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The Info List - Johnny Cash


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(i)

JOHN R. CASH (born J. R. CASH; February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003) was an American singer-songwriter, guitarist, actor, and author. He is widely considered one of the most influential popular musicians of the 20th century and is one of the best-selling music artists of all time , having sold more than 90 million records worldwide. Although primarily remembered as a country music icon, his genre -spanning songs and sound embraced rock and roll , rockabilly , blues , folk , and gospel . This crossover appeal won Cash
Cash
the rare honor of multiple inductions in the Country Music , Rock and Roll , and Gospel Music Halls of Fame.

Cash
Cash
was known for his deep, calm bass-baritone voice, the distinctive sound of his Tennessee Three backing band, which is characterized by train-sound guitar rhythms; a rebelliousness coupled with an increasingly somber and humble demeanor, free prison concerts, and a trademark, all-black stage wardrobe, which earned him the nickname "The Man in Black." He traditionally began his concerts by simply introducing himself, "Hello, I'm Johnny Cash," followed by his signature "Folsom Prison Blues
Blues
".

Much of Cash's music contained themes of sorrow, moral tribulation, and redemption, especially in the latter stages of his career. His signature songs include " I Walk the Line ", "Folsom Prison Blues
Blues
", " Ring of Fire ", " Get Rhythm ", and " Man in Black ". He also recorded humorous numbers like " One Piece at a Time
One Piece at a Time
" and " A Boy Named Sue "; a duet with his future wife, June Carter , called "Jackson " (followed by many further duets after their marriage); and railroad songs including " Hey, Porter ", "Orange Blossom Special
Special
" and "Rock Island Line ". During the last stage of his career, Cash
Cash
covered songs by several late 20th-century rock artists, notably "Hurt " by Nine Inch Nails and " Personal Jesus " by Depeche Mode .

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Military service * 3 Marriages and family

* 4 Career

* 4.1 Early career * 4.2 Outlaw image * 4.3 Folsom and other prison concerts * 4.4 Activism for Native Americans * 4.5 "The Man in Black" * 4.6 Highwaymen and departure from Columbia Records * 4.7 _American Recordings_

* 5 Last years * 6 Death * 7 Religious beliefs

* 8 Legacy

* 8.1 Portrayals

* 9 Awards and honors * 10 Discography * 11 Filmography * 12 Published works * 13 Notes

* 14 References

* 14.1 Bibliography

* 15 Further reading * 16 External links

EARLY LIFE

J. R. Cash
Cash
was born on February 26, 1932 in Kingsland, Arkansas , born to Ray Cash
Cash
(May 13, 1897 in Kingsland, Arkansas – December 23, 1985 in Hendersonville, Tennessee
Hendersonville, Tennessee
) and Carrie Cloveree (_née_ Rivers; March 13, 1904 in Rison, Arkansas – March 11, 1991 in Hendersonville, Tennessee). He was one of seven children, who were in birth order: Roy, Margaret Louise, Jack, J. R., Reba, Joanne, and Tommy (who also became a successful country artist). He was primarily of English and Scottish descent, and as an adult traced his surname to 11th-century Fife after meeting with the then-laird of Falkland , Major Michael Crichton-Stuart. Cash
Cash
Loch and other locations in Fife bear the name of his family.

At birth, Cash
Cash
was named J. R. Cash. When Cash
Cash
enlisted in the United States Air Force , he was not permitted to use initials as a first name, so he changed his name to John R. Cash. In 1955, when signing with Sun Records
Sun Records
, he took Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
as his stage name.

In March 1935, when Cash
Cash
was three years old, the family settled in Dyess, Arkansas , a New Deal Colony intended to give poor families a chance to start over with land that they could work toward owning. J.R. started working in cotton fields at the age of five, singing along with his family while working. The family farm was flooded on at least two occasions, which later inspired him to write the song "Five Feet High and Rising". His family's economic and personal struggles during the Great Depression inspired many of his songs, especially those about other people facing similar difficulties.

Cash
Cash
was very close to his older brother, Jack. In May 1944, Jack was pulled into a whirling head saw in the mill where he worked and was almost cut in two. He suffered for over a week before he died on May 20, 1944, at the age of 15. Cash
Cash
often spoke of the horrible guilt he felt over this incident. According to _Cash: The Autobiography_, his father was away that morning, but he and his mother, and Jack himself, all had premonitions or a sense of foreboding about that day, causing his mother to urge Jack to skip work and go fishing with his brother. Jack insisted on working, as the family needed the money. On his deathbed, Jack said he had visions of Heaven and angels. Decades later, Cash
Cash
spoke of looking forward to meeting his brother in Heaven.

Cash's early memories were dominated by gospel music and radio. Taught guitar by his mother and a childhood friend, Cash
Cash
began playing and writing songs at the age of twelve. When Cash
Cash
was young, he had a high tenor voice, before becoming a bass-baritone. In high school, he sang on a local radio station; decades later he released an album of traditional gospel songs, called _My Mother\'s Hymn Book
Book
_. He was also significantly influenced by traditional Irish music that he heard performed weekly by Dennis Day on the Jack Benny radio program.

MILITARY SERVICE

Cash
Cash
enlisted in the United States Air Force on July 7, 1950. After basic training at Lackland Air Force Base and technical training at Brooks Air Force Base , both in San Antonio, Texas , Cash
Cash
was assigned to the 12th Radio Squadron Mobile of the U.S. Air Force Security Service at Landsberg , Germany as a Morse Code operator intercepting Soviet Army
Soviet Army
transmissions. It was there he created his first band, named "The Landsberg Barbarians". He was honorably discharged as a staff sergeant on July 3, 1954, and returned to Texas. During his military service, he acquired a distinctive scar on the right side of his jaw as a result of surgery to remove a cyst .

MARRIAGES AND FAMILY

On July 18, 1951, while in Air Force training, Cash
Cash
met 17-year-old Vivian Liberto at a roller skating rink in her native San Antonio. They dated for three weeks until Cash
Cash
was deployed to Germany for a three-year tour. During that time, the couple exchanged hundreds of pages of love letters . On August 7, 1954, one month after his discharge, they were married at St. Ann's Roman Catholic Church in San Antonio. The ceremony was performed by her uncle, Father Vincent Liberto. They had four daughters: Rosanne , Kathy, Cindy, and Tara. Liberto stated that Cash's drug and alcohol abuse, as well as constant touring, affairs with other women, and his close relationship with June Carter led her to file for divorce in 1966.

Cash
Cash
met June Carter , of the famed Carter Family
Carter Family
while on tour and became infatuated, as did she. In 1968, 13 years after they first met backstage at the Grand Ole Opry , Cash
Cash
proposed to June, during a live performance in London, Ontario . The couple married on March 1, 1968, in Franklin, Kentucky . They had one child together, John Carter Cash , born March 3, 1970. Cash
Cash
and Carter continued to work, raise their children, create music, and tour together for 35 years until June's death in May 2003. Throughout their marriage June attempted to keep Cash
Cash
off of amphetamines, often taking his drugs and flushing them down the toilet. June remained with Johnny throughout multiple rehab visits and years of drug abuse. After June's passing, Cash
Cash
believed that his only reason for living was his music. Cash
Cash
died four months later.

CAREER

EARLY CAREER

Publicity photo for Sun Records
Sun Records

In 1954, Cash
Cash
and Vivian moved to Memphis, Tennessee
Memphis, Tennessee
, where he sold appliances while studying to be a radio announcer. At night he played with guitarist Luther Perkins and bassist Marshall Grant . Perkins and Grant were known as the Tennessee Two . Cash
Cash
worked up the courage to visit the Sun Records
Sun Records
studio, hoping to get a recording contract. After auditioning for Sam Phillips
Sam Phillips
, singing mostly gospel songs, Phillips told him that he didn't record gospel music any longer. It was once rumored that Phillips told Cash
Cash
to "go home and sin, then come back with a song I can sell", although in a 2002 interview Cash denied that Phillips made any such comment. Cash
Cash
eventually won over the producer with new songs delivered in his early rockabilly style. In 1955, Cash
Cash
made his first recordings at Sun, " Hey Porter " and " Cry! Cry! Cry! ", which were released in late June and met with success on the country hit parade .

On December 4, 1956, Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
dropped in on Phillips while Carl Perkins was in the studio cutting new tracks, with Jerry Lee Lewis backing him on piano. Cash
Cash
was also in the studio and the four started an impromptu jam session . Phillips left the tapes running and the recordings, almost half of which were gospel songs, survived and have since been released under the title _ Million Dollar Quartet _. In _Cash: the Autobiography_, Cash
Cash
wrote that he was the one farthest from the microphone and was singing in a higher pitch to blend in with Elvis.

Cash's next record, "Folsom Prison Blues", made the country Top 5, and " I Walk the Line " became No. 1 on the country charts and entered the pop charts Top 20. "Home of the Blues
Blues
" followed, recorded in July 1957. That same year Cash
Cash
became the first Sun artist to release a long-playing album . Although he was Sun's most consistently selling and prolific artist at that time, Cash
Cash
felt constrained by his contract with the small label partly due to the fact that Phillips wasn't keen on Johnny recording gospel, and he was getting only a 3% royalty as opposed to the standard rate of 5%. Presley had already left Sun, and Phillips was focusing most of his attention and promotion on Lewis. The following year, Cash
Cash
left the label to sign a lucrative offer with Columbia Records , where his single "Don\'t Take Your Guns to Town " became one of his biggest hits and his second album for Columbia was a collection of gospel songs. However, Cash left behind a sufficient backlog of recordings with Sun that Phillips continued to release new singles and even albums featuring previously unreleased material until as late as 1964, placing Cash
Cash
in the unusual position of having new releases out on two labels concurrently, with one 1960 release, a cover of " Oh Lonesome Me " making as high as No. 13 on the C Columbia eventually licensed some of these recordings for release on compilations after Cash's death.) The Tennessee Three with Cash
Cash
in 1963.

Early in his career, he was given the teasing nickname _The Undertaker_ by fellow artists because of his habit of wearing black clothes – though he did so only because they were easier to keep looking clean on long tours.

In the early 1960s, Cash
Cash
toured with the Carter Family
Carter Family
, which by this time regularly included Mother Maybelle 's daughters, Anita , June , and Helen . June later recalled admiring him from afar during these tours. In the 1960s, he appeared on Pete Seeger 's short-lived television series _ Rainbow Quest _. He also acted in and wrote and sang the opening theme for a 1961 film entitled _Five Minutes to Live _, later re-released as _Door-to-door Maniac_.

Cash's career was handled by Saul Holiff, a London, Ontario, promoter, and this relationship was the subject of Saul's son's biopic _ My Father and the Man in Black _.

OUTLAW IMAGE

As his career was taking off in the late 1950s, Cash
Cash
started drinking heavily and became addicted to amphetamines and barbiturates . For a brief time, he shared an apartment in Nashville with Waylon Jennings , who was heavily addicted to amphetamines. Cash
Cash
used the uppers to stay awake during tours. Friends joked about his "nervousness" and erratic behavior, many ignoring the warning signs of his worsening drug addiction .

Although he was in many ways spiraling out of control, Cash's frenetic creativity was still delivering hits. His rendition of "Ring of Fire " was a crossover hit, reaching No. 1 on the country charts and entering the Top 20 on the pop charts. It was originally performed by June's sister, but the signature mariachi -style horn arrangement was provided by Cash, who said that it had come to him in a dream. Vivian Liberto claimed a different version of the origins of "Ring of Fire." In her book, _I Walked the Line: My Life with Johnny_, Liberto states that Cash
Cash
gave Carter the credit for monetary reasons.

In June 1965, his camper caught fire during a fishing trip with his nephew Damon Fielder in Los Padres National Forest in California, triggering a forest fire that burnt several hundred acres and nearly killed Cash. Cash
Cash
claimed that the fire was caused by sparks from a defective exhaust system on his camper, but Fielder thinks that Cash started a fire to stay warm and in his drugged condition failed to notice the fire getting out of control. When the judge asked Cash
Cash
why he did it, Cash
Cash
said, "I didn't do it, my truck did, and it's dead, so you can't question it." The fire destroyed 508 acres (206 ha), burning the foliage off three mountains and driving off forty-nine of the refuge's 53 endangered condors . Cash
Cash
was unrepentant and claimed, "I don't care about your damn yellow buzzards." The federal government sued him and was awarded $125,172. Cash
Cash
eventually settled the case and paid $82,001. He said he was the only person ever sued by the government for starting a forest fire.

Although Cash
Cash
carefully cultivated a romantic outlaw image, he never served a prison sentence. Despite landing in jail seven times for misdemeanors , each stay lasted only a single night. His most infamous run-in with the law occurred while on tour in 1965, when he was arrested October 4 by a narcotics squad in El Paso, Texas . The officers suspected he was smuggling heroin from Mexico, but found instead 688 Dexedrine capsules (amphetamines) and 475 Equanil (sedatives or tranquilizers) tablets that the singer had hidden inside his guitar case. Because the pills were prescription drugs rather than illegal narcotics, he received a suspended sentence . Johnny Cash and his second wife, June Carter

Cash
Cash
had also been arrested on May 11, 1965, in Starkville, Mississippi , for trespassing late at night onto private property to pick flowers. (This incident gave the spark for the song "Starkville City Jail", which he discussed on his live _At San Quentin_ album.) In the mid-1960s, Cash
Cash
released a number of concept albums , including _ Sings the Ballads of the True West _ (1965), an experimental double record mixing authentic frontier songs with Cash's spoken narration, and _ Bitter Tears _ (1964), with songs highlighting the plight of the Native Americans. His drug addiction was at its worst at this point, and his destructive behavior led to a divorce from his first wife and canceled performances. Nonetheless, he continued to find success and in 1967, Cash's duet with June Carter , "Jackson ," won a Grammy
Grammy
Award .

Cash's final arrest was in 1967 in Walker County, Georgia , after being involved in a car accident while carrying a bag of prescription pills. Cash
Cash
attempted to bribe a local deputy, who turned the money down; Cash
Cash
then spent the night in a LaFayette, Georgia , jail. The singer was released after a long talk with Sheriff Ralph Jones, who warned him of his dangerous behavior and wasted potential. Cash credited that experience for saving his life, and he later came back to LaFayette to play a benefit concert that attracted 12,000 people (the city population was less than 9,000 at the time) and raised $75,000 for the high school. Reflecting on his past in a 1997 interview, Cash
Cash
noted: "I was taking the pills for awhile, and then the pills started taking me."

Cash
Cash
curtailed his use of drugs for several years in 1968, after a spiritual epiphany in the Nickajack Cave , when he attempted to commit suicide while under the heavy influence of drugs. He descended deeper into the cave, trying to lose himself and "just die," when he passed out on the floor. He reported being exhausted and feeling at the end of his rope when he felt God's presence in his heart and managed to struggle out of the cave (despite the exhaustion) by following a faint light and slight breeze. To him, it was his own rebirth. June, Maybelle , and Ezra Carter moved into Cash's mansion for a month to help him conquer his addiction. Cash
Cash
proposed onstage to June at a concert at the London Gardens in London, Ontario , Canada, on February 22, 1968; the couple married a week later (on March 1) in Franklin, Kentucky . She had agreed to marry Cash
Cash
after he had "cleaned up."

He rediscovered his Christian faith, taking an "altar call " in Evangel Temple, a small church in the Nashville area, pastored by Reverend Jimmie Rodgers Snow, son of country music legend Hank Snow . According to longtime friend Marshall Grant , Cash's 1968 rebirth experience did not result in his completely stopping use of amphetamines. However, beginning in 1970, Cash
Cash
ended all drug use for a period of seven years. Grant claims that the birth of Cash's son, John Carter Cash inspired Cash
Cash
to end his dependence. Cash
Cash
began using amphetamines again in 1977. By 1983, he was once again addicted and entered the Betty Ford Clinic in Rancho Mirage , California for rehabilitation. Cash
Cash
managed to stay off drugs for several years, but by 1989, he was dependent again and entered Nashville's Cumberland Heights Alcohol and Drug Treatment Center. In 1992, he entered the Loma Linda Behavioral Medicine Center in Loma Linda, California , for his final rehabilitation (several months later, his son followed him into this facility for treatment).

FOLSOM AND OTHER PRISON CONCERTS

Cash
Cash
began performing concerts at prisons starting in the late 1950s. He played his first famous prison concert on January 1, 1958, at San Quentin State Prison. These performances led to a pair of highly successful live albums, _ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
at Folsom Prison _ (1968) and _ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
at San Quentin
San Quentin
_ (1969). Both live albums reached number 1 on Billboard country album music and the latter crossed over to reach the top of the Billboard pop album chart. In 1969 Cash
Cash
became an international hit when he eclipsed even the Beatles by selling 6.5 million albums. In comparison, the prison concerts were much more successful than his later live albums such as _Strawberry Cake_ recorded in London and _Live at Madison Square Garden_, which peaked at #33 and #39 on the album charts respectively.

The Folsom Prison record was introduced by a rendition of his "Folsom Prison Blues," while the San Quentin
San Quentin
record included the crossover hit single " A Boy Named Sue ," a Shel Silverstein -penned novelty song that reached No. 1 on the country charts and No. 2 on the U.S. Top Ten pop charts. The AM versions of the latter contained profanities which were edited out. The modern CD versions are unedited and thus also longer than the original vinyl albums, though they retain the audience reaction overdubs of the originals.

Cash
Cash
performed at the Österåker Prison in Sweden in 1972. The live album _ På Österåker _ ("At Österåker") was released in 1973. "San Quentin" was recorded with Cash
Cash
replacing "San Quentin" with "Österåker". In 1976, a further prison concert, this time at Tennessee Prison, was videotaped for TV broadcast and received a belated CD release after Cash's death as _A Concert Behind Prison Walls _.

ACTIVISM FOR NATIVE AMERICANS

In 1965, Cash
Cash
and June Carter appeared on Pete Seeger 's TV show, _ Rainbow Quest _, on which Cash
Cash
explained his start as an activist for Native Americans:

In '57, I wrote a song called 'Old Apache Squaw' and then forgot the so-called Indian protest for a while, but nobody else seemed to speak up with any volume of voice.

Columbia, the label for which Cash
Cash
was recording then, was opposed to putting the song on his next album, considering it "too radical for the public". Cash
Cash
singing songs of Indian tragedy and settler violence went radically against the mainstream of country music in the 1950s, which was dominated by the image of the righteous cowboy who simply makes the native's soil his own.

In 1964, coming off the chart success that his previous album "I Walk The Line " had been, he recorded the aforementioned album _Bitter Tears: Ballads of the American Indian _.

The album featured stories of a multitude of native peoples, mostly of their violent oppression by white settlers: The Pima ("The Ballad of Ira Hayes "), Navajo ("Navajo"), Apache ("Apache Tears"), Lakota ("Big Foot"), Seneca ("As Long as the Grass Shall Grow"), and Cherokee ("Talking Leaves"). Cash
Cash
wrote three of the songs himself and one with the help of Johnny Horton , but the majority of the protest songs were written by folk artist Peter La Farge (son of activist and Pulitzer prizewinner Oliver La Farge ), whom Cash
Cash
met in New York in the 1960s and whom he admired for his activism. The album's single, "The Ballad of Ira Hayes," was neglected by non-political radio at the time, and the record label denied it any promotion due to its provocative protesting and thus "unappealing" nature. Cash
Cash
faced resistance and was even urged by an editor of a country music magazine to leave the Country Music Association : "You and your crowd are just too intelligent to associate with plain country folks, country artists, and country DJs."

In reaction, on August 22, 1964, the singer posted a letter as an advertisement in Billboard Magazine , calling the record industry cowardly. "D.J.s – station managers – owners ... where are your guts?" he demands. "I had to fight back when I realized that so many stations are afraid of Ira Hayes. Just one question: WHY???" He concludes the letter, " Ira Hayes is strong medicine ... So is Rochester, Harlem, Birmingham and Vietnam." Cash
Cash
kept promoting the song himself and used his influence on radio disc jockeys he knew eventually to make the song climb to number three on the country charts , while the album rose to number two on the album charts . Cash
Cash
in 1969

Later, on _ The Johnny Cash Show _, he continued telling stories of Native-American plight, both in song and through short films, such as the history of the Trail of Tears .

In 1966, in response to his activism, the singer was adopted by the Seneca Nation's Turtle Clan. He performed benefits in 1968 at the Rosebud Reservation, close to the historical landmark of the massacre at Wounded Knee , to raise money to help build a school. He also played at the D-Q University in the 1980s.

In 1970, Cash
Cash
recording a reading of John G. Burnett's 1890 80th birthday essay on Cherokee removal for the Historical Landmarks Association (Nashville).

"THE MAN IN BLACK"

Cash
Cash
advocated prison reform at his July 1972 meeting with United States President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon

From 1969 to 1971, Cash
Cash
starred in his own television show, _The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Show _, on the ABC network. The Statler Brothers opened up for him in every episode; the Carter Family
Carter Family
and rockabilly legend Carl Perkins were also part of the regular show entourage. Cash
Cash
also enjoyed booking mainstream performers as guests; including Neil Young , Louis Armstrong , Neil Diamond , Kenny Rogers and The First Edition (who appeared four times), James Taylor
James Taylor
, Ray Charles , Roger Miller , Roy Orbison , Derek and the Dominos , and Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
. During the same period, he contributed the title song and other songs to the film _Little Fauss and Big Halsey_, which starred Robert Redford , Michael J. Pollard , and Lauren Hutton . The title song, "_The Ballad of Little Fauss and Big Halsey_," written by Carl Perkins, was nominated for a Golden Globe award.

Cash
Cash
had met with Dylan in the mid-1960s and became closer friends when they were neighbors in the late 1960s in Woodstock, New York . Cash
Cash
was enthusiastic about reintroducing the reclusive Dylan to his audience. Cash
Cash
sang a duet with Dylan on Dylan's country album _ Nashville Skyline
Nashville Skyline
_ and also wrote the album's Grammy
Grammy
-winning liner notes .

Another artist who received a major career boost from _The Johnny Cash
Cash
Show_ was Kris Kristofferson , who was beginning to make a name for himself as a singer-songwriter. During a live performance of Kristofferson's "Sunday Mornin\' Comin\' Down ," Cash
Cash
refused to change the lyrics to suit network executives, singing the song with its references to marijuana intact:

On a Sunday morning sidewalk I'm wishin', Lord, that I was stoned.

By the early 1970s, he had crystallized his public image as "The Man in Black." He regularly performed dressed all in black, wearing a long black knee-length coat. This outfit stood in contrast to the costumes worn by most of the major country acts in his day: rhinestone suits and cowboy boots . In 1971, Cash
Cash
wrote the song " Man in Black ," to help explain his dress code:

We're doing mighty fine I do suppose In our streak of lightning cars and fancy clothes But just so we're reminded of the ones who are held back Up front there ought to be a man in black. Cash
Cash
performing in Bremen
Bremen
, West Germany, in September 1972

He wore 'black' on behalf of the poor and hungry , on behalf of "the prisoner who has long paid for his crime," and on behalf of those who have been betrayed by age or drugs. "And," Cash
Cash
added, "with the Vietnam War as painful in my mind as it was in most other Americans, I wore it 'in mournin' for the lives that could have been' ... Apart from the Vietnam War being over, I don't see much reason to change my position ... The old are still neglected, the poor are still poor, the young are still dying before their time, and we're not making many moves to make things right. There's still plenty of darkness to carry off." Cash
Cash
in the "one piece at a time" Cadillac

He and his band had initially worn black shirts because that was the only matching color they had among their various outfits. He wore other colors on stage early in his career, but he claimed to like wearing black both on and off stage. He stated that political reasons aside, he simply liked black as his on-stage color. The outdated US Navy\'s winter blue uniform used to be referred to by sailors as "Johnny Cashes," as the uniform's shirt, tie, and trousers are solid black.

In the mid-1970s, Cash's popularity and number of hit songs began to decline. He made commercials for Amoco and STP , an unpopular enterprise at the time of the 1970s energy crisis . In 1976 he made commercials for Lionel Trains , for which he also wrote the music. However, his first autobiography, _Man in Black_, was published in 1975 and sold 1.3 million copies. A second, _Cash: The Autobiography_, appeared in 1997.

His friendship with Billy Graham led to Cash's production of a film about the life of Jesus, _ The Gospel Road _, which Cash
Cash
co-wrote and narrated. It was released in 1973. Cash
Cash
viewed the film as a statement of his personal faith rather than a means of proselytizing.

Cash
Cash
and June Carter Cash appeared several times on the _Billy Graham Crusade_ TV specials, and Cash
Cash
continued to include gospel and religious songs on many of his albums, though Columbia declined to release _ A Believer Sings the Truth _, a gospel double-LP Cash recorded in 1979 and which ended up being released on an independent label even with Cash
Cash
still under contract to Columbia. On November 22, 1974, CBS
CBS
ran his one-hour TV special entitled "Riding The Rails", a musical history of trains.

He continued to appear on television, hosting Christmas specials on CBS
CBS
in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Later television appearances included a starring role in an episode of _ Columbo _, entitled "Swan Song". He and June appeared in an episode of _Little House on the Prairie _, entitled "The Collection". He gave a performance as John Brown in the 1985 American Civil War television mini-series _North and South _. Johnny and June also appeared in _ Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman _ in recurring roles.

He was friendly with every US President starting with Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
. He was closest to Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
, with whom he became close friends and who was a distant cousin of his wife, June Carter Cash .

When invited to perform at the White House
White House
for the first time in 1970, Richard Nixon's office requested that he play "Okie from Muskogee " (a satirical Merle Haggard song about people who despised youthful drug users and war protesters), "Welfare Cadillac" (a Guy Drake song which denies the integrity of welfare recipients), and "A Boy Named Sue." Cash
Cash
declined to play the first two and instead selected other songs, including " The Ballad of Ira Hayes " (about a brave Native American World War II
World War II
veteran who was mistreated upon his return to Arizona
Arizona
), and his own compositions, "What Is Truth " and "Man in Black". Cash
Cash
wrote that the reasons for denying Nixon's song choices were not knowing them and having fairly short notice to rehearse them, rather than any political reason. However, Cash
Cash
added, even if Nixon's office had given Cash
Cash
enough time to learn and rehearse the songs, their choice of pieces that conveyed "anti-hippie and anti-black " sentiments might have backfired. In his remarks when introducing Cash, Nixon joked that one thing he'd learned about the singer was one didn't tell him what to sing.

. Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
was the Grand Marshal of the United States Bicentennial parade. . He wore a shirt from Nudie Cohn which sold for $25,000 in auction in 2010. After the parade he gave a concert at the Washington monument.

HIGHWAYMEN AND DEPARTURE FROM COLUMBIA RECORDS

The Highwaymen members Kris Kristofferson , Johnny Cash, Waylon Jennings , Willie Nelson

In 1980, Cash
Cash
became the Country Music Hall of Fame 's youngest living inductee at age 48. But during the 1980s, his records failed to make a major impact on the country charts, although he continued to tour successfully. In the mid-1980s, he recorded and toured with Waylon Jennings , Willie Nelson , and Kris Kristofferson as The Highwaymen , making three hit albums which were released beginning with the originally titled "Highwaymen" in 1985, followed by "Highwaymen 2" in 1990, and concluding with "Highwaymen – The Road Goes on forever" in 1995.

During that period, Cash
Cash
appeared in a number of television films. In 1981, he starred in _ The Pride of Jesse Hallam _, winning fine reviews for a film that called attention to adult illiteracy . In the same year, Cash
Cash
appeared as a "very special guest star" in an episode of the _ Muppet Show _. In 1983, he appeared as a heroic sheriff in _ Murder in Coweta County _, based on a real-life Georgia murder case, which co-starred Andy Griffith
Andy Griffith
as his nemesis and featured June Carter in a small but important role. Cash
Cash
had tried for years to make the film, for which he won acclaim.

Cash
Cash
relapsed into addiction after being administered painkillers for a serious abdominal injury in 1983 caused by an unusual incident in which he was kicked and wounded by an ostrich he kept on his farm.

At a hospital visit in 1988, this time to watch over Waylon Jennings (who was recovering from a heart attack), Jennings suggested that Cash has himself checked into the hospital for his own heart condition. Doctors recommended preventive heart surgery, and Cash
Cash
underwent double bypass surgery in the same hospital. Both recovered, although Cash
Cash
refused to use any prescription painkillers, fearing a relapse into dependency. Cash
Cash
later claimed that during his operation, he had what is called a "near death experience ".

Cash's recording career and his general relationship with the Nashville establishment were at an all-time low in the 1980s. He realized that his record label of nearly 30 years, Columbia, was growing indifferent to him and was not properly marketing him (he was "invisible" during that time, as he said in his autobiography).

In 1984, Cash
Cash
released a self-parody recording titled "Chicken in Black," about Cash's brain being transplanted into a chicken and Cash receiving a bank robber's brain in return. Biographer Robert Hilburn, in the 2013-published _Johnny Cash: The Life_ disputes the claim made that Cash
Cash
chose to record an intentionally poor song in protest of Columbia's treatment of him. On the contrary, Hilburn writes, it was Columbia that presented Cash
Cash
with the song, which Cash
Cash
– who had previously scored major chart hits with comedic material such as "A Boy Named Sue" and "One Piece at a Time" – accepted enthusiastically, performing the song live on stage and filming a comedic music video in which he dresses up in a superhero-like bank robber costume. According to Hilburn, Cash's enthusiasm for the song waned after Waylon Jennings told Cash
Cash
he looked "like a buffoon" in the music video (which was showcased during Cash's 1984 Christmas TV special), and Cash
Cash
subsequently demanded that Columbia withdraw the music video from broadcast and recall the single from stores—interrupting its bona fide chart success—and termed the venture "a fiasco."

Between 1981 and 1984, he recorded several sessions with famed countrypolitan producer Billy Sherrill (who also produced "Chicken in Black") which were shelved; they would be released by Columbia's sister label, Legacy Recordings , in 2014 as _ Out Among the Stars _. Around this time, Cash
Cash
also recorded an album of gospel recordings that ended up being released by another label around the time of his departure from Columbia (this due to Columbia closing down its Priority Records division that was to have released the recordings).

After more unsuccessful recordings were released in 1984–85, Cash left Columbia (At least as a solo artist; he continued to record for Columbia on non-solo projects until as late as 1990, recording a duets album with Waylon Jennings and two albums as a member of The Highwaymen .)

In 1986, Cash
Cash
returned to Sun Studios in Memphis to team up with Roy Orbison , Jerry Lee Lewis , and Carl Perkins to create the album _Class of \'55 _; according to Hilburn, Columbia still had Cash
Cash
under contract at the time, so special arrangements had to be made to allow him to participate. Also in 1986, Cash
Cash
published his only novel, _Man in White_, a book about Saul and his conversion to become the Apostle Paul. He recorded _ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Reads The Complete New Testament
New Testament
_ in 1990.

_AMERICAN RECORDINGS_

Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
sings a duet with a Navy lieutenant c. 1987

After Columbia Records dropped Cash
Cash
from his recording contract, he had a short and unsuccessful stint with Mercury Records from 1987 to 1991. During this time, he recorded an album of new versions of some of his best-known Sun and Columbia hits, as well as _Water from the Wells of Home _, a duets album that paired him with, among others, his children Rosanne Cash and John Carter Cash , as well as Paul McCartney . A one-off Christmas album recorded for Delta Records followed his Mercury contract.

His career was rejuvenated in the 1990s, leading to popularity with an audience which was not traditionally considered interested in country music. In 1991, he sang a version of "Man in Black" for the Christian punk band One Bad Pig 's album _I Scream Sunday_. In 1993, he sang "The Wanderer" on U2 's album _ Zooropa
Zooropa
_ which was the closing track. According to _Rolling Stone_ writer, Adam Gold,"The Wanderer" – written for Cash
Cash
by Bono, "defies both the U2 and Cash
Cash
canons, combining rhythmic and textural elements of Nineties synth-pop with a Countrypolitan lament fit for the closing credits of a Seventies western." .

Although no longer sought after by major labels, he was offered a contract with producer Rick Rubin 's American Recordings label, which had recently been rebranded from Def American, under which name it was better known for rap and hard rock . Under Rubin's supervision, he recorded _American Recordings _ (1994) in his living room, accompanied only by his Martin Dreadnought guitar – one of many Cash
Cash
played throughout his career. The album featured covers of contemporary artists selected by Rubin including "Down There by the Train" by Tom Waits . The album had a great deal of critical and commercial success, winning a Grammy
Grammy
for Best Contemporary Folk Album . Cash
Cash
wrote that his reception at the 1994 Glastonbury Festival was one of the highlights of his career. This was the beginning of a decade of music industry accolades and commercial success. He teamed up with Brooks "> Cash's original grave (top) and the Cash/Carter memorial

In 1997, Cash
Cash
was diagnosed with the neurodegenerative disease Shy–Drager syndrome , a form of multiple system atrophy ; according to biographer Robert Hilburn, the disease was originally misdiagnosed as Parkinson\'s disease , and Cash
Cash
even announced to a concert audience that he had Parkinson's during a show in Flint, Michigan , on October 25, 1997, after he nearly collapsed on stage; soon after his diagnosis was changed to Shy–Drager and Cash
Cash
was told he had approximately 18 months to live. The diagnosis was later again altered to autonomic neuropathy associated with diabetes . The illness forced Cash
Cash
to curtail his touring. He was hospitalized in 1998 with severe pneumonia , which damaged his lungs.

During the last stage of his career, Cash
Cash
released the albums _American III: Solitary Man _ (2000) and _American IV: The Man Comes Around _ (2002). _American IV_ included cover songs by several late 20th-century rock artists, notably "Hurt " by Nine Inch Nails and " Personal Jesus " by Depeche Mode . Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails commented that he was initially skeptical about Cash's plan to cover "Hurt", but was later impressed and moved by the rendition. The video for "Hurt" received critical and popular acclaim.

June Carter Cash died on May 15, 2003, at the age of 73. June had told Cash
Cash
to keep working, so he continued to record, completing 60 more songs in the last four months of his life, and even performed a couple of surprise shows at the Carter Family
Carter Family
Fold outside Bristol, Virginia . At the July 5, 2003, concert (his last public performance), before singing " Ring of Fire ", Cash
Cash
read a statement about his late wife that he had written shortly before taking the stage:

The spirit of June Carter overshadows me tonight with the love she had for me and the love I have for her. We connect somewhere between here and Heaven. She came down for a short visit, I guess, from Heaven to visit with me tonight to give me courage and inspiration like she always has.

Cash
Cash
continued to record until shortly before his death. His final recordings were made on August 21, 2003, and consisted of "Like the 309", which appeared on _American V: A Hundred Highways _ in 2006, and the final song he completed, "Engine 143", which was recorded for his son John Carter Cash for a planned Carter Family
Carter Family
tribute album.

DEATH

While hospitalized at Baptist Hospital in Nashville, Cash
Cash
died of complications from diabetes at approximately 2:00 a.m. CT on September 12, 2003, aged 71—less than four months after his wife. It was suggested that Johnny's health worsened due to a broken heart over June's death. He was buried next to his wife in Hendersonville Memory Gardens near his home in Hendersonville, Tennessee
Hendersonville, Tennessee
.

In June 2005, Cash's lakeside home on Caudill Drive in Hendersonville was put up for sale by his estate. In January 2006, the house was sold to Bee Gees vocalist Barry Gibb and wife Linda, and titled to their Florida limited liability company for $2.3 million. The listing agent was Cash's younger brother, Tommy . On April 10, 2007, during major renovation works carried out for Gibb, a fire broke out at the house, spreading quickly due to a flammable wood preservative that had been used. The building was completely burnt down.

One of Cash's final collaborations with producer Rick Rubin , _American V: A Hundred Highways _, was released posthumously on July 4, 2006. The album debuted in the No.1 position on the _Billboard_ Top 200 album chart for the week ending July 22, 2006. On February 23, 2010, three days before what would have been Cash's 78th birthday, the Cash
Cash
Family, Rick Rubin , and Lost Highway Records released his second posthumous record, titled _American VI: Ain\'t No Grave _.

RELIGIOUS BELIEFS

Cash
Cash
was raised by his parents in the Southern Baptist denomination of Christianity. He was baptized in 1944 in the Tyronza River as a member of the Central Baptist Church of Dyess, Arkansas .

A troubled but devout Christian, Cash
Cash
has been characterized as a "lens through which to view American contradictions and challenges." On May 9, 1971 he answered the altar call at Evangel Temple, an Assemblies of God congregation pastored by Jimmy R. Snow (son of Hank Snow ) with outreach to people in the music world.

A biblical scholar , Cash
Cash
penned a Christian novel , _Man in White_ in 1986 and in the introduction writes about a reporter who, interested in Cash's religious beliefs, questions whether the book is written from a Baptist, Catholic, or Jewish perspective. Cash
Cash
denies an answer to the book's view and his own, and replies, "I'm a Christian. Don't put me in another box."

In the mid-seventies, Cash
Cash
and his wife, June, completed a course of study in the Bible through Christian International Bible College. Cash
Cash
often performed at Billy Graham Crusades. At a Tallahassee Crusade in 1986, June and Johnny sang his song, "One of These Days I'm Gonna Sit Down And Talk
Talk
To Paul." At a notable performance in Arkansas in 1989 Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
spoke to attendees of his commitment to the salvation of drug dealers and alcoholics. He then sang, "Family Bible."

He made a spoken word recording of the entire New King James Version of the New Testament
New Testament
. Cash
Cash
declared he was "the biggest sinner of them all", and viewed himself overall as a complicated and contradictory man. Accordingly, Cash
Cash
is said to have "contained multitudes," and has been deemed "the philosopher-prince of American country music."

Cash
Cash
is credited with having converted actor and singer John Schneider to Christianity.

LEGACY

The clothes and guitar of Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
on exhibit in the Artist Gallery of the Musical Instrument Museum of Phoenix

Cash's daughter Rosanne (by first wife Vivian Liberto) and his son John Carter Cash (by June Carter Cash ) are notable musicians in their own right.

Cash
Cash
nurtured and defended artists (such as Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
) on the fringes of what was acceptable in country music even while serving as the country music establishment's most visible symbol. At an all-star concert which aired in 1999 on TNT , a diverse group of artists paid him tribute, including Dylan, Chris Isaak
Chris Isaak
, Wyclef Jean , Norah Jones , Kris Kristofferson , Willie Nelson , Dom DeLuise , and U2 . Cash himself appeared at the end and performed for the first time in more than a year. Two tribute albums were released shortly before his death; _ Kindred Spirits _ contains works from established artists, while _ Dressed in Black _ contains works from many lesser-known musicians. In total, he wrote over 1,000 songs and released dozens of albums. A box set titled _Unearthed _ was issued posthumously. It included four CDs of unreleased material recorded with Rubin as well as a _Best of Cash
Cash
on American_ retrospective CD. The set also includes a 104-page book that discusses each track and features one of Cash's final interviews.

In recognition of his lifelong support of SOS Children\'s Villages , his family invited friends and fans to donate to the Johnny Cash Memorial Fund in his memory. He had a personal link with the SOS village in Diessen , at the Ammersee Lake in Southern Germany , near where he was stationed as a GI , and with the SOS village in Barrett Town, by Montego Bay , near his holiday home in Jamaica
Jamaica
.

In 1999, Cash
Cash
received the Grammy
Grammy
Lifetime Achievement Award . In 2004, _ Rolling Stone _ ranked Cash
Cash
No. 31 on their "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" list and No. 21 on their "100 Greatest Singers" list in 2010. In 2012 _Rolling Stone_ ranked Cash's 1968 live album _ At Folsom Prison _ and 1994 studio album _American Recordings _ at No. 88 and No. 366 in its list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.

The main street in Hendersonville, Tennessee
Hendersonville, Tennessee
, Highway 31E, is known as " Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Parkway."

The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Museum, located in one of Cash's properties in Hendersonville until 2006, dubbed the _ House of Cash _, was sold based on Cash's will. Prior to this, having been closed for a number of years, the museum had been featured in Cash's music video for "Hurt." The house subsequently burned down during the renovation by the new owner. A new museum, founded by Shannon and Bill Miller, opened April 26, 2013, in downtown Nashville.

On November 2–4, 2007, the Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Flower Pickin' Festival was held in Starkville, Mississippi , where Cash
Cash
had been arrested more than 40 years earlier and held overnight at the city jail on May 11, 1965. The incident inspired Cash
Cash
to write the song "Starkville City Jail". The festival, where he was offered a symbolic posthumous pardon, honored Cash's life and music and was expected to become an annual event.

JC Unit One, Johnny Cash's private tour bus from 1980 until 2003, was put on exhibit at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum in Cleveland, Ohio , in 2007. The museum offers public tours of the bus on a seasonal basis (it is stored during the winter months and not exhibited during those times).

A limited-edition Forever stamp honoring Cash
Cash
went on sale June 5, 2013. The stamp features a promotional picture of Cash
Cash
taken around the 1963 release of "Ring of Fire: The Best of Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
. The Undertaker used Cash's version of "Ain\'t No Grave " at WrestleMania XXVII as his entrance theme.

On October 14, 2014, The City of Folsom unveiled Phase 1 of the Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Trail to the public with a dedication and ribbon-cutting ceremony attended by Roseanne Cash. Along the trail, eight larger-than-life public art pieces will tell the story of Johnny Cash, his connection to Folsom Prison, and his epic musical career. The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Trail features art selected by a committee that included Cindy Cash, a 2-acre (0.81 ha) Legacy Park, and over 3 miles (4.8 km) of multi-use Class-I bike trail. The artists responsible for the sculptures are Sacramento-based Romo Studios, LLC and the Fine Art Studio of Rotblatt Amrany, from Illinois.

In 2015, a new species of black tarantula was identified near Folsom Prison and named _ Aphonopelma johnnycashi _ in his honor.

In 2016, the Nashville Sounds minor league baseball team added the "Country Legends Race" to its between-innings entertainment. At the middle of the fifth inning, people in oversized foam caricature costumes depicting Cash, as well as George Jones
George Jones
and Reba McEntire , race around the warning track at First Tennessee Park from center field to the home plate side of the first base dugout.

The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Heritage Festival will be held in Dyess, Arkansas on October 19-21, 2017 . It will build on the music festival held for four years on the Arkansas State University campus in Jonesboro. The festival honors Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and explores the New Deal programs that shaped his childhood in Dyess, Arkansas. The Festival includes a concert in the field adjacent to the Cash
Cash
Home and Arkansas roots music in the Colony Circle.

PORTRAYALS

Country singer Mark Collie portrayed Cash
Cash
in John Lloyd Miller 's award-winning 1999 short film _I Still Miss Someone_.

In November 2005, _ Walk the Line _, a biographical film about Cash's life, was released in the United States to considerable commercial success and critical acclaim. The film featured Joaquin Phoenix as Johnny (for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor ) and Reese Witherspoon as June (for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress ). Phoenix and Witherspoon also won the Golden Globe for Best Actor in a Musical or Comedy and Best Actress in a Musical or Comedy, respectively. They both performed their own vocals in the film (with their version of "Jackson" being released as a single), and Phoenix learned to play guitar for the role. Phoenix received a Grammy Award
Grammy Award
for his contributions to the soundtrack. John Carter Cash, the son of Johnny and June, served as an executive producer.

On March 12, 2006, _ Ring of Fire _, a jukebox musical of the Cash oeuvre, debuted on Broadway at the Ethel Barrymore Theater but closed due to harsh reviews and disappointing sales on April 30. _Million Dollar Quartet _, a musical portraying the early Sun recording sessions involving Cash, Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Carl Perkins, debuted on Broadway on April 11, 2010. Actor Lance Guest portrayed Cash. The musical was nominated for three awards at the 2010 Tony Awards and won one.

Robert Hilburn , veteran _ Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
_ pop music critic, the journalist who accompanied Cash
Cash
in his 1968 Folsom prison tour, and interviewed Cash
Cash
many times throughout his life including months before his death, published a 688-page biography with 16 pages of photographs in 2013. The meticulously reported biography is said to have filled in the 80 percent of Cash's life that was unknown, including details about Cash's battles with addiction and infidelity. The book reportedly does not hold back any details about the darker side of Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and includes details about his affair with his pregnant wife June Carter's sister.

AWARDS AND HONORS

For detailed lists of music awards, see List of awards received by Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
.

Cash
Cash
received multiple Country Music Association Awards , Grammys , and other awards, in categories ranging from vocal and spoken performances to album notes and videos. In a career that spanned almost five decades, during which he rose to recording industry icon status, Cash
Cash
was the personification of country music to many people around the world. Cash
Cash
was a musician who was not defined by a single genre. He recorded songs that could be considered rock and roll , blues , rockabilly , folk , and gospel , and exerted an influence on each of those genres.

His diversity was evidenced by his presence in five major music halls of fame: the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame (1977), the Country Music Hall of Fame (1980), the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (1992), GMA's Gospel Music Hall of Fame (2010) and the Memphis Music Hall of Fame (2013). Cash
Cash
was the only country music artist inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a "performer", unlike the other country members, who were inducted as "early influences".

His contributions to the genre have been recognized by the Rockabilly Hall of Fame . Cash
Cash
received the Kennedy Center Honors in 1996 and stated that his induction into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1980 was his greatest professional achievement. In 2001, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts
National Medal of Arts
. "Hurt" was nominated for six VMAs at the 2003 MTV Video Music Awards. The only VMA the video won was that for Best Cinematography. With the video, Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
became the oldest artist ever nominated for an MTV Video Music Award. Justin Timberlake , who won Best Video that year for "Cry Me a River ," said in his acceptance speech: "This is a travesty! I demand a recount. My grandfather raised me on Johnny Cash, and I think he deserves this more than any of us in here tonight."

DISCOGRAPHY

See Johnny Cash albums discography , Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
singles discography and Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Sun Records
Sun Records
discography .

FILMOGRAPHY

Film YEAR TITLE ROLE NOTES

1961 _ Five Minutes to Live _ Johnny Cabot Also titled _Door-To-Door Maniac_

1967 _ The Road to Nashville _ Himself

1971 _ A Gunfight _ Abe Cross

1974 _The Gospel Road_ Narrator/Himself

1994 _Gene Autry, Melody of the West_ Narrator Documentary film; voice acting role

2003 _The Hunted _ Narrator Voice acting role

2014 _The Winding Stream_ Interview subject Documentary film; archive footage

Television YEAR TITLE ROLE NOTES

1959 _ Shotgun Slade
Shotgun Slade
_ Sheriff Episode: "The Stalkers"

1959 _ Wagon Train
Wagon Train
_ Frank Hoag Episode: "The C.L. Harding Story

1960 _The Rebel _ Pratt Episode: "The Death of Gray"

1961 _The Deputy _ Bo Braddock Episode: "The Deathly Quiet"

1969–1971 _ The Johnny Cash Show _ Himself – host and performer 58 episodes

1970 _ The Partridge Family _ Variety Show Host Episode: "What? Get Out of Show Business?"

1973–1992 _ Sesame Street _ Himself 4 episodes

1974–1988 _ Hee Haw
Hee Haw
_ Himself 4 episodes

1974 _ Columbo _ Tommy Brown Episode: "Swan Song"

1974 _ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Ridin' the Rails—The Great American Train Story_ Himself

1976 _ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and Friends_ Himself 4 episodes

1976 _Little House on the Prairie _ Caleb Hodgekiss Episode: "The Collection"

1976–1985 Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
specials (various titles) Himself 15 specials

1978 _Thaddeus Rose and Eddie_ Thaddeus Rose Television film

1980 _The Muppet Show _ Himself Episode: "#5.21"

1981 _ The Pride of Jesse Hallam _ Jesse Hallam Television film

1982 _ Saturday Night Live _ Himself Episode: "Johnny Cash/Elton John"

1983 _ Murder in Coweta County _ Lamarr Potts Television film; also producer

1984 _The Baron and the Kid_ The Baron Will Television film

1985 _North and South _ John Brown 6 episodes

1986 _The Last Days of Frank and Jesse James_ Frank James Television film

1986 _Stagecoach _ Curly Wilcox Television film

1988 _The Magical World of Disney _ Elder Davy Crockett Episode: "Rainbow in the Thunder"

1993–1997 _ Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman _ Kid Cole 4 episodes

1996 _Renegade _ Henry Travis Episode: "The Road Not Taken"

1997 _ The Simpsons _ Space Coyote Episode: " The Mysterious Voyage of Homer "; voice acting role

1998 _All My Friends Are Cowboys_ Himself Television special

2014 _Johnny Cash: The Man, His World, His Music_ Himself BBC4 1969 Bio Documentary by Robert Elfstromg; archive footage

PUBLISHED WORKS

* _Man in Black: His Own Story in His Own Words_, Zondervan , 1975; ISBN 99924-31-58-X * _Man in White_, a novel about the Apostle Paul, HarperCollins
HarperCollins
, 1986; ISBN 0-06-250132-1 * _Cash: The Autobiography_, with Patrick Carr, HarperCollins, 1997; ISBN 978-0-06-101357-7 * _ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Reads the New Testament_, Thomas Nelson, 2011; ISBN 978-1-4185-4883-4 * _Recollections by Johnny Cash_, edited by daughter Tara, 2014; ISBN 978-0-930677-03-9 * _The Man Who Carried Cash: Saul Holiff, Johnny Cash, and the Making of an American Icon_ by Julie Chadwick, Dundurn Press, 2017; ISBN 978-1-459737-23-5

NOTES

* ^ Although Cash's voice type endured over the years, his timbre changed noticeably: "Through a recording career that stretche back to 1955", Pareles writes, Cash's "bass-baritone voice from gravelly to grave". * ^ For Cash, black stage attire was a "symbol of rebellion—against a stagnant status quo, against ... hypocritical houses of God, against people whose minds are closed to others' ideas". * ^ Schultz refers to this phrase as Cash's "trademark greeting," and places his utterance of this line, on Cash's _ At Folsom Prison _ album, "among the most electrifying in the history of concert recording." * ^ Other appraisals of Cash's iconic value have been even bolder. * ^ Urbanski notes that Cash's habit of performing in black attire began in a church. In the following paragraph, he quotes Cash
Cash
as indicating that this habit was partially reflective of Cash's rebellion "against our hypocritical houses of God". * ^ According to Urbanski, Cash's self-perception was accurate: "He never intended to be categorized or pigeonholed", and indeed he amassed a "cluster of enigmas" which "was so impenetrably deep that even those closest to him never got to see every part of him".

REFERENCES

* ^ _Johnny Cash—Guitars and Equipment_, Über Pro Audio, 2009, retrieved May 15, 2009 * ^ _A_ _B_ _ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
& June Carter_, Last.fm, 2010, retrieved January 20, 2010 * ^ Holden, Stephen (September 13, 2003), "Johnny Cash, Country Music Bedrock, Dies at 71", _ The New York Times _, retrieved February 25, 2013 * ^ Jones, Rebecca (January 14, 2014). "More Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
material will be released says son". _ BBC News _. Retrieved February 13, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Pareles 1994 . * ^ Urbanski 2003 , p. xiv. * ^ Dickie, M. (2002) , "Hard talk from the God-fearin', pro-metal man in Black", in Streissguth, M., _Ring of fire: The Johnny Cash reader_, Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, pp. 201–205 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Streissguth, M. (2006), _Johnny Cash: a biography_, Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo, p. 196 * ^ Fox, JA (October 17, 2005), "Hard time\'s never a \'circus\'", _The Boston Herald_, Baylor University
Baylor University
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Cash
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Cash
Hancock", _Harpeth Family Funeral Services_, Harpeth hills, retrieved January 16, 2009 * ^ Millar, Anna (June 4, 2006), "Celtic connection as Cash
Cash
walks the line in Fife", _Scotland on Sunday_, Scotsman, retrieved April 12, 2011 * ^ Cash, Roseanne (2010). _A memoir_. Viking Press. ISBN 978-1-101-45769-6 . * ^ Manzoor, Sarfraz (February 7, 2010), _Scottish roots of Johnny Cash, the man in black tartan_, London, UK: The Guardian, retrieved April 12, 2011 * ^ _A_ _B_ Miller 2003 , p. 11. * ^ Dalton, Stephanie (January 15, 2006), "Walking the line back in time", _Scotland on Sunday_, Scotsman.com, archived from the original on October 21, 2007, retrieved June 28, 2007 * ^ Cash
Cash
& Carr 1997 , p. 3. * ^ Streissguth, M. (2006), _Johnny Cash: a biography_, Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo, p. 6 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Cash
Cash
& Carr 1997 . * ^ _Jack D. Cash_, Find-a-Grave * ^ Gross, Terry (2004). A man's voice. _All I did was ask: Conversations with writers, actors, musicians, and artists_ (p. 31). New York, NY: Hyperion. * ^ Gross 2006 . * ^ Abbott, William. " Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
– February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003". Southernmusic.net. Retrieved December 31, 2011. * ^ Johnny Cash: The Biography (pg. 42) * ^ Malone, William; McCulloh, Judith (1975), _Stars of Country Music_, Chicago, IL * ^ Berkowitz, Kenny (June 2001). "No Regrets – Johnny Cash, the man in black, is back at the top of his game". _AcousticGuitar.com_ (102). Archived from the original on August 12, 2008. Retrieved June 28, 2009. * ^ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Things You Didn\'t Know About Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
at Taste of Country. Retrieved September 24, 2016 * ^ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
at TV People Retrieved September 24 * ^ Turner 2004 , pp. 43–44. * ^ Sweeting, Adam (September 12, 2003), "Johnny Cash", _The Guardian _ (Obituary), London, UK, retrieved January 26, 2009 * ^ Puterbaugh, Parke. "Essential Johnny Cash." Rolling Stone October 16, 2003: 78. International Index to Music Periodicals Full Text . Web. June 12, 2016. * ^ _The Man in Black\'s Musical Journey Continues_, NPR, retrieved February 9, 2010 * ^ "10 Things you didn\'t know about Johnny Cash". Retrieved August 29, 2014. * ^ "Rainbow Quest". Richardandmimi.com. February 26, 1966. Retrieved August 1, 2012. * ^ "My Father and The Man in Black". Johnny-and-saul.com. Retrieved April 25, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
interviewed on the _ Pop Chronicles _ (1969) * ^ Liberto, _I Walked the Line: My Life with Johnny_, p. 294. * ^ "Major brush fire." _Los Angeles Times_, June 28, 1965, p. 1. * ^ "Control of Brush Fire Near; 700 Acres Burned." _Los Angeles Times_, June 29, 1965, p. 27. * ^ Hilburn, Robert (October 29, 2013). _Johnny Cash: The Life_. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-19475-1 . * ^ Johnson, Brett (November 18, 2007), "Cash\'s first wife tells of romance, heartbreak", _Ventura County Star._ Retrieved July 9, 2013. * ^ Williford, Stanley and Howard Hertel. "Singer Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Pays $82,000 to U.S. in Fire Case", _Los Angeles Times_, July 3, 1969, p. A3. * ^ Johnny Cash, _ At San Quentin _, Columbia Records CS 9827, 1969 * ^ "Past Winners Search". _The GRAMMYs_. * ^ "12 000 at LaFayette show", _Rome News Tribune_, LaFayette, Georgia: Google News, p. 5A, August 14, 1970 * ^ Gross, Terry (2004). A man's voice. _All I did was ask: Conversations with writers, actors, musicians, and artists_ (p. 34). New York, NY: Hyperion. * ^ Zwonitzer, Mark (2002). _Will You Miss Me When I'm Gone: The Carter Family
Carter Family
and Their Legacy in American Music_. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-85763-4 . * ^ Grant, Marshall (2005). _I Was There When It Happened – My Life With Johnny Cash_. Cumberland House. ISBN 1-58182-510-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Cash, John Carter (2007). _Anchored in Love_. Thomas Nelson. ISBN 0-8499-0187-1 . Cite error: Invalid tag; name "John_Carter_Cash" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page ). * ^ " Cash
Cash
in Treatment", _Orlando Sentinel_, November 26, 1989 * ^ "Inmate Merle Haggard hears Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
play San Quentin
San Quentin
State Prison", history.com; accessed June 24, 2014. * ^ Edwards, Leigh H. "Cash, Johnny." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. * ^ Cash, Johnny. "Johnny and June Carter Cash on Pete Seeger\'s Rainbow Quest". _Youtube_. Retrieved October 16, 2014. * ^ Cash, J., & Carr, P. (1997). Cash: The autobiography (p. 408). San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco. * ^ Tahmahkera, D. (2011). Volume 63. In _American Quarterly_ (p. 597). Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. * ^ " Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Bitter Tears – Ballads of the American Indian". _www.discogs.com_. Retrieved October 16, 2014. * ^ (1965). Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and June Carter . In Rainbow Quest.Pete Seeger. From https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FQq0dw7rmtc * ^ Look Again To The Wind: Johnny Cash's Bitter Tears Revisited. (July 8, 2014). Retrieved October 16, 2014, from http://www.sony.com/SCA/company-news/press-releases/sony-music-masterworks/2014/look-again-to-the-wind-johnny-cashs-bitter-tears-r.shtml * ^ _A_ _B_ The Bitter Tears of Johnny Cash. (November 8, 2009). Retrieved October 16, 2014, from http://www.salon.com/2009/11/09/johnny_cash_2/ * ^ Tahmahkera, D. (2011). Volume 63. In _American Quarterly_ (pp. 598–599). Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. * ^ (1970). . In The Johnny Cash
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Show.Johnny Cash. From https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-yz7xYzEEZo&list=LLwSdCgA8WpUDjjX6Il2AhXA&index=3 * ^ Tahmahkera, D. (2011). Volume 63. In _American Quarterly_ (pp. 592). Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. * ^ Burnett, John G. (December 11, 1890). "Birthday Story of Private John G. Burnett, Captain Abraham McClellan\'s Company, 2nd Regiment, 2nd Brigade, Mounted Infantry, Cherokee Indian Removal, 1838–39.". _Creoliste_. Retrieved November 4, 2016. * ^ "Bitter Tears: Ballads of the American Indian". _The Bluegrass Special_. August 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Johnny Cash
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on IMDb * ^ _The Best of the Johnny Cash
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& Carr 1997 , pp. 85–86. * ^ "The good, bad and ugly of proposed uniforms", _Navy Times_, October 4, 2004 * ^ Turner Publishing (2004). _Lionel Trains: A Pictorial History of Trains and Their Collectors_. Turner Publishing Company. p. 19. ISBN 1-56311-958-7 . * ^ Allmond, Joy. September 13, 2015. Johnny Cash's Faith and Friendship with Billy Graham. Billy Graham Evangelistic Association. https://billygraham.org/story/johnny-cashs-faith-and-friendship-with-billy-graham/ * ^ Dave Urbanski, _The Man Comes Around: The Spiritual Journey of Johnny Cash._ Relevant Books, 2003, p.117. * ^ _Nixon Welcomes \'The Man in Black\' to the White House_, Nixon Foundation, April 17, 2011, archived from the original on August 22, 2011 * ^ Cash
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, April 17, 1970, released on Johnny Cash, _Bootleg Vol. III: Live Around the World_ (Columbia /Legacy 88697 93033 2), released 2011 * ^ Halloran, R. July 4, 1976. "500,000 View Capital's Bicentennial Parade" _New York Times._ * ^ Lot 756 of 982: JOHNNY CASH BICENTENNIAL SHIRT http://www.julienslive.com/view-auctions/catalog/id/15/lot/3115/JOHNNY-CASH-BICENTENNIAL-SHIRT * ^ Willett, E. (2011)._Johnny Cash: "The Man in Black"_, p.90. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow. * ^ _Johnny Cash: The Rebel_, Canada: Exclaim.ca, p. 3 * ^ Robert Hilburn, _Johnny Cash: The Life_. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2013, p. 500–502 * ^ Lewis, Randy (December 10, 2013). "\'Lost\' Early-\'80s Johnny Cash
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_. Tribune Company . * ^ Hilburn, p. 506 * ^ Adam Gold, "How U2 Fell in Love With Nashville and Influenced Today's Country Music," _Rolling Stone_ July 13, 2017 http://www.rollingstone.com/country/features/inside-u2s-love-affair-with-nashville-country-music-w491992 * ^ _The Guitars of Johnny Cash_, Fretbase.com, August 2008, archived from the original on October 1, 2008 * ^ Robert Hilburn, _Johnny Cash: The Life_. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2013, p. 568–570 * ^ Carr, Eric (November 7, 2002). "Johnny Cash, _American IV: The Man Comes Around_". _Pitchfork _. Retrieved May 12, 2017. * ^ "Geoff Rickly interviews Trent Reznor". Alternative Press. 2004-06-26. Retrieved 2016-06-21. * ^ Levy, Glen (July 28, 2011). "The 30 All-TIME Best Music Videos – Johnny Cash, Hurt". _Time_. Retrieved August 19, 2011. * ^ "100 Greatest Music Videos". NME. Retrieved 15 December 2012. * ^ "Country Star June Carter Cash, Wife of Johnny Cash, Dies at 73". * ^ Robert Hilburn, _Johnny Cash: The Life_. (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 2013), p. 624 * ^ "Death from a Broken Heart". Medicine net. November 24, 2003. Retrieved December 31, 2011. * ^ " Johnny Cash
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house". BBC.co.uk. April 11, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2010. * ^ Johnny Cash, _Man in Black_, Zondervan, ISBN 978-99924-31-58-0

* ^ Clapp 2008 , p. xvi. * ^ Urbanski 2003 . * ^ Clapp 2008 , p. xvi: 'Very few figures in recent history are seen as more representative of American identity as Cash
Cash
... His has often been suggested as the face that should be added to the select pantheon on Mt. Rushmore ' * ^ Clapp 2008 , p. xviii. * ^ Miller 2003 , p. 227. * ^ Dave Urbanski, _The Man Comes Around: The Spiritual Journey of Johnny Cash._ Relevant Books, 2003, p.99. * ^ Stoudt, C. (June 9, 2009), "Review: \'Ring of Fire\' at La Mirada Theatre", _The Los Angeles Times_, retrieved January 20, 2010 * ^ _Johnny Cash: Amazing Grace_, Public Radio Exchange , 2010, retrieved January 20, 2010 * ^ Cash
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2008 . * ^ " Johnny Cash
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obituary", _News_, BBC, September 12, 2003, retrieved January 20, 2010 * ^ Billy Graham Crusade, 1986, Tallahassee, Florida, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlXGSi4rxf8 * ^ Billy Graham Crusade,1989, Little Rock, Arkansas, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8p5Sd_qcBSQ * ^ Rivkin, D., ed. (2007), _ Johnny Cash
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reading the complete New Testament_ (audio recording) (deluxe ed.), Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson * ^ Morris, E. (December 23, 2008), _Johnny Cash\'s reading of the New Testament
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now on DVD_, Country Music Television , retrieved January 20, 2010 * ^ Urbanski 2003 , pp. xx–xxi. * ^ Urbanski 2003 , p. 39. * ^ Urbanski 2003 , pp. 39–40. * ^ Cash
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& Carr 2003 , p. 64. * ^ Urbanski, D. (2010), "Johnny Cash\'s complicated faith: Unwrapping the enigma of the Man in Black", _ Relevant Magazine _, retrieved March 22, 2010 * ^ Huss, J.; Werther, D., eds. (2008), _ Johnny Cash
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and philosophy: The burning ring of truth_, Chicago, IL: Open Court * ^ _ Johnny Cash
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and philosophy_, Open Court, 2007, archived from the original on March 28, 2010, retrieved March 22, 2010 * ^ "Taking the Lead – Today\'s Christian". Archived from the original on April 10, 2008. Retrieved 2015-04-28. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ "Cash\'s "Unearthed" box set". _billboard_. Billboard Magazine. October 22, 2003. Retrieved December 11, 2015. * ^ "Johnny Cash", _Celebrities as partners_, SOS Children's Villages, archived from the original on May 18, 2008 * ^ "Johnny Cash", _Supporters_, USA: SOS Children's Villages * ^ Kristofferson, Kris. "Johnny Cash, No. 31". _Rolling Stone_. Retrieved December 31, 2007. * ^ "The Immortals: The First Fifty". _Rolling Stone_. Retrieved December 31, 2007. * ^ "100 Greatest Singers of All Time". * ^ "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". * ^ "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". * ^ Rutz, Heather (June 7, 2013). "Lima native creative director at new Johnny Cash
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Trail & Art Experience". _www.folsom.ca.us_. Retrieved 2017-01-13. * ^ "Opening Night at First Tennessee Park". _ The Tennessean _. April 7, 2016. Retrieved April 8, 2016. * ^ Johnny Cash
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Heritage Festival http://johnnycashheritagefestival.com/ * ^ Hilburn, Robert (2013). _Johnny Cash: The Life (Deckle Edge)_. New York City: Little Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-19475-4 . * ^ Kinchen, David (November 3, 2013). "BOOK REVIEW: \'Johnny Cash\': Meticulous Attention to Facts Sets Robert Hilburn\'s Biography Apart". _Huntington News_. Retrieved December 12, 2013. * ^ Hilburn, Robert (October 29, 2013). "Interview: Robert Hilburn, Author Of \'Johnny Cash: The Life\'". NPR. Retrieved April 25, 2014. * ^ "Johnny Cash", _Inductees_, Country Music Hall of Fame * ^ "Johnny Cash", _Inductees_, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame * ^ "RHOF Inductees with Certificates". Rockabilly
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– Cash: The Autobiography of Johnny Cash Review". _SocialBookshelves.com_. Retrieved July 13, 2014. * ^ " Johnny Cash
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Clapp, R (2008), _ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and the great American contradiction: Christianity and the battle for the soul of a nation_, Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, ISBN 978-0-664-23657-1 . * D'Ambrosio, Antonino (2009), _A Heartbeat and A Guitar: Johnny Cash
Cash
and the Making of Bitter Tears_, Perseus Books/Nation Books, ISBN 978-1-56858-407-2 . * Gross, Terry (2006), _All I Did Was Ask: Conversations with Writers, Actors, Musicians, and Artists_, Hyperion, ISBN 1-4013-0010-3 . * Holmes, Cynthia S. (January 2004), "Remembering H Dale Jackson", _Connect_ (newsletter), The CBF of Missouri, p. 2 . * Millier, William, "Awards", _Johnny Cash_, archived from the original on October 10, 2004, retrieved September 7, 2004 . * Miller, Stephen (2003), _Johnny Cash: The Life of an American Icon_, Omnibus, ISBN 0-7119-9626-1 . * Streissguth, Michael (2004), _ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
at Folsom Prison: The Making of a Masterpiece_, Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, ISBN 978-0-306-81338-2 . * Streissguth, Michael (2005) , _ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
at Folsom Prison: The Making of a Masterpiece_, Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, ISBN 978-0-306-81453-2 . * Thomson, Elisabeth, "Cash, Johnny", _Grove Music_, Oxford Music Online, retrieved May 18, 2010 . * Turner, Stephen (2004), _The Man Called Cash: The Life, Love, and Faith of an American Legend_, Nashville, TN: W Publishing, ISBN 0-8499-1820-0 . * Urbanski, David (2003), _The Man Comes Around: The Spiritual Journey of Johnny Cash_, New York, NY: Relevant Books, ISBN 0-9729276-7-0 .

FURTHER READING

* Jonathan Silverman, Nine Choices: Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and American Culture, Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 2010, ISBN 1-55849-826-5 * Graeme Thomson, _The Resurrection of Johnny Cash: Hurt, Redemption, and American Recordings_, Jawbone Press, ISBN 978-1-906002-36-7 * Christopher S. Wren, _Johnny Cash: Winners Got Scars, Too_, Abacus Editions, ISBN 0-349-13740-4 * Robert Hilburn, _Johnny Cash: The Life_, Back Bay Books, New York: Little Brown and Company, 2013, ISBN 978-0-316-19474-7 (pb)

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