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John Wilder Tukey ForMemRS[2] (/ˈtuːki/;[3] June 16, 1915 – July 26, 2000) was an American mathematician best known for development of the FFT algorithm and box plot.[4] The Tukey range test, the Tukey lambda distribution, the Tukey test of additivity, and the Teichmüller–Tukey lemma all bear his name.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Scientific contributions

2.1 Statistical practice

3 Statistical terms 4 See also 5 Publications 6 Notes 7 External links

Biography[edit] Tukey was born in New Bedford, Massachusetts
New Bedford, Massachusetts
in 1915, and obtained a B.A. in 1936 and M.Sc.
M.Sc.
in 1937, in chemistry, from Brown University, before moving to Princeton University
Princeton University
where he received a Ph.D.
Ph.D.
in mathematics.[5] During World War II, Tukey worked at the Fire Control Research Office and collaborated with Samuel Wilks and William Cochran. After the war, he returned to Princeton, dividing his time between the university and AT&T Bell Laboratories. He became a full professor at 35 and founding chairman of the Princeton statistics department in 1965.[6] Among many contributions to civil society, Tukey served on a committee of the American Statistical Association that produced a report challenging the conclusions of the Kinsey Report, Statistical Problems of the Kinsey Report on Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. He was awarded the National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
by President Nixon in 1973.[6] He was awarded the IEEE Medal of Honor in 1982 "For his contributions to the spectral analysis of random processes and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm." Tukey retired in 1985. He died in New Brunswick, New Jersey
New Brunswick, New Jersey
on July 26, 2000. Scientific contributions[edit] Early in his career Tukey worked on developing statistical methods for computers at Bell Labs
Bell Labs
where he invented the term "bit".[7] His statistical interests were many and varied. He is particularly remembered for his development with James Cooley of the Cooley–Tukey FFT algorithm. In 1970, he contributed significantly to what is today known as the jackknife estimation—also termed Quenouille-Tukey jackknife. He introduced the box plot in his 1977 book, "Exploratory Data Analysis". Tukey's range test, the Tukey lambda distribution, Tukey's test of additivity and Tukey's lemma all bear his name. He is also the creator of several little-known methods such as the trimean and median-median line, an easier alternative to linear regression. In 1974, he developed, with Jerome H. Friedman, the concept of the projection pursuit.[8] Statistical practice[edit] He also contributed to statistical practice and articulated the important distinction between exploratory data analysis and confirmatory data analysis, believing that much statistical methodology placed too great an emphasis on the latter. Though he believed in the utility of separating the two types of analysis, he pointed out that sometimes, especially in natural science, this was problematic and termed such situations uncomfortable science. A D Gordon offered the following summary of Tukey's principles for statistical practice:

... the usefulness and limitation of mathematical statistics; the importance of having methods of statistical analysis that are robust to violations of the assumptions underlying their use; the need to amass experience of the behaviour of specific methods of analysis in order to provide guidance on their use; the importance of allowing the possibility of data's influencing the choice of method by which they are analysed; the need for statisticians to reject the role of 'guardian of proven truth', and to resist attempts to provide once-for-all solutions and tidy over-unifications of the subject; the iterative nature of data analysis; implications of the increasing power, availability and cheapness of computing facilities; the training of statisticians.

Statistical terms[edit] Tukey coined many statistical terms that have become part of common usage, but the two most famous coinages attributed to him were related to computer science. While working with John von Neumann
John von Neumann
on early computer designs, Tukey introduced the word "bit" as a contraction of "binary digit".[9] The term "bit" was first used in an article by Claude Shannon
Claude Shannon
in 1948. In 2000, Fred Shapiro, a librarian at the Yale Law School, published a letter revealing that Tukey's 1958 paper "The Teaching of Concrete Mathematics"[10] contained the earliest known usage of the term "software" found in a search of JSTOR's electronic archives, predating the OED's citation by two years.[11] This led many to credit Tukey with coining the term, particularly in obituaries published that same year,[6] although Tukey never claimed credit for any such coinage. In 1995, Paul Niquette claimed he had originally coined the term in October 1953, although he could not find any documents supporting his claim.[12] The earliest known publication of the term "software" in an engineering context was in August 1953 by Richard R. Carhart, in a Rand Corporation Research Memorandum.[13] See also[edit]

List of pioneers in computer science

Publications[edit]

Andrews, David F; Peter J Bickel; Frank R Hampel; Peter J Huber; W H Rogers; John W Tukey (1972). Robust estimates of location: survey and advances. Princeton University
Princeton University
Press. ISBN 0-691-08113-1. OCLC 369963.  Basford, Kaye E; John W Tukey (1998). Graphical analysis of multiresponse data. Chapman & Hall/CRC. ISBN 0-8493-0384-2. OCLC 154674707. [14] Blackman, R B; John W Tukey (1959). The measurement of power spectra from the point of view of communications engineering. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-60507-8.  Cochran, William G; Frederick Mosteller; John W Tukey (1954). Statistical problems of the Kinsey report on sexual behavior in the human male. Journal of the American Statistical Association.  Hoaglin, David C; Frederick Mosteller & John W Tukey (eds) (1983). Understanding Robust and Exploratory Data Analysis. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-09777-2. OCLC 8495063. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Hoaglin, David C; Frederick Mosteller & John W Tukey (eds) (1985). Exploring Data Tables, Trends and Shapes. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-09776-4. OCLC 11550398. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Hoaglin, David C; Frederick Mosteller & John W Tukey (eds) (1991). Fundamentals of exploratory analysis of variance. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-52735-1. OCLC 23180322. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Morgenthaler, Stephan & John W Tukey (eds) (1991). Configural polysampling: a route to practical robustness. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-52372-0. OCLC 22381036. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Mosteller, Frederick; John W Tukey (1977). Data analysis and regression : a second course in statistics. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-04854-X. OCLC 3235470.  Tukey, John W (1940). Convergence and Uniformity in Topology. Princeton University
Princeton University
Press. ISBN 0-691-09568-X. OCLC 227948615.  Tukey, John W (1977). Exploratory Data Analysis. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-07616-0. OCLC 3058187.  Tukey, John W; Ian C Ross; Verna Bertrand (1973). Index to statistics and probability. R & D Press. ISBN 0-88274-001-6. OCLC 745715. 

The collected works of John W Tukey, edited by William S Cleveland

Brillinger, David R (ed) (1984). Volume I: Time series, 1949–1964. Wadsworth. ISBN 0-534-03303-2. OCLC 10998116. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Brillinger, David R (ed) (1985). Volume II: Time series, 1965–1984. Wadsworth. ISBN 0-534-03304-0. OCLC 159731367. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Jones, Lyle V (ed) (1985). Volume III: Philosophy and principles of data analysis, 1949–1964. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-534-03305-9. OCLC 159731367. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Jones, Lyle V (ed) (1986). Volume IV: Philosophy and principles of data analysis, 1965–1986. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-534-05101-4. OCLC 165832503. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Cleveland, William S (ed) (1988). Volume V: Graphics, 1965–1985. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-534-05102-2. OCLC 230023465. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Mallows, Colin L (ed) (1990). Volume VI: More mathematical, 1938–1984. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-534-05103-0. OCLC 232966724. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Cox, David R (ed) (1992). Volume VII: Factorial and ANOVA, 1949–1962. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-534-05104-9. OCLC 165366083. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Braun, Henry I (ed) (1994). Volume VIII: Multiple comparisons, 1949–1983. Chapman & Hall/CRC. ISBN 0-412-05121-4. OCLC 165099761. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

About John Tukey

O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "John Tukey", MacTutor History of Mathematics
Mathematics
archive, University of St Andrews . Interview of John Tukey
John Tukey
about his experience at Princeton

Notes[edit]

^ a b John Tukey
John Tukey
at the Mathematics
Mathematics
Genealogy Project ^ McCullagh, P. (2003). "John Wilder Tukey. 16 June 1915 - 26 July 2000". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 49: 537. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2003.0032.  ^ Bower, Keith. "Pronunciation of John Tukey". Omnilexica (video). Retrieved 2013-09-06.  ^ Sande, Gordon (July 2001). "Obituary: John Wilder Tukey". Physics Today. 54 (7): 80–81. doi:10.1063/1.1397408.  ^ "John Tukey". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved 18 July 2011.  ^ a b c Leonhardt, David (28 July 2000). "John Tukey, 85, Statistician; Coined the Word 'Software'". New York Times. Retrieved 24 September 2012.  ^ Claude Shannon
Claude Shannon
(1948). "Bell System Technical Journal". Bell System Technical Journal.  ^ J. H. Friedman; J. W. Turkey (September 1974). "A Projection Pursuit Algorithm
Algorithm
for Exploratory Data Analysis" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Computers. C–23 (9): 881–890. doi:10.1109/T-C.1974.224051. ISSN 0018-9340.  ^ The origin of the 'bit' ^ J.W. Tukey, "The Teaching of Concrete Mathematics," Amer. Mathematical Monthly, vol. 65, pp. 1–9, 1958: "Today the "software" comprising the carefully planned interpretive routines, compilers, and other aspects of automative programming are at least as important to the modern electronic calculator as its "hardware" of tubes, transistors, wires, tapes, and the like." ^ Shapiro, Fred (2000). "Origin of the Term Software: Evidence from the JSTOR
JSTOR
Electronic Journal Archive" (PDF). IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 22 (2): 69–71. doi:10.1109/mahc.2000.887997. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 5, 2003. Retrieved 25 June 2013.  ^ Niquette, P. (2006) Softword: Provenance for the Word 'Software' ^ Carhart, Richard (1953). A survey of the current status of the electronic reliability problem (PDF). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. p. 69. It will be recalled from Sec. 1.6 that the term personnel was defined to include people who come into direct contact with the hardware, from production to field use, i.e., people who assemble, inspect, pack, ship, handle, install, operate and maintain electronic equipment. In any of these phases personnel failures may result in unoperational gear. As with the hardware factors, there is almost no quantitative data concerning these software or human factors in reliability: How many faults are caused by personnel, why they occur, and what can be done to remove the errors.  ^ Reviews of Graphical Analysis of Multiresponse Data:

Talbot, M. (June 2000), Biometrics, 56 (2): 649–650, JSTOR 2677019 CS1 maint: Untitled periodical (link) Cooper, Mark (July–August 2000), Crop Science, 40 (4): 1184, doi:10.2135/cropsci2000.0015br CS1 maint: Untitled periodical (link) Heckler, Charles E (February 2001), Technometrics, 43 (1): 97–98, doi:10.1198/tech.2001.s547, JSTOR 1270862 CS1 maint: Untitled periodical (link) Broadfoot, L. (June 2001), The Journal of Agricultural Science, 136 (04), doi:10.1017/s002185960124893x CS1 maint: Untitled periodical (link)

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: John Tukey

Royal Society obit. by Peter McCullagh John W. Tukey: His Life and Professional Contributions published in The Annals of Statistics John Wilder Tukey (1915–2000) in Notices of the American Mathematical Society Memories of John Tukey Short biography by Mary Bittrich "John Tukey, 85, Statistician; Coined the Word 'Software'", The New York Times, July 28, 2000  "Remembering John W. Tukey", special issue of Statistical Science John Wilder Tukey at the Mathematics
Mathematics
Genealogy Project

v t e

IEEE Medal of Honor

1976–2000

H. Earle Vaughan (1977) Robert Noyce
Robert Noyce
(1978) Richard Bellman (1979) William Shockley
William Shockley
(1980) Sidney Darlington
Sidney Darlington
(1981) John Tukey
John Tukey
(1982) Nicolaas Bloembergen
Nicolaas Bloembergen
(1983) Norman Ramsey (1984) John Roy Whinnery (1985) Jack Kilby
Jack Kilby
(1986) Paul Lauterbur
Paul Lauterbur
(1987) Calvin Quate (1988) C. Kumar Patel (1989) Robert G. Gallager
Robert G. Gallager
(1990) Leo Esaki
Leo Esaki
(1991) Amos E. Joel, Jr. (1992) Karl Johan Åström (1993) Alfred Y. Cho (1994) Lotfi A. Zadeh
Lotfi A. Zadeh
(1995) Robert Metcalfe
Robert Metcalfe
(1996) George H. Heilmeier
George H. Heilmeier
(1997) Donald Pederson (1998) Charles Concordia (1999) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(2000)

Complete roster 1917–1925 1926–1950 1951–1975 1976–2000 2001–present

v t e

United States National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
laureates

Behavioral and social science

1960s

1964: Roger Adams Othmar H. Ammann Theodosius Dobzhansky Neal Elgar Miller

1980s

1986: Herbert A. Simon 1987: Anne Anastasi George J. Stigler 1988: Milton Friedman

1990s

1990: Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes 1991: Robert W. Kates George A. Miller 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson 1994: Robert K. Merton 1995: Roger N. Shepard 1996: Paul Samuelson 1997: William K. Estes 1998: William Julius Wilson 1999: Robert M. Solow

2000s

2000: Gary Becker 2001: George Bass 2003: R. Duncan Luce 2004: Kenneth Arrow 2005: Gordon H. Bower 2008: Michael I. Posner 2009: Mortimer Mishkin

2010s

2011: Anne Treisman 2014: Robert Axelrod 2015: Albert Bandura

Biological sciences

1960s

1963: C. B. van Niel 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg 1965: Francis P. Rous George G. Simpson Donald D. Van Slyke 1966: Edward F. Knipling Fritz Albert Lipmann William C. Rose Sewall Wright 1967: Kenneth S. Cole Harry F. Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Sturtevant 1968: Horace Barker Bernard B. Brodie Detlev W. Bronk Jay Lush Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1969: Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr

1970s

1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss

1980s

1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood

1990s

1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis

2000s

2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner

2010s

2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin

Chemistry

1980s

1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell

1990s

1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon

2000s

2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox

2010s

2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond

Engineering sciences

1960s

1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby

1970s

1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo

1980s

1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier

1990s

1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens

2000s

2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv

2010s

2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath

Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences

1960s

1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller

1970s

1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth

1980s

1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer

1990s

1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman

2000s

2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford

2010s

2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin

Physical sciences

1960s

1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky

1970s

1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf

1980s

1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel

1990s

1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff

2000s

2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington

2010s

2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

v t e

John von Neumann
John von Neumann
Lecturers

Lars Ahlfors
Lars Ahlfors
(1960) Mark Kac
Mark Kac
(1961) Jean Leray
Jean Leray
(1962) Stanislaw Ulam
Stanislaw Ulam
(1963) Solomon Lefschetz
Solomon Lefschetz
(1964) Freeman Dyson
Freeman Dyson
(1965) Eugene Wigner
Eugene Wigner
(1966) Chia-Chiao Lin (1967) Peter Lax
Peter Lax
(1968) George F. Carrier
George F. Carrier
(1969) James H. Wilkinson (1970) Paul Samuelson
Paul Samuelson
(1971) Jule Charney (1974) James Lighthill
James Lighthill
(1975) René Thom
René Thom
(1976) Kenneth Arrow (1977) Peter Henrici (1978) Kurt O. Friedrichs
Kurt O. Friedrichs
(1979) Keith Stewartson (1980) Garrett Birkhoff (1981) David Slepian
David Slepian
(1982) Joseph B. Keller (1983) Jürgen Moser
Jürgen Moser
(1984) John W. Tukey (1985) Jacques-Louis Lions
Jacques-Louis Lions
(1986) Richard M. Karp
Richard M. Karp
(1987) Germund Dahlquist (1988) Stephen Smale
Stephen Smale
(1989) Andrew Majda
Andrew Majda
(1990) R. Tyrrell Rockafellar
R. Tyrrell Rockafellar
(1992) Martin D. Kruskal (1994) Carl de Boor (1996) William Kahan
William Kahan
(1997) Olga Ladyzhenskaya
Olga Ladyzhenskaya
(1998) Charles S. Peskin (1999) Persi Diaconis
Persi Diaconis
(2000) David Donoho (2001) Eric Lander
Eric Lander
(2002) Heinz-Otto Kreiss (2003) Alan C. Newell (2004) Jerrold E. Marsden
Jerrold E. Marsden
(2005) George C. Papanicolaou
George C. Papanicolaou
(2006) Nancy Kopell (2007) David Gottlieb (2008) Franco Brezzi
Franco Brezzi
(2009) Bernd Sturmfels
Bernd Sturmfels
(2010) Ingrid Daubechies
Ingrid Daubechies
(2011) John M. Ball
John M. Ball
(2012) Stanley J. Osher
Stanley J. Osher
(2013) Leslie Greengard (2014) Jennifer Tour Chayes
Jennifer Tour Chayes
(2015) Donald Knuth
Donald Knuth
(2016) Bernard J. Matkowsky (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 108174581 LCCN: n50012769 ISNI: 0000 0001 0930 8317 GND: 119090643 SELIBR: 309819 SUDOC: 031634176 BNF: cb12281210j (data) BIBSYS: 90201407 MGP: 15860 SN

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