JOHN E. ROEMER (/ˈroʊmər/ ; born February 1, 1945, Washington D.C.
) is an American economist and political scientist . He is currently
the Elizabeth S. and A. Varick Stout Professor of Political Science
and Economics at
Roemer received his A.B. in mathematics summa cum laude from Harvard
in 1966. He then enrolled as a graduate student in mathematics at the
University of California, Berkeley
Roemer is a fellow of the Econometric Society, a past Guggenheim fellow and Russell Sage fellow, a member of American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a corresponding fellow of the British Academy. He is past president of the Society for Social Choice and Welfare, and has served on the editorial boards of many journals in economics, political science, and philosophy. Roemer currently serves on the advisory board of Academics Stand Against Poverty (ASAP).
* 1 Academic contributions
* 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links
Roemer has contributed mainly to five areas:
Roemer's early work was an attempt to state the main themes of
In simple models (e.g., that of Leontief), the definition of 'labor embodied in goods' is straightforward. With more complicated production sets, it is not, and hence the definition of exploition is not obvious. Roemer's program was then to propose definitions of embodied labor time, for economies with more general production sets, which would preserve the CECP. This led to the observation that, for general production sets, embodied labor time cannot be defined before one knows equilibrium prices. Thus, contrary to Marx, labor value is not a concept which is more fundamental than prices.
Roemer's work on exploitation led him to believe that the fundamental
cause of exploitation was inequality of ownership of productive
assets, rather than the kind of oppression that occurs in the labor
process at the point of production—the latter view was held by many
in the 'New Left' (see, e.g., Braverman 1974). While writing A General
Theory of Exploitation and Class (1982), Roemer met the philosopher
Gerald Cohen and the political theorist
Jon Elster : they and others
had formed a group of like-minded Marxists, young social scientists
and philosophers who saw their task as reconstructing
Roemer was naturally interested in the 'democratic class struggle,' that is, the manner in which classes in democracies contest their opposing interests. He was dissatisfied with the reigning concept of political equilibirum, Hotelling-Downs equilibrium, for several reasons: first, it conceptualizes political actors as caring only about winning elections, rather than representing constituents, and second, the concept is extremely fragile, as equilibrium exists, generically, only if the policy space is uni-dimensional. In Roemer (1999), he proposed a concept of political equilibrium in party competition, which exploited the idea that party organizations consist of factions. In one variant of the proposal, each party organization comprises three factions—the Militants, who wish to propose a policy which maximizes the average utility of the party's constituents, the Opportunists, who wish only to maximize the probability of victory, and the Reformists, who wish the maximize the expected utility of their constituents. An equilibrium consists of a policy proposal by each party, such that no party can deviate to another policy that would increase the payoffs of all three of its factions. This concept, called Party Unanimity Nash Equilibrium (PUNE), can be viewed as involving Nash bargaining among factions within each party, and Nash equilibrium between parties. As well as capturing what appears to happen in party competition, PUNE has the virtue that it exists regardless of the dimension of the policy space. (In fact, with two parties, a two-dimensional set or manifold of equilibria generically exist, under reasonable conditions.) This theory was extended, and applied to a number of examples in Roemer (2001). In Roemer, Lee and Van der Straeten (2006), it was applied to analyze elections in four countries, where the two dimensions of policy were postulated to be taxes and immigration (or the race question). In Roemer (2006), a dynamic model was studied, where the question posed is whether political competition over the long period would tend to produce more economic equality, through democratically chosen policies of educational finance.
EQUITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE
With collaborators Humberto Llavador and Joaquim Silvestre , Roemer has elaborated a formal theory of sustainability, which the authors apply to the problem of climate change (Llavador, Roemer, and Silvestre 2010 and 2011). Rather than maximizing a sum of discounted generational utilities into the future, which is the virtually ubiquitous practice of economists working on climate change, the authors maximize an objective which sustains welfare at the highest feasible level, or sustains growth in welfare at a chosen growth rate. Roemer (2011) critiques the discounted utilitarian approach. In Llavador, Roemer, and Silvestre (2012) the authors propose how the bargaining problem between the global North and South can be resolved, over the allocation of rights to emit greenhouse gases. The proposal does not begin from an ethical position which postulates an a priori distribution of pollution rights to nations, but rather with a politically motivated postulate that the authors argue is necessary and sufficient for an agreement to be reached.
Although evolutionary biologists, anthropologists, and behavioral
economists increasingly view
Arneson, R. 1989. "Equality and equal opportunity for welfare," Phil. Stud.93, 77-112
Björklund, A., M. Jäntti, and J. Roemer, 2012. “Equality of opportunity and the distribution of long-run income in Sweden,” Social choice and welfare 39, 675-696
Braverman, H. 1974. Labor and Monopoly Capital, Monthly Review Press
Cohen, G.A. 1978. Karl Marx's theory of history: A defence, Oxford University Press
Betts, J. and J. Roemer, 2007. “Equalizing Opportunity for Racial and Socioeconomic Groups in the United States through Educational Finance Reform,” in P. Peterson (ed.), Schools and the equal opportunity problem, MIT Press
Dworkin, R. 1981a. "What is equality? Part 1: Equality of welfare," Phil.& Public Affairs 10, 185-246
Dworkin, R. 1981b. "What is equality? Part 2: Equality of resources," Phil. & Public Affairs 10, 283-345
Keane, M. and J. Roemer, 2009. "Assessing policies to equalize opportunity using an equilibrium model of educational and occupational choice," J. Pub. Econ. 093, 879-898
Llavador, H. and J. Roemer, 2001. “An equal-opportunity approach to the allocation of international aid”, J. Development Econ. 64, 147-171
Llavador, H., J. Roemer, and J. Silvestre, 2010. “Intergenerational justice when future worlds are uncertain,” J. Math. Economics 46, 728-761
Llavador, H., J. Roemer, and J. Silvestre, 2011. “A dynamic analysis of human welfare in a warming planet,” J. Public Econ. 95, 1607-1620
Llavador, H., J. Roemer, and J. Silvestre, 2012. “North-South convergence and the allocation of CO2 emissions,” Cowles Foundation Discussion Paper
Roemer, J. 1982. A general theory of exploitation and class, Harvard Univ. Press
—1985. "Equality of talent," Economics & Phil. 1, 155-188
—1993. "A pragmatic theory of responsibility for the egalitarian planner," Phil. TOC and Abstract links: "equality of opportunity" "Marxian value analysis." TOC "socialism (new perspectives)"
—2010. "Kantian equilibrium," Scandinavian J. Econ.112, 1-24–2011. “The ethics of intergenerational distribution in a warming planet,” Environmental and resource economics 48, 363-390–2012. "On several approaches to equality of opportunity," Econ. ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v
* t * e
* G. A. Cohen
* John Roemer
Erik Olin Wright
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 46822752 * LCCN : n80119786 * ISNI : 0000 0001 1471 9313 * GND : 122789229 * SUDOC : 031647561 * BNF : cb122823284 (data) * NDL : 00554144 * IATH