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John V Palaiologos
Palaiologos
or Palaeologus (Greek: Ίωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs V Palaiologos; 18 June 1332 – 16 February 1391) was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341 at age of eight.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Family 3 See also 4 References 5 Ancestry 6 Sources

Biography[edit] John V was the son of Emperor Andronikos III and his wife Anna, the daughter of Count Amadeus V of Savoy by his second wife Maria of Brabant. His long reign was marked by the gradual dissolution of imperial power amid numerous civil wars and the continuing ascendancy of the Ottoman Turks. John V came to the throne at age eight. His reign began with an immediate civil war between his designated regent, his father's friend John Kantakouzenos, and a self-proclaimed council of regency composed of his mother Anna, the patriarch John XIV Kalekas, and the megas doux Alexios Apokaukos. During this civil war in 1343 Anna pawned the Byzantine crown jewels
Byzantine crown jewels
for 30,000 Venetian ducats. From 1346 to 1349, the Black Plague
Black Plague
devastated Constantinople. Victorious in 1347, John Kantakouzenos ruled as co-emperor until his son Matthew was attacked by John V in 1352, leading to a second civil war. John V asked the ruler of Serbia, Stefan Dušan
Stefan Dušan
for help, and Dušan obliged by sending 4,000 Serbian horsemen to his aid. Matthew Kantakouzenos asked his father for help, and 10,000 Ottoman Turks showed up at Demotika (Didymoteicho) in October 1352 and engaged the forces of John V's Serbian allies in an open field battle that resulted in the destruction of the allies and a victory for the more numerous Turks in the service of the Byzantines. The Ottoman Empire thus acquired its first European territory, at Çimpe and Gallipoli. Able to retake Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1354, John V removed and tonsured John VI; by 1357, he had deposed Matthew as well, who had been captured by the Serbs and was ransomed to John V. In 1366, John V reached the Hungarian Kingdom, arriving at the Royal city of Buda
Buda
to meet King Louis I of Hungary. However, the Byzantine emperor offended the king by staying on his horse, while Louis descended and approached him on foot. The Hungarian monarch then offered him help on the condition that John join the Catholic church, or at least achieve recognition by the Patriarch of the Pope's supremacy. The Emperor left the court of Buda
Buda
with empty hands and continued his trip through Europe searching for assistance against the Ottomans.[2] The Ottomans, who had been allied with the Kantakouzenoi, continued to press John. Suleyman Paşa, the son of the Ottoman sultan, led their forces in Europe and was able to take Adrianople
Adrianople
and Philippopolis and to exact tribute from the emperor. John V appealed to the West for help, proposing to Pope
Pope
Urban V in 1367 to end the schism between the Byzantine and Latin churches by submitting the patriarchate to the supremacy of Rome. In October 1369 John, having travelled through Naples to Rome, formally converted to Catholicism in St Peter's Basilica and recognized the pope as supreme head of the Church. He was not accompanied by the clergy of the Byzantine Church and the move failed to bring about an end to the Schism.[3] Impoverished by war, he was detained as a debtor when he visited Venice
Venice
in 1369 on his way back from Rome and was later captured on his way back through Bulgarian territories. In 1371, he recognized the suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan Murad I. Murad later assisted him against his son Andronikos when the latter deposed him in 1376. In 1390, his grandson John VII briefly usurped the throne, but he was quickly overthrown. The same year, John ordered the strengthening of the Golden Gate in Constantinople, utilizing marble from the decayed churches in and around the city. Upon completion of this construction, Bayezid I
Bayezid I
demanded that John raze these new works, threatening war and the blinding of his son Manuel, whom he held in captivity. John V filled the Sultan's order but is said to have suffered from this humiliation and died soon thereafter on 16 February 1391. John V was finally succeeded to the imperial throne by his son Manuel. His younger son Theodore had already acceded to the Despotate of Morea in 1383. Family[edit] John V married Helena Kantakouzene, daughter of his co-emperor John VI Kantakouzenos and Irene Asanina, on 28 May 1347. They had at least six children -- four sons and at least two daughters.[4] Their known children include:

Andronikos IV Palaiologos
Andronikos IV Palaiologos
(2 April 1348 – 28 June 1385); Irene Palaiologina (c. 1349 – after 1362), who married her first cousin Prince Halil of Ottoman Empire, son of Orhan I
Orhan I
and Helena's sister Theodora Kantakouzene. The couple had two sons, Princes Gunduz and Omer.[5] Manuel II Palaiologos
Manuel II Palaiologos
(27 June 1350 – 21 July 1425); Theodore I Palaiologos, Lord of Morea
Theodore I Palaiologos, Lord of Morea
(c. 1355 – 24 June 1407); Michael Palaiologos
Palaiologos
(d. 1376/1377), who claimed the throne of the Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
from Alexios III; Maria Palaiologina (d. 1376), who was betrothed to Murad I
Murad I
but died before the marriage could take place; One daughter betrothed to Peter II of Cyprus, who may not be Irene or Maria; Two unnamed daughters reported to have entered a monastery in 1373, who may be different women from the ones listed above.

See also[edit]

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
portal

List of Byzantine emperors

References[edit]

^ Επίτομο Γεωγραφικό Λεξικό της Ελλάδος (Geographical Dictionary of Greece), Μιχαήλ Σταματελάτος, Φωτεινή Βάμβα-Σταματελάτου, εκδ. Ερμής, ΑΘήνα 2001 ^ Küküllei János: Lajos király krónikája, Névtelen szerző: Geszta Lajos királyról; Osisris Kiadó, Budapest, 2000. (Millenniumi Magyar Történelem) ^ Alexander Vasiliev History of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
324-1453. University of Wisconsin Press, 1952. pp. 671 ^ Anthony Luttrell, "John V's Daughters: A Palaiologan Puzzle", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 40 (1986), pp. 103-112 ^ "Shehzade Halil's issue". Archived from the original on 2002-10-22. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of John V Palaiologos

16. Michael VIII Palaiologos

8. Andronikos II Palaiologos

17. Theodora Palaiologina

4. Michael IX Palaiologos

18. Stephen V of Hungary

9. Anna of Hungary

19. Elizabeth the Cuman

2. Andronikos III Palaiologos

20. Hetoum I of Armenia

10. Levon II of Armenia

21. Zabel of Armenia

5. Rita of Armenia

22. Prince Hethum of Lampron

11. Keran of Armenia

1. John V Palaiologos

24. Thomas I of Savoy

12. Thomas II, Count of Piedmont

25. Marguerite of Geneva

6. Amadeus V, Count of Savoy

26. Teodoro III Fieschi of Lavagna

13. Beatrice di Fieschi

27. Simone della Volta

3. Anna of Savoy

28. Henry III, Duke of Brabant

14. John I, Duke of Brabant

29. Aleidis of Burgundy

7. Maria of Brabant

30. Guy of Dampierre

15. Margaret of Flanders, Duchess of Brabant

31. Matilda of Bethune

Sources[edit]

Harris, Jonathan, The End of Byzantium. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-300-11786-8 Alexander Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
324-1453. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1952. ISBN 0299809269 Nicol, Donald M. (1993) [1972]. The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Nicol, Donald M. (1996). The Reluctant Emperor: A Biography of John Cantacuzene, Byzantine Emperor and Monk, c. 1295-1383. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

John V Palaiologos Palaiologos
Palaiologos
dynasty Born: 1332 Died: 16 February 1391

Regnal titles

Preceded by Andronikos III Palaiologos Byzantine Emperor 1341–1376 with John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
(1347–1354) Matthew Kantakouzenos (1353–1357) Andronikos IV Palaiologos
Andronikos IV Palaiologos
(c. 1354–1373) Manuel II Palaiologos
Manuel II Palaiologos
(1373–1376) Succeeded by Andronikos IV Palaiologos

Preceded by Andronikos IV Palaiologos Byzantine Emperor 1379–1390 with Manuel II Palaiologos
Manuel II Palaiologos
(1379–1390) Andronikos IV Palaiologos
Andronikos IV Palaiologos
(1381–1385) Succeeded by John VII Palaiologos

Preceded by John VII Palaiologos Byzantine Emperor 1390–1391 with Manuel II Palaiologos
Manuel II Palaiologos
(1390–1391) Succeeded by Manuel II Palaiologos

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 165364727 LCCN: nr94030636 ISNI: 0000 0001 1483 4119 GND: 118712462 SUDOC: 033633126 BNF:

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