John the Baptist
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John the Baptist ''Yohanān HaMatbil''; la, Ioannes Baptista; grc-gre, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, ''Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs'' or , ''Iōánnēs ho baptízōn'', or , ''Iōánnēs ho pródromos'';Wetterau, Bruce. ''World history''. New York: Henry Holt and Company. 1994. cop, ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, ar, يوحنا المعمدان The name "John" is the Anglicized form, via French, Latin and then Greek, of the Hebrew, "Yochanan", which means "
YHWH The Tetragrammaton () or Tetragram (from Greek , meaning " onsisting offour letters") is the four-letter Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic l ...
is gracious"., group="note" ( – ) was an
itinerant preacher An itinerant preacher (also known as an itinerant minister or evangelist or circuit rider) is a Christians, Christian Evangelism, evangelist who preaches the basic Christianity, Christian Redemption (theology), redemption message while traveling aro ...
active in the area of the
Jordan River ) , name_native_lang = , name_other = , name_etymology = Hebrew: ירדן (yardén, ''“descender”''), from ירד (yarad, ''“descended”'') , image = 20100923 mer morte13.JPG , image_size = , ima ...

Jordan River
in the early 1st century AD. He is also known as John the Forerunner in
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's la ...
, John the Immerser in some Baptist Christian traditions, and Prophet Yaḥyā in
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
. He is sometimes alternatively referred to as John the Baptizer. John is mentioned by the
Roman Jewish The history of the Jews in the Roman Empire ( la, Iudaeorum Romanum) traces the interaction of Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are members of an ethnoreligious group and a nation or ...
historian
Josephus Titus Flavius Josephus (; ; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu ( he, יוסף בן מתתיהו ''Yōsef ben Matiṯyāhu''; grc-gre, Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς ''Iṓsēpos Matthíou paîs''), was a first-century Romano-Jewish ...

Josephus
and revered as a major religious figure Funk, Robert W. & the
Jesus Seminar The Jesus Seminar was an American group of about 50 critical biblical scholars and 100 laymen In religious organizations, the laity consists of all members who are not part of the clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established religions ...
(1998). ''The Acts of Jesus: The search for the Authentic Deeds of Jesus''. San Francisco: Harper; "John the Baptist" cameo, p. 268
in
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's la ...
, Islam, the
Baháʼí Faith The Baháʼí Faith (; fa , بهائی ') is a relatively new religion teaching the Baháʼí Faith and the unity of religion, essential worth of all religions and Baháʼí Faith and the unity of humanity, the unity of all people. Establish ...
, the Druze Faith, and
Mandaeism Mandaeism or Mandaeanism ( myz, ࡌࡀࡍࡃࡀࡉࡉࡀ, mandaiia; ar, مَنْدَائِيَّة, ' or مَنْدَعِيَّة, ''mandaʿīya''), also known as Sabianism ( ar, صَابِئِيَّة, '), is a monotheistic and gnostic rel ...
. He is considered to be a
prophet In religion, a prophet is an individual who is regarded as being in contact with a divinity, divine being and is said to speak on behalf of that being, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the superna ...
of
God God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, and principal object of faith Faith, derived from Latin ''fides'' and Old French ''feid'', is confidence or trust in a person, thing, or In the context of religio ...
by all of these faiths, and is honoured as a
saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, the use of the term "saint" depends on the context and Christian denomination, denomination. ...

saint
in many
Christian denominations Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...
. According to the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
, John anticipated a messianic figure greater than himself, Funk, Robert W. & the
Jesus Seminar The Jesus Seminar was an American group of about 50 critical biblical scholars and 100 laymen In religious organizations, the laity consists of all members who are not part of the clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established religions ...
(1998). ''The Acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus''. San Francisco: Harper. "Mark", pp. 51–161.
and the
Gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, tea ...

Gospel
s portray John as the precursor or forerunner of
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, ...

Jesus
, since John announces Jesus' coming and prepares the people for Jesus' ministry. Jesus himself identifies John as "
Elijah Elijah ( ; , meaning "My God is Yahweh/YHWH") or Greek form Elias ( ), ''Elías''; syr, ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ, ''Elyāe''; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic lang ...

Elijah
who is to come", which is a direct reference to the
Book of Malachi The Book of Malachi (or Malachias; , ') is the last book of the Neviim contained in the Tanakh, canonically the last of the Twelve Minor Prophets. In the Christian ordering, the grouping of the Prophetic Books is the last section of the Old Testam ...
(), that has been confirmed by the angel who announced John's birth to his father, Zechariah. According to the
Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euangélion katà Loukân), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, tells of the origins, Nativity of Jesus, birth, Ministry of Jesus, ministry, Cr ...
, John and Jesus were relatives. Some scholars maintain that John belonged to the
Essenes The Essenes (; Modern Hebrew Modern Hebrew, also known as Israeli Hebrew ( he, עברית חדשה, ''ʿivrít ḥadašá ', , ''Literal translation, lit.'' "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), generally referred to by speakers simply as Hebrew ...
, a semi-
ascetic Asceticism (; from the el, ἄσκησις ''áskesis'', "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals. Ascetics may withdraw from the world for their ...
Jewish sect who expected a messiah and practiced ritual
baptism Baptism (from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...

baptism
. John used baptism as the central symbol or
sacrament A sacrament is a Christian rite A rite is an established, Ceremony, ceremonial, usually religious, act. Rites in this sense fall into three major categories: * rites of passage, generally changing an individual's social status, such as marria ...
of his pre-messianic movement. Most scholars agree that John baptized Jesus, and several New Testament accounts report that some of Jesus' early followers had previously been followers of John. According to the New Testament, John was sentenced to death and subsequently beheaded by
Herod Antipas Herod Antipater ( el, Ἡρῴδης Ἀντίπατρος, ''Hērǭdēs Antipatros''; born before 20 BC – died after 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee Galilee (; he, הַגָּלִיל, ''HaGali ...

Herod Antipas
around AD 30 after John rebuked him for divorcing his wife
Phasaelis Fasayil or Fasa'il ( ar, فصايل) is a Palestinian people, Palestinian village in the northeastern West Bank, a part of the Jericho Governorate, located northwest of Jericho and about southeast of Nablus. The closest Palestinian locality is Du ...
and then unlawfully wedding
Herodias Herodias ( el, Ἡρῴδιάς, ''Hērǭdiás''; ''c.'' 15 BC – after 39 AD) was a princess of the Herodian dynasty 260px, Coin of Herod the Great The Herodian dynasty was a royal dynasty of Idumea, Idumaean (Edomite) descent, ruling the He ...
, the wife of his brother
Herod Philip I Herod II (ca. 27 BC – 33/34 AD) was the son of Herod the Great and Mariamne (third wife of Herod), Mariamne II, the daughter of Simon Boethus the Kohen Gadol, High Priest. For a brief period he was his father's heir. Some writers call him Herod P ...
. Josephus also mentions John in the ''
Antiquities of the Jews ''Antiquities of the Jews'' ( la, Antiquitates Iudaicae; el, Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, ''Ioudaikē archaiologia'') is a 20-volume historiographical work, written in Greek, by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th ye ...
'' and states that he was executed by order of Herod Antipas in the fortress at
Machaerus Machaerus (Μαχαιροῦς, from grc, μάχαιρα, , Makhaira (a sword); ar, ِقلعة مكاور ''Qal'atu Mkawer''; he, מכוור ''Mikwar'' ) is a fortified hilltop palace located in Jordan southeast of the mouth of the Jordan riv ...
. Followers of John existed well into the 2nd century AD, and some proclaimed him to be the messiah. In modern times, the followers of John the Baptist are the
Mandaeans Mandaeans ( ar, ٱلصَّابِئَة ٱلْمَنْدَائِيُّون, aṣ-Ṣābiʾah al-Mandāʾiyūn) are an ethnoreligious group An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group whose members are also unified by ...
, an ancient
ethnoreligious group An ethnoreligious group (or an ethno-religious group), or simply an ethnoreligion, is a grouping of people who are unified by a common religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behavior ...
who believe that he is their greatest and final prophet.


Gospel narratives

John the Baptist is mentioned in all four canonical
Gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, tea ...

Gospel
s and the non-canonical
Gospel of the Nazarenes The Gospel of the Nazarenes (also ''Nazareans'', ''Nazaraeans'', ''Nazoreans'', or ''Nazoraeans'') is the traditional but hypothetical name given by some scholars to distinguish some of the references to, or citations of, non- canonical Jewish-Chr ...
. The
Synoptic Gospels The gospels of Gospel of Matthew, Matthew, Gospel of Mark, Mark, and Gospel of Luke, Luke are referred to as the synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar or sometimes identical wor ...
(
Mark Mark may refer to: Currency * Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark ( Bosnian/Croatian/ Serbian: , Bosnian/Serbian: ); sign: KM; code: BAM) is the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and ...
, Matthew and Luke) describe John baptising Jesus; in the
Gospel of John The Gospel according to John ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, translit=Euangélion katà Iōánnēn, also known as the Gospel of John, or simply John) is the fourth of the four canonical gospels. It contains a highly sch ...
this is implied in John 1:32.


In Mark

The Gospel of Mark introduces John as a fulfillment of a prophecy from the
Book of Isaiah The Book of Isaiah ( he, ספר ישעיהו, ) is the first of the Nevi'im#Latter Prophets, Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament. It is identified by a wiktionary:superscription, ...
(in fact, a conflation of texts from Isaiah,
Malachi Malachi, Malachias, Malache or Mal'achi (; ) was the traditional writer of the Book of Malachi, the last book of the Neviim (Prophets) section in the Tanakh, Hebrew Bible. According to the 1897 Easton's Bible Dictionary, it is possible that Ma ...
and
Exodus Exodus or the Exodus may refer to: Religion *Book of Exodus, second book of the Hebrew Torah and the Christian Bible *The Exodus, the biblical story of the migration of the ancient Israelites from Egypt into Canaan Historical events * Jujuy E ...
)Carl R. Kazmierski, ''John the Baptist: Prophet and Evangelist'' (Liturgical Press, 1996) p. 31. about a messenger being sent ahead, and a voice crying out in the wilderness. John is described as wearing clothes of camel's hair, living on
locust Locusts (derived from the Vulgar Latin ''locusta'', meaning grasshopper) are a group of certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae that have a Swarm behaviour, swarming phase. These insects are usually solitary, but ...

locust
s and wild
honey Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by honey bees A honey bee (also spelled honeybee) is a eusocial flying insect within the genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science o ...
. John proclaims baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sin, and says another will come after him who will not baptize with water, but with the Holy Spirit. Jesus comes to John, and is baptized by him in the river Jordan. The account describes how, as he emerges from the water, Jesus sees the heavens open and the Holy Spirit descends on him 'like a dove' and he hears a voice from heaven that says, "You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased". Later in the gospel there is an account of John's death. It is introduced by an incident where the Tetrarch
Herod Antipas Herod Antipater ( el, Ἡρῴδης Ἀντίπατρος, ''Hērǭdēs Antipatros''; born before 20 BC – died after 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee Galilee (; he, הַגָּלִיל, ''HaGali ...

Herod Antipas
, hearing stories about Jesus, imagines that this is John the Baptist raised from the dead. It then explains that John had rebuked Herod for marrying
Herodias Herodias ( el, Ἡρῴδιάς, ''Hērǭdiás''; ''c.'' 15 BC – after 39 AD) was a princess of the Herodian dynasty 260px, Coin of Herod the Great The Herodian dynasty was a royal dynasty of Idumea, Idumaean (Edomite) descent, ruling the He ...
, the ex-wife of his brother (named here as Philip). Herodias demands his execution, but Herod, who 'liked to listen' to John, is reluctant to do so because he fears him, knowing he is a 'righteous and holy man'. The account then describes how Herodias's unnamed daughter dances before Herod, who is pleased and offers her anything she asks for in return. When the girl asks her mother what she should request, she is told to demand the head of John the Baptist. Reluctantly, Herod orders the beheading of John, and his head is delivered to her, at her request, on a plate. John's disciples take the body away and bury it in a tomb. There are a number of difficulties with this passage. The Gospel refers to Antipas as 'King' and the ex-husband of Herodias is named as Philip, but he is known to have been called Herod. Although the wording clearly implies the girl was the daughter of Herodias, many texts describe her as "Herod's daughter, Herodias". Since these texts are early and significant and the reading is ' difficult', many scholars see this as the original version, altered in later versions and in Matthew and Luke. Josephus says that Herodias had a daughter by the name of Salome. Scholars have speculated about the origins of the story. Since it shows signs of having been composed in Aramaic, which Mark apparently did not speak, he is likely to have got it from a Palestinian source. There are a variety of opinions about how much actual historical material it contains, especially given the alleged factual errors. Many scholars have seen the story of John arrested, executed, and buried in a tomb as a conscious foreshadowing of the fate of Jesus. ;John and his baptism of Jesus (Mark 1) As it is written in Isaiah the prophet, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way, the voice of one crying in the wilderness: Prepare the way of the Lord, make his paths straight,'" John appeared, baptizing in the wilderness and proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. And all the country of Judea and all Jerusalem were going out to him and were being baptized by him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins. Now John was clothed with camel's hair and wore a leather belt around his waist and ate locusts and wild honey. And he preached, saying, "After me comes he who is mightier than I, the strap of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and untie. I have baptized you with water, but he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit." In those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan. And when he came up out of the water, immediately he saw the heavens being torn open and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. And a voice came from heaven, "You are my beloved Son, with you I am well pleased." ;Death of John (Mark 6) King Herod heard of it, for Jesus' name had become known. Some said, "John the Baptist has been raised from the dead. That is why these miraculous powers are at work in him." But others said, "He is Elijah." And others said, "He is a prophet, like one of the prophets of old." But when Herod heard of it, he said, "John, whom I beheaded, has been raised." For it was Herod who had sent and seized John and bound him in prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife, because he had married her. For John had been saying to Herod, "It is not lawful for you to have your brother's wife." And Herodias had a grudge against him and wanted to put him to death. But she could not, for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and he kept him safe. When he heard him, he was greatly perplexed, and yet he heard him gladly. But an opportunity came when Herod on his birthday gave a banquet for his nobles and military commanders and the leading men of Galilee. For when Herodias's daughter came in and danced, she pleased Herod and his guests. And the king said to the girl, "Ask me for whatever you wish, and I will give it to you." And he vowed to her, "Whatever you ask me, I will give you, up to half of my kingdom." And she went out and said to her mother, "For what should I ask?" And she said, "The head of John the Baptist." And she came in immediately with haste to the king and asked, saying, "I want you to give me at once the head of John the Baptist on a platter." And the king was exceedingly sorry, but because of his oaths and his guests he did not want to break his word to her. And immediately the king sent an executioner with orders to bring John's head. He went and beheaded him in the prison and brought his head on a platter and gave it to the girl, and the girl gave it to her mother. When his disciples heard of it, they came and took his body and laid it in a tomb. (
English Standard Version The English Standard Version (ESV) is an English translation of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Sama ...
)


In Matthew

The Gospel of Matthew account begins with the same modified quotation from Isaiah, moving the Malachi and Exodus material to later in the text, where it is quoted by Jesus. The description of John is taken directly from Mark ("clothing of camel's hair with a leather belt around his waist, and his food was locusts and wild honey"), along with the proclamation that one was coming who would baptize with the Holy Spirit "and fire". The book of Matthew next has Jesus coming to John to be baptized, but John objects because he is not worthy because Jesus is the one that brings the baptism in the Spirit. Unlike Mark, Matthew describes John as critical of Pharisees and Sadducees and as preaching "the kingdom of heaven is at hand" and a "coming judgment". Matthew shortens the account of the beheading of John, and adds two elements: that Herod Antipas wants John dead, and that the death is reported to Jesus by his disciples. Matthew's approach is to shift the focus away from Herod and onto John as a prototype of Jesus. Where Mark has Herod killing John reluctantly and at Herodias' insistence, Matthew describes him as wanting John dead. ; John and his baptism of Jesus (Matthew 3) In those days John the Baptist came preaching in the wilderness of Judea, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." For this is he who was spoken of by the prophet Isaiah when he said, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness: 'Prepare the way of the Lord; make his paths straight.'" Now John wore a garment of camel's hair and a leather belt around his waist, and his food was locusts and wild honey. Then Jerusalem and all Judea and all the region about the Jordan were going out to him, and they were baptized by him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them, "You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Bear fruit in keeping with repentance. And do not presume to say to yourselves, 'We have Abraham as our father,' for I tell you, God is able from these stones to raise up children for Abraham. Even now the axe is laid to the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. "I baptize you with water for repentance, but he who is coming after me is mightier than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire. His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will clear his threshing floor and gather his wheat into the barn, but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire." Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized by him. John would have prevented him, saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and do you come to me?" But Jesus answered him, "Let it be so now, for thus it is fitting for us to fulfill all righteousness." Then he consented. And when Jesus was baptized, immediately he went up from the water, and behold, the heavens were opened to him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and coming to rest on him; and behold, a voice from heaven said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased." ; John questions Jesus (Matthew 11) Now when John heard in prison about the deeds of the Christ, he sent word by his disciples and said to him, "Are you the one who is to come, or shall we look for another?" And Jesus answered them, "Go and tell John what you hear and see: the blind receive their sight and the lame walk, lepers are cleansed and the deaf hear, and the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them. And blessed is the one who is not offended by me." As they went away, Jesus began to speak to the crowds concerning John: "What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken by the wind? What then did you go out to see? A man dressed in soft clothing? Behold, those who wear soft clothing are in kings' houses. What then did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes, I tell you, and more than a prophet. This is he of whom it is written, "'Behold, I send my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way before you.' Truly, I say to you, among those born of women there has arisen no one greater than John the Baptist. Yet the one who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. From the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven has suffered violence, and the violent take it by force. For all the Prophets and the Law prophesied until John, and if you are willing to accept it, he is Elijah who is to come. He who has ears to hear, let him hear. "But to what shall I compare this generation? It is like children sitting in the marketplaces and calling to their playmates, "'We played the flute for you, and you did not dance; we sang a dirge, and you did not mourn.' For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, 'He has a demon.' The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, 'Look at him! A glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!' Yet wisdom is justified by her deeds." ; Death of John (Matthew 14) At that time Herod the tetrarch heard about the fame of Jesus, and he said to his servants, "This is John the Baptist. He has been raised from the dead; that is why these miraculous powers are at work in him." For Herod had seized John and bound him and put him in prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife, because John had been saying to him, "It is not lawful for you to have her." And though he wanted to put him to death, he feared the people, because they held him to be a prophet. But when Herod's birthday came, the daughter of Herodias danced before the company and pleased Herod, so that he promised with an oath to give her whatever she might ask. Prompted by her mother, she said, "Give me the head of John the Baptist here on a platter." And the king was sorry, but because of his oaths and his guests he commanded it to be given. He sent and had John beheaded in the prison, and his head was brought on a platter and given to the girl, and she brought it to her mother. And his disciples came and took the body and buried it, and they went and told Jesus. (English Standard Version)


In Luke and Acts

The
Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euangélion katà Loukân), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, tells of the origins, Nativity of Jesus, birth, Ministry of Jesus, ministry, Cr ...
adds an account of John's infancy, introducing him as the miraculous son of Zechariah, an old priest, and his wife
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...
, who was past
menopause Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children. Menopause usually occurs between the age of 48 and 52. Medical professionals often d ...
and therefore unable to have children. According to this account, the birth of John was foretold by the angel
Gabriel In the Abrahamic religions The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic people, Semitic-originated religions that claim descent from the Judaism of the anci ...
to Zechariah while he was performing his functions as a priest in the temple of Jerusalem. Since he is described as a priest of the course of
AbijahAbijah ( ''Aviya'') is a Biblical Hebrew Biblical Hebrew ( ''Ivrit Miqra'it'' or ''Leshon ha-Miqra''), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic langua ...
and Elizabeth as one of the daughters of Aaron, this would make John a descendant of
Aaron Aaron ''′aharon'', ar, هارون, Hārūn, Greek ( Septuagint): Ἀαρών; often called Aaron the priest () and once Aaron the Levite () (Exodus 4:14)., group="note" ( or ; ''’Ahărōn'', Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a S ...
on both his father's and mother's side. On the basis of this account, the Catholic as well as the Anglican and Lutheran liturgical calendars placed the feast of the Nativity of John the Baptist on 24 June, six months before Christmas. Elizabeth is described as a "relative" of Mary the mother of Jesus, in Luke 1:36. There is no mention of a family relationship between John and Jesus in the other Gospels, and
Raymond E. Brown Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 – August 8, 1998) was an American Catholic priest, a member of the Sulpician Fathers and a prominent biblical scholar Biblical studies is the academic application of a set of diverse disciplines to the ...
has described it as "of dubious historicity". Géza Vermes has called it "artificial and undoubtedly Luke's creation". The many similarities between the Gospel of Luke story of the birth of John and the Old Testament account of the birth of
Samuel Samuel ''Šəmūʾēl''; ar, إِشْمَوِيل ' or '; el, Σαμουήλ ''Samouḗl''; la, Samūēl is a figure who, in the narratives of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canoni ...

Samuel
suggest that Luke's account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus are modeled on that of Samuel. ; Post-nativity Unique to the Gospel of Luke, John the Baptist explicitly teaches charity, baptizes tax-collectors, and advises soldiers. The text briefly mentions that John is imprisoned and later beheaded by Herod, but the Gospel of Luke lacks the story of a step-daughter dancing for Herod and requesting John's head. The
Book of Acts The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the ...
portrays some disciples of John becoming followers of Jesus, a development not reported by the gospels except for the early case of
Andrew Andrew is the English form of a given name Image:FML names-2.png, Diagram of naming conventions, using John F. Kennedy as an example. "First names" can also be called given names; "last names" can also be called surnames or family names. This s ...

Andrew
, Simon Peter's brother. ; Nativity of John (Luke 1) In the reign of Herod, king of Judea, there was a priest named Zechariah, who belonged to the division called after Abijah. His wife, whose name was Elizabeth, was also a descendant of Aaron. They were both righteous people, who lived blameless lives, guiding their steps by all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord. But they had no child, Elizabeth being barren; and both of them were advanced in years. One day, when Zechariah was officiating as priest before God, during the turn of his division, it fell to him by lot, in accordance with the practice among the priests, to go into the Temple of the Lord and burn incense; and, as it was the Hour of Incense, the people were all praying outside. And an angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right of the Altar of Incense. Zechariah was startled at the sight and was awe-struck. But the angel said to him: "Do not be afraid, Zechariah; your prayer has been heard, and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, whom you will call by the name John. He will be to you a joy and a delight; and many will rejoice over his birth. For he will be great in the sight of the Lord; he will not drink any wine or strong drink, and he will be filled with the Holy Spirit from the very hour of his birth, and will reconcile many of the Israelites to the Lord their God. He will go before him in the spirit and with the power of Elijah, 'to reconcile fathers to their children' and the disobedient to the wisdom of the righteous, and so make ready for the Lord a people prepared for him." "How can I be sure of this?" Zechariah asked the angel. "For I am an old man and my wife is advanced in years." "I am Gabriel," the angel answered, "who stand in the presence of God, and I have been sent to speak to you and to bring you this good news. And now you will be silent and unable to speak until the day when this takes place, because you did not believe what I said, though my words will be fulfilled in due course." Meanwhile, the people were watching for Zechariah, wondering at his remaining so long in the Temple. When he came out, he was unable to speak to them, and they perceived that he had seen a vision there. But Zechariah kept making signs to them, and remained dumb. And, as soon as his term of service was finished, he returned home. After this his wife, Elizabeth, became pregnant and lived in seclusion for five months. "The Lord has done this for me," she said, "he has shown me kindness and taken away the public disgrace of childlessness under which I have been living." Six months later the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a town in Galilee called Nazareth, to a maiden there who was engaged to a man named Joseph, a descendant of David. Her name was Mary. Gabriel came into her presence and greeted her, saying: "You have been shown great favor – the Lord is with you." Mary was much disturbed at his words, and was wondering to herself what such a greeting could mean, when the angel spoke again: "Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. And now, you will conceive and give birth to a son, and you will give him the name Jesus. The child will be great and will be called 'Son of the Most High,' and the Lord God will give him the throne of his ancestor David, and he will reign over the descendants of Jacob for ever; And to his kingdom there will be no end." "How can this be?" Mary asked the angel. "For I have no husband." "The Holy Spirit will descend on you," answered the angel, "and the Power of the Most High will overshadow you; and therefore the child will be called 'holy,' and 'Son of God.' And Elizabeth, your cousin, is herself also expecting a son in her old age; and it is now the sixth month with her, though she is called barren; for no promise from God will fail to be fulfilled." "I am the servant of the Lord," exclaimed Mary; "let it be with me as you have said." Then the angel left her. Soon after this Mary set out, and made her way quickly into the hill-country, to a town in Judah; and there she went into Zechariah's house and greeted Elizabeth. When Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, the child moved within her, and Elizabeth herself was filled with the Holy Spirit, and cried aloud: "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is your unborn child! But how have I this honor, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? For, as soon as your greeting reached my ears, the child moved within me with delight! Happy indeed is she who believed that the promise which she received from the Lord would be fulfilled." And Mary said: "My soul exalts the Lord, my spirit delights in God my Savior; for he has remembered his humble servant girl; And from this hour all ages will count me happy! Great things has the Almighty done for me; And holy is his name. From age to age his mercy rests On those who honor him. Mighty are the deeds of his arm; He scatters the proud with their own devices, he casts down princes from their thrones, and the humble he uplifts, the hungry he loads with gifts, and the rich he sends empty away. He has stretched out his hand to his servant Israel, Ever mindful of his mercy (As he promised to our forefathers) For Abraham and his race for ever." Mary stayed with Elizabeth about three months, and then returned to her home. When Elizabeth's time came, she gave birth to a son; and her neighbors and relations, hearing of the great goodness of the Lord to her, came to share her joy. A week later they met to circumcise the child, and were about to call him 'Zechariah' after his father, when his mother spoke up: "No, he is to be called John." "You have no relation of that name!" they exclaimed; and they made signs to the child's father, to find out what he wished the child to be called. Asking for a writing-tablet, he wrote the words – 'His name is John.' Everyone was surprised; and immediately Zechariah recovered his voice and the use of his tongue, and began to bless God. All their neighbors were awe-struck at this; and throughout the hill-country of Judea the whole story was much talked about; and all who heard it kept it in mind, asking one another – "What can this child be destined to become?" For the Power of the Lord was with him. Then his father Zechariah was filled with the Holy Spirit, and, speaking under inspiration, said: "Blessed is the Lord, the God of Israel, Who has visited his people and wrought their deliverance, and has raised up for us the Strength of our salvation In the house of his servant David – As he promised by the lips of his holy prophets of old – salvation from our enemies and from the hands of all who hate us, showing mercy to our forefathers, And mindful of his sacred covenant. This was the oath which he swore to our forefather Abraham – That we should be rescued from the hands of our enemies, and should serve him without fear in holiness and righteousness, In his presence all our days. And you, child, will be called prophet of the Most High, For you will go before the Lord to make ready his way, to give his people the knowledge of salvation In the forgiveness of their sins, through the tender mercy of our God, Whereby the Dawn will break on us from heaven, to give light to those who live in darkness and the shadow of death, And guide our feet into the way of peace." The child grew and became strong in spirit; and he lived in the Wilds until the time came for his appearance before Israel. ; John and his baptism of Jesus, Imprisonment of John (Luke 3) In the fifteenth year of the reign of the Emperor Tiberius, when Pontius Pilate was Governor of Judea, Herod Ruler of Galilee, his brother Philip Ruler of the territory comprising Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias Ruler of Abilene, and when Annas and Caiaphas were high priests, a command from God came to John, the son of Zechariah, while he was in the wilderness. And John went through the whole district of the Jordan, proclaiming baptism on repentance, for the forgiveness of sins. This was in fulfillment of what is said in the writings of the prophet Isaiah – 'The voice of one crying aloud in the wilderness: "Make ready the way of the Lord, Make his paths straight. Every chasm will be filled, Every mountain and hill will be leveled, The winding ways will be straightened, The rough roads made smooth, and everyone will see the salvation of God."' And John said to the crowds that went to be baptized by him: "You children of snakes! Who has prompted you to seek refuge from the coming judgment? Let your lives, then, prove your repentance; and do not begin to say among yourselves 'Abraham is our ancestor,' for I tell you that out of these stones God is able to raise descendants for Abraham! Already, indeed, the axe is lying at the root of the trees. Therefore, every tree that fails to bear good fruit will be cut down and thrown into the fire." "What are we to do then?" the people asked. "Let anyone who has two coats," answered John, "share with the person who has none; and anyone who has food do the same." Even tax-gatherers came to be baptized, and said to John: "Teacher, what are we to do?" "Do not collect more than you have authority to demand," John answered. And when some soldiers on active service asked "And we – what are we to do?" he said: "Never use violence, or exact anything by false accusation; and be content with your pay." Then, while the people were in suspense, and were all debating with themselves whether John could be the Christ, John, addressing them all, said: "I, indeed, baptize you with water; but there is coming one more powerful than I, and I am not fit even to unfasten his sandals. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire. His winnowing-fan is in his hand so that he may clear his threshing-floor, and store the grain in his barn, but the chaff he will burn with a fire that cannot be put out." And so with many different appeals John told his good news to the people. But Prince Herod, being rebuked by John respecting Herodias, the wife of Herod's brother, and for all the evil things that he had done, crowned them all by shutting John up in prison. Now after the baptism of all the people, and when Jesus had been baptized and was still praying, the heavens opened, and the Holy Spirit came down on him in the form of a dove, and from the heavens came a voice – "You are my dearly loved son; you bring me great joy." ; John's disciples and fast (Luke 5:33) "John's disciples," they said to Jesus, "Often fast and say prayers, and so do the disciples of the Pharisees, while yours are eating and drinking!" ; John questions Jesus (Luke 7) All these events were reported to John by his disciples. So he summoned two of them, and sent them to the Master to ask – "Are you 'the coming one,' or are we to look for some one else?" When these men found Jesus, they said: "John the Baptist has sent us to you to ask – 'Are you 'the coming one,' or are we to look for somebody else?'" At that very time Jesus had cured many people of diseases, afflictions, and wicked spirits, and had given many blind people their sight. So his answer to the question was: "Go and report to John what you have witnessed and heard – the blind recover their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are made clean, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised to life, the good news is told to the poor. And blessed is the person who finds no hindrance in me." When John's messengers had left, Jesus, speaking to the crowds, began to say with reference to John: "What did you go out into the wilderness to look at? A reed waving in the wind? If not, what did you go out to see? A man dressed in rich clothing? Why, those who are accustomed to fine clothes and luxury live in royal palaces. What then did you go to see? A prophet? Yes, I tell you, and far more than a prophet. This is the man of whom scripture says – 'I am sending my messenger ahead of you, and he will prepare your way before you.' There is, I tell you, no one born of a woman who is greater than John; and yet the least in the kingdom of God is greater than he." (All the people, when they heard this, and even the tax-gatherers, having accepted John's baptism, acknowledged the justice of God. But the Pharisees and the students of the law, having rejected John's baptism, frustrated God's purpose in regard to them.)


In the Gospel of John

The fourth gospel describes John the Baptist as "a man sent from God" who "was not the light", but "came as a witness, to bear witness to the light, so that through him everyone might believe". John confirms that he is not the Christ nor Elijah nor 'the prophet' when asked by Jewish priests and Pharisees; instead, he described himself as the "voice of one crying in the wilderness". Upon literary analysis, it is clear that John is the "testifier and confessor ''par excellence''", particularly when compared to figures like
Nicodemus Nicodemus (; grc-gre, Νικόδημος, Nikódēmos) was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin mentioned in three places in the Gospel of John: * He first visits Jesus one night to discuss Jesus' teachings (). * The second time Nicodemus ...

Nicodemus
. Jesus's baptism is implied but not depicted. Unlike the other gospels, it is John himself who testifies to seeing "the Spirit come down from heaven like a dove and rest on him". John explicitly announces that Jesus is the one "who baptizes with the Holy Spirit" and John even professes a "belief that he is the Son of God" and "the Lamb of God". The Gospel of John reports that Jesus' disciples were baptizing and that a debate broke out between some of the disciples of John and another Jew about purification. In this debate John argued that Jesus "must become greater," while he (John) "must become less." The Gospel of John then points out that Jesus' disciples were baptizing more people than John. Later, the Gospel relates that Jesus regarded John as "a burning and shining lamp, and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light". ; John 1 There appeared a man sent from God, whose name was John; he came as a witness – to bear witness to the light so that through him everyone might believe. He was not the light, but he came to bear witness to the light. When the religious authorities in Jerusalem sent some Priests and Levites to ask John – "Who are you?", he told them clearly and simply: "I am not the Christ." "What then?" they asked. "Are you Elijah?" "No," he said, "I am not." "Are you 'the prophet'?" He answered, "No." "Who then are you?" they continued; "tell us so that we have an answer to give to those who have sent us. What do you say about yourself?" "I," he answered, "am – 'The voice of one crying aloud in the wilderness – "make a straight road for the Lord"', as the prophet Isaiah said." These men had been sent from the Pharisees; and their next question was: "Why then do you baptize, if you are not the Christ or Elijah or 'the prophet'?" John's answer was – "I baptize with water, but among you stands one whom you do not know; he is coming after me, yet I am not worthy even to unfasten his sandal." This happened at Bethany, across the Jordan, where John was baptizing. The next day John saw Jesus coming towards him, and exclaimed: "Here is the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! I was talking about him when I said 'After me there is coming a man who ranks ahead of me, because before I was born he already was.' I did not know who he was, but I have come baptizing with water to make him known to Israel." John also said: "I saw the Spirit come down from heaven like a dove and rest on him. I myself did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize with water, he said to me 'He on whom you see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him – he it is who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.' This I have seen myself, and I have declared my belief that he is the Son of God." The next day, when John was standing with two of his disciples, he looked at Jesus as he passed and exclaimed: "There is the Lamb of God!" The two disciples heard him say this, and followed Jesus. ; John 3 John, also, was baptizing at Aenon near Salim, because there were many streams there; and people were constantly coming and being baptized. (For John had not yet been imprisoned). Now a discussion arose between some of John's disciples and a fellow Jew on the subject of 'purification;' and the disciples came to John and said: "Rabbi, the man who was with you on the other side of the Jordan, and to whom you have yourself borne testimony – he, also, is baptizing, and everybody is going to him." John's answer was – "A person can gain nothing but what is given them from heaven. You are yourselves witnesses that I said 'I am not the Christ,' but 'I have been sent before him as a messenger.' It is the groom who has the bride; but the groom's friend, who stands by and listens to him, is filled with joy when he hears the groom's voice. This joy I have felt to the full. He must become greater, and I less." He who comes from above is above all others; but a child of earth is earthly, and his teaching is earthly, too. He who comes from heaven is above all others. He states what he has seen and what he heard, and yet no one accepts his statement. They who did accept his statement confirm the fact that God is true. For he whom God sent as his messenger gives us God's own teaching, for God does not limit the gift of the Spirit. The Father loves his Son, and has put everything in his hands. The person who believes in the Son has eternal life, while a person who rejects the Son will not even see that life, but remains under 'God's displeasure.'


Comparative analysis

All four Gospels start Jesus' ministry in association with the appearance of John the Baptist. Simon J. Joseph has argued that the Gospel demotes the historical John by painting him only as a prophetic forerunner to Jesus whereas his ministry actually complemented Jesus'. ; The prophecy of Isaiah Although Mark's Gospel implies that the arrival of John the Baptist is the fulfilment of a prophecy from the
Book of Isaiah The Book of Isaiah ( he, ספר ישעיהו, ) is the first of the Nevi'im#Latter Prophets, Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament. It is identified by a wiktionary:superscription, ...
, the words quoted ("I will send my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way – a voice of one calling in the wilderness, 'Prepare the way for the Lord, make straight paths for him.'") are actually a composite of texts from
Isaiah Isaiah ''ˀēšaˁyā''; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately ...
,
Malachi Malachi, Malachias, Malache or Mal'achi (; ) was the traditional writer of the Book of Malachi, the last book of the Neviim (Prophets) section in the Tanakh, Hebrew Bible. According to the 1897 Easton's Bible Dictionary, it is possible that Ma ...
and the
Book of Exodus The Book of Exodus is the second book of the Torah and of the Old Testament. Starting with the deliverance of Moses by Pharaoh's daughter (Exodus), Pharaoh's daughter, it recounts the revelation at the Burning bush where he was called by Yahweh ...
. (Matthew and Luke drop the first part of the reference.) ; Baptism of Jesus The gospels differ on the details of the Baptism. In Mark and Luke, Jesus himself sees the heavens open and hears a voice address him personally, saying, "You are my dearly loved son; you bring me great joy". They do not clarify whether others saw and heard these things. Although other incidents where the "voice came out of heaven" are recorded in which, for the sake of the crowds, it was heard audibly, John did say in his witness that he did see the spirit coming down "out of heaven" (John 12:28–30, John 1:32). In Matthew, the voice from heaven does not address Jesus personally, saying instead "This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased." In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist himself sees the spirit descend as a dove, testifying about the experience as evidence of Jesus's status. ; John's knowledge of Jesus John's knowledge of Jesus varies across gospels. In the Gospel of Mark, John preaches of a coming leader, but shows no signs of recognizing that Jesus is this leader. In Matthew, however, John immediately recognizes Jesus and John questions his own worthiness to baptize Jesus. In both Matthew and Luke, John later dispatches disciples to question Jesus about his status, asking "Are you he who is to come, or shall we look for another?" In Luke, John is a familial relative of Jesus whose birth was foretold by Gabriel. In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist himself sees the spirit descend like a dove and he explicitly preaches that Jesus is the Son of God. ; John and Elijah The Gospels vary in their depiction of John's relationship to
Elijah Elijah ( ; , meaning "My God is Yahweh/YHWH") or Greek form Elias ( ), ''Elías''; syr, ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ, ''Elyāe''; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic lang ...

Elijah
. Matthew and Mark describe John's attire in a way reminiscent of the description of Elijah in 2 Kings 1:8, who also wore a garment of hair and a leather belt. In Matthew, Jesus explicitly teaches that John is "Elijah who was to come" (Matt. 11:14 – see also Matt. 17:11–13); many Christian theologians have taken this to mean that John was Elijah's successor. In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist explicitly denies being Elijah. In the annunciation narrative in Luke, an angel appears to Zechariah, John's father, and tells him that John "will turn many of the sons of Israel to the Lord their God," and that he will go forth "in the spirit and power of Elijah."


In Josephus' ''Antiquities of the Jews''

An account of John the Baptist is found in all extant manuscripts of the ''
Antiquities of the Jews ''Antiquities of the Jews'' ( la, Antiquitates Iudaicae; el, Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, ''Ioudaikē archaiologia'') is a 20-volume historiographical work, written in Greek, by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th ye ...
'' (book 18, chapter 5, 2) by
Flavius Josephus Titus Flavius Josephus (; ; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu ( he, יוסף בן מתתיהו ''Yōsef ben Matiṯyāhu''; grc-gre, Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς ''Iṓsēpos Matthíou paîs''), was a first-century Romano-Jewish ...
(37–100): According to this passage, the execution of John was blamed for the defeat Herod suffered. Some have claimed that this passage indicates that John died near the time of the destruction of Herod's army in AD 36. However, in a different passage, Josephus states that the end of Herod's marriage with Aretas' daughter (after which John was killed) was only the beginning of hostilities between Herod and Aretas, which later escalated into the battle. Biblical scholar
John Dominic Crossan John Dominic Crossan (born 1934) is an Irish-American New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Biblical canon#Christian canons, ...
differentiates between Josephus's account of John and Jesus, saying, "John had a monopoly, but Jesus had a franchise." To get baptized, Crossan writes, you went only to John; to stop the movement one only needed to stop John (therefore his movement ended with his death). Jesus invited all to come and see how he and his companions had already accepted the government of God, entered it and were living it. Such a communal praxis was not just for himself, but could survive without him, unlike John's movement.


Relics

Matthew 14:12 records that "his disciples came and took away ohn'sbody and buried it." Theologian
Joseph Benson Joseph Benson (26 January 1749 – 16 February 1821) was an early English Methodism, Methodist minister, one of the leaders of the movement during the time of Methodism's founder John Wesley. Life The son of John Benson and Isabella Robinson, his ...
refers to a belief that they managed to do so because "it seems that the body had been thrown over the prison walls, without burial, probably by order of Herodias."


Burial in Sebastia

The burial place of John the Baptist's body has traditionally been said to be at the site of a Byzantine church later converted into a mosque, the (Prophet John) Mosque in Sebastia, currently part of the
State of Palestine Palestine ( ar, فلسطين, Filasṭīn), recognized officially as the State of Palestine ( ar, دولة فلسطين, Dawlat Filasṭīn) by the United Nations and other entities, is a Sovereign state#De facto and de jure states, ''de jur ...
, and mention is made of his relics being honoured there around the middle of the 4th century.


The fate of his head

What became of the head of John the Baptist is difficult to determine. Nicephorus and
Symeon Metaphrastes Symeon, called Metaphrastes or the Metaphrast (died c. 1000), was a Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Ant ...
say that Herodias had it buried in the fortress of
Machaerus Machaerus (Μαχαιροῦς, from grc, μάχαιρα, , Makhaira (a sword); ar, ِقلعة مكاور ''Qal'atu Mkawer''; he, מכוור ''Mikwar'' ) is a fortified hilltop palace located in Jordan southeast of the mouth of the Jordan riv ...
, as had been said by
Josephus Titus Flavius Josephus (; ; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu ( he, יוסף בן מתתיהו ''Yōsef ben Matiṯyāhu''; grc-gre, Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς ''Iṓsēpos Matthíou paîs''), was a first-century Romano-Jewish ...

Josephus
. An Orthodox tradition holds that the head relic was taken to the
Mount of Olives The Mount of Olives or Mount Olivet ( he, הַר הַזֵּיתִים, ''Har ha-Zeitim''; ar, جبل الزيتون, الطور, ''Jabal al-Zaytun'', ''Al-Tur'') is a mountain ridge east of and adjacent to Jerusalem's Old City. It is named for t ...

Mount of Olives
, where it was twice buried and discovered, the latter events giving rise to the Orthodox feast of the First and Second Finding of the Head of St. John the Baptist. Other writers say that it was interred in Herod's palace at Jerusalem; there it was found during the reign of Constantine the Great, Constantine, and thence secretly taken to Homs, Emesa (modern Homs, in Syria), where it was concealed, the place remaining unknown for years, until it was manifested by revelation in 452, an event celebrated in the Orthodox Church as the Beheading of John the Baptist#Related feasts, Third Finding.Two Catholic Church, Catholic churches and one mosque claim to have the head of John the Baptist: the Umayyad Mosque, in Damascus (Syria); the church of San Silvestro in Capite, in Rome; and Amiens Cathedral, in France (which would have had it brought from the Holy Land after the Fourth Crusade). A fourth claim is made by the Munich Residenz, Residenz Museum in Munich, Germany, which keeps a reliquary containing what the House of Wittelsbach, Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria believed to be the head of Saint John.


Right hand relics

John the Baptist's right hand, without the index finger, with which he baptised Jesus, is claimed to be in the Serbian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Cetinje Monastery, Cetinje monastery in Montenegro. Topkapı Palace, Topkapi Palace, in Istanbul, claims to have John's right hand index finger.


Left hand relics


St. John the Baptist Church of Chinsura relics

The saint's left hand is allegedly preserved in the Armenian Apostolic Church of St. John at Chinsurah, West Bengal, in India, where each year on "Chinsurah Day" in January it blesses the Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Christians of Kolkata, Calcutta.


Various relics and traditions


Decapitation cloth

The decapitation cloth of Saint John is said to be kept at the Aachen Cathedral, in Germany.


Historical Armenia

According to Armenian tradition, the remains of John the Baptist would in some point have been transferred by Gregory the Illuminator to the Surb Karapet Monastery, Saint Karapet Armenian Monastery.


Bulgaria

In 2010, bones were discovered in the ruins of a Bulgarian church in the St. John the Forerunner Monastery (4th–17th centuries) on the Black Sea island of St. Ivan Island, Sveti Ivan (Saint John) and two years later, after DNA and radio carbon testing proved the bones belonged to a Middle Eastern man who lived in the 1st century AD, scientists said that the remains could conceivably have belonged to John the Baptist. The remains, found in a reliquarium, are presently kept in the Sts. Cyril and Methodius Cathedral in Sozopol.


Egypt

A crypt and relics said to be John's and mentioned in 11th- and 16th-century manuscripts, were discovered in 1969 during restoration of the Church of St. Macarius at the Monastery of Saint Macarius the Great in Scetes, Egypt. The Coptic Christian Orthodox Church also claim to hold the relics of Saint John the Baptist. These are to be found in a monastery in Lower Egypt between Cairo and Alexandria. It is possible, with permission from the monks, to see the original tomb where the remains were found.


Nagorno-Karabakh

Additional relics are claimed to reside in Gandzasar Monastery's ''Cathedral of St. John the Baptist'', in Nagorno-Karabakh.


Purported left finger bone

The bone of one of John the Baptist's left fingers is said to be at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, Missouri. It is held in a Gothic-style monstrance made of Silver-gilt, gilded silver that dates back to 14th century Lower Saxony.


Halifax, England

Another obscure claim relates to the town of Halifax, West Yorkshire, Halifax in West Yorkshire, United Kingdom, where, as patron saint of the town, the Baptist's head appears on the official coat-of-arms. One legend (among others) bases the etymology of the town's place-name on "halig" (holy) and "fax" (hair), claiming that a relic of the head, or face, of John the Baptist once existed in the town.


Religious views


Christianity

The
Gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, tea ...

Gospel
s describe John the Baptist as having had a specific role ordained by God in Christianity, God as forerunner or precursor of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, who was the foretold Messiah. The New Testament Gospels speak of this role. In Luke 1:17 the role of John is referred to as being "to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord." In Luke 1:76 as "thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways" and in Luke 1:77 as being "To give knowledge of salvation unto his people by the remission of their sins." There are several passages within the Old Testament which are interpreted by Christians as being prophecy, prophetic of John the Baptist in this role. These include a passage in the
Book of Malachi The Book of Malachi (or Malachias; , ') is the last book of the Neviim contained in the Tanakh, canonically the last of the Twelve Minor Prophets. In the Christian ordering, the grouping of the Prophetic Books is the last section of the Old Testam ...
that refers to a prophet who would ''prepare the way of the Lord'': Also at the end of the next chapter in Malachi 4:5–6 it says, The Jews of Jesus' day expected Elijah to come before the Messiah; indeed, some present day Jews continue to await Elijah's coming as well, as in the Cup of Elijah the Prophet in the Passover Seder. This is why the disciples ask Jesus in Matthew 17:10, "Why then say the scribes that Elias must first come?" The disciples are then told by Jesus that Elijah came in the person of John the Baptist, (see also 11:14: "...if you are willing to accept it, he is Elijah who was to come.") These passages are applied to John in the
Synoptic Gospels The gospels of Gospel of Matthew, Matthew, Gospel of Mark, Mark, and Gospel of Luke, Luke are referred to as the synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar or sometimes identical wor ...
. But where Matthew specifically identifies John the Baptist as Elijah's spiritual successor, the gospels of Mark and Luke are silent on the matter. The
Gospel of John The Gospel according to John ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, translit=Euangélion katà Iōánnēn, also known as the Gospel of John, or simply John) is the fourth of the four canonical gospels. It contains a highly sch ...
states that John the Baptist denied that he was Elijah.


Influence on Paul

Many scholars believe there was contact between the early church in the Apostolic Age and what is called the "Qumran-Essene community". The Dead Sea Scrolls were found at Qumran, which the majority of historians and archaeologists identify as an Essene settlement. John the Baptist is thought to have been either an Essene or "associated" with the community at Khirbet Qumran. According to the
Book of Acts The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the ...
, Paul met some "disciples of John" in Ephesus.


Catholic Church

The Catholic Church commemorates Saint John the Baptist on two feast days: * 24 June – Nativity of Saint John the Baptist * 29 August – Beheading of Saint John the Baptist According to Frederick George Holweck, Frederick Holweck, at the Visitation (Christianity), Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary to his mother Elizabeth, as recounted in Luke 1:39–57, John, sensing the presence of his Jesus, upon the arrival of Mary, leaped in the womb of his mother; he was then cleansed from original sin and filled with the grace of God. In her ''Treatise of Prayer'', Saint Catherine of Siena includes a brief altercation with the Devil in Christianity, Devil regarding her fight due to the Devil attempting to lure her with vanity and flattery. Speaking in the first person, Catherine responds to the Devil with the following words:


Eastern Christianity

The Eastern Catholic Churches and Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox faithful believe that John was the last of the Old Testament
prophet In religion, a prophet is an individual who is regarded as being in contact with a divinity, divine being and is said to speak on behalf of that being, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the superna ...
s, thus serving as a bridge between that period of revelation and the New Covenant. They also teach that, following his death, John descended into Christian views on Hades, Hades and there once more preached that Jesus the Messiah was coming, so he was the Forerunner of Christ in death as he had been in life. Eastern Catholic and Orthodox churches will often have an icon of Saint John the Baptist in a place of honor on the iconostasis, and he is frequently mentioned during the Divine Services. Every Tuesday throughout the year is dedicated to his memory. The Eastern Orthodox Church remembers Saint John the Forerunner on six separate feast days, listed here in order in which they occur during the liturgical year, church year (which begins on 1 September): * 23 September – Conception of Saint John the Forerunner * 7 January – The Synaxis of Saint John the Forerunner. This is his main ml day, immediately after Epiphany (feast), Theophany on 6 January (7 January also commemorates the transfer of the relic of the right hand of John the Baptist from Antioch to Constantinople in 956) * 24 February – First and Second Finding of the Head of Saint John the Forerunner * 25 May – Third Finding of the Head of Saint John the Forerunner * 24 June – Nativity of Saint John the Baptist#In Eastern Christianity, Nativity of Saint John the Forerunner * 29 August – The Beheading of John the Baptist, Beheading of Saint John the Forerunner, a day of strict fast and abstinence from meat and dairy products and foods containing meat or dairy products In addition to the above, 5 September is the commemoration of Zechariah and
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...
, Saint John's parents. The Russian Orthodox Church observes 12 October as the Transfer of the Right Hand of the Forerunner from Malta to Gatchina (1799).


Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that modern revelation confirms the biblical account of John and also makes known additional events in his ministry. According to this belief, John was "ordained by the angel of God" when he was eight days old "to overthrow the kingdom of the Jews" and to prepare a people for the Lord. Latter-day Saints also believe that "he was baptized while yet in his childhood." Joseph Smith said: "Let us come into New Testament times – so many are ever praising the Lord and His apostles. We will commence with John the Baptist. When Herod's edict went forth to destroy the young children, John was about six months older than Jesus, and came under this hellish edict, and Zecharias caused his mother to take him into the mountains, where he was raised on locusts and wild honey. When his father refused to disclose his hiding place, and being the officiating high priest at the Temple that year, was slain by Herod's order, between the porch and the altar, as Jesus said." The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints teaches that John the Baptist appeared on the banks of the Susquehanna River near Harmony Township, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania, as a resurrected being to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery on 15 May 1829, and ordained them to the Aaronic priesthood (LDS Church), Aaronic priesthood. According to the Church's dispensational view of religious history, John's ministry has operated in three dispensations: he was the last of the prophets under the law of Moses; he was the first of the New Testament prophets; and he was sent to restore the Aaronic priesthood in our day (the dispensation of the fulness of times). Latter-day Saints believe John's ministry was foretold by two prophets whose teachings are included in the Book of Mormon: Lehi (Book of Mormon), Lehi and his son Nephi, son of Lehi, Nephi.


Unification Church

The Unification Church teaches that God intended John to help Jesus during his public ministry in Judea. In particular, John should have done everything in his power to persuade the Jewish people that Jesus was the Messiah. He was to become Jesus' main disciple and John's disciples were to become Jesus' disciples. Unfortunately John didn't follow Jesus and continued his own way of baptizing people. Moreover, John also denied that he was Elijah when queried by several Jewish leaders, contradicting Jesus who stated John is Elijah who was to come. Many Jews therefore could not accept Jesus as the Messiah because John denied being Elijah, as the prophet's appearance was a prerequisite for the Messiah's arrival as stated in Malachi 4:5. According to the Unification Church, "John the Baptist was in the position of representing Elijah's physical body, making himself identical with Elijah from the standpoint of their mission." According to Matthew 11:11, Jesus stated "there has not risen one greater than John the Baptist." However, in referring to John's blocking the way of the Jews' understanding of him as the Messiah, Jesus said "yet he who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he." John's failure to follow Jesus became the chief obstacle to the fulfillment of Jesus' mission.


Syrian-Egyptian Gnosticism

Among the early Judeo-Christian Gnostics the Ebionites held that John, along with Jesus and James the Just – all of whom they revered – were vegetarians.J Verheyden, ''Epiphanius on the Ebionites'', in ''The image of the Judaeo-Christians in ancient Jewish and Christian literature'', eds Peter J. Tomson, Doris Lambers-Petry, , p. 188 "The vegetarianism of John the Baptist and of Jesus is an important issue too in the Ebionite interpretation of the Christian life. " p. 102 – "Probably the most interesting of the changes from the familiar New Testament accounts of Jesus comes in the Gospel of the Ebionites description of John the Baptist, who, evidently, like his successor Jesus, maintained a strictly vegetarian cuisine." p. 104 – "And when he had been brought to Archelaus and the doctors of the Law had assembled, they asked him who he is and where he has been until then. And to this he made answer and spake: ''I am pure; [for] the Spirit of God hath led me on, and [I live on] cane and roots and tree-food.''" Epiphanius of Salamis records that this group had amended their Gospel of Matthew – known today as the Gospel of the Ebionites – to change where John eats "locusts" to read "honey cakes" or "manna". p. 13 – Referring to Epiphanius' quotation from the ''Gospel of the Ebionites'' in ''Panarion'' 30.13, "And his food, it says, was wild honey whose taste was of ''manna'', as cake in oil".


Mandaeism

John the Baptist is considered the chief prophet of the Mandaeans, and plays a large part in their religious texts such as the Ginza Rabba and the Mandaean Book of John. Mandaeans do not believe that their religion began with John, instead they trace their roots back to their first prophet Adam. They believe John was a great teacher and consider him to have been a Nazarene_(sect)#Nasoraean_Mandaeans, Nasoraean. Scholars such as Mark Lidzbarski, Rudolf Macúch, E. S. Drower, Ethel S. Drower, Jorunn J. Buckley, and Şinasi Gündüz believe that the Mandaeans likely have a historical connection with John's original disciples. The Mandaeans believe that John was married and had children.


Islam

John the Baptist is known as Yaḥyā ibn Zakarīyā ( ar, يحيى بن زكـريا) in Islam and is honored as a Prophets and messengers in Islam, prophet. He is believed by Muslims to have been a witness to the Revelation, word of God, and a
prophet In religion, a prophet is an individual who is regarded as being in contact with a divinity, divine being and is said to speak on behalf of that being, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the superna ...
who would herald the coming of Jesus in Islam, Jesus. His father Islamic view of Zechariah, Zechariah was also an Islamic prophet.
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
ic tradition maintains that John met Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad on the night of the Isra and Mi'raj, Mi'raj, along with Jesus in the second heaven. John's story was also told to the Aksumite Empire, Abyssinian king during the Muslim refugees' Migration to Abyssinia. According to the Quran, John was one on whom God sent peace on the day that he was born and the day that he died.


Quranic mentions

The Quran claims that John the Baptist was the first to receive this name () but since the name Yoḥanan occurs many times before John the Baptist, this verse is referring either to Islamic scholar consensus that "Yaḥyā" is not the same name as "Yoḥanan" or to the Biblical account of the Miracle, miraculous naming of John, which accounted that he was almost named "Zacharias" (Greek: ) after his father's name, as no one in the Lineage (anthropology), lineage of his father Zechariah (priest), Zacharias (also known as Zechariah) had been named "John" ("Yohanan"/"Yoannes") before him. In the Quran, God in Islam, God frequently mentions Zechariah's continuous praying for the birth of a son. Zechariah's wife, mentioned in the New Testament as
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...
, was barren and therefore the birth of a child seemed impossible.''Lives of the Prophets'', Leila Azzam, ''John and Zechariah'' As a gift from God, Zechariah (or Zakaria) was given a son by the name of "Yaḥya" or "John", a name specially chosen for this child alone. In accordance with Zechariah's prayer, God made John and Jesus, who according to exegesis was born six months later,''A–Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism'', B. M. Wheeler, ''John the Baptist'' renew the message of God, which had been corrupted and lost by the Israelites. As the Quran says: John was exhorted to hold fast to the Scripture and was given wisdom by God while still a child. He was pure and devout, and walked well in the presence of God. He was dutiful towards his parents and he was not arrogant or rebellious. John's reading and understanding of the scriptures, when only a child, surpassed even that of the greatest scholars of the time. Muslim exegesis narrates that
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, ...

Jesus
sent John out with twelve disciples, who preached the message before Jesus called his own disciples. The Quran says: John was a classical prophet, who was exalted high by God for his bold denouncing of all things sinful. Furthermore, the Quran speaks of John's gentle piety and love and his humble attitude towards life, for which he was granted the Purity of Life: John is also honored highly in Sufism as well as Islamic mysticism, primarily because of the Quran's description of John's chastity and kindness. Sufis have frequently applied commentaries on the passages on John in the Quran, primarily concerning the God-given gift of "Wisdom" which he acquired in youth as well as his parallels with
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, ...

Jesus
. Although several phrases used to describe John and Jesus are virtually identical in the Quran, the manner in which they are expressed is different.


Druze view

Druze tradition honors several “mentors” and “prophets”, and John the Baptist is honored as a
prophet In religion, a prophet is an individual who is regarded as being in contact with a divinity, divine being and is said to speak on behalf of that being, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the superna ...
. Druze venerate John the Baptist and he is considered a central figure in Druzism. Druze, like some Christians, believe that
Elijah Elijah ( ; , meaning "My God is Yahweh/YHWH") or Greek form Elias ( ), ''Elías''; syr, ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ, ''Elyāe''; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic lang ...

Elijah
(al-Khidr) came back as John the Baptist, since they belief in reincarnation and the transmigration of the soul, Druze believe that Elija (El Khidr) and John the Baptist are one and the same.


Baháʼí view

The
Baháʼí Faith The Baháʼí Faith (; fa , بهائی ') is a relatively new religion teaching the Baháʼí Faith and the unity of religion, essential worth of all religions and Baháʼí Faith and the unity of humanity, the unity of all people. Establish ...
considers John to have been a prophet of God who like all other prophets was sent to instill the knowledge of God, promote unity among the people of the world, and to show people the correct way to live. There are numerous quotations in the writings of Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the
Baháʼí Faith The Baháʼí Faith (; fa , بهائی ') is a relatively new religion teaching the Baháʼí Faith and the unity of religion, essential worth of all religions and Baháʼí Faith and the unity of humanity, the unity of all people. Establish ...
, mentioning John the Baptist. He is regarded by Baháʼís as a Manifestation of God (Baháʼí Faith)#Minor prophets, lesser Prophet. Bahá'u'lláh claimed that his forerunner, the Báb, was the spiritual return of John the Baptist. In his letter to Pope Pius IX, Bahá'u'lláh wrote:
O followers of the Son! We have once again sent John unto you, and He, verily, hath cried out in the wilderness of the Persian Bayán, Bayán: O peoples of the world! Cleanse your eyes! The Day whereon ye can behold the Promised One and attain unto Him hath drawn nigh! O followers of the Gospel! Prepare the way! The Day of the advent of the Glorious Lord is at hand! Make ready to enter the Kingdom. Thus hath it been ordained by God, He Who causeth the dawn to break.
John is believed to have had the specific role of foretelling and preparing the way for Jesus. In condemning those who had 'turned aside' from him, Bahá'u'lláh compared them to the followers of John the Baptist, who, he said, "protested against Him Who was the Spirit (Jesus) saying: 'The dispensation of John hath not yet ended; wherefore hast thou come?'" Bahá'u'lláh believed that the Báb played the same role as John in preparing the people for his own coming. As such, Bahá'u'lláh refers to the Báb as 'My Forerunner', the Forerunner being a title that Christians reserve for John the Baptist. However, Baháʼís consider the Báb to be a greater Prophet (Manifestation of God (Baháʼí Faith), Manifestation of God) and thus possessed of a far greater station than John the Baptist.


Scholarship

Scholars studying John the Baptist's relationship with Jesus of Nazareth have commented on the differences in their respective approaches. James F. McGrath writes "In the first half of the 20th century, the
Mandaeans Mandaeans ( ar, ٱلصَّابِئَة ٱلْمَنْدَائِيُّون, aṣ-Ṣābiʾah al-Mandāʾiyūn) are an ethnoreligious group An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group whose members are also unified by ...
received significant attention from New Testament scholars who thought that their high view of John the Baptist might mean they were the descendants of his disciples. Many historians think that Jesus of Nazareth was a disciple of John the Baptist before breaking away to form his own movement, and I am inclined to agree." L. Michael White says John the Baptist should be thought of "...primarily as one who was calling for a return to an intensely Jewish piety... to follow the way of the Lord... to make oneself pure... to be right with God.... And it seems to be that he calls for baptism as a sign of rededication or repurification of life in a typically Jewish way before God.""A Portrait of Jesus' World", ''From Jesus to Christ'', Frontline,, PBS
/ref>
John Dominic Crossan John Dominic Crossan (born 1934) is an Irish-American New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Biblical canon#Christian canons, ...
sees John the Baptist as an apocalyptic eschatologist, whose message was that "God, very soon, imminently, any moment, is going to descend to eradicate the evil of this world in a sort of an apocalyptic consummation...." When Jesus says John is the greatest person ever born on earth, but the least in the Kingdom of God is greater than John, it means Jesus is changing his vision of God and the Kingdom of God from what he has taken from John. For Crossan, Jesus is an ethical eschatologist that sees "...the demand that God is making on us, not us on God so much as God on us, to do something about the evil in the world." Michael H. Crosby, O.F.M.Cap. states there was "no biblical evidence indicating that John the Baptist ever became a disciple of Jesus." He believes that John's concept of what a messiah should be was in contrast to how Jesus presented himself, and kept him from becoming a disciple of Jesus. Crosby states, "an unbiased reading leaves us with the figure of John the Baptist as a reformist Jew who also may have wanted desperately to become a believer but was unable to become convinced of Jesus’ messiahship . . . . " Crosby considers John's effectiveness as a "precursor" in encouraging others to follow Jesus as very minimal, since the scriptures record only two of his own followers having become Jesus’ disciples. Professor Candida Moss noted that John and Jesus become "de facto competitors in the ancient religious marketplace." Even after baptizing Jesus, John did not follow Jesus but maintained a separate ministry. After John's death, Jesus' followers had to differentiate him from the executed prophet, "countering the prevalent idea that Jesus was actually John raised from the dead." Moss also references the incident in Matthew 16 where disciples indicated some people believed Jesus was John the Baptist. Pastor Robert L. Deffinbaugh views John's sending two of his disciples to ask Jesus if he were the Messiah or whether another should be sought as the Baptist's issuing a public challenge since the message was presented to Jesus while he was with a gathered crowd. Deffinbaugh suggests that John might have been looking for inauguration of the kingdom of God in a more dramatic way than what Jesus was presenting, as John had previously warned that the "Messiah would come with fire." Jesus answered by indicating his miracle works and teachings which themselves gave evidence of his identity: "The blind receive sight, the lame walk, those who have leprosy are cured, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, and the good news is preached to the poor". Harold W. Attridge agrees with Crossan that John was an apocalyptic preacher. Attridge says most contemporary scholars would see the idea of John as the "forerunner" of Jesus as a construct developed by the early church to help explain the relationship between the two. "For the early church it would have been something of an embarrassment to say that Jesus, who was in their minds superior to John the Baptist, had been baptized by him, and thereby proclaimed some sort of subordination to him, some sort of disciple relationship to him...."


In art


Early Christian art

The earliest depictions of St John are always in the ''Baptism of Christ'', one of the earliest scenes from the ''Life of Christ in art, Life of Christ'' to be frequently depicted in Early Christian art, and John's tall, thin, even gaunt, and bearded figure is already established by the 5th century. Only he and Jesus are consistently shown with long hair from Early Christian times, when the apostles generally have trim classical cuts; in fact John is more consistently depicted in this way than Jesus.


Byzantine and Eastern Orthodox art

In Byzantine and later Eastern Orthodox art, John the Baptist and the Holy Virgin Mary often flank Jesus on either side. The composition of the ''Deesis'' came to be included in every Eastern Orthodox church, as remains the case to this day. Here John and the Theotokos (Mary the "God-bearer") flank a Christ Pantocrator and intercede for humanity. In Orthodox Christianity, Orthodox religious icon, icons, he often has angel's wings, since Mark 1:2 describes him as a messenger.


Western art

After the earliest images showing the Baptism of the Lord, follow such with St John shown as an ascetic wearing camel hair, with a staff and scroll inscribed (in Western art) "Ecce Agnus Dei", or bearing a book or dish with a lamb on it. The Baptist is very often shown on altarpieces designed for churches dedicated to him, or where the donor patron was named for him or there was some other patronage connection. John the Baptist is the patron saint of Florence and has often been depicted in the art of that city, and also frequently appears in baptistries, which are very often dedicated to him.Hall, 173 Major works depicting St. John the Baptist can be found in the Florence Baptistery, Baptistry (the mosaics on the vault, the bronze doors by Andrea Pisano, and the great silver altar now in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo (Florence), Museo dell'Opera del Duomo) in the frescoes by Giotto for the c:Peruzzi Chapel, Peruzzi Chapel in the church of Santa Croce, Florence, Santa Croce, those by Filippo Lippi in the Prato Cathedral, cathedral of Prato and, the frescoes by Domenico Ghirlandaio, Ghirlandaio for the Chancel, or Tornabuoni Chapel in Santa Maria Novella. A number of narrative scenes from his life were often shown on the predella of altarpieces dedicated to John, and other settings, notably the large series in grisaille fresco in the Chiostro dello Scalzo, which was Andrea del Sarto's largest work, and the frescoed ''Life'' by Domenico Ghirlandaio in the Tornabuoni Chapel, both in Florence. There is another important fresco cycle by Filippo Lippi in Prato Cathedral. These include the typical scenes: the ''Annunciation to Zechariah'', John's birth, his naming by his father, the ''Visitation (Christianity), Visitation'', John's departure for the desert, his preaching in the desert, the ''Baptism of Christ'', John before Herod, the dance of Herod's stepdaughter, Salome, beheading of Saint John the Baptist, his beheading, Salome carrying his head on a platter. His birth, which unlike the Nativity of Jesus in art, Nativity of Jesus allowed a relatively wealthy domestic interior to be shown, became increasingly popular as a subject in the late Middle Ages, with depictions by Jan van Eyck in the Turin-Milan Hours and Ghirlandaio in the Tornabuoni Chapel being among the best known. His execution, a church feast-day, was often shown, and by the 15th-century scenes such as the dance of Salome became popular, sometimes, as in an engraving by Israhel van Meckenem, the interest of the artist is clearly in showing the life of Herod's court, given contemporary dress, as much as the martyrdom of the saint. The execution was usually by a swordsman, with John kneeling in prayer, Salome often standing by with an empty platter, and Herod and Herodias at table in a cut-through view of a building in the background. Salome bearing John's head on a platter equally became a subject for the Power of Women group: a Northern Renaissance fashion for images of glamorous but dangerous women (Delilah, Judith and others). It was often painted by Lucas Cranach the Elder and engraved by the Little Masters. When the head is brought to the table by Salome, Herod may be shown as startled, if not disgusted, but Herodias is usually not. These images remained popular into the Baroque, with Carlo Dolci painting at least three versions. John preaching, in a landscape setting, was a popular subject in Dutch art from Pieter Brueghel the Elder and his successors. The isolated motif of the severed head, often on its platter, was a frequent image, often in sculpture, from the late Middle Ages onwards,Hall, 174 known as ''Ioannes in disco'' (Latin for "John on a plate"). As a child (of varying age), he is sometimes shown from the 15th century in family scenes from the life of Christ such as the Holy Family#In art, ''Holy Family'', ''Presentation of Christ'', the ''Marriage of the Virgin'' and the ''Holy Kinship''. In the ''Baptism of Christ'' his presence was obligatory. Leonardo da Vinci's versions of the ''Virgin of the Rocks'' were influential in establishing a Renaissance fashion for variations on the Madonna and Child that included John. Raphael in particular painted many compositions of the subject, such as the ''Alba Madonna'', ''La belle jardinière'', ''Aldobrandini Madonna'', ''Madonna della seggiola'', Madonna dell'Impannata (Raphael), ''Madonna dell'Impannata'', which were among his best-known works. John was also often shown by himself as an adolescent or adult, usually already wearing his distinctive dress and carrying a long thin wooden crossHall, 172 – another theme St. John the Baptist (Leonardo), influenced by Leonardo, whose equivocal composition, with the camel-skin dress, was developed by Raphael, Titian and Guido Reni among many others. Often he is accompanied by a lamb, especially in the many Early Netherlandish paintings which needed this attribute as he wore normal clothes, or a red robe over a not very clearly indicated camel skin. Caravaggio painted an especially large number of works including John, from John the Baptist (Caravaggio), at least five largely nude youths attributed to him, to three late works on his death – the great ''The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist (Caravaggio), Execution'' in Malta, and two sombre Salomes with his head, Salome with the Head of John the Baptist (Madrid) (Caravaggio), one in Madrid, and Salome with the Head of John the Baptist (Caravaggio, London), one in London. Amiens cathedral, which holds one of the alleged heads of the Baptist, has a biographical sequence in polychrome relief, dating from the 16th century. This includes the execution and the disposal of the saint's remains, which according to legend were burnt in the reign of Julian the Apostate (4th century) to prevent pilgrims. A remarkable Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Pre-Raphaelite portrayal is ''Christ in the House of His Parents'' by John Everett Millais. Here the Baptist is shown as a child, wearing a loin covering of animal skins, hurrying into Saint Joseph, Joseph's carpenter shop with a bowl of water to join Mary, Mother of Jesus, Mary, Joseph, and Mary's mother Saint Anne, Anne in soothing the injured hand of Jesus. Artistic interest enjoyed a considerable revival at the end of the 19th century with Symbolist painters such as Gustave Moreau and Puvis de Chavannes (National Gallery, London). Oscar Wilde's play ''Salome (play), Salome'' was illustrated by Aubrey Beardsley, giving rise to some of his most memorable images. Leonardo da Vinci - St John the Baptist - WGA12723.jpg, St. John the Baptist (c.1513–1516), Leonardo da Vinci Allori C San Giovanni.jpg, ''John the Baptist in the desert'' (1577–1621), Cristofano Allori Fondazione Querini Stampalia - San Giovanni Battista (1674-81) - Michele Fabris.jpg, ''John the Baptist'' (17th century), Michele Fabris Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre-Cécile - The Beheading of St John the Baptist - c. 1869.jpg, ''The Beheading of St John the Baptist'', c. 1869, Puvis de Chavannes


In poetry

The Italian Renaissance poet Lucrezia Tornabuoni chose John the Baptist as one of the biblical figures on which she wrote poetry. He is also referenced in "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" by T. S. Eliot, T.S. Eliot in stanza 12 (number), 12.


In music

* Guido D'Arezzo (991/992 – after 1033) an Italian Benedictine monk founded the standard music stave based on a hymn to Saint John the Baptist. The hymn that begins with Ut Queant Laxis uses the first syllable for each line – Ut (later changed to Do), Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si. The teaching is also known as the solmization syllable. * ''This Is the Record of John'', by England, English Tudor Period, Tudor composer Orlando Gibbons is a well-known part-setting of the
Gospel of John The Gospel according to John ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, translit=Euangélion katà Iōánnēn, also known as the Gospel of John, or simply John) is the fourth of the four canonical gospels. It contains a highly sch ...
for solo voice, choir and pipe organ, organ or viol accompaniment. * The reformer Martin Luther wrote a hymn based on biblical accounts about the Baptist, "" (1541), based for a cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach for the Nativity of St John the Baptist, feast day on 24 June, (1724). * (St. John the Baptist) is a 1676 oratorio by Alessandro Stradella. * The well-known Advent hymn ''On Jordan's Bank the Baptist's cry'' was written by Charles Coffin (writer), Charles Coffin. * John the Baptist (Jokanaan), Baritone, is a character in the opera Salome (opera), Salome by Richard Strauss, premiered 1905 in Dresden. The text is from Oscar Wilde, Oscar Wilde's French poem, translated into German by Hedwig Lachmann. * In popular music, Bob Dylan dedicates four lines to John the Baptist in "Tombstone Blues", the second track of his 1965 album ''Highway 61 Revisited''. He sings: "John the Baptist after torturing a thief/Looks up at his hero the Commander-in-Chief/Saying, "Tell me great hero, but please make it brief/Is there a hole for me to get sick in?". * The song "John the Baptist (Holy John)" by Al Kooper on his 1971 album ''New York City (You're a Woman)'' is about John the Baptist. In the same year the song was also recorded by Blood, Sweat & Tears for their album ''Blood, Sweat & Tears 4''. * In his song "Everyman Needs a Companion", the closing track to his album Fear Fun, Josh Tillman, Father John Misty sings about the friendship between John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth: "John the Baptist took Jesus Christ/Down to the river on a Friday night/They talked about Mary like a couple of boys/With nothing to lose/Too scared to try." * John the Baptist is referenced in the music of American Heavy metal music, Heavy Metal band Om (band), Om in their 2009 song 'Meditation is the Practice of Death'. As well as this, John the Baptist is depicted on the cover art of Om's 2012 album, Advaitic Songs.


In film and television

John the Baptist has appeared in a number of screen adaptations of the life of Jesus. Actors who have played John include James D. Ainsley in ''From the Manger to the Cross'' (1912), Nigel De Brulier in ''Salome (1923 film), Salome'' (1923), Alan Badel in ''Salome (1953 film), Salome'' (1953), Robert Ryan in ''King of Kings (1961 film), King of Kings'' (1961), Mario Socrate in ''The Gospel According to St. Matthew (film), The Gospel According to St. Matthew'' (1964), Charlton Heston in ''The Greatest Story Ever Told'' (1965), David Haskell in ''Godspell (film), Godspell'' (1973), Michael York (actor), Michael York in ''Jesus of Nazareth (miniseries), Jesus of Nazareth'' (1977), Eli Cohen (actor), Eli Cohen in ''Jesus (1979 film), Jesus'' (1979), Andre Gregory in ''The Last Temptation of Christ (film), The Last Temptation of Christ'' (1988), Christopher Routh in ''Mary, Mother of Jesus (film), Mary, Mother of Jesus'' (1999), David O'Hara in ''Jesus (1999 film), Jesus'' (1999), Scott Handy in ''The Gospel of John (2003 film), The Gospel of John'' (2003), Aidan McArdle in ''Judas (2004 film), Judas'' (2004), Daniel Percival in ''Son of God (film), Son of God'' (2014) and Abhin Galeya in ''Killing Jesus (2015 film), Killing Jesus'' (2015). ''Snapaka Yohannan'' (''John the Baptist''), a 1963 Indian Malayalam-language film depicts life of St. John the Baptist and his death at the hands of Salome,
Herod Antipas Herod Antipater ( el, Ἡρῴδης Ἀντίπατρος, ''Hērǭdēs Antipatros''; born before 20 BC – died after 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee Galilee (; he, הַגָּלִיל, ''HaGali ...

Herod Antipas
and
Herodias Herodias ( el, Ἡρῴδιάς, ''Hērǭdiás''; ''c.'' 15 BC – after 39 AD) was a princess of the Herodian dynasty 260px, Coin of Herod the Great The Herodian dynasty was a royal dynasty of Idumea, Idumaean (Edomite) descent, ruling the He ...
.


Commemoration


Denominational festivals

Christian festivals associated with Saint John the Baptist and Forerunner are celebrated at various days by different denominations and are dedicated to his conception, Nativity of Saint John the Baptist, birth, and Beheading of Saint John the Baptist, death, as well as in correlation to the baptism of Jesus. The Eastern Church has feast days for the finding of his head (first, second, and third finding), as well as for his parents, Elizabeth and Zechariah. In the Russian Orthodox Church there is a feast day of the Transfer of the Right Hand of the Forerunner from Malta to Gatchina. For more see in this article at "Religious views: Christianity", under "Catholic Church" and "Eastern Christianity".


Association with summer solstice

The Feast of Saint John closely coincides with the June solstice, also referred to as Midsummer in the Northern Hemisphere. The Christian holy day is fixed at 24 June; but in most countries festivities are mostly held the night before, on Saint John's Eve. "In England, 'Saint John's Tide' is combined with a midsummer celebration. Instead of the date of the summer solstice, they chose June 24. This may be because of the Baptist's own words, 'He must increase, must decrease' (John 3:30). John was, of course, referring to Jesus. John's day comes at the time when the sun is beginning to decrease..."


Patron saint and local festivals


Middle East

Saint John the Baptist's beheading is said to have taken place in
Machaerus Machaerus (Μαχαιροῦς, from grc, μάχαιρα, , Makhaira (a sword); ar, ِقلعة مكاور ''Qal'atu Mkawer''; he, מכוור ''Mikwar'' ) is a fortified hilltop palace located in Jordan southeast of the mouth of the Jordan riv ...
, in central Jordan.


Europe

In the United Kingdom, Saint John is the patron of Penzance, Cornwall. In Scotland, he is the patron saint of Perth, Scotland, Perth, which used to be known as St. John's Toun of Perth. The main church in the city is still the medieval Kirk of St. John the Baptist and the city's Professional sports, professional football club is called St Johnstone F.C. Also, on the night of 23 June on to the 24th, Saint John is celebrated as the patron saint of Porto, the second largest city in Portugal. An article from June 2004 in ''The Guardian'' remarked that "''Porto's Festa de São João'' is one of Europe's liveliest street festivals, yet it is relatively unknown outside the country". As patron saint of the original Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John, he is the patron of the Knights Hospitaller of Jerusalem, Malta, Florence, Cesena, Turin and Genoa, Italy; as well as of Malta as a whole and of Xewkija and Gozo in Malta, which remember him with a great feast on the Sunday nearest to 24 June.


Americas

Saint John the Baptist is the patron saint of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and its capital city, San Juan, Puerto Rico, San Juan. In 1521, the island was given its formal name, "''San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico''", following the custom of christening a town with its formal name and the name which Christopher Columbus had originally given the island. The names "''San Juan Bautista''" and "''Puerto Rico''" were eventually used in reference to both city and island, leading to a reversal in terminology by most inhabitants largely due to a Cartography, cartographic error. By 1746, the city's name ("''Puerto Rico''") had become that of the entire island, while the name for the island ("''San Juan Bautista''") had become that of the city. The List of U.S. state mottos, official motto of Puerto Rico also references the saint: ''Joannes Est Nomen Eius''. He is also a patron saint of French Canada and Newfoundland and Labrador, Newfoundland. The Canadian cities of St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John's, Newfoundland (1497), Saint John, New Brunswick (1604), and Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec (1665), were all named in his honor. His feast day of 24 June is celebrated officially in Quebec as the ''Fête Nationale du Québec'' and was previously celebrated in Newfoundland as Discovery Day. He is also patron of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Charleston, which covers the whole of South Carolina in the United States.


Southeast Asia

Calamba City, Laguna, Calumpit, Bulacan, Balayan, Batangas, Balayan and Lian, Batangas, Lian in Batangas (province), Batangas, Sipocot and San Fernando, Camarines Sur, Daet, Camarines Norte San Juan, Metro Manila, Tabuelan, Cebu, and Jimenez, Misamis Occidental are among several places in the Philippines that venerate John as the town or city patron. A common practise of many Culture of the Philippines, Filipino fiestas in his honour is bathing and the dousing of people in memory of John's iconic act. The custom is similar in form to Songkran and Holi, and serves as a playful respite from the intense tropical heat. While famed for the Black Nazarene it enshrines, Quiapo Church in Manila is actually dedicated to Saint John.


Orders and societies

The Baptistines (disambiguation), Baptistines are the name given to a number of religious orders dedicated to the memory of John the Baptist. John the Baptist is the name-giving patron of the Knights Hospitaller, or Knights of Saint John. Along with John the Evangelist, John the Baptist is claimed as a patron saint by the fraternal society of Freemasonry, Free and Accepted Masons (better known as the Freemasons).


See also

* Basilica of St. John the Baptist, Berlin * Biblical and Quranic narratives * Chronology of Jesus * Historical background of the New Testament * Legends and the Quran * List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources * Messengers from John the Baptist * Portal:Catholicism/Patron Archive/August 29, John the Baptist, patron saint archive * St. John the Baptist Cathedral (disambiguation) * Saint John the Baptist Church (disambiguation) * St. John Baptist Church (disambiguation) * Statue of John the Baptist, Charles Bridge


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

; Books on John the Baptist * Brooks Hansen (2009) ''John the Baptizer: A Novel''. New York: W. W. Norton. * Murphy, Catherine M. (2003) ''John the Baptist: Prophet of Purity for a New Age''. Collegeville: Liturgical Press. * Taylor, Joan E. (1997) ''The Immerser: John the Baptist within Second Temple Judaism''. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. * W. Barnes Tatum (1994) ''John the Baptist and Jesus: A Report of the Jesus Seminar'', Sonoma, California: Polebridge Press, 1994, * Webb, Robert L. (1991) ''John the Baptizer and Prophet: a Socio-Historical Study''. Wipf and Stock Publishers. (first published Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1991)


Iconography

*Hall, James, ''Hall's Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art'', 1996 (2nd edn.), John Murray,


Islamic view

* * J.C.L Gibson, ''John the Baptist in Muslim writings'', in ''MW'', xlv (1955), 334–345


Passages in the Quran

* Appraisals for Yahya
6:8519:719:1219:1319:1419:15
* Yahya's prophecy
3:396:8519:12


External links


''Jewish Encyclopedia:'' John the Baptist



Mandaean Book of John translation project


at th
Christian Iconography
website * Caxton's translation of the Golden Legend chapters o

an

{{Authority control John the Baptist, 0s BC births 30s deaths 1st-century apocalypticists 1st-century Jews Baptism Christian martyrs executed by decapitation Elijah Family of Jesus Founders of religions Mandaeism People executed by decapitation People in the canonical gospels Precursors in religion Prophets of the New Testament Saints from the Holy Land 1st-century BC Christian saints Christian saints from the New Testament