitals and private hospitals in Johor:

PUBLIC HOSPITALS

* Hospital Sultanah Aminah , Johor Bahru * Hospital Sultanah Fatimah, Muar * Hospital Sultanah Nora Ismail , Batu Pahat * Hospital Enche' Besar Hajjah Khalsom, Kluang * Hospital Segamat * Hospital Pontian * Hospital Kota Tinggi * Hospital Mersing * Hospital Tangkak * Hospital Temenggung Seri Maharaja Tun Ibrahim, Kulai * Hospital Permai * Hospital Sultan Ismail

PRIVATE HOSPITALS

* Hospital Penawar, Pasir Gudang * Hospital Pakar Johor, Johor Bahru * Pantai Hospital Batu Pahat * Putra Specialist Hospital Batu Pahat * KPJ Specialist Hospital Muar * Hospital Pakar Abdul Samad * Columbia Asia * Gleanagles

TRANSPORTATION HUBS

PORTS

Port of Tanjung Pelepas

Johor has three ports, the Johor Port , the Port of Tanjung Pelepas and the Tanjung Langsat Port .

AIRPORTS

Senai International Airport

Johor has one international airport, the Senai International Airport in Senai . It was opened on 6 June 1974 and has been expanded several times since. Currently, it has a 5-million passenger capacity, with a parallel taxiway under construction.

The airport is a regional hub of AirAsia group, a regional low-cost no-frills airline. Malaysia Airlines and Firefly also operate flights from Senai International Airport to some local destinations.

MEDIA

TELEVISION

Media Prima

Television in Johor consists of seven free-to-air stations. The TV stations are transmitted from Gunung Ledang, Johor (for North Johor area), Gunung Pulai, Johor (for Central and South Johor area) and Bukit Tinggi, Johor (for East Johor; TV1 and TV2 only).Three of the seven free-to-air stations are managed by Radio Televisyen Malaysia , a federal government-owned media company headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, while the four commercial stations are owned by Media Prima , an integrated media company headquartered in Bandar Utama , Selangor. In addition, Singapore TV channels transmitted from Bukit Batok—like MediaCorp Channel 5 , MediaCorp Channel 8 , MediaCorp Suria (South Johor only), MediaCorp Vasantham , MediaCorp Channel U (South Johor only), Okto and Channel News Asia —can be received in Central and South Johor. Free-to-air

* Radio Televisyen Malaysia (RTM)

* TV1 * TV2 * TVi * TV Alhijrah

* Media Prima

* TV3 * ntv7 * 8TV * TV9 * Sport 24

Cable television

* ABNXcess

Satellite television

* Astro (All Astro Plc)

RADIO

Radio stations in Johor are available in the FM frequency and transmitted from Gunung Ledang, Johor (for North Johor area), Gunung Pulai, Johor (for Central and South Johor area) and Bukit Tinggi, Johor (for East Johor). Singapore radio stations like 883JiaFM (88.3 MHz), BBC World Service (88.9 MHz), Ria 89.7FM (89.7 MHz), Gold 90.5FM (90.5 MHz), One FM 91.3 /Radio 91.3 (91.3 MHz), Kiss 92FM (92.0 MHz), Symphony 92.4FM (92.4 MHz), Y.E.S. 93.3FM (93.3 MHz), 938LIVE (93.8 MHz), Warna 94.2FM (94.2 MHz), Class 95FM (95.0 MHz), Capital 95.8FM (95.8 MHz), XFM 96.3 (96.3 MHz), Oli 96.8FM (96.8 MHz), Love 97.2FM (97.2 MHz), Power98FM (98.0 MHz), 987FM (98.7 MHz), Lush 99.5FM (99.5 MHz) and UFM 1003 (100.3 MHz; South Johor only) can be received in Central and South Johor (Batu Pahat, Kluang, Pontian, Kota Tinggi, Kulai and Johor Bahru).

NEWSPAPERS

Mainstream newspapers in Johor are:

* _ Berita Harian _ (in Bahasa Malaysia) * _Utusan Malaysia _ (in Bahasa Malaysia) * _ Kosmo! _ (in Bahasa Malaysia) * _ Harian Metro _ (in Bahasa Malaysia) * _ Sinar Harian _ (in Bahasa Malaysia) * _ New Straits Times _ (in English) * _The Star _ (in English) * _ The Malay Mail _ (in English) * _The Sun _ (in English) * _ Nanyang Siang Pau _ (in Mandarin) * _ Sin Chew Jit Poh _ (in Mandarin) * _ China Press _ (in Mandarin) * _ Malaysia Nanban _ (in Tamil) * _ Tamil Nesan _ (in Tamil) * _ Makkal Osai _ (in Tamil) * _ Harakah _ (in Bahasa Malaysia and English). This newspaper is owned by the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party , one of the major party in the Pakatan Rakyat opposition in Johor. * _Suara Keadilan _. This newspaper is owned by People\'s Justice Party , another major party in the Pakatan Rakyat opposition in Johor.

TOURISM

MAJOR TOURIST ATTRACTIONS

Main article: List of tourist attractions in Johor Sultan Abu Bakar State Mosque Tanjung Piai pier

Among the popular tourist destinations in Johor are:

* Sultan Abu Bakar State Mosque constructed between 1892 and 1900 * Tebrau Arulmigu Sri Rajakaliamman Glass Temple - The world's first Hindu glass temple * Desaru – beaches "> Some dishes are a blend of ingredients not found anywhere else in Malaysia. Due to their difficult and sometimes complicated recipes, some can only be sampled during celebrations and state banquets.

* _LAKSA JOHOR_ is from Johor. It differs from Laksa Penang by having coconut milk added during cooking. It also differs from other laksas by using spaghetti instead of rice-based noodles. * _MEE BANDUNG MUAR _ is also a dish originated from Johor, specifically from Muar . The term 'bandung' is not derived from Bandung , Indonesia but is a term for anything that is mixed from many ingredients. One of the most important ingredient is dried shrimp. * _PENGANAN KACAU KELEDEK_ is a dessert normally reserved for the Johor monarch and elites. It is made from sweet potatoes, a lot of eggs (at least 40), fresh coconut milk (not instant ones) and huge amounts of sugar. It is mixed together and stirred on a simmering heat for at least 4 hours. * _MEE REBUS_ is a noodle dish that consists of _Mee_ (a spaghetti like mixture of flour, salt and egg) and is served with a tangy, spicy brown sauce. Usually crumbs and boiled eggs are added. * _ARISA_ – A unique chicken dish that is very rare nowadays, and is normally served to the royalties and social elites of Johor at formal functions and celebrations.

_ Sate

* SATAY _ – is a popular food in Malaysia. Made from marinated meat or chicken and burnt on charcoal grill. Cooked satay is dipped in special peanut sauce. A favourite Malay food in Johor, mostly found in Johor Bahru and Muar . * _TELUR PINDANG_ – Eggs boiled together with herbs and spices, popular during wedding feasts in Johor. * _ROTI JALA_ or _ROTI KIRAI_ – The name is derived from the Malay word 'roti' (bread) and 'jala' (net). A special ladle with a five-hole perforation used to make the bread looks like a fish net (picture in the works). It is usually eaten spicy with curry or sweet with 'serawa'. Serawa is made from a mixture of boiled coconut milk, brown sugar and pandan leaf. * _NASI BERIANI GAM_ – A biryani rice dish originating from India with a cooking method very similar to Hyderabad Biryani but with spices adjusted to suit the Malay palate. This dish is very popular in Batu Pahat District. * _IKAN MASAK ASAM PEDAS_ – A sour stew of fish (usually mackerel ), tamarind , chili , tomatoes, okra and Vietnamese coriander (Malay : _daun kesum_) * _KACANG POL_- This dish is influenced by Arab Culture where special baked bread was served with special sauce and a 'sunny side up' egg. * _PISANG SALAI_ or _GIMPI_ smoked banana cooked into perfection * _OTAK-OTAK_ – Steamed/Grilled fish cake usually served wrapped in sticks of coconut leaves. Two of the most popular varieties are Otak-otak Muar (spicy) and Otak-otak Gelang Patah (sweet). * _MEE SOTO_ – This Indonesian origin food is very popular in Johor. People may have change noodles with rice or vermicelli rice according to their preference. Combination of either noodle, rice or vermicelli rice is added with peanut, beansprout and chicken meat. These combination then is poured with special soup. This soup was made from chicken stock and some other spice. Enjoy it while its hot. * _Mee Bakso_ is almost identical to soto, but with meatballs instead of slices of chicken. * _Lontong_is a combination of pressed rice and coconut soup with vegetables, served with boiled egg and chili. * _Burasak_ is a type of Buginese food. * _Halwa Maskat_ is a dessert that may have originated in Mascat, Oman. * _Kerutup ikan_ is fish is steamed with a variety of local fragrant leaves. * _Pecal_ is a Javanese traditional cuisine made from long beans, slices of cucumber, beansprouts, tauhu, tempe mix, and a peanut sauce. * _Tauhu bakar_ is made from soybean burnt on a grill and cut into cubes and dipped in a sauce. * _Pendaram_ * _Mee Siput_ is a mixture of flour that expands in size when deep fried. * _Rojak Petis_ is a combination of local vegetables mixed with black sauce made mostly from shrimp(Otak Udang). * _ABC_ – ABC is an abbreviation for _air batu campur_, also known as Ice Kacang Johor. It is a special dessert created from shaved ice with corn, jelly, redbeans, groundnut, syrup, pasteurised milk, and chocolate syrup.

Javanese-influenced Cuisine

There are a few Johorean dishes with Javanese influences due to the high number of Javanese settlers in the state. These include _LONTONG _, _NASI AMBENG_, _SATAY_ and _BONTROT_ or _BERKAT_ – both traditionally served after feasts like wedding ceremonies, Yasinan and others; and ungkep.

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. 27. Retrieved 24 January 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Population by States and Ethnic Group". Department of Information, Ministry of Communications and Multimedia, Malaysia. 2015. Archived from the original on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2015. * ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) , Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds., _English Pronouncing Dictionary_, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2 CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * ^ "Johor". _ Merriam-Webster Dictionary _. * ^ "Johor". _ Dictionary.com Unabridged_. Random House . * ^ Archived 31 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Ancient names of Johor, 2 March 2009, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times * ^ http://www.tourismjohor.com/about/ * ^ A. Trocki, Carl (2007). _Prince of Pirates: The Temenggongs and the Development of Johor and Singapore 1784–1885_ (2nd ed.). NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-376-3 * ^ Jackson, James C. (1968). "Planters and speculators: Chinese and European agricultural enterprise in Malaya, 1786–1921". University of Malaya Press * ^ Roads to fame, Fauziah Ismail, Johor Buzz, New Straits Times * ^ Ancient temple steeped in history, Peggy Loh, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times * ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7PFJe2rRXwM * ^ http://www.johor.gov.my/en/kerajaan/page/senarai_penghulu * ^ _A_ _B_ "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. iv. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia" (PDF) (in Malay and English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2012. * ^ Teh, Wei Soon (26 October 2015). " Johor Crown Prince Claims That His State Has Every Right To Secede, Experts Disagree". _Malaysian Digest_. * ^ Mother Nature hits back, 29 December 2006, The Star * ^ An army of its own, Fauziah Ismail, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times * ^ About Southern College, Message from the Executive Advisor, retrieved 21 February 2009 * ^ Archived 17 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Play time for all – LEGOLAND and Hello Kitty Town, Johor". Retrieved 16 May 2014. * ^ " Tanjung Piai National Park". Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2014. * ^ " Endau Rompin National Park". Retrieved 16 May 2014. * ^ "Pulau Kukup Johor National Park". Retrieved 16 May 2014. * ^ "Pulau Sibu". _Tourism Malaysia_. Retrieved 19 May 2014. * ^ "Pulau Rawa". _Tourism Malaysia_. Retrieved 19 May 2014. * ^ " Desaru Beach". _Tourism Malaysia_. Retrieved 19 May 2014. * ^ "Pulau Aur". _Tourism Malaysia_. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014. * ^ Folk dance with religious origin, 14 April 2005, Peggy Loh, Travel Times, New Straits Times * ^ Kenali Gaya: Mata lalat, tulang belut bezakan baju Melayu, Berita Harian Online, September 2008 * ^ Little touches for unique dishes, GEETHA KRISHNAN, 26 June 2006, The Star * ^ Hidangan dan Masakan Johor, 11 December 2006, Official Portal of the Johor State Government

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Andaya, Leonard Y., "The Kingdom of Johor 1641–1728: Economic and Political Developments", Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1975. * Borschberg, Peter, "The Seizure of the Santa Catarina Revisited: The Portuguese Empire in Asia, VOC Politics and the Origins of the Dutch- Johor Alliance (c. 1602–1616)", _Journal of Southeast Asian Studies_, 33.1 (2002): 31–62. (This article can be downloaded free of charge at www.cambride.org, doi :10.1017/S0022463402000024 ) * Borschberg, Peter, "The Singapore and Melaka Straits: Violence, Security and Diplomacy in the Seventeenth Century", Singapore: NUS Press, 2010. ISBN 9789971694647 . https://www.academia.edu/4302722 * Borschberg, Peter, "Hugo Grotius, the Portuguese and Free Trade in the East Indies", Singapore: NUS Press, 2011. ISBN 9789971694678 . https://www.academia.edu/4302729 * Borschberg, Peter, "Journal, Memorial and Letters of Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge. Security, Diplomacy and Commerce in 17th-Century Southeast Asia", Singapore: NUS Press, 2015. ISBN 978-997169798-3 . https://www.academia.edu/4302783 * Borschberg, Peter, "Jacques de Coutre's Singapore and Johor, 1595-c.1625", Singapore: NUS Press, 2015. ISBN 978-9971698522 . https://www.academia.edu/9672124 * Trocki, Carl A., _Prince of Pirates: the Temenggongs and the Development of Johor and Singapore, 1784–1885_, University of Hawaii Press, 1979, ISBN 9789971693763 * Winstedt, Richard O., “A History of Johore”, Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 10.3 (1932): 1–167. (Available in various MBRAS reprints).

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to JOHOR _.

* Johor Government Website

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