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John Lewis Gaddis
John Lewis Gaddis
(born 1941) is the Robert A. Lovett
Robert A. Lovett
Professor of Military and Naval History at Yale University.[1] He is best known for his work on the Cold War
Cold War
and grand strategy,[1] and has been hailed as the "Dean of Cold War
Cold War
Historians" by The New York Times.[2] Gaddis is also the official biographer of the seminal 20th-century American statesman George F. Kennan.[3] George F. Kennan: An American Life (2011), his biography of Kennan, won the 2012 Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
for Biography or Autobiography.[4]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Scholarship 3 Aphorisms 4 Awards and distinctions 5 Selected publications

5.1 Books 5.2 Articles and chapters

6 See also 7 References

7.1 Notes 7.2 Bibliography

8 External links

Biography[edit] Gaddis was born in Cotulla, Texas, in 1941.[5] He attended the University of Texas
Texas
at Austin, receiving his BA in 1963, MA in 1965, and PhD in 1968,[6][7] the latter under the direction of Robert Divine. Gaddis then taught briefly at Indiana University Southeast, before joining Ohio University
Ohio University
in 1969.[6] At Ohio, he founded and directed the Contemporary History Institute,[8] and was named a distinguished professor in 1983.[6] In the 1975–77 academic years, Gaddis was a Visiting Professor of Strategy at the Naval War College. In the 1992–93 academic year, he was the Harmsworth Visiting Professor of American History at Oxford.[9] He has also held visiting positions at Princeton University and the University of Helsinki. He served as president of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations in 1992.[10] In 1997, he moved to Yale University
Yale University
to become the Lovett Professor of Military and Naval History. In the 2000–01 academic year, Gaddis was the George Eastman Professor at Oxford, the second scholar (after Robin Winks) to have the honor of being both Eastman and Harmsworth professor.[11] In 2005, he received the National Humanities Medal.[12] He sits on the advisory committee of the Wilson Center's Cold War International History Project,[13] which he helped establish in 1991.[12] Gaddis is also known for his close relationship with the late George Kennan and his wife, whom Gaddis described as "my companions".[14] He was also fairly close to President George W. Bush, making suggestions to his speech writers,[15] and has been described as an "overt admirer" of the 43rd President.[16] After leaving office, Bush took up painting as a hobby at Gaddis's recommendation.[17] Scholarship[edit] Gaddis is probably the best known historian writing in English about the Cold War.[18] Perhaps his most famous work is the highly influential Strategies of Containment
Containment
(1982; rev. 2005),[19] which analyzes in detail the theory and practice of containment that was employed against the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
by Cold War
Cold War
American presidents, but his 1983 distillation of post-revisionist scholarship similarly became a major channel for guiding subsequent Cold War
Cold War
research.[20] We Now Know (1997), presented an analysis of the Cold War
Cold War
through to the Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
that incorporated new archival evidence from the Soviet bloc. Fellow historian Melvyn Leffler named it as "likely to set the parameters for a whole new generation of scholarship",[21] It was also praised as "the first coherent and sustained attempt to write the Cold War's history since it ended."[22] Nonetheless, Leffler observed that the most distinctive feature of We Now Know is the extent to which Gaddis "abandons post-revisionism and returns to a more traditional interpretation of the Cold War." [23] The Cold War
Cold War
(2005), praised by John Ikenberry
John Ikenberry
as a "beautifully written panoramic view of the Cold War, full of illuminations and shrewd judgments,"[24] was described as an examination of the history and effects of the Cold War
Cold War
in a more removed context than had been previously possible,[25] and won Gaddis the 2006 Harry S. Truman Book Prize.[26] Critics were less impressed, with Tony Judt
Tony Judt
summarising the book as "a history of America's cold war: as seen from America, as experienced in America, and told in a way most agreeable to many American readers."[27] His 2011 biography of George Kennan garnered multiple prizes, including a Pulitzer.[4] Gaddis is known for arguing that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's personality and role in history constituted one of the most important causes of the Cold War. Within the field of U.S. diplomatic history, he was originally most associated with the concept of post-revisionism, the idea of moving past the revisionist and orthodox interpretations of the origins of the Cold War
Cold War
to embrace what were (in the 1970s) interpretations based upon the then-growing availability of government documents from the United States, Great Britain and other western government archives.[citation needed] Due to his growing focus on Stalin and leanings toward US nationalism, Gaddis is now widely seen as more orthodox than post-revisionist.[28] [29] The revisionist Bruce Cumings
Bruce Cumings
had a high profile debate with Gaddis in the 1990s, where Cumings criticized Gaddis as moralistic and lacking in objectivity.[30] Aphorisms[edit] "You can't gobble all your treats on Halloween without throwing up." [31] Awards and distinctions[edit]

U.S. President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and First Lady Laura Bush
Laura Bush
standing with 2005 National Humanities Medal
National Humanities Medal
recipient John Lewis Gaddis
John Lewis Gaddis
on November 10, 2005 in the Oval Office
Oval Office
at the White House.

2012 – Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
for Biography or Autobiography [4] 2012 – American History Book Prize [32] 2011 – National Book Critics Circle
National Book Critics Circle
Award, Biography [33] 2006 – Harry S. Truman Book Award [26] 2005 – National Humanities Medal [12] 2003 – Yale Phi Beta Kappa
Phi Beta Kappa
DeVane Medalist for undergraduate teaching [34] 2000 – Eastman Professor at the University of Oxford [35] 1996 – Fulbright Scholar to Poland [36] 1995 – Fellowship of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences [37][38] 1995 – Wilson Center Fellowship [39][40] 1993 – Whitney H. Shepardson Fellowship [41] 1992 – Harmsworth Professor of American History at the University of Oxford [9] 1992 – Presidency of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations [10] 1986 – Guggenheim Fellowship [42] 1983 – Distinguished Professor of Ohio University [43] 1980 – Fulbright Scholar to Finland [36] 1973 – Bancroft Prize [44] 1973 – National Historical Society Prize [45] 1973 – Stuart L. Bernath Prize [46]

Selected publications[edit]

Books[edit]

On Grand Strategy. New York, New York: The Penguin Press. 2018. ISBN 978-1-594-20351-0.  George F. Kennan: An American Life. New York, NY: The Penguin Press. 2011. ISBN 978-1-594-20312-1.  The Cold War: A New History. New York, NY: The Penguin Press. 2005. ISBN 978-1-594-20062-5.  US edition The Cold War. London: Allen Lane. 2005. ISBN 978-0-713-99912-9.  UK edition Surprise, Security, and the American Experience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 2004. ISBN 978-0-674-01174-8.  The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2002. ISBN 978-0-195-06652-4.  (Co-editor with Philip H. Gordon, Ernest R. May and Jonathan Rosenberg). Cold War
Cold War
Statesmen Confront the Bomb: Nuclear Diplomacy Since 1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1999. ISBN 978-0-198-29468-9.  We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War
Cold War
History. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1997. ISBN 978-0-198-78070-0.  The United States
United States
and the End of the Cold War: Implications, Reconsiderations and Provocations. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 1992. ISBN 978-0-195-05201-5.  The Long Peace: Inquiries into the History of the Cold War. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 1987. ISBN 978-0195043365.  Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2005 [1982]. ISBN 978-0195174489.  Russia, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United States: An Interpretive History. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 1990 [1978]. ISBN 978-0-075-57258-9.  The United States
United States
and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941–1947. New York, NY: Columbia University
Columbia University
Press. 2000 [1972]. ISBN 978-0-231-12239-9. 

Articles and chapters[edit]

"Grand strategies in the Cold War". In Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad, eds., The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume II: Crises and Détente (pp. 1–21). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2010. ISBN 978-0-521-83720-0.  "Ending Tyranny: The past and future of an idea". The American Interest (Sep–Oct 2008). Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2013.  "Grand Strategy in the Second Term". Foreign Affairs. 84 (1): 2–15. 2005. JSTOR 20034202.  "A Grand Strategy of Transformation". Foreign Policy (Nov–Dec 2002): 50–57. Retrieved 15 April 2013.  "On Starting All Over Again: A Naïve Approach to the Study of the Cold War". In Odd Arne Westad, ed., Reviewing the Cold War: Approaches, Interpretations, Theory (pp. 27–42). London & Portland, OR: Frank Cass. 2000. ISBN 978-0-714-65072-2.  "On Moral Equivalency and Cold War
Cold War
History". Ethics & International Affairs. 10: 131–148. 1996. doi:10.1111/j.1747-7093.1996.tb00007.x. Archived from the original on 2000-08-17.  "The Tragedy of Cold War
Cold War
History". Diplomatic History. 17 (1): 1–16. 1993. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1993.tb00156.x.  "The Cold War, the Long Peace, and the Future". Diplomatic History. 16 (2): 234–246. 1992. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1992.tb00499.x.  "The Soviet Side of the Cold War: A Symposium: Introduction". Diplomatic History. 15 (4): 523–526. 1991. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1991.tb00145.x.  "New Conceptual Approaches to the Study of American Foreign Relations: Interdisciplinary Perspectives". Diplomatic History. 14 (3): 405–424. 1990. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1990.tb00098.x.  "Intelligence, Espionage, and Cold War
Cold War
Origins". Diplomatic History. 13 (2): 191–212. 1989. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1989.tb00051.x.  "The Emerging Post-Revisionist Synthesis on the Origins of the Cold War". Diplomatic History. 7 (3): 171–190. 1983. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1983.tb00389.x.  "The Cold War: Some Lessons for Policy Makers". Naval War College Review. 27 (3): 2–15. 1974. 

See also[edit]

Containment Historiography of the Cold War

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b "Yale Department of History » John Gaddis". history.yale.edu. Retrieved 3 April 2013.  ^ Priscilla Johnson McMillan (25 May 1997). "Cold Warmonger". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ Douglas Brinkley (17 February 2004). "Celebrating a Policy Seer And His Cold War
Cold War
Insight". nytimes.com. Retrieved 19 August 2013.  Profile of Kennan on his 100th birthday, includes several paragraphs detailing his relationship with Gaddis. ^ a b c "The 2012 Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
Winners: Biography or Autobiography". pulitzer.org. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ Alden Branch, Mark. "Days of Duck and Cover". Yale Alumni Magazine (March 2000). Retrieved 3 April 2013.  ^ a b c "Historians will debate Cold War". The Lewiston Daily Sun. 23 January 1989. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ " Princeton University
Princeton University
Library Finding Aids: 'John Lewis Gaddis Papers on George F. Kennan, 1982–1989', Collection Creator Biography". findingaids.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ "Honorary Alumni: John Lewis Gaddis". Ohio University
Ohio University
Today (Fall 1990): 6. Retrieved 7 April 2013.  ^ a b "Harold Vyvyan Harmsworth Visiting Professor of American History". rai.ox.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.  ^ a b "Past Presidents". shafr.org. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ "Winks honored by Oxford, National Parks". Yale Bulletin & Calendar. 27 (31). 1999. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2013.  ^ a b c "Awards & Honors: 2005 National Humanities Medalist John Lewis Gaddis". neh.gov. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ "CWIHP Advisory Committee". wilsoncenter.org. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ Costigliola 2011. ^ Gaddis 2008. Hartung 2003 criticizes Gaddis for holding a "relatively positive assessment" of post-9/11 Bush foreign policy. ^ Jonathan Haslam (17 April 2012). "George F Kennan: An American Life by John Lewis Gaddis
John Lewis Gaddis
– review". theguardian.com. Retrieved 29 August 2013.  ^ Baker, Dorie (April 26, 2013). "Yale professor's advice to former U.S. president: Paint". YaleNews. Yale University. Archived from the original on May 9, 2013. Retrieved May 9, 2013.  ^ Painter 2006, p. 527. ^ Leffler 1999, p. 503, which describes Strategies of Containment as "one of the most influential books ever written on post-World War II international relations." ^ Hogan 1987, p. 494. ^ Leffler 1999, p. 502. ^ Ascherson 1997. ^ Leffler, Melvyn P. (1999). "The Cold War: What Do "We Now Know"?". The American Historical Review. 104 (2): 501–524. doi:10.2307/2650378.  ^ Ikenberry 2006. ^ Michael C. Boyer (22 January 2006). "A world divided: A leading historian evaluates the causes and ultimate collapse of the Cold War". Boston Globe. Retrieved 26 September 2013.  ^ a b " John Lewis Gaddis
John Lewis Gaddis
Wins 2006 Harry S. Truman Book Award". trumanlibrary.org. 16 April 2006. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ Judt 2006. ^ America in the World: The Historiography of US Foreign Relations Since 1941, edited by Michael J. Hogan (Cambridge University Press, 2013), p.8-10 ^ "The Origins of the Cold War" Seth Center, University of Virginia ^ America in the World: The Historiography of US Foreign Relations Since 1941, edited by Michael J. Hogan (Cambridge University Press, 2013), p.10-14 ^ Gaddis, John Lewis (2018). On Grand Strategy. New York, New York: Penguin Press. p. 15. ISBN 9781594203510.  ^ " New-York Historical Society
New-York Historical Society
Awards Its Annual American History Book Prize to John Lewis Gaddis
John Lewis Gaddis
for George F. Kennan: An American Life". nyhistory.org. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ "All Past National Book Critics Circle Award Winners and Finalists". bookcritics.org. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ "DeVane Medalists, 1966–Present". pbk.yalecollege.yale.edu. 8 November 2005. Retrieved 16 June 2015.  ^ "Eastman Professors at the University of Oxford". americanrhodes.org. Retrieved 12 May 2013.  ^ a b "Fulbright Alumni » Notable Fulbrighters". eca.state.gov. Retrieved 4 April 2013.  ^ "Gaddis Named to American Academy of Arts and Sciences". ohio.edu. May 1995. Retrieved 4 April 2013.  ^ "Alphabetical Index of Active AAAS Members as of 5 November 2013" (PDF). amacad.org. Retrieved 20 April 2014.  ^ "Notable Achievements of Members". Perspectives. 33 (6). 1995. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ " Ohio University
Ohio University
Historian Selected as Woodrow Wilson Fellow". ohio.edu. April 1995. Retrieved 4 April 2013.  ^ "The Whitney H. Shepardson Fellowship". cfr.org. Retrieved 16 June 2015.  ^ "John Lewis Gaddis: 1986 Fellow, U.S. History". gf.org. Archived from the original on 4 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ "Distinguished Professors (Current–1959)". ohio.edu. Retrieved 4 April 2013.  ^ "The Bancroft Prizes: Previous Awards". library.columbia.edu. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ Gaddis 1974, p. 14, for "Best First Work of History". ^ "Author and historian John Lewis Gaddis
John Lewis Gaddis
to give lecture April 21". middlebury.edu. 11 April 2005. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]

Ascherson, Neal (1997). "Khrushchev's Secret". London Review of Books. 19 (20): 26–28.  Costigliola, Frank (2011). "Is This George Kennan?". The New York Review of Books. 58 (19): 4–8.  Hartung, William D. (2003). "Bush as Strategist". Foreign Policy (135): 6. JSTOR 3183579.  Hogan, Michael J. (1987). "The Search for a Synthesis: Economic Diplomacy in the Cold War". Reviews in American History. 15 (3): 493–498. JSTOR 2702050.  Ikenberry, G. John (2006). "Book reviews: The Cold War: A New History by John Lewis Gaddis". Foreign Affairs. 85 (2): 187. JSTOR 20031922.  Judt, Tony (2006). "A Story Still to Be Told". The New York Review of Books. 53 (5): 11–15.  Leffler, Melvyn P. (1999). "The Cold War: What Do 'We Now Know'?". The American Historical Review. 104 (2): 501–524. JSTOR 2650378.  Painter, David S. (2006). "A Partial History of the Cold War". Cold War History. 6 (4): 527–534. doi:10.1080/14682740600979295. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Lewis Gaddis.

Appearances on C-SPAN

v t e

Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography
Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography
(2001–2025)

David Levering Lewis (2001) David McCullough
David McCullough
(2002) Robert Caro
Robert Caro
(2003) William Taubman (2004) Mark Stevens and Annalyn Swan (2005) Kai Bird
Kai Bird
and Martin J. Sherwin (2006) Debby Applegate
Debby Applegate
(2007) John Matteson (2008) Jon Meacham
Jon Meacham
(2009) T. J. Stiles
T. J. Stiles
(2010) Ron Chernow (2011) John Lewis Gaddis
John Lewis Gaddis
(2012) Tom Reiss
Tom Reiss
(2013) Megan Marshall (2014) David I. Kertzer (2015) William Finnegan (2016) Hisham Matar
Hisham Matar
(2017)

Complete list (1917–1925) (1926–1950) (1951–1975) (1976–2000) (2001–2025)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 87686123 LCCN: n81009630 ISNI: 0000 0000 8161 9454 GND: 11168529X SELIBR: 187839 SUDOC: 032596502 BNF: cb12359605j (data) BIBSYS: 90069878 NDL: 0089

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