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John R. Cash
John R. Cash
(born J. R. Cash; February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003) was an American singer-songwriter, guitarist, actor, and author.[1] He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 90 million records worldwide.[2][3] Although primarily remembered as a country music icon, his genre-spanning songs and sound embraced rock and roll, rockabilly, blues, folk, and gospel. This crossover appeal won Cash
Cash
the rare honor of multiple inductions in the Country Music, Rock and Roll, and Gospel Music Halls of Fame. Cash
Cash
was known for his deep, calm bass-baritone voice;[a][5] the distinctive sound of his Tennessee Three backing band, which is characterized by train-sound guitar rhythms; a rebelliousness[6][7] coupled with an increasingly somber and humble demeanor;[4] free prison concerts;[8][9] and a trademark, all-black stage wardrobe, which earned him the nickname "The Man in Black."[b] He traditionally began his concerts by simply introducing himself, "Hello, I'm Johnny Cash,"[c] followed by his signature song "Folsom Prison Blues". Much of Cash's music contained themes of sorrow, moral tribulation, and redemption, especially in the later stages of his career.[4][12] His other signature songs include "I Walk the Line", "Ring of Fire", "Get Rhythm", and "Man in Black". He also recorded humorous numbers like "One Piece at a Time" and "A Boy Named Sue"; a duet with his future wife, June Carter, called "Jackson" (followed by many further duets after their marriage); and railroad songs including "Hey, Porter", "Orange Blossom Special", and "Rock Island Line".[13] During the last stage of his career, Cash
Cash
covered songs by several late 20th-century rock artists, notably "Hurt" by Nine Inch Nails
Nine Inch Nails
and "Personal Jesus" by Depeche Mode.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Military service 3 Marriages and families 4 Career

4.1 Early career 4.2 Outlaw
Outlaw
image 4.3 Folsom and other prison concerts 4.4 Activism for Native Americans 4.5 The Johnny Cash Show
The Johnny Cash Show
1969–1971 4.6 "The Man in Black" 4.7 Highwaymen and departure from Columbia Records 4.8 American Recordings

5 Last years 6 Death 7 Religious beliefs 8 Legacy

8.1 Portrayals

9 Awards and honors 10 Discography 11 Filmography 12 Published works 13 Notes 14 References

14.1 Bibliography

15 Further reading 16 External links

Early life[edit] J. R. Cash
Cash
was born on February 26, 1932 in Kingsland, Arkansas,[14][15] to Ray Cash
Cash
and Carrie Cloveree (née Rivers). He was the fourth of seven children, who were in birth order: Roy, Margaret Louise, Jack, J. R., Reba, Joanne, and Tommy (who also became a successful country artist).[16][17] He was primarily of English and Scottish descent.[18][19][20] As an adult he traced his surname to 11th-century Fife, after meeting with the then-laird of Falkland, Major Michael Crichton-Stuart.[21][22][23] Cash
Cash
Loch and other locations in Fife
Fife
bear the name of his family.[21] At birth, Cash
Cash
was named J. R. Cash.[24] When Cash
Cash
enlisted in the United States Air Force, he was not permitted to use initials as a first name, so he changed his name to John R. Cash. In 1955, when signing with Sun Records, he started going by Johnny Cash.[7] In March 1935, when Cash
Cash
was three years old, the family settled in Dyess, Arkansas, a New Deal colony established to give poor families a chance to work land that they had a chance to own as a result. J.R. started working in cotton fields at the age of five, singing along with his family while working. The family farm was flooded on at least two occasions, which led him later to write the song "Five Feet High and Rising".[25][page needed] His family's economic and personal struggles during the Great Depression
Great Depression
inspired many of his songs, especially those about other people facing similar difficulties. He had sympathy for the poor and working class. Cash
Cash
was very close to his older brother, Jack. In May 1944, Jack was pulled into a whirling head saw in the mill where he worked and was almost cut in two. He suffered for more than a week before dying on May 20, 1944, at the age of 15.[25][page needed] Cash
Cash
often spoke of the horrible guilt he felt over this incident. According to Cash: The Autobiography, his father was away that morning, but Johnny and his mother, and Jack himself, all had premonitions or a sense of foreboding about that day. His mother urged Jack to skip work and go fishing with his brother. Jack insisted on working since the family needed the money. On his deathbed, Jack said he had visions of Heaven and angels. Decades later, Cash
Cash
spoke of looking forward to meeting his brother in Heaven.[7] Cash's early memories were dominated by gospel music and radio. Taught guitar by his mother and a childhood friend, Cash
Cash
began playing and writing songs at the age of twelve. When young, Cash
Cash
had a high tenor voice, before becoming a bass-baritone after his voice changed.[26] In high school, he sang on a local radio station. Decades later he released an album of traditional gospel songs, called My Mother's Hymn Book. He was also significantly influenced by traditional Irish music, which he heard performed weekly by Dennis Day
Dennis Day
on the Jack Benny
Jack Benny
radio program.[27][page needed] Military service[edit] Cash
Cash
enlisted in the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
on July 7, 1950.[28] After basic training at Lackland Air Force Base
Lackland Air Force Base
and technical training at Brooks Air Force Base, both in San Antonio, Texas, Cash
Cash
was assigned to the 12th Radio Squadron Mobile of the U.S. Air Force Security Service at Landsberg, Germany, as a Morse Code
Morse Code
operator intercepting Soviet Army
Soviet Army
transmissions.[29] It was there he created his first band, named "The Landsberg Barbarians".[30] He was honorably discharged as a staff sergeant on July 3, 1954, and returned to Texas.[31] During his military service, he acquired a distinctive scar on the right side of his jaw as a result of surgery to remove a cyst.[32][33] Marriages and families[edit] On July 18, 1951, while in Air Force training, Cash
Cash
met 17-year-old Vivian Liberto at a roller skating rink in her native San Antonio, Texas. They dated for three weeks until Cash
Cash
was deployed to Germany for a three-year tour. During that time, the couple exchanged hundreds of pages of love letters.[34] On August 7, 1954, one month after his discharge, they were married at St. Ann's Roman Catholic Church in San Antonio. The ceremony was performed by her uncle, Vincent Liberto. They had four daughters: Rosanne, Kathy, Cindy, and Tara. In 1961, Johnny moved his family to a hilltop home overlooking Casitas Springs, California, a small town south of Ojai on Highway 33. He had previously moved his parents to the area to run a small trailer park called The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Trailer Park. Johnny's drinking led to several run-ins with local law enforcement. Liberto later said that she had filed for divorce in 1966 because of Cash's severe drug and alcohol abuse, as well as constant touring, affairs with other women, and his close relationship with June Carter. Their four daughters were then raised by their mother.

Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and his second wife, June Carter, 1969

Cash
Cash
met singer June Carter, of the famed Carter Family
Carter Family
while on tour, and the two became infatuated with each other. In 1968, 13 years after they first met backstage at the Grand Ole Opry, Cash
Cash
proposed to June, during a live performance in London, Ontario.[35] The couple married on March 1, 1968, in Franklin, Kentucky. They had one child together, John Carter Cash, born March 3, 1970. Cash
Cash
and Carter continued to work, raising their child, create music, and tour together for 35 years until June's death in May 2003. Throughout their marriage, June attempted to keep Cash
Cash
off of amphetamines, often taking his drugs and flushing them down the toilet. June remained with him even throughout his multiple admissions for rehab treatment and years of drug abuse. After June's death, Cash believed that his only reason for living was his music.[36] He died four months after her.[7] Career[edit] Early career[edit]

Publicity photo for Sun Records

In 1954, Cash
Cash
and Vivian moved to Memphis, Tennessee, where he sold appliances while studying to be a radio announcer. At night he played with guitarist Luther Perkins and bassist Marshall Grant. Perkins and Grant were known as the Tennessee Two. Cash
Cash
worked up the courage to visit the Sun Records
Sun Records
studio, hoping to get a recording contract. He auditioned for Sam Phillips
Sam Phillips
by singing mostly gospel songs, only to learn from the producer that he no longer recorded gospel music. It was once rumored that Phillips told Cash
Cash
to "go home and sin, then come back with a song I can sell", although in a 2002 interview Cash denied that Phillips made any such comment.[37] Cash
Cash
eventually won over the producer with new songs delivered in his early rockabilly style. In 1955, Cash
Cash
made his first recordings at Sun, "Hey Porter" and "Cry! Cry! Cry!", which were released in late June and met with success on the country hit parade. On December 4, 1956, Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
dropped in on Phillips while Carl Perkins was in the studio cutting new tracks, with Jerry Lee Lewis backing him on piano. Cash
Cash
was also in the studio and the four started an impromptu jam session. Phillips left the tapes running and the recordings, almost half of which were gospel songs, survived. They have since been released under the title Million Dollar Quartet. In Cash: the Autobiography, Cash
Cash
wrote that he was the farthest from the microphone and sang in a higher pitch to blend in with Elvis. Cash's next record, "Folsom Prison Blues", made the country Top 5. His "I Walk the Line" became No. 1 on the country charts and entered the pop charts Top 20. "Home of the Blues" followed, recorded in July 1957. That same year, Cash
Cash
became the first Sun artist to release a long-playing album. Although he was Sun's most consistently selling and prolific artist at that time, Cash
Cash
felt constrained by his contract with the small label. Phillips did not want Cash
Cash
to record gospel, and was paying him a 3% royalty rather than the standard rate of 5%. Presley had already left Sun, and Phillips was focusing most of his attention and promotion on Lewis. In 1958 Cash
Cash
left Phillips to sign a lucrative offer with Columbia Records. His single "Don't Take Your Guns to Town" became one of his biggest hits, and he recorded a collection of gospel songs for his second album for Columbia. But Cash
Cash
left behind a sufficient backlog of recordings with Sun that Phillips continued to release new singles and albums from, featuring previously unreleased material until as late as 1964. Cash
Cash
was in the unusual position of having new releases out on two labels concurrently. Sun's 1960 release, a cover of "Oh Lonesome Me", made it to No. 13 on the C&W charts. (When RCA Victor
RCA Victor
signed Presley, it also bought his Sun Records masters. But when Cash
Cash
departed for Columbia, Phillips retained the rights to the singer's Sun masters. Columbia eventually licensed some of these recordings for release on compilations after Cash's death.)

The Tennessee Three
The Tennessee Three
with Cash
Cash
in 1963.

Early in his career, Cash
Cash
was given the teasing nickname The Undertaker by fellow artists because of his habit of wearing black clothes. He said he chose them because they were easier to keep looking clean on long tours.[38] In the early 1960s, Cash
Cash
toured with the Carter Family, which by this time regularly included Mother Maybelle's daughters, Anita, June, and Helen. June later recalled admiring him from afar during these tours. In the 1960s, he appeared on Pete Seeger's short-lived television series Rainbow Quest.[39] He also acted in and wrote and sang the opening theme for a 1961 film entitled Five Minutes to Live, later re-released as Door-to-door Maniac. Cash's career was handled by Saul Holiff, a London, Ontario, promoter. Their relationship was the subject of Saul's son's biopic My Father and the Man in Black.[40] Outlaw
Outlaw
image[edit] As his career was taking off in the late 1950s, Cash
Cash
started drinking heavily and became addicted to amphetamines and barbiturates. For a brief time, he shared an apartment in Nashville with Waylon Jennings, who was deeply addicted to amphetamines. Cash
Cash
used the stimulants to stay awake during tours. Friends joked about his "nervousness" and erratic behavior, many ignoring the warning signs of his worsening drug addiction. Although he was in many ways spiraling out of control, Cash
Cash
could still deliver hits due to his frenetic creativity. His rendition of "Ring of Fire" was a crossover hit, reaching No. 1 on the country charts and entering the Top 20 on the pop charts. It was originally performed by June's sister, but the signature mariachi-style horn arrangement was provided by Cash.[41] He said that it had come to him in a dream. Vivian Liberto claimed a different version of the origins of "Ring of Fire." In her book, I Walked the Line: My Life with Johnny, Liberto says that Cash
Cash
gave Carter the credit for monetary reasons.[42] In June 1965, Cash's camper caught fire during a fishing trip with his nephew Damon Fielder in Los Padres National Forest
Los Padres National Forest
in California, triggering a forest fire that burnt several hundred acres and nearly caused his death.[43][44] Cash
Cash
claimed that the fire was caused by sparks from a defective exhaust system on his camper, but Fielder thinks that Cash
Cash
started a fire to stay warm and in his drugged condition failed to notice the fire getting out of control.[45][page needed] When the judge asked Cash
Cash
why he did it, Cash
Cash
said, "I didn't do it, my truck did, and it's dead, so you can't question it."[25][page needed] The fire destroyed 508 acres (206 ha), burning the foliage off three mountains and driving off forty-nine of the refuge's 53 endangered condors.[46] Cash
Cash
was unrepentant and claimed, "I don't care about your damn yellow buzzards."[47] The federal government sued him and was awarded $125,172. Cash
Cash
eventually settled the case and paid $82,001.[48] He said he was the only person ever sued by the government for starting a forest fire.[25][page needed] Although Cash
Cash
cultivated a romantic outlaw image, he never served a prison sentence. Despite landing in jail seven times for misdemeanors, he stayed only one night on each stay. On May 11, 1965, he was arrested in Starkville, Mississippi, for trespassing late at night onto private property to pick flowers. (He used this to write the song "Starkville City Jail", which he discussed on his live At San Quentin album.)[49] While on tour that year, he was arrested October 4 in El Paso, Texas, by a narcotics squad. The officers suspected he was smuggling heroin from Mexico, but found instead 688 Dexedrine
Dexedrine
capsules (amphetamines) and 475 Equanil (sedatives or tranquilizers) tablets that the singer had hidden inside his guitar case. Because the pills were prescription drugs rather than illegal narcotics, he received a suspended sentence.[citation needed] In this period of the mid-1960s, Cash
Cash
released a number of concept albums. His Bitter Tears
Bitter Tears
(1964) was devoted to spoken word and songs addressing the plight of Native Americans and mistreatment by the government. While initially reaching charts, this album met with resistance from some fans and radio stations, which rejected its controversial take on social issues. The album was considered lost until the early 21st century. In 2011 a book was published about it, leading to a re-recording of the songs by contemporary artists and the making of a documentary film about Cash's efforts with the album. This film was aired on PBS in February and November 2016. His Sings the Ballads of the True West (1965) was an experimental double record, mixing authentic frontier songs with Cash's spoken narration. Reaching a low with his severe drug addiction and destructive behavior, Cash
Cash
was divorced from his first wife and had performances cancelled. But, he continued to find success. In 1967, Cash's duet with June Carter, "Jackson," won a Grammy
Grammy
Award.[50] Cash
Cash
was last arrested in 1967 in Walker County, Georgia, after police found he was carrying a bag of prescription pills and was in a car accident. Cash
Cash
attempted to bribe a local deputy, who turned the money down. The singer was jailed for the night in LaFayette, Georgia. Sheriff Ralph Jones released him after giving him a long talk, warning him about the danger of his behavior and wasted potential. Cash credited that experience with helping him turn around and save his life. He later returned to LaFayette to play a benefit concert; it attracted 12,000 people (the city population was less than 9,000 at the time) and raised $75,000 for the high school.[51] Reflecting on his past in a 1997 interview, Cash
Cash
noted: "I was taking the pills for awhile, and then the pills started taking me."[52] In early 1968, Cash
Cash
had a spiritual epiphany in the Nickajack Cave. He had attempted to commit suicide while under the heavy influence of drugs. He descended deep into the cave, trying to lose himself and "just die," but passed out on the floor. Utterly discouraged, he felt God's presence in his heart and struggled out of the cave (despite exhaustion) by following a faint light and slight breeze.[citation needed] To him, the incident represented his rebirth. June, Maybelle, and Ezra Carter moved into Cash's mansion for a month to help him get off drugs. Cash
Cash
proposed onstage to June on February 22, 1968, at a concert at the London Gardens in London, Ontario, Canada. The couple married a week later (on March 1) in Franklin, Kentucky. She had agreed to marry Cash
Cash
after he had "cleaned up."[53] Cash's journey included rediscovery of his Christian faith. He took an "altar call" in Evangel Temple, a small church in the Nashville area, pastored by Reverend Jimmie Rodgers Snow, son of country music legend Hank Snow. But according to longtime friend Marshall Grant, Cash
Cash
did not completely stop using amphetamines in 1968. It was not until 1970 that Cash
Cash
ended all drug use, maintaining that for a period of seven years. Grant claims that the birth of Cash's son, John Carter Cash inspired Cash
Cash
to end his dependence. Cash
Cash
began using amphetamines again in 1977. By 1983, he was deeply addicted again and entered the Betty Ford Clinic
Betty Ford Clinic
in Rancho Mirage, California, for treatment. He stayed off drugs for several years, but relapsed again. By 1989, he was dependent and entered Nashville's Cumberland Heights Alcohol and Drug Treatment Center. In 1992, he entered the Loma Linda Behavioral Medicine Center in Loma Linda, California, for his final rehabilitation treatment. (Several months later, his son followed him into this facility for treatment).[54][55][56] Folsom and other prison concerts[edit] Cash
Cash
began performing concerts at prisons starting in the late 1950s. He played his first famous prison concert on January 1, 1958, at San Quentin State Prison.[57] These performances led to a pair of highly successful live albums, Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
at Folsom Prison (1968) and Johnny Cash
Cash
at San Quentin
San Quentin
(1969). Both live albums reached number 1 on Billboard country album music and the latter crossed over to reach the top of the Billboard pop album chart. In 1969 Cash
Cash
became an international hit when he eclipsed even the Beatles by selling 6.5 million albums.[58] In comparison, the prison concerts were much more successful than his later live albums such as Strawberry Cake recorded in London and Live at Madison Square Garden, which peaked at #33 and #39 on the album charts respectively. The Folsom Prison record was introduced by a rendition of his "Folsom Prison Blues," while the San Quentin
San Quentin
record included the crossover hit single "A Boy Named Sue," a Shel Silverstein-penned novelty song that reached No. 1 on the country charts and No. 2 on the U.S. Top Ten pop charts. The AM versions of the latter contained profanities which were edited out of the aired version. The modern CD versions are unedited thus making them longer than the original vinyl albums, though they retain the audience reaction overdubs of the originals. Cash
Cash
performed at the Österåker Prison
Österåker Prison
in Sweden in 1972. The live album På Österåker
På Österåker
("At Österåker") was released in 1973. "San Quentin" was recorded with Cash
Cash
replacing "San Quentin" with "Österåker". In 1976, a further prison concert, this time at Tennessee Prison, was videotaped for TV broadcast and received a belated CD release after Cash's death as A Concert Behind Prison Walls. Activism for Native Americans[edit] In 1965, Cash
Cash
and June Carter
June Carter
appeared on Pete Seeger's TV show, Rainbow Quest, on which Cash
Cash
explained his start as an activist for Native Americans:

In '57, I wrote a song called 'Old Apache Squaw' and then forgot the so-called Indian protest for a while, but nobody else seemed to speak up with any volume of voice.[59]

Columbia, the label for which Cash
Cash
was recording then, was opposed to putting the song on his next album, considering it "too radical for the public".[60] Cash
Cash
singing songs of Indian tragedy and settler violence went radically against the mainstream of country music in the 1950s, which was dominated by the image of the righteous cowboy who simply makes the native's soil his own.[61] In 1964, coming off the chart success of his previous album "I Walk The Line", he recorded the aforementioned album Bitter Tears: Ballads of the American Indian. The album featured stories of a multitude of native peoples, mostly of their violent oppression by white settlers: The Pima ("The Ballad of Ira Hayes"), Navajo ("Navajo"), Apache ("Apache Tears"), Lakota ("Big Foot"), Seneca ("As Long as the Grass Shall Grow"), and Cherokee ("Talking Leaves"). Cash
Cash
wrote three of the songs himself and one with the help of Johnny Horton, but the majority of the protest songs were written by folk artist Peter La Farge[62] (son of activist and Pulitzer prizewinner Oliver La Farge), whom Cash
Cash
met in New York in the 1960s and whom he admired for his activism.[63] The album's single, "The Ballad of Ira Hayes" (about one of the six to raise the U.S. flag at Iwo Jima), was neglected by non-political radio at the time, and the record label denied it any promotion due to its provocative protesting and thus "unappealing" nature.[64] Cash
Cash
faced resistance and was even urged by an editor of a country music magazine to leave the Country Music Association: "You and your crowd are just too intelligent to associate with plain country folks, country artists, and country DJs."[65] In reaction, on August 22, 1964, the singer posted a letter as an advertisement in Billboard Magazine, calling the record industry cowardly. "D.J.s – station managers – owners ... where are your guts?" he demands. "I had to fight back when I realized that so many stations are afraid of Ira Hayes. Just one question: WHY???" He concludes the letter, " Ira Hayes
Ira Hayes
is strong medicine ... So is Rochester, Harlem, Birmingham and Vietnam." [66] Cash
Cash
kept promoting the song himself and used his influence on radio disc jockeys he knew eventually to make the song climb to number three on the country charts, while the album rose to number two on the album charts.[65]

Cash
Cash
in 1969

Later, on The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Show, he continued telling stories of Native-American plight, both in song and through short films, such as the history of the Trail of Tears.[67] In 1966, in response to his activism, the singer was adopted by the Seneca Nation's Turtle Clan. He performed benefits in 1968 at the Rosebud Reservation, close to the historical landmark of the massacre at Wounded Knee, to raise money to help build a school. He also played at the D-Q University in the 1980s.[68] In 1970, Cash
Cash
recorded a reading of John G. Burnett's 1890 80th birthday essay [69] on Cherokee removal
Cherokee removal
for the Historical Landmarks Association (Nashville).[70] The Johnny Cash Show
The Johnny Cash Show
1969–1971[edit] From 1969 to 1971, Cash
Cash
starred in his own television show, The Johnny Cash
Cash
Show, on the ABC network. The show was performed at the Ryman Auditorium in Nashville. The Statler Brothers opened up for him in every episode; the Carter Family
Carter Family
and rockabilly legend Carl Perkins were also part of the regular show entourage. Cash
Cash
also enjoyed booking mainstream performers as guests; including Neil Young, Louis Armstrong, Neil Diamond, Kenny Rogers and The First Edition
Kenny Rogers and The First Edition
(who appeared four times), James Taylor, Ray Charles, Roger Miller, Roy Orbison, Derek and the Dominos, and Bob Dylan. During the same period, he contributed the title song and other songs to the film Little Fauss and Big Halsey, which starred Robert Redford, Michael J. Pollard, and Lauren Hutton. The title song, "The Ballad of Little Fauss and Big Halsey," written by Carl Perkins, was nominated for a Golden Globe award.[71] Cash
Cash
had met with Dylan in the mid-1960s and became closer friends when they were neighbors in the late 1960s in Woodstock, New York. Cash
Cash
was enthusiastic about reintroducing the reclusive Dylan to his audience. Cash
Cash
sang a duet with Dylan on Dylan's country album Nashville Skyline
Nashville Skyline
and also wrote the album's Grammy-winning liner notes. Another artist who received a major career boost from The Johnny Cash Show was Kris Kristofferson, who was beginning to make a name for himself as a singer-songwriter. During a live performance of Kristofferson's "Sunday Mornin' Comin' Down," Cash
Cash
refused to change the lyrics to suit network executives, singing the song with its references to marijuana intact:

On a Sunday morning sidewalk I'm wishin', Lord, that I was stoned.[72]

The closing program of the Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
show was a gospel music special. Guests included the Blackwood Brothers, Mahalia Jackson, Stuart Hamblen and Billy Graham.[73] "The Man in Black"[edit]

Cash
Cash
advocated prison reform at his July 1972 meeting with United States President Richard Nixon

By the early 1970s, he had crystallized his public image as "The Man in Black." He regularly performed dressed all in black, wearing a long black knee-length coat. This outfit stood in contrast to the costumes worn by most of the major country acts in his day: rhinestone suits and cowboy boots. In 1971, Cash
Cash
wrote the song "Man in Black," to help explain his dress code:

We're doing mighty fine I do suppose In our streak of lightning cars and fancy clothes But just so we're reminded of the ones who are held back Up front there ought to be a man in black.

Cash
Cash
performing in Bremen, West Germany, in September 1972

He wore 'black' on behalf of the poor and hungry, on behalf of "the prisoner who has long paid for his crime," and on behalf of those who have been betrayed by age or drugs.[74] "And," Cash
Cash
added, "with the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
as painful in my mind as it was in most other Americans, I wore it 'in mournin' for the lives that could have been' ... Apart from the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
being over, I don't see much reason to change my position ... The old are still neglected, the poor are still poor, the young are still dying before their time, and we're not making many moves to make things right. There's still plenty of darkness to carry off."[74]

Cash
Cash
in the "one piece at a time" Cadillac

He and his band had initially worn black shirts because that was the only matching color they had among their various outfits. He wore other colors on stage early in his career, but he claimed to like wearing black both on and off stage. He stated that political reasons aside, he simply liked black as his on-stage color.[25][page needed] The outdated US Navy's winter blue uniform used to be referred to by sailors as "Johnny Cashes," as the uniform's shirt, tie, and trousers are solid black.[75] In the mid-1970s, Cash's popularity and number of hit songs began to decline. He made commercials for Amoco
Amoco
and STP, an unpopular enterprise at the time of the 1970s energy crisis. In 1976 he made commercials for Lionel Trains, for which he also wrote the music.[76] However, his first autobiography, Man in Black, was published in 1975 and sold 1.3 million copies. A second, Cash: The Autobiography, appeared in 1997. His friendship with Billy Graham
Billy Graham
[77] led to Cash's production of a film about the life of Jesus, The Gospel Road, which Cash
Cash
co-wrote and narrated. It was released in 1973. Cash
Cash
viewed the film as a statement of his personal faith rather than a means of proselytizing.[78] Cash
Cash
and June Carter Cash
June Carter Cash
appeared several times on the Billy Graham Crusade TV specials, and Cash
Cash
continued to include gospel and religious songs on many of his albums, though Columbia declined to release A Believer Sings the Truth, a gospel double-LP Cash
Cash
recorded in 1979 and which ended up being released on an independent label even with Cash
Cash
still under contract to Columbia. On November 22, 1974, CBS ran his one-hour TV special entitled "Riding The Rails", a musical history of trains. He continued to appear on television, hosting Christmas specials on CBS
CBS
in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Later television appearances included a starring role in an episode of Columbo, entitled "Swan Song". He and June appeared in an episode of Little House on the Prairie, entitled "The Collection". He gave a performance as John Brown in the 1985 American Civil War
American Civil War
television mini-series North and South. Johnny and June also appeared in Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman
Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman
in recurring roles.[71] He was friendly with every US President starting with Richard Nixon. He was closest to Jimmy Carter, with whom he became close friends and who was a distant cousin of his wife, June Carter
June Carter
Cash.[25] When invited to perform at the White House
White House
for the first time in 1970,[79] Richard Nixon's office requested that he play "Okie from Muskogee" (a satirical Merle Haggard
Merle Haggard
song about people who despised youthful drug users and war protesters), "Welfare Cadillac" (a Guy Drake song which denies the integrity of welfare recipients), and "A Boy Named Sue." Cash
Cash
declined to play the first two and instead selected other songs, including "The Ballad of Ira Hayes" (about a brave Native American World War II
World War II
veteran who was mistreated upon his return to Arizona), and his own compositions, "What Is Truth" and "Man in Black". Cash
Cash
wrote that the reasons for denying Nixon's song choices were not knowing them and having fairly short notice to rehearse them, rather than any political reason.[25][page needed] However, Cash
Cash
added, even if Nixon's office had given Cash
Cash
enough time to learn and rehearse the songs, their choice of pieces that conveyed "anti-hippie and anti-black" sentiments might have backfired.[80] In his remarks when introducing Cash, Nixon joked that one thing he'd learned about the singer was one didn't tell him what to sing.[81] Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
was the Grand Marshal of the United States Bicentennial parade.[82] He wore a shirt from Nudie Cohn
Nudie Cohn
which sold for $25,000 in auction in 2010.[83] After the parade he gave a concert at the Washington monument.[84] Highwaymen and departure from Columbia Records[edit]

The Highwaymen members Kris Kristofferson, Johnny Cash, Waylon Jennings, Willie Nelson

In 1980, Cash
Cash
became the Country Music Hall of Fame's youngest living inductee at age 48. But during the 1980s, his records failed to make a major impact on the country charts, although he continued to tour successfully. In the mid-1980s, he recorded and toured with Waylon Jennings, Willie Nelson, and Kris Kristofferson
Kris Kristofferson
as The Highwaymen, making three hit albums which were released beginning with the originally titled "Highwaymen" in 1985, followed by "Highwaymen 2" in 1990, and concluding with "Highwaymen – The Road Goes on forever" in 1995. During that period, Cash
Cash
appeared in a number of television films. In 1981, he starred in The Pride of Jesse Hallam, winning fine reviews for a film that called attention to adult illiteracy. In the same year, Cash
Cash
appeared as a "very special guest star" in an episode of the Muppet Show. In 1983, he appeared as a heroic sheriff in Murder in Coweta County, based on a real-life Georgia murder case, which co-starred Andy Griffith
Andy Griffith
as his nemesis and featured June Carter
June Carter
in a small but important role. Cash
Cash
had tried for years to make the film, for which he won acclaim.[71] Cash
Cash
relapsed into addiction after being administered painkillers for a serious abdominal injury in 1983 caused by an unusual incident in which he was kicked and wounded by an ostrich he kept on his farm.[85] At a hospital visit in 1988, this time to watch over Waylon Jennings (who was recovering from a heart attack), Jennings suggested that Cash have himself checked into the hospital for his own heart condition. Doctors recommended preventive heart surgery, and Cash
Cash
underwent double bypass surgery in the same hospital. Both recovered, although Cash
Cash
refused to use any prescription painkillers, fearing a relapse into dependency. Cash
Cash
later claimed that during his operation, he had what is called a "near death experience". Cash's recording career and his general relationship with the Nashville establishment were at an all-time low in the 1980s. He realized that his record label of nearly 30 years, Columbia, was growing indifferent to him and was not properly marketing him (he was "invisible" during that time, as he said in his autobiography). In 1984, Cash
Cash
released a self-parody recording titled "Chicken in Black," about Cash's brain being transplanted into a chicken and Cash receiving a bank robber's brain in return. Biographer Robert Hilburn, in the 2013-published Johnny Cash: The Life disputes the claim made that Cash
Cash
chose to record an intentionally poor song in protest of Columbia's treatment of him. On the contrary, Hilburn writes, it was Columbia that presented Cash
Cash
with the song, which Cash
Cash
– who had previously scored major chart hits with comedic material such as "A Boy Named Sue" and "One Piece at a Time" – accepted enthusiastically, performing the song live on stage and filming a comedic music video in which he dresses up in a superhero-like bank robber costume. According to Hilburn, Cash's enthusiasm for the song waned after Waylon Jennings
Waylon Jennings
told Cash
Cash
he looked "like a buffoon" in the music video (which was showcased during Cash's 1984 Christmas TV special), and Cash
Cash
subsequently demanded that Columbia withdraw the music video from broadcast and recall the single from stores—interrupting its bona fide chart success—and termed the venture "a fiasco."[86] Between 1981 and 1984, he recorded several sessions with famed countrypolitan producer Billy Sherrill (who also produced "Chicken in Black") which were shelved; they would be released by Columbia's sister label, Legacy Recordings, in 2014 as Out Among the Stars.[87] Around this time, Cash
Cash
also recorded an album of gospel recordings that ended up being released by another label around the time of his departure from Columbia (this due to Columbia closing down its Priority Records division that was to have released the recordings). After more unsuccessful recordings were released in 1984–85, Cash left Columbia (at least as a solo artist; he continued to record for Columbia on non-solo projects until as late as 1990, recording a duets album with Waylon Jennings
Waylon Jennings
and two albums as a member of The Highwaymen). In 1986, Cash
Cash
returned to Sun Studios in Memphis to team up with Roy Orbison, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Carl Perkins
Carl Perkins
to create the album Class of '55; according to Hilburn, Columbia still had Cash
Cash
under contract at the time, so special arrangements had to be made to allow him to participate.[88] Also in 1986, Cash
Cash
published his only novel, Man in White, a book about Saul and his conversion to become the Apostle Paul. He recorded Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Reads The Complete New Testament
New Testament
in 1990. American Recordings[edit]

Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
sings a duet with a Navy lieutenant c. 1987

After Columbia Records
Columbia Records
dropped Cash
Cash
from his recording contract, he had a short and unsuccessful stint with Mercury Records
Mercury Records
from 1987 to 1991. During this time, he recorded an album of new versions of some of his best-known Sun and Columbia hits, as well as Water from the Wells of Home, a duets album that paired him with, among others, his children Rosanne Cash
Rosanne Cash
and John Carter Cash, as well as Paul McCartney. A one-off Christmas album recorded for Delta Records followed his Mercury contract. His career was rejuvenated in the 1990s, leading to popularity with an audience which was not traditionally considered interested in country music. In 1991, he sang a version of "Man in Black" for the Christian punk band One Bad Pig's album I Scream Sunday. In 1993, he sang "The Wanderer" on U2's album Zooropa
Zooropa
which was the closing track. According to Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
writer, Adam Gold,"The Wanderer" – written for Cash by Bono, "defies both the U2 and Cash
Cash
canons, combining rhythmic and textural elements of Nineties synth-pop with a Countrypolitan
Countrypolitan
lament fit for the closing credits of a Seventies western.".[89] Although no longer sought after by major labels, he was offered a contract with producer Rick Rubin's American Recordings label, which had recently been rebranded from Def American, under which name it was better known for rap and hard rock. Under Rubin's supervision, he recorded American Recordings (1994) in his living room, accompanied only by his Martin Dreadnought guitar – one of many Cash
Cash
played throughout his career.[90] The album featured covers of contemporary artists selected by Rubin including "Down There by the Train" by Tom Waits. The album had a great deal of critical and commercial success, winning a Grammy
Grammy
for Best Contemporary Folk Album. Cash
Cash
wrote that his reception at the 1994 Glastonbury Festival
Glastonbury Festival
was one of the highlights of his career. This was the beginning of a decade of music industry accolades and commercial success. He teamed up with Brooks & Dunn to contribute "Folsom Prison Blues" to the AIDS benefit album Red Hot + Country produced by the Red Hot Organization. On the same album, he performed the Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
favorite "Forever Young." Cash
Cash
and his wife appeared on a number of episodes of the television series Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman. He also lent his voice for a cameo role in The Simpsons
The Simpsons
episode "El Viaje Misterioso de Nuestro Jomer (The Mysterious Voyage of Homer)", as the "Space Coyote" that guides Homer Simpson
Homer Simpson
on a spiritual quest.[71] In 1996, Cash
Cash
enlisted the accompaniment of Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers and released Unchained (also known as American Recordings II), which won the Best Country Album
Best Country Album
Grammy
Grammy
in 1998. The album was produced by Rick Rubin
Rick Rubin
with Sylvia Massy engineering and mixing. A majority of "Unchained" was recorded at Sound City Studios and featured guest appearances by Lindsay Buckingham, Mick Fleetwood, and Marty Stuart. Believing he did not explain enough of himself in his 1975 autobiography Man in Black, he wrote Cash: The Autobiography in 1997. Last years[edit]

Cash's original grave (top) and the Cash/Carter memorial

In 1997, Cash
Cash
was diagnosed with the neurodegenerative disease Shy–Drager syndrome, a form of multiple system atrophy. According to biographer Robert Hilburn, the disease was originally misdiagnosed as Parkinson's disease, and Cash
Cash
even announced to his audience that he had Parkinson's after nearly collapsing on stage in Flint, Michigan, on October 25, 1997. Soon afterwards, his diagnosis was changed to Shy–Drager, and Cash
Cash
was told he had approximately 18 months to live.[91] The diagnosis was later again altered to autonomic neuropathy associated with diabetes. The illness forced Cash
Cash
to curtail his touring. He was hospitalized in 1998 with severe pneumonia, which damaged his lungs. During the last stage of his career, Cash
Cash
released the albums American III: Solitary Man (2000) and American IV: The Man Comes Around (2002). American IV
American IV
included cover songs by several late 20th-century rock artists, notably "Hurt" by Nine Inch Nails
Nine Inch Nails
and "Personal Jesus" by Depeche Mode.[92] Trent Reznor
Trent Reznor
of Nine Inch Nails
Nine Inch Nails
commented that he was initially skeptical about Cash's plan to cover "Hurt", but was later impressed and moved by the rendition.[93] The video for "Hurt" received critical and popular acclaim, including a Grammy award.[94][95] June Carter Cash
June Carter Cash
died on May 15, 2003, at the age of 73.[96] June had told Cash
Cash
to keep working, so he continued to record, completing 60 more songs in the last four months of his life, and even performed a couple of surprise shows at the Carter Family
Carter Family
Fold outside Bristol, Virginia. At the July 5, 2003, concert (his last public performance), before singing "Ring of Fire", Cash
Cash
read a statement about his late wife that he had written shortly before taking the stage:

The spirit of June Carter
June Carter
overshadows me tonight with the love she had for me and the love I have for her. We connect somewhere between here and Heaven. She came down for a short visit, I guess, from Heaven to visit with me tonight to give me courage and inspiration like she always has. She's never been one for me except courage and inspiration. I thank God for June Carter. I love her with all my heart.

Cash
Cash
continued to record until shortly before his death. His final recordings were made on August 21, 2003, and consisted of "Like the 309", which appeared on American V: A Hundred Highways in 2006, and the final song he completed, "Engine 143", which was recorded for his son John Carter Cash
John Carter Cash
for a planned Carter Family
Carter Family
tribute album.[97] Death[edit] While hospitalized at Baptist Hospital in Nashville, Cash
Cash
died of complications from diabetes at approximately 2:00 a.m. CT on September 12, 2003, aged 71 — less than four months after his wife. It was suggested that his health worsened due to a broken heart over June's death.[98][99] He was buried next to his wife in Hendersonville Memory Gardens near his home in Hendersonville, Tennessee. In June 2005, Cash's lakeside home on Caudill Drive in Hendersonville was put up for sale by his estate. In January 2006, the house was sold to Bee Gees
Bee Gees
vocalist Barry Gibb
Barry Gibb
and wife Linda, and titled to their Florida limited liability company for $2.3 million. The listing agent was Cash's younger brother, Tommy. On April 10, 2007, during major renovation works carried out for Gibb, a fire broke out at the house, spreading quickly due to a flammable wood preservative that had been used. The building was completely burnt down.[100] One of Cash's final collaborations with producer Rick Rubin, American V: A Hundred Highways, was released posthumously on July 4, 2006. The album debuted in the No.1 position on the Billboard Top 200 album chart for the week ending July 22, 2006. On February 23, 2010, three days before what would have been Cash's 78th birthday, the Cash Family, Rick Rubin, and Lost Highway Records released his second posthumous record, titled American VI: Ain't No Grave. Religious beliefs[edit] Cash
Cash
was raised by his parents in the Southern Baptist
Southern Baptist
denomination of Christianity. He was baptized in 1944 in the Tyronza River as a member of the Central Baptist Church of Dyess, Arkansas.[101] A troubled but devout Christian,[102][103][page needed] Cash
Cash
has been characterized as a "lens through which to view American contradictions and challenges."[d][105][106] On May 9, 1971, he answered the altar call at Evangel Temple, an Assemblies of God congregation pastored by Jimmy R. Snow (son of Hank Snow) with outreach to people in the music world.[107] A biblical scholar,[1][108][109] Cash
Cash
penned a Christian novel, Man in White in 1986 and in the introduction writes about a reporter who, interested in Cash's religious beliefs, questions whether the book is written from a Baptist, Catholic, or Jewish perspective. Cash
Cash
denies an answer to the book's view and his own, and replies, "I'm a Christian. Don't put me in another box."[110][page needed][111] In the mid-seventies, Cash
Cash
and his wife, June, completed a course of study in the Bible through Christian International Bible College.[55]:66 Cash
Cash
often performed at Billy Graham
Billy Graham
Crusades. At a Tallahassee Crusade in 1986, June and Johnny sang his song, "One of These Days I'm Gonna Sit Down And Talk
Talk
To Paul." [112] At a notable performance in Arkansas in 1989, Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
spoke to attendees of his commitment to the salvation of drug dealers and alcoholics. He then sang, "Family Bible." [113] He made a spoken word recording of the entire New King James Version of the New Testament.[114][115] Cash
Cash
declared he was "the biggest sinner of them all", and viewed himself overall as a complicated and contradictory man.[116][e] Accordingly,[f] Cash
Cash
is said to have "contained multitudes," and has been deemed "the philosopher-prince of American country music."[121][122] Cash
Cash
is credited with having converted actor and singer John Schneider to Christianity.[123] Legacy[edit]

The clothes and guitar of Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
on exhibit in the Artist Gallery of the Musical Instrument Museum of Phoenix

Cash's daughter Rosanne (by first wife Vivian Liberto) and his son John Carter Cash
John Carter Cash
(by June Carter
June Carter
Cash) are notable musicians in their own right. Cash
Cash
nurtured and defended artists (such as Bob Dylan[41]) on the fringes of what was acceptable in country music even while serving as the country music establishment's most visible symbol. At an all-star concert which aired in 1999 on TNT, a diverse group of artists paid him tribute, including Dylan, Chris Isaak, Wyclef Jean, Norah Jones, Kris Kristofferson, Willie Nelson, Dom DeLuise, and U2. Cash
Cash
himself appeared at the end and performed for the first time in more than a year. Two tribute albums were released shortly before his death; Kindred Spirits
Kindred Spirits
contains works from established artists, while Dressed in Black contains works from many lesser-known musicians. In total, he wrote over 1,000 songs and released dozens of albums. A box set titled Unearthed was issued posthumously. It included four CDs of unreleased material recorded with Rubin as well as a Best of Cash
Cash
on American retrospective CD. The set also includes a 104-page book that discusses each track and features one of Cash's final interviews.[124] In recognition of his lifelong support of SOS Children's Villages, his family invited friends and fans to donate to the Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Memorial Fund in his memory. He had a personal link with the SOS village in Diessen, at the Ammersee
Ammersee
Lake in Southern Germany, near where he was stationed as a GI, and with the SOS village in Barrett Town, by Montego Bay, near his holiday home in Jamaica.[125][126] In 1999, Cash
Cash
received the Grammy
Grammy
Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2004, Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
ranked Cash
Cash
No. 31 on their "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" list[127][128] and No. 21 on their "100 Greatest Singers" list in 2010.[129] In 2012 Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
ranked Cash's 1968 live album At Folsom Prison and 1994 studio album American Recordings at No. 88[130] and No. 366[131] in its list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. The main street in Hendersonville, Tennessee, Highway 31E, is known as " Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Parkway."[citation needed] The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Museum, located in one of Cash's properties in Hendersonville until 2006, dubbed the House of Cash, was sold based on Cash's will. Prior to this, having been closed for a number of years, the museum had been featured in Cash's music video for "Hurt." The house subsequently burned down during the renovation by the new owner. A new museum, founded by Shannon and Bill Miller, opened April 26, 2013, in downtown Nashville.[132] On November 2–4, 2007, the Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Flower Pickin' Festival was held in Starkville, Mississippi, where Cash
Cash
had been arrested more than 40 years earlier and held overnight at the city jail on May 11, 1965. The incident inspired Cash
Cash
to write the song "Starkville City Jail". The festival, where he was offered a symbolic posthumous pardon, honored Cash's life and music and was expected to become an annual event.[133] JC Unit One, Johnny Cash's private tour bus from 1980 until 2003, was put on exhibit at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
and Museum in Cleveland, Ohio, in 2007. The museum offers public tours of the bus on a seasonal basis (it is stored during the winter months and not exhibited during those times).[134] A limited-edition Forever stamp honoring Cash
Cash
went on sale June 5, 2013. The stamp features a promotional picture of Cash
Cash
taken around the 1963 release of "Ring of Fire: The Best of Johnny Cash. The Undertaker used Cash's version of "Ain't No Grave" at WrestleMania XXVII as his entrance theme.[135] On October 14, 2014, The City of Folsom unveiled Phase 1 of the Johnny Cash
Cash
Trail to the public with a dedication and ribbon-cutting ceremony attended by Roseanne Cash. Along the trail, eight larger-than-life public art pieces will tell the story of Johnny Cash, his connection to Folsom Prison, and his epic musical career. The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Trail features art selected by a committee that included Cindy Cash, a 2-acre (0.81 ha) Legacy Park, and over 3 miles (4.8 km) of multi-use Class-I bike trail. The artists responsible for the sculptures are Sacramento-based Romo Studios, LLC and the Fine Art Studio of Rotblatt Amrany, from Illinois.[136] In 2015, a new species of black tarantula was identified near Folsom Prison and named Aphonopelma johnnycashi
Aphonopelma johnnycashi
in his honor. In 2016, the Nashville Sounds
Nashville Sounds
minor league baseball team added the "Country Legends Race" to its between-innings entertainment. At the middle of the fifth inning, people in oversized foam caricature costumes depicting Cash, as well as George Jones
George Jones
and Reba McEntire, race around the warning track at First Tennessee Park
First Tennessee Park
from center field to the home plate side of the first base dugout.[137] The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Heritage Festival was held in Dyess, Arkansas
Dyess, Arkansas
on October 19–21, 2017.[138] It will build on the music festival held for four years on the Arkansas State University campus in Jonesboro. The festival honors Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and explores the New Deal programs that shaped his childhood in Dyess, Arkansas. The Festival includes a concert in the field adjacent to the Cash
Cash
Home and Arkansas roots music in the Colony Circle. On February 8, 2018, the album Forever Words
Forever Words
was announced, putting music to poems that Cash
Cash
had written and which were published in book form in 2016.[139] Portrayals[edit] Country singer Mark Collie
Mark Collie
portrayed Cash
Cash
in John Lloyd Miller's award-winning 1999 short film I Still Miss Someone.[71] In November 2005, Walk the Line, a biographical film about Cash's life, was released in the United States to considerable commercial success and critical acclaim. The film featured Joaquin Phoenix
Joaquin Phoenix
as Johnny (for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor) and Reese Witherspoon
Reese Witherspoon
as June (for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress). Phoenix and Witherspoon also won the Golden Globe for Best Actor in a Musical or Comedy and Best Actress in a Musical or Comedy, respectively. They both performed their own vocals in the film (with their version of "Jackson" being released as a single), and Phoenix learned to play guitar for the role. Phoenix received a Grammy Award
Grammy Award
for his contributions to the soundtrack. John Carter Cash, the son of Johnny and June, served as an executive producer.[71] On March 12, 2006, Ring of Fire, a jukebox musical of the Cash
Cash
oeuvre, debuted on Broadway at the Ethel Barrymore Theater
Ethel Barrymore Theater
but closed due to harsh reviews and disappointing sales on April 30. Million Dollar Quartet, a musical portraying the early Sun recording sessions involving Cash, Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Carl Perkins, debuted on Broadway on April 11, 2010. Actor Lance Guest
Lance Guest
portrayed Cash. The musical was nominated for three awards at the 2010 Tony Awards and won one. Robert Hilburn, veteran Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
pop music critic, the journalist who accompanied Cash
Cash
in his 1968 Folsom prison tour, and interviewed Cash
Cash
many times throughout his life including months before his death, published a 688-page biography with 16 pages of photographs in 2013.[140] The meticulously reported biography is said to have filled in the 80 percent of Cash's life that was unknown, including details about Cash's battles with addiction and infidelity.[141][47] The book reportedly does not hold back any details about the darker side of Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and includes details about his affair with his pregnant wife June Carter's sister.[142] Awards and honors[edit] For detailed lists of music awards, see List of awards received by Johnny Cash. Cash
Cash
received multiple Country Music Association
Country Music Association
Awards, Grammys, and other awards, in categories ranging from vocal and spoken performances to album notes and videos. In a career that spanned almost five decades, during which he rose to recording industry icon status, Cash was the personification of country music to many people around the world. Cash
Cash
was a musician who was not defined by a single genre. He recorded songs that could be considered rock and roll, blues, rockabilly, folk, and gospel, and exerted an influence on each of those genres.[citation needed] His diversity was evidenced by his presence in five major music halls of fame: the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame (1977), the Country Music Hall of Fame (1980), the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
(1992), GMA's Gospel Music Hall of Fame (2010) and the Memphis Music Hall of Fame (2013).[143][144] Cash
Cash
was the only country music artist inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
as a "performer", unlike the other country members, who were inducted as "early influences".[citation needed] His contributions to the genre have been recognized by the Rockabilly Hall of Fame.[145] Cash
Cash
received the Kennedy Center Honors
Kennedy Center Honors
in 1996 and stated that his induction into the Country Music Hall of Fame
Country Music Hall of Fame
in 1980 was his greatest professional achievement. In 2001, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts.[146] "Hurt" was nominated for six VMAs at the 2003 MTV Video Music Awards. The only VMA the video won was that for Best Cinematography. With the video, Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
became the oldest artist ever nominated for an MTV Video Music Award.[147] Justin Timberlake, who won Best Video that year for "Cry Me a River," said in his acceptance speech: "This is a travesty! I demand a recount. My grandfather raised me on Johnny Cash, and I think he deserves this more than any of us in here tonight."[148] Discography[edit] See Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
albums discography, Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
singles discography and Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Sun Records
Sun Records
discography. Filmography[edit]

Film

Year Title Role Notes

1961 Five Minutes to Live Johnny Cabot Also titled Door-To-Door Maniac

1967 The Road to Nashville Himself

1971 A Gunfight Abe Cross

1973 Gospel Road: A Story of Jesus Narrator/Himself

1994 Gene Autry, Melody of the West Narrator Documentary film; voice acting role

2003 The Hunted Narrator Voice acting role

2014 The Winding Stream Interview subject[149] Documentary film; archive footage

Television

Year Title Role Notes

1959 Shotgun Slade Sheriff Episode: "The Stalkers"

1959 Wagon Train Frank Hoag Episode: "The C.L. Harding Story

1960 The Rebel Pratt Episode: "The Death of Gray"

1961 The Deputy Bo Braddock Episode: "The Deathly Quiet"

1969–1971 The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Show Himself – host and performer 58 episodes

1970 The Partridge Family Variety Show Host Episode: "What? Get Out of Show Business?"

1973–1992 Sesame Street Himself 4 episodes

1974–1988 Hee Haw Himself 4 episodes

1974 Columbo Tommy Brown Episode: "Swan Song"

1974 Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Ridin' the Rails—The Great American Train Story Himself

1976 Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and Friends Himself 4 episodes

1976 Little House on the Prairie Caleb Hodgekiss Episode: "The Collection"

1976–1985 Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
specials (various titles) Himself 15 specials

1978 Thaddeus Rose and Eddie Thaddeus Rose Television film

1980 The Muppet Show Himself Episode: "#5.21"

1981 The Pride of Jesse Hallam Jesse Hallam Television film

1982 Saturday Night Live Himself Episode: "Johnny Cash/Elton John"

1983 Murder in Coweta County Lamarr Potts Television film; also producer

1984 The Baron and the Kid The Baron Will Television film

1985 North and South John Brown 6 episodes

1986 The Last Days of Frank and Jesse James Frank James Television film

1986 Stagecoach Curly Wilcox Television film

1988 The Magical World of Disney Elder Davy Crockett Episode: "Rainbow in the Thunder"

1993–1997 Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman Kid Cole 4 episodes

1996 Renegade Henry Travis Episode: "The Road Not Taken"

1997 The Simpsons Space Coyote Episode: "The Mysterious Voyage of Homer"; voice acting role

1998 All My Friends Are Cowboys Himself Television special

2014 Johnny Cash: The Man, His World, His Music Himself BBC4 1969 Bio Documentary by Robert Elfstromg; archive footage

Published works[edit]

Man in Black: His Own Story in His Own Words, Zondervan, 1975; ISBN 99924-31-58-X Man in White, a novel about the Apostle Paul, HarperCollins, 1986; ISBN 0-06-250132-1 Cash: The Autobiography, with Patrick Carr, HarperCollins, 1997; ISBN 978-0-06-101357-7[150] Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Reads the New Testament, Thomas Nelson, 2011; ISBN 978-1-4185-4883-4[151] Recollections by Johnny Cash, edited by daughter Tara, 2014; ISBN 978-0-930677-03-9[152] The Man Who Carried Cash: Saul Holiff, Johnny Cash, and the Making of an American Icon by Julie Chadwick, Dundurn Press, 2017; ISBN 978-1-459737-23-5

Notes[edit]

^ Although Cash's voice type endured over the years, his timbre changed noticeably: "Through a recording career that stretche[d] back to 1955", Pareles writes, Cash's "bass-baritone voice [went] from gravelly to grave".[4] ^ For Cash, black stage attire was a "symbol of rebellion—against a stagnant status quo, against ... hypocritical houses of God, against people whose minds are closed to others' ideas".[10] ^ Schultz refers to this phrase as Cash's "trademark greeting," and places his utterance of this line, on Cash's At Folsom Prison
At Folsom Prison
album, "among the most electrifying [seconds] in the history of concert recording."[11] ^ Other appraisals of Cash's iconic value have been even bolder.[104] ^ Urbanski[117] notes that Cash's habit of performing in black attire began in a church. In the following paragraph, he[118] quotes Cash[119] as indicating that this habit was partially reflective of Cash's rebellion "against our hypocritical houses of God". ^ According to Urbanski, Cash's self-perception was accurate: "He never intended to be categorized or pigeonholed", and indeed he amassed a "cluster of enigmas" which "was so impenetrably deep that even those closest to him never got to see every part of him".[120]

References[edit]

^ a b Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
& June Carter, Last.fm, 2010, retrieved January 20, 2010  ^ Holden, Stephen (September 13, 2003), "Johnny Cash, Country Music Bedrock, Dies at 71", The New York Times, retrieved February 25, 2013  ^ Jones, Rebecca (January 14, 2014). "More Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
material will be released says son". BBC News. Retrieved February 13, 2016.  ^ a b c Pareles 1994. ^ Urbanski 2003, p. xiv. ^ Dickie, M. (2002) [1987], "Hard talk from the God-fearin', pro-metal man in Black", in Streissguth, M., Ring of fire: The Johnny Cash reader, Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, pp. 201–205  ^ a b c d Streissguth, M. (2006), Johnny Cash: a biography, Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo, p. 196  ^ Fox, JA (October 17, 2005), "Hard time's never a 'circus'", The Boston Herald, Baylor University, archived from the original on September 20, 2006, retrieved March 22, 2010  ^ Streissguth 2005. ^ Cash
Cash
& Carr 2003, p. 64. ^ Schultz, B. (July 1, 2000), "Classic Tracks: Johnny Cash's 'Folsom Prison Blues'", Mix, archived from the original on January 2, 2010, retrieved March 22, 2010  ^ Mulligan, J. (February 24, 2010), Johnny Cash: American VI: Ain't No Grave (album review), entertainment.ie, retrieved March 22, 2010  ^ For discussion of, and lyrics to, Cash's songs, see Cusic, D., ed. (2004), Johnny Cash: The songs, New York, NY: Thunder's Mouth  ^ Miller 2003, p. 341. ^ Ellis, A. (2004, 01). "The man in black: Johnny cash, 1932–2003". Guitar Player, 38, 31–32, 34. ^ "Johnny Cash's Funeral", Johnny and June Carter Cash
June Carter Cash
Memorial, Buddy Case, retrieved January 16, 2009  ^ "Reba Cash
Cash
Hancock", Harpeth Family Funeral Services, Harpeth hills, retrieved January 16, 2009 [permanent dead link] ^ Millar, Anna (June 4, 2006), "Celtic connection as Cash
Cash
walks the line in Fife", Scotland on Sunday, Scotsman, retrieved April 12, 2011  ^ Cash, Roseanne (2010). A memoir. Viking Press. ISBN 978-1-101-45769-6.  ^ Manzoor, Sarfraz (February 7, 2010), Scottish roots of Johnny Cash, the man in black tartan, London, UK: The Guardian, retrieved April 12, 2011  ^ a b Miller 2003, p. 11. ^ Dalton, Stephanie (January 15, 2006), "Walking the line back in time", Scotland on Sunday, Scotsman.com, archived from the original on October 21, 2007, retrieved June 28, 2007  ^ Cash
Cash
& Carr 1997, p. 3. ^ Streissguth, M. (2006), Johnny Cash: a biography, Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo, p. 6  ^ a b c d e f g Cash
Cash
& Carr 1997. ^ Gross, Terry (2004). "A man's voice", in All I did was ask: Conversations with writers, actors, musicians, and artists (p. 31). New York, NY: Hyperion. ^ Gross 2006. ^ Abbott, William. "Johnny Cash – February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003". Southernmusic.net. Retrieved December 31, 2011.  ^ Johnny Cash: The Biography (pg. 42) ^ Malone, William; McCulloh, Judith (1975), Stars of Country Music, Chicago, IL  ^ Berkowitz, Kenny (June 2001). "No Regrets – Johnny Cash, the man in black, is back at the top of his game". AcousticGuitar.com (102). Archived from the original on August 12, 2008. Retrieved June 28, 2009.  ^ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Things You Didn't Know About Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
at Taste of Country. Retrieved September 24, 2016 ^ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
at TV People Retrieved September 24 ^ Turner 2004, pp. 43–44. ^ Sweeting, Adam (September 12, 2003), "Johnny Cash", The Guardian (Obituary), London, UK, retrieved January 26, 2009  ^ Puterbaugh, Parke. "Essential Johnny Cash." Rolling Stone, October 16, 2003: 78. International Index to Music Periodicals Full Text [ProQuest]. Web. June 12, 2016. ^ The Man in Black's Musical Journey Continues, NPR, retrieved February 9, 2010  ^ "10 Things you didn't know about Johnny Cash". Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 29, 2014.  ^ "Rainbow Quest". Richardandmimi.com. February 26, 1966. Retrieved August 1, 2012.  ^ "My Father and The Man in Black". Johnny-and-saul.com. Retrieved April 25, 2014.  ^ a b Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
interviewed on the Pop Chronicles
Pop Chronicles
(1969) ^ Liberto, I Walked the Line: My Life with Johnny, p. 294. ^ "Major brush fire." Los Angeles Times, June 28, 1965, p. 1. ^ "Control of Brush Fire Near; 700 Acres Burned." Los Angeles Times, June 29, 1965, p. 27. ^ Hilburn, Robert (October 29, 2013). Johnny Cash: The Life. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-19475-1.  ^ Johnson, Brett (November 18, 2007), "Cash's first wife tells of romance, heartbreak", Ventura County Star. Retrieved July 9, 2013. ^ a b Hilburn, Robert (October 12, 2013). "Johnny Cash's dark California days". LA Times. Retrieved 20 February 2018.  ^ Williford, Stanley and Howard Hertel. "Singer Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Pays $82,000 to U.S. in Fire Case", Los Angeles Times, July 3, 1969, p. A3. ^ Johnny Cash, At San Quentin, Columbia Records
Columbia Records
CS 9827, 1969 ^ "Past Winners Search". The GRAMMYs.  ^ "12 000 at LaFayette show", Rome News Tribune, LaFayette, Georgia: Google News, p. 5A, August 14, 1970  ^ Gross, Terry (2004). A man's voice. All I did was ask: Conversations with writers, actors, musicians, and artists (p. 34). New York, NY: Hyperion. ^ Zwonitzer, Mark (2002). Will You Miss Me When I'm Gone: The Carter Family and Their Legacy in American Music. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-85763-4.  ^ Grant, Marshall (2005). I Was There When It Happened – My Life With Johnny Cash. Cumberland House. ISBN 1-58182-510-2.  ^ a b Cash, John Carter (2007). Anchored in Love. Thomas Nelson. ISBN 0-8499-0187-1.  ^ " Cash
Cash
in Treatment", Orlando Sentinel, November 26, 1989  ^ "Inmate Merle Haggard
Merle Haggard
hears Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
play San Quentin
San Quentin
State Prison", history.com; accessed June 24, 2014. ^ Edwards, Leigh H. "Cash, Johnny." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. ^ Cash, Johnny. "Johnny and June Carter Cash
June Carter Cash
on Pete Seeger's Rainbow Quest". Youtube. Retrieved October 16, 2014.  ^ Cash, J., & Carr, P. (1997). Cash: The autobiography (p. 408). San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco. ^ Tahmahkera, D. (2011). Volume 63. In American Quarterly (p. 597). Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ^ " Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Bitter Tears
Bitter Tears
– Ballads of the American Indian". www.discogs.com. Retrieved October 16, 2014.  ^ (1965). Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and June Carter
June Carter
[Television series episode]. In Rainbow Quest.Pete Seeger. From https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FQq0dw7rmtc ^ Look Again To The Wind: Johnny Cash's Bitter Tears
Bitter Tears
Revisited. (July 8, 2014). Retrieved October 16, 2014, from http://www.sony.com/SCA/company-news/press-releases/sony-music-masterworks/2014/look-again-to-the-wind-johnny-cashs-bitter-tears-r.shtml ^ a b The Bitter Tears
Bitter Tears
of Johnny Cash. (November 8, 2009). Retrieved October 16, 2014, from http://www.salon.com/2009/11/09/johnny_cash_2/ ^ Tahmahkera, D. (2011). Volume 63. In American Quarterly (pp. 598–599). Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ^ (1970). [Television series episode]. In The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Show.Johnny Cash. From https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-yz7xYzEEZo&list=LLwSdCgA8WpUDjjX6Il2AhXA&index=3 ^ Tahmahkera, D. (2011). Volume 63. In American Quarterly (pp. 592). Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ^ Burnett, John G. (December 11, 1890). "Birthday Story of Private John G. Burnett, Captain Abraham McClellan's Company, 2nd Regiment, 2nd Brigade, Mounted Infantry, Cherokee Indian Removal, 1838–39". Creoliste. Retrieved November 4, 2016.  ^ "Bitter Tears: Ballads of the American Indian". The Bluegrass Special. August 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2016.  ^ a b c d e f Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
on IMDb ^ The Best of the Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
TV Show 1969–1971, Disc 1 (of 2), Reverse Angle Production, 2007  ^ Dave Urbansky, The Man Comes Around: The Spiritual Journey of Johnny Cash, Relevant Books, 2003, p.91. ^ a b Cash
Cash
& Carr 1997, pp. 85–86. ^ "The good, bad and ugly of proposed uniforms", Navy Times, October 4, 2004  ^ Turner Publishing (2004). Lionel Trains: A Pictorial History of Trains and Their Collectors. Turner Publishing Company. p. 19. ISBN 1-56311-958-7.  ^ Allmond, Joy. September 13, 2015. Johnny Cash's Faith and Friendship with Billy Graham. Billy Graham
Billy Graham
Evangelistic Association. https://billygraham.org/story/johnny-cashs-faith-and-friendship-with-billy-graham/ ^ Dave Urbanski, The Man Comes Around: The Spiritual Journey of Johnny Cash. Relevant Books, 2003, p.117. ^ Nixon Welcomes 'The Man in Black' to the White House, Nixon Foundation, April 17, 2011, archived from the original on August 22, 2011  ^ Cash
Cash
& Carr 2003, p. 212. ^ Richard Nixon, April 17, 1970, released on Johnny Cash, Bootleg Vol. III: Live Around the World (Columbia/Legacy 88697 93033 2), released 2011 ^ Halloran, R. July 4, 1976. "500,000 View Capital's Bicentennial Parade" New York Times. ^ Lot 756 of 982: JOHNNY CASH BICENTENNIAL SHIRT http://www.julienslive.com/view-auctions/catalog/id/15/lot/3115/JOHNNY-CASH-BICENTENNIAL-SHIRT ^ Willett, E. (2011).Johnny Cash: "The Man in Black", p.90. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow. ^ Johnny Cash: The Rebel, Canada: Exclaim.ca, p. 3, archived from the original on April 26, 2005  ^ Robert Hilburn, Johnny Cash: The Life. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2013, p. 500–502 ^ Lewis, Randy (December 10, 2013). "'Lost' Early-'80s Johnny Cash Album Slated for March 25 Release". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company.  ^ Hilburn, p. 506 ^ Adam Gold, "How U2 Fell in Love With Nashville and Influenced Today's Country Music," Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
July 13, 2017 https://www.rollingstone.com/country/features/inside-u2s-love-affair-with-nashville-country-music-w491992 ^ The Guitars of Johnny Cash, Fretbase.com, August 2008, archived from the original on October 1, 2008  ^ Robert Hilburn, Johnny Cash: The Life. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2013, p. 568–570 ^ Carr, Eric (November 7, 2002). "Johnny Cash, American IV: The Man Comes Around". Pitchfork. Retrieved May 12, 2017.  ^ "Geoff Rickly interviews Trent Reznor". Alternative Press. 2004-06-26. Retrieved 2016-06-21.  ^ Levy, Glen (July 28, 2011). "The 30 All-TIME Best Music Videos – Johnny Cash, Hurt". Time. Retrieved August 19, 2011.  ^ "100 Greatest Music Videos". NME. Retrieved 15 December 2012.  ^ "Country Star June Carter
June Carter
Cash, Wife of Johnny Cash, Dies at 73".  ^ Robert Hilburn, Johnny Cash: The Life. (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 2013), p. 624 ^ "Death from a Broken Heart". Medicine net. November 24, 2003. Retrieved December 31, 2011.  ^ " Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Dead at Age 71". About. September 12, 2003. Retrieved December 31, 2011.  ^ "Fire destroys Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
house". BBC.co.uk. April 11, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2010.  ^ Johnny Cash, Man in Black, Zondervan, ISBN 978-99924-31-58-0  ^ Clapp 2008, p. xvi. ^ Urbanski 2003. ^ Clapp 2008, p. xvi: 'Very few figures in recent history are seen as more representative of American identity as Cash ... His has often been suggested as the face that should be added to the select pantheon on Mt. Rushmore' ^ Clapp 2008, p. xviii. ^ Miller 2003, p. 227. ^ Dave Urbanski, The Man Comes Around: The Spiritual Journey of Johnny Cash. Relevant Books, 2003, p.99. ^ Stoudt, C. (June 9, 2009), "Review: 'Ring of Fire' at La Mirada Theatre", The Los Angeles Times, retrieved January 20, 2010  ^ Johnny Cash: Amazing Grace, Public Radio Exchange, 2010, retrieved January 20, 2010  ^ Cash
Cash
2008. ^ " Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
obituary", News, BBC, September 12, 2003, retrieved January 20, 2010  ^ Billy Graham
Billy Graham
Crusade, 1986, Tallahassee, Florida, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlXGSi4rxf8 ^ Billy Graham
Billy Graham
Crusade,1989, Little Rock, Arkansas, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8p5Sd_qcBSQ ^ Rivkin, D., ed. (2007), Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
reading the complete New Testament (audio recording) (deluxe ed.), Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson  ^ Morris, E. (December 23, 2008), Johnny Cash's reading of the New Testament now on DVD, Country Music Television, retrieved January 20, 2010  ^ Urbanski 2003, pp. xx–xxi. ^ Urbanski 2003, p. 39. ^ Urbanski 2003, pp. 39–40. ^ Cash
Cash
& Carr 2003, p. 64. ^ Urbanski, D. (2010), "Johnny Cash's complicated faith: Unwrapping the enigma of the Man in Black", Relevant Magazine, retrieved March 22, 2010  ^ Huss, J.; Werther, D., eds. (2008), Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and philosophy: The burning ring of truth, Chicago, IL: Open Court  ^ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and philosophy, Open Court, 2007, archived from the original on March 28, 2010, retrieved March 22, 2010  ^ "Taking the Lead – Today's Christian". Archived from the original on April 10, 2008. Retrieved 2015-04-28. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Cash's "Unearthed" box set". billboard. Billboard Magazine. October 22, 2003. Retrieved December 11, 2015.  ^ "Johnny Cash", Celebrities as partners, SOS Children's Villages, archived from the original on May 18, 2008  ^ "Johnny Cash", Supporters, USA: SOS Children's Villages [permanent dead link] ^ Kristofferson, Kris. "Johnny Cash, No. 31". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 31, 2007.  ^ "The Immortals: The First Fifty". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 31, 2007.  ^ "100 Greatest Singers of All Time".  ^ "500 Greatest Albums of All Time".  ^ "500 Greatest Albums of All Time".  ^ Rutz, Heather (June 7, 2013). "Lima native creative director at new Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
museum". The Lima News. Retrieved December 11, 2015.  ^ "Mississippi town to honor the 'Man in Black'". MSN.com. Retrieved December 31, 2007.  ^ Soeder, John (May 19, 2010). "Johnny Cash's tour bus returns to Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved December 11, 2015.  ^ " Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Stamp Release Celebrated By Family". Huffington Post. June 3, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2013.  ^ "Folsom, CA – Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Trail & Art Experience". www.folsom.ca.us. Retrieved 2017-01-13.  ^ "Opening Night at First Tennessee Park". The Tennessean. April 7, 2016. Retrieved April 8, 2016.  ^ Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Heritage Festival http://johnnycashheritagefestival.com/ ^ Barsanti, Sam (February 8, 2018). "Elvis Costello, Chris Cornell, and More Helped Turn Some Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Poems into Songs". The A. V. Club. Univision.  ^ Hilburn, Robert (2013). Johnny Cash: The Life (Deckle Edge). New York City: Little Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-19475-4.  ^ Kinchen, David (November 3, 2013). "BOOK REVIEW: 'Johnny Cash': Meticulous Attention to Facts Sets Robert Hilburn's Biography Apart". Huntington News. Retrieved December 12, 2013.  ^ Hilburn, Robert (October 29, 2013). "Interview: Robert Hilburn, Author Of 'Johnny Cash: The Life'". NPR. Retrieved April 25, 2014.  ^ "Johnny Cash", Inductees, Country Music Hall of Fame  ^ "Johnny Cash", Inductees, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame  ^ "RHOF Inductees with Certificates". Rockabilly
Rockabilly
Hall of Fame. Retrieved December 31, 2007.  ^ "Lifetime Honors", National Medal of Arts  ^ " Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
– Memories Shared". Songstuff.com. Retrieved June 27, 2013.  ^ "Quotables "August 29, 2003 Justin Timberlake
Justin Timberlake
on Johnny Cash"". Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2014.  ^ "The Winding Stream (2014)". IMDb. Retrieved November 9, 2015.  ^ " Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
– Cash: The Autobiography of Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Review". SocialBookshelves.com. Retrieved July 13, 2014.  ^ " Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Reads the New Testament". barnesandnoble.com. Retrieved November 24, 2014.  ^ "Recollections by Johnny Cash, edited by daughter Tara". Retrieved September 9, 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

Clapp, R (2008), Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and the great American contradiction: Christianity and the battle for the soul of a nation, Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, ISBN 978-0-664-23657-1 . D'Ambrosio, Antonino (2009), A Heartbeat and A Guitar: Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and the Making of Bitter Tears, Perseus Books/Nation Books, ISBN 978-1-56858-407-2 . Gross, Terry (2006), All I Did Was Ask: Conversations with Writers, Actors, Musicians, and Artists, Hyperion, ISBN 1-4013-0010-3 . Holmes, Cynthia S. (January 2004), "Remembering H Dale Jackson", Connect (newsletter), The CBF of Missouri, p. 2 . Millier, William, "Awards", Johnny Cash, archived from the original on October 10, 2004, retrieved September 7, 2004 . Miller, Stephen (2003), Johnny Cash: The Life of an American Icon, Omnibus, ISBN 0-7119-9626-1 . Streissguth, Michael (2004), Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
at Folsom Prison: The Making of a Masterpiece, Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, ISBN 978-0-306-81338-2 . Streissguth, Michael (2005) [2004], Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
at Folsom Prison: The Making of a Masterpiece, Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, ISBN 978-0-306-81453-2 . Thomson, Elisabeth, "Cash, Johnny", Grove Music, Oxford Music Online, retrieved May 18, 2010 . Turner, Stephen (2004), The Man Called Cash: The Life, Love, and Faith of an American Legend, Nashville, TN: W Publishing, ISBN 0-8499-1820-0 . Urbanski, David (2003), The Man Comes Around: The Spiritual Journey of Johnny Cash, New York, NY: Relevant Books, ISBN 0-9729276-7-0 .

Further reading[edit]

Jonathan Silverman, Nine Choices: Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and American Culture, Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 2010, ISBN 1-55849-826-5 Graeme Thomson, The Resurrection of Johnny Cash: Hurt, Redemption, and American Recordings, Jawbone Press, ISBN 978-1-906002-36-7 Christopher S. Wren, Johnny Cash: Winners Got Scars, Too, Abacus Editions, ISBN 0-349-13740-4 Robert Hilburn, Johnny Cash: The Life, Back Bay Books, New York: Little Brown and Company, 2013, ISBN 978-0-316-19474-7(pb)

External links[edit]

Book: Johnny Cash

Find more aboutJohnny Cashat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Data from Wikidata

Official website Sony Music's Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
website Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
at Encyclopædia Britannica "Inductee Johnny Cash", Candidates, Hit Parade Hall of Fame, archived from the original on January 6, 2008 . Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
at AllMusic Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
on IMDb "Johnny Cash". Find a Grave. Retrieved November 30, 2013.  Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
profile at martinguitar.com

Awards

First None recognized before

First Amendment Center/AMA "Spirit of Americana" Free Speech Award 2002 Succeeded by Kris Kristofferson

Preceded by Buddy & Julie Miller AMA Album of the Year (artist) 2003 Succeeded by Loretta Lynn

Preceded by Jim Lauderdale AMA Artist of the Year 2003 Succeeded by Loretta Lynn

v t e

Johnny Cash

Studio albums

With His Hot and Blue Guitar Sings the Songs That Made Him Famous The Fabulous Johnny Cash Greatest! Songs of Our Soil Sings Hank Williams Now, There Was a Song! Now Here's Johnny Cash The Sound of Johnny Cash All Aboard the Blue Train Ring of Fire: The Best of Johnny Cash The Original Sun Sound of Johnny Cash I Walk the Line Orange Blossom Special Everybody Loves a Nut Happiness Is You Old Golden Throat More of Old Golden Throat Hello, I'm Johnny Cash The World of Johnny Cash Man in Black A Thing Called Love Any Old Wind That Blows Ragged Old Flag The Junkie and the Juicehead Minus Me John R. Cash Look at Them Beans One Piece at a Time The Last Gunfighter Ballad I Would Like to See You Again Gone Girl Silver Rockabilly
Rockabilly
Blues The Baron The Adventures of Johnny Cash Johnny 99 Rainbow Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Is Coming to Town Classic Cash: Hall of Fame Series Water from the Wells of Home Boom Chicka Boom The Mystery of Life American Recordings Unchained American III: Solitary Man American IV: The Man Comes Around Personal File American V: A Hundred Highways American VI: Ain't No Grave Out Among the Stars

Concept albums

Ride This Train Blood, Sweat and Tears Bitter Tears: Ballads of the American Indian Sings the Ballads of the True West From Sea to Shining Sea America: A 200-Year Salute in Story and Song The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Children's Album The Rambler

Gospel albums

Hymns by Johnny Cash Hymns from the Heart The Holy Land The Gospel Road Sings Precious Memories A Believer Sings the Truth Believe in Him Return to the Promised Land My Mother's Hymn Book

Christmas albums

The Christmas Spirit The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Family Christmas Classic Christmas Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Country Christmas

Collaborations

The Lure of the Grand Canyon Carryin' On with Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and June Carter Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and His Woman The Legend of Jesse James The Survivors Live Highwayman Class of '55 Heroes Highwayman 2 The Road Goes on Forever VH1 Storytellers

Live albums

At Folsom Prison At San Quentin The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Show På Österåker Strawberry Cake Koncert v Praze (In Prague–Live) At Madison Square Garden A Concert Behind Prison Walls

Non-gospel soundtracks

I Walk the Line Little Fauss and Big Halsy

Compilations

Greatest Hits, Vol. 1 Heart of Cash Greatest Hits, Vol. 2 Sunday Morning Coming Down International Superstar Five Feet High and Rising Destination Victoria Station Greatest Hits, Vol. 3 The Unissued Johnny Cash Johnny & June Tall Man Encore Biggest Hits The Man in Black 1954–1958 The Man in Black 1959–1962 Come Along and Ride This Train The Essential Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
(1992) Wanted Man The Man in Black 1963–1969 The Man in Black – His Greatest Hits 16 Biggest Hits Love, God, Murder The Essential Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
(2002) Unearthed The Legend The Legend of Johnny Cash Johnny Cash: Patriot 16 Biggest Hits: Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
& June Carter
June Carter
Cash The Legend of Johnny Cash
The Legend of Johnny Cash
Vol. II The Complete Columbia Album Collection

Songs

"25 Minutes to Go" "Seasons of My Heart" "Any Old Wind That Blows" "A Wonderful Time Up There" "The Ballad of Boot Hill" "The Ballad of Ira Hayes" "Ballad of a Teenage Queen" "Big River" "Blistered" "A Boy Named Sue" "Busted" "Cat's in the Cradle" "Cocaine Blues" "Cry! Cry! Cry!" "Daddy Sang Bass" "Dark as a Dungeon" "Don't Take Your Guns to Town" "Engine 143" "Flesh and Blood" "The Folk Singer" "Folsom Prison Blues" "Forty Shades of Green" "Get Rhythm" "Give My Love to Rose" "Goodnight, Irene" "Green, Green Grass of Home" "Greystone Chapel" "Guess Things Happen That Way" "Hey, Porter" "Home of the Blues" "Hurt" "I Couldn't Keep from Crying" "I Love You Because" "I Still Miss Someone" "I Walk the Line" "If I Had a Hammer" "If I Were a Carpenter" "In My Life" "In the Jailhouse Now" "It Ain't Me Babe" "Jackson" "Kate" "The Man Comes Around" "Man in Black" "The Matador" "Oh Lonesome Me" "One Piece at a Time" "Oney" "Orange Blossom Special" "The One on the Right Is on the Left" "Remember the Alamo" "(Ghost) Riders in the Sky" "Ring of Fire" "Rock Island Line" "So Doggone Lonesome" "Sunday Mornin' Comin' Down" "Tennessee Flat Top Box" "There Ain't No Good Chain Gang" "A Thing Called Love" "Understand Your Man" "What Is Truth" "What'd I Say"

Television

The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
Show

Family

June Carter
June Carter
Cash John Carter Cash Rosanne Cash Carlene Carter Tommy Cash Carter Family

Related

Albums discography Singles discography Sun Records
Sun Records
discography The Highwaymen Carter Family
Carter Family
Fold Man in Black: His Own Story in His Own Words Cash: The Autobiography Johnny Cash! The Man, His World, His Music Walk the Line We Walk the Line: A Celebration of the Music of Johnny Cash Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
(2013 film) Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
(musical) My Father and the Man in Black Forever Words Dyess, Arkansas The Tennessee Three

Book

v t e

The Highwaymen

Johnny Cash Waylon Jennings Kris Kristofferson Willie Nelson

Studio albums

Highwayman Highwayman 2 The Road Goes On Forever

Singles

"Highwayman" "Desperados Waiting for a Train" "Silver Stallion" "It Is What It Is"

v t e

Members of the Grand Ole Opry

Roy Acuff Trace Adkins David "Stringbean" Akeman Bill Anderson Jack Anglin Eddy Arnold Ernest Ashworth Chet Atkins DeFord Bailey Bobby Bare Bashful Brother Oswald Humphrey Bate Dierks Bentley Binkley Brothers' Dixie Clodhoppers Clint Black Margie Bowes Rod Brasfield Garth Brooks Jim Ed Brown The Browns Carl Butler and Pearl Archie Campbell Bill Carlisle Martha Carson The Carter Sisters Maybelle Carter Johnny Cash June Carter
June Carter
Cash Roy Clark Terri Clark Zeke Clements Patsy Cline Jerry Clower John Conlee Stoney Cooper Wilma Lee Cooper Cowboy Copas Dailey & Vincent Charlie Daniels Skeeter Davis The Delmore Brothers The DeZurik Sisters Diamond Rio Little Jimmy Dickens Joe Diffie Danny Dill Jimmy Driftwood Roy Drusky The Duke of Paducah Holly Dunn The Everly Brothers Lester Flatt Red Foley Curly Fox Lefty Frizzell Larry Gatlin Crystal Gayle Don Gibson Vince Gill Billy Grammer Jack Greene The Gully Jumpers Theron Hale Tom T. Hall George Hamilton IV Sid Harkreader Emmylou Harris Hawkshaw Hawkins George D. Hay Hoot Hester Goldie Hill David Houston Jan Howard Ferlin Husky Alan Jackson Stonewall Jackson Sonny James Chris Janson Norma Jean Jim & Jesse Johnnie & Jack George Jones Grandpa Jones The Jordanaires Doug Kershaw Hal Ketchum Bradley Kincaid Pee Wee King Alison Krauss Little Big Town Hank Locklin Lonzo and Oscar Bobby Lord The Louvin Brothers Charlie Louvin Ira Louvin Patty Loveless Bob Luman Loretta Lynn Uncle Dave Macon Rose Maddox Barbara Mandrell Kerry Marx Martina McBride Del McCoury Mel McDaniel Reba McEntire McGee Brothers Jesse McReynolds Ronnie Milsap Bill Monroe Montgomery Gentry Craig Morgan George Morgan Lorrie Morgan Moon Mullican Willie Nelson Jimmy C. Newman The Oak Ridge Boys Old Crow Medicine Show Osborne Brothers Brad Paisley Dolly Parton Johnny Paycheck Minnie Pearl Stu Phillips Webb Pierce Ray Pillow Ray Price Charley Pride Jeanne Pruett Rascal Flatts Del Reeves Jim Reeves Riders in the Sky Tex Ritter Marty Robbins Darius Rucker Johnny Russell Rusty and Doug Earl Scruggs Jeannie Seely Blake Shelton Ricky Van Shelton Jean Shepard Ricky Skaggs Mississippi Slim Carl Smith Connie Smith Fiddlin' Arthur Smith Mike Snider Hank Snow Red Sovine Ralph Stanley Marty Stuart Texas Ruby B. J. Thomas Uncle Jimmy Thompson Mel Tillis Pam Tillis Tompall & the Glaser Brothers Randy Travis Travis Tritt Ernest Tubb Justin Tubb Josh Turner Carrie Underwood Keith Urban Leroy Van Dyke Porter Wagoner Billy Walker Charlie Walker Steve Wariner Kitty Wells Dottie West The Whites Slim Whitman The Wilburn Brothers Don Williams Hank Williams Boxcar Willie The Willis Brothers Chubby Wise Del Wood Marion Worth Johnnie Wright Tammy Wynette Trisha Yearwood Chris Young Faron Young

v t e

Country Music Hall of Fame
Country Music Hall of Fame
1980s

Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
(1980) Connie B. Gay
Connie B. Gay
(1980) Sons of the Pioneers
Sons of the Pioneers
(1980) Vernon Dalhart
Vernon Dalhart
(1981) Grant Turner (1981) Lefty Frizzell
Lefty Frizzell
(1982) Roy Horton (1982) Marty Robbins
Marty Robbins
(1982) Little Jimmy Dickens
Little Jimmy Dickens
(1983) Ralph Peer (1984) Floyd Tillman (1984) Flatt and Scruggs (1985) The Duke of Paducah
The Duke of Paducah
(1986) Wesley Rose (1986) Rod Brasfield
Rod Brasfield
(1987) Loretta Lynn
Loretta Lynn
(1988) Roy Rogers
Roy Rogers
(1988) Jack Stapp (1989) Cliffie Stone (1989) Hank Thompson (1989)

v t e

Grammy Award
Grammy Award
for Best Spoken Word Album

1959−1980

Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
– The Best of the Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
Shows (1959) Carl Sandburg
Carl Sandburg
Lincoln Portrait (1960) Robert Bialek (producer) – FDR Speaks (1961) Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein
– Humor in Music (1962) Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
– The Story-Teller: A Session With Charles Laughton (1963) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(playwright) – Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(1964) That Was the Week That Was
That Was the Week That Was
– BBC Tribute to John F. Kennedy (1965) Goddard Lieberson
Goddard Lieberson
(producer) – John F. Kennedy - As We Remember Him (1966) Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
- A Reporter Remembers, Vol. I The War Years (1967) Everett Dirksen
Everett Dirksen
– Gallant Men (1968) Rod McKuen
Rod McKuen
– Lonesome Cities (1969) Art Linkletter
Art Linkletter
& Diane Linkletter – We Love You Call Collect (1970) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
– Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam (1971) Les Crane
Les Crane
– Desiderata (1972) Bruce Botnick (producer) – Lenny performed by the original Broadway cast (1973) Richard Harris
Richard Harris
Jonathan Livingston Seagull (1974) Peter Cook
Peter Cook
and Dudley Moore
Dudley Moore
– Good Evening (1975) James Whitmore
James Whitmore
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
(1976) Henry Fonda, Helen Hayes, James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
and Orson Welles
Orson Welles
- Great American Documents (1977) Julie Harris – The Belle of Amherst
The Belle of Amherst
(1978) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
Original Motion Picture Soundtrack (1979) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
– Ages of Man - Readings From Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(1980)

1981−2000

Pat Carroll – Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein
Gertrude Stein
(1981) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Donovan's Brain
Donovan's Brain
(1982) Tom Voegeli (producer) – Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
- The Movie on Record performed by Various Artists (1983) William Warfield
William Warfield
Lincoln Portrait (1984) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
– The Words of Gandhi (1985) Mike Berniker (producer) & the original Broadway cast – Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (1986) Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Chips Moman, Ricky Nelson, Roy Orbison, Carl Perkins
Carl Perkins
and Sam Phillips
Sam Phillips
– Interviews From the Class of '55 Recording Sessions (1987) Garrison Keillor
Garrison Keillor
Lake Wobegon Days (1988) Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
– Speech by Rev. Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
(1989) Gilda Radner
Gilda Radner
– It's Always Something (1990) George Burns
George Burns
– Gracie: A Love Story (1991) Ken Burns
Ken Burns
– The Civil War (1992) Earvin "Magic" Johnson and Robert O'Keefe – What You Can Do to Avoid AIDS (1993) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
On the Pulse of Morning
On the Pulse of Morning
(1994) Henry Rollins
Henry Rollins
– Get in the Van (1995) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
– Phenomenal Woman (1996) Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
It Takes a Village (1997) Charles Kuralt
Charles Kuralt
– Charles Kuralt's Spring (1998) Christopher Reeve
Christopher Reeve
Still Me
Still Me
(1999) LeVar Burton
LeVar Burton
– The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(2000)

2001−present

Sidney Poitier, Rick Harris & John Runnette (producers) – The Measure of a Man: A Spiritual Autobiography (2001) Quincy Jones, Jeffrey S. Thomas, Steven Strassman (engineers) and Elisa Shokoff (producer) – Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones (2002) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
and Charles B. Potter (producer) – A Song Flung Up to Heaven / Robin Williams, Nathaniel Kunkel (engineer/mixer) and Peter Asher (producer) – Live 2002 (2003) Al Franken
Al Franken
and Paul Ruben (producer) – Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them (2004) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
– My Life (2005) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Dreams from My Father
Dreams from My Father
(2006) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis / Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee
Ruby Dee
- With Ossie and Ruby (2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and Jacob Bronstein (producer) – The Audacity of Hope (2008) Beau Bridges, Cynthia Nixon
Cynthia Nixon
and Blair Underwood
Blair Underwood
– An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore
Al Gore
(2009) Michael J. Fox
Michael J. Fox
– Always Looking Up (2010) Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
– The Daily Show with Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
Presents Earth (The Audiobook) (2011) Betty White
Betty White
– If You Ask Me (And Of Course You Won't) (2012) Janis Ian
Janis Ian
– Society's Child (2013) Stephen Colbert
Stephen Colbert
America
America
Again: Re-becoming The Greatness We Never Weren't (2014) Joan Rivers
Joan Rivers
– Diary of a Mad Diva (2015) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– A Full Life: Reflections at 90 (2016) Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
– In Such Good Company: Eleven Years of Laughter, Mayhem, and Fun in the Sandbox (2017) Carrie Fisher
Carrie Fisher
The Princess Diarist
The Princess Diarist
(2018)

v t e

Kennedy Center Honorees (1990s)

1990

Dizzy Gillespie Katharine Hepburn Risë Stevens Jule Styne Billy Wilder

1991

Roy Acuff Betty Comden
Betty Comden
and Adolph Green Fayard and Harold Nicholas Gregory Peck Robert Shaw

1992

Lionel Hampton Paul Newman
Paul Newman
and Joanne Woodward Ginger Rogers Mstislav Rostropovich Paul Taylor

1993

Johnny Carson Arthur Mitchell Sir Georg Solti Stephen Sondheim Marion Williams

1994

Kirk Douglas Aretha Franklin Morton Gould Harold Prince Pete Seeger

1995

Jacques d'Amboise Marilyn Horne B.B. King Sidney Poitier Neil Simon

1996

Edward Albee Benny Carter Johnny Cash Jack Lemmon Maria Tallchief

1997

Lauren Bacall Bob Dylan Charlton Heston Jessye Norman Edward Villella

1998

Bill Cosby Fred Ebb
Fred Ebb
and John Kander Willie Nelson André Previn Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black

1999

Victor Borge Sean Connery Judith Jamison Jason Robards Stevie Wonder

Complete list 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

v t e

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Class of 1992

Performers

Bobby Bland Booker T. & the M.G.'s (Steve Cropper, Donald "Duck" Dunn, Al Jackson Jr., Booker T. Jones, Lewie Steinberg) Johnny Cash The Isley Brothers
The Isley Brothers
(Ernie Isley, Marvin Isley, O'Kelly Isley Jr., Ronald Isley, Rudolph Isley, Chris Jasper) The Jimi Hendrix Experience
The Jimi Hendrix Experience
(Jimi Hendrix, Mitch Mitchell, Noel Redding) Sam & Dave (Sam Moore, Dave Prater) The Yardbirds
The Yardbirds
(Jeff Beck, Eric Clapton, Chris Dreja, Jim McCarty, Jimmy Page, Keith Relf, Paul Samwell-Smith)

Early influences

Elmore James Professor Longhair

Non-performers (Ahmet Ertegun Award)

Leo Fender Bill Graham Doc Pomus

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 27251336 LCCN: n79018367 ISNI: 0000 0001 0882 3456 GND: 118519433 SELIBR: 182765 SUDOC: 077442083 BNF: cb13892236v (data) BIBSYS: 90131809 MusicBrainz: d43d12a1-2dc9-4257-a2fd-0a3bb1081b86 NLA: 35853535 NKC: jn19990001359 BNE: XX881

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