Muslim conquest of the Levant
Muslim conquest of Egypt
Muslim conquest of North Africa
Umayyad invasions of Anatolia
Arab–Byzantine border warfare
Abbasid invasion of 782
Abbasid invasion of 806
Anzen and Amorium
Sicily and Southern Italy
Leo Apostyppes and Nikephoros Phokas the Elder
Stelai (1st Milazzo)
Campaigns of Marianos Argyros
Straits of Messina
George Maniakes in Sicily
Naval warfare and raids
Muslim conquest of Crete
Gulf of Corinth
Campaigns of John Kourkouas
Campaigns of Sayf al-Dawla
Campaigns of Nikephoros Phokas
Campaigns of John Tzimiskes
Campaigns of Basil II
Kourkouas (Greek: Ἰωάννης Κουρκούας, fl. circa
915–946), also transliterated as Kurkuas or Curcuas,a[›] was one
of the most important generals of the Byzantine Empire. His success in
battles against the Muslim states in the East definitively reversed
the course of the centuries-long
Byzantine–Arab Wars and began
Byzantium's 10th century "Age of Conquest".
Kourkouas belonged to a family of Armenian descent that produced
several notable Byzantine generals. As commander of an imperial
Kourkouas was among the chief supporters of
Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos (reigned 920–944) and facilitated the
latter's rise to the throne. In 923,
Kourkouas was appointed
commander-in-chief of the Byzantine armies along the eastern frontier,
facing the Abbasid
Caliphate and the semi-autonomous Muslim border
emirates. He kept this post for more than twenty years, overseeing
decisive Byzantine military successes that altered the strategic
balance in the region.
During the 9th century, Byzantium had gradually recovered its strength
and internal stability while the
Caliphate had become increasingly
impotent and fractured. Under Kourkouas's leadership, the Byzantine
armies advanced deep into Muslim territory for the first time in
almost 200 years, expanding the imperial border. The emirates of
Melitene and Qaliqala were conquered, extending Byzantine control to
Euphrates and over western Armenia. The remaining Iberian
and Armenian princes became Byzantine vassals.
Kourkouas also played a
role in the defeat of a major Rus' raid in 941 and recovered the
Mandylion of Edessa, an important and holy relic believed to depict
the face of Jesus Christ. He was dismissed in 944 as a result of the
machinations of Romanos Lekapenos's sons but restored to favour by
Constantine VII (r. 913–959), serving as imperial ambassador
in 946. His subsequent fate is unknown.
1.1 Early life and career
1.2 First submission of Melitene, campaigns into Armenia
1.3 Final capture of Melitene
1.4 Rise of the Hamdanids
1.5 Rus' raid of 941
1.6 Campaigns in Mesopotamia and recovery of the Mandylion
1.7 Dismissal and rehabilitation
Early life and career
John was a scion of the Armenian
Kourkouas family—a Hellenized form
of their original surname, Gurgen (Armenian: Գուրգեն) —which
had risen to prominence in Byzantine service in the 9th century and
established itself as one of the great families of the Anatolian
land-holding military aristocracy (the so-called "dynatoi").
John's namesake grandfather had been a commander of the elite
Hikanatoi regiment (tagma) under Emperor
Basil I (reigned 867–886);
John's brother Theophilos became a senior general, as did John's own
son, Romanos, and his great-nephew, John Tzimiskes.
Gold coin (solidus) of Romanos I Lekapenos, depicting him and his
eldest son (and co-emperor from 921 on), Christopher.
Little is known about John's early life. His father was a wealthy
official in the imperial palace. John himself was born at Dokeia (now
Tokat), in the region of Darbidos in the Armeniac Theme, and was
educated by one of his relatives, the bishop of
In the late regency of Empress
Zoe Karbonopsina (914–919) for her
Constantine VII (r. 913–959),
Kourkouas was appointed as
the commander of the Vigla palace guard regiment, probably through the
machinations of the fellow Armenian, admiral Romanos Lekapenos, as
part of his drive for the throne. In this capacity, he arrested
several high officials who opposed Lekapenos's rise to power, opening
the road to the appointment of Lekapenos as regent in place of Zoe in
919. Lekapenos gradually assumed more powers until he was crowned
senior emperor in December 920. As a reward for his support, in ca.
Romanos Lekapenos promoted
Kourkouas to the post of Domestic of
the Schools, in effect commander-in-chief of all the imperial armies
in Anatolia. According to the chronicle of Theophanes
Kourkouas held this post for an unparalleled continuous
term of 22 years and seven months.
At this time, and following the disastrous
Battle of Acheloos
Battle of Acheloos in 917,
the Byzantines were mostly occupied in the Balkans in a protracted
conflict against Bulgaria. Hence, Kourkouas's first task as
Domestic of the East was the suppression of the revolt of Bardas
Boilas, the governor (strategos) of Chaldia, a strategically important
area on the Empire's northeastern Anatolian frontier. This was quickly
achieved and his brother, Theophilos Kourkouas, replaced Boilas as
governor of Chaldia. As commander of this northernmost sector of the
eastern frontier, Theophilos proved a competent soldier and gave
valuable assistance to his brother's campaigns.
First submission of Melitene, campaigns into Armenia
Muslim conquests of the 7th century, the
Arab–Byzantine conflict had featured constant raids and
counter-raids along a relatively static border roughly defined by the
line of the Taurus and Anti-Taurus Mountains. Until the 860s,
superior Muslim armies had placed the Byzantines on the defensive.
Only after 863, with the victory in the Battle of Lalakaon, did the
Byzantines gradually regain some lost ground against the Muslims,
launching ever-deeper raids into Syria and
Upper Mesopotamia and
annexing the Paulician state around Tephrike (now Divriği).
Furthermore, according to historian Mark Whittow, "by 912 the Arabs
had been pinned back behind the Taurus and Anti-Taurus", encouraging
Armenians to switch their allegiance from the Abbasid
the Empire, in whose service they entered in increasing numbers.
The revival of Byzantine power was further facilitated by the
progressive decline of the Abbasid
Caliphate itself, particularly
under al-Muqtadir (r. 908–932), when the central government faced
several revolts. In the periphery of the Caliphate, the weakening of
central control allowed the emergence of semi-autonomous local
dynasties. In addition, after the death of the Bulgarian Tsar
Simeon in 927, a peace treaty with the Bulgarians allowed the Empire
to shift attention and resources to the East.
Romanos Lekapenos felt himself strong enough to demand the
payment of tribute from the Muslim cities on the western side of the
Euphrates. When they refused, in 926,
Kourkouas led the army across
the border. Aided by his brother Theophilos and an Armenian
contingent under the strategos of Lykandos, Mleh (
Melias in Greek
Melitene (modern Malatya), the center
of an emirate which had long been a thorn in Byzantium's side. The
Byzantine army successfully stormed the lower city, and although the
citadel held out,
Kourkouas concluded a treaty by which the emir
accepted tributary status.
Map of Armenia and the Caucasian states in the mid-10th century.
Kourkouas launched a large raid into Arab-controlled
Armenia. After taking Samosata (modern Samsat), an important
stronghold on the Euphrates, the Byzantines advanced as far as the
Armenian capital of Dvin. An Arab counter-offensive forced them
out of Samosata after only a few days, and Dvin, which was defended by
the Sajid general Nasr al-Subuki, successfully withstood the Byzantine
siege, until the mounting losses forced the Byzantines to abandon
it. At the same time, Thamal, the emir of Tarsus, conducted
successful raids into southern
Anatolia and neutralized Ibn al-Dahhak,
a local Kurdish leader who supported the Byzantines. The
Byzantines then turned toward the Kaysite emirate in the region of
Lake Van in southern Armenia. Kourkouas's troops plundered the region
and took the towns of Khliat and Bitlis, where they are said to have
replaced the mosque's minbar with a cross. The local Arabs appealed to
the Caliph for aid in vain, prompting an exodus of Muslims from the
region. This incursion, more than 500 kilometres
(310 mi) from the nearest imperial territory, was a far cry from
the defensive-minded strategy Byzantium had followed during the
previous centuries and highlighted the new capabilities of the
imperial army. Nevertheless, famine in
Anatolia and the exigencies
of parallel campaigns in southern Italy weakened Kourkouas's forces.
His army was defeated and driven back by Muflih, a former Sajid ghulam
and governor of Adharbayjan.
In 930, Melias's attack on Samosata was heavily defeated; among other
prominent officers, one of his sons was captured and sent to
Baghdad. Later in the same year, John and his brother Theophilos
besieged Theodosiopolis (modern Erzurum), the capital of the emirate
of Qaliqala. The campaign was complicated by the machinations of
their ostensible allies, the Iberian rulers of Tao-Klarjeti. Resenting
the extension of direct Byzantine control adjacent to their own
borders, the Iberians had already provided supplies to the besieged
city. Once the city was invested, they vociferously demanded that the
Byzantines hand over several captured towns, but when one of them, the
fort of Mastaton, was surrendered, the Iberians promptly returned it
to the Arabs. As
Kourkouas needed to keep the Iberians placated and
was aware that his conduct was being carefully observed by the
Armenian princes, he did not react to this affront. After seven
months of siege, Theodosiopolis fell in spring 931 and was transformed
into a tributary vassal, while, according to Constantine VII's De
Administrando Imperio, all territory north of the river
given to the Iberian king David II. As in Melitene, the maintenance of
Byzantine control over Theodosiopolis proved difficult and the
population remained restive. In 939, it revolted and drove out the
Theophilos Kourkouas could not finally subdue the city
until 949. It was then fully incorporated into the Empire and its
Muslim population was expelled and replaced by Greek and Armenian
Final capture of Melitene
Following the death of Emir Abu Hafs,
Melitene renounced its Byzantine
allegiance. After attempts to take the city by storm or subterfuge
failed, the Byzantines established a ring of fortresses on the hills
around the plain of Melitene, and methodically ravaged the area. By
early 931, the inhabitants of
Melitene were forced to come to terms:
they agreed to tributary status and even undertook to provide a
military contingent to campaign alongside the Byzantines.
The other Muslim states were not idle, however: in March, the
Byzantines were hit by three successive raids in Anatolia, organized
by the Abbasid commander Mu'nis al-Muzaffar, while in August, a large
raid led by Thamal of Tarsus penetrated as far as
Ancyra and Amorium
and returned with prisoners worth 136,000 gold dinars. During
this time, the Byzantines were engaged in southern Armenia, aiding the
ruler of Vaspurakan, Gagik I, who had rallied the local Armenian
princes and allied himself with the Byzantines against the emir of
Adharbayjan. There they raided the Kaysite emirate and razed Khliat
Berkri to the ground, before marching into Mesopotamia and
capturing Samosata again. Gagik was unable to take advantage of this
and capture Kaysite territory, however, as Muflih immediately raided
his domains in retaliation. At this point, the Melitenians
called upon the
Hamdanid rulers of
Mosul for help. In response, the
Sa'id ibn Hamdan
Sa'id ibn Hamdan attacked the Byzantines and drove
them back: Samosata was abandoned, and in November 931, the Byzantine
garrison withdrew from
Melitene as well. Sa'id was, however,
unable to remain in the area or to leave a sufficient garrison; once
he left for Mosul, the Byzantines returned and resumed both the
Melitene and their scorched-earth tactics.
The fall of Melitene, miniature from the Skylitzes Chronicle.
The sources record no major Byzantine external campaigns for 932, as
the Empire was preoccupied with two revolts in the Opsician Theme.
Kourkouas renewed the attack against Melitene. Mu'nis
al-Muzaffar sent forces to assist the beleaguered city, but in the
resulting skirmishes, the Byzantines prevailed and took many prisoners
and the Arab army returned home without relieving the city. In
early 934, at the head of 50,000 men,
Kourkouas again crossed the
frontier and marched toward Melitene. The other Muslim states offered
no help, preoccupied as they were with the turmoil following Caliph
Kourkouas again took Samosata and besieged
Melitene. Many of the city's inhabitants had abandoned it at
the news of Kourkouas's approach and hunger eventually compelled the
rest to surrender on 19 May 934. Wary of the city's previous
Kourkouas only allowed those inhabitants to remain who
were Christians or agreed to convert to Christianity. Most did so, and
he ordered the remainder expelled.
Melitene was fully
incorporated into the empire, and most of its fertile land was
transformed into an imperial estate (kouratoreia). This was an unusual
move, implemented by Romanos I to prevent the powerful Anatolian
landed aristocracy from taking control of the province. It also served
to increase direct imperial presence and control on the crucial new
Rise of the Hamdanids
The fall of
Melitene profoundly shocked the Muslim world: for the
first time, a major Muslim city had fallen and been incorporated into
the Byzantine Empire.
Kourkouas followed this success by subduing
parts of the district of Samosata in 936 and razing the city to the
ground. Until 938, the East remained relatively calm. Historians
suggest that the Byzantines were likely preoccupied with the full
pacification of Melitene, and the Arab emirates, deprived of any
potential support from the Caliphate, were reluctant to provoke
With the decline of the
Caliphate and its obvious inability to defend
its border provinces, a new local dynasty, the Hamdanids, emerged as
the principal antagonists of Byzantium in northern Mesopotamia and
Syria. They were led by al-Hasan, called
Nasir al-Dawla ("Defender of
the State"), and by his younger brother Ali, best known by his
Sayf al-Dawla ("Sword of the State"). In ca. 935, the
Arab tribe of Banu Habib, defeated by the rising Hamdanids, defected
in its entirety to the Byzantines, converted to Christianity, and
placed its 12,000 horsemen at the disposal of the Empire. They
were settled along the western bank of the
Euphrates and assigned to
guard five new themes created there: Melitene, Charpezikion, Asmosaton
(Arsamosata), Derzene, and Chozanon.
The first Byzantine encounter with
Sayf al-Dawla took place in 936,
when he tried to relieve Samosata, but a revolt at home forced him to
turn back. In another invasion in 938, however, he captured the
Charpete and defeated Kourkouas's advance guard, seizing a
great amount of booty and forcing
Kourkouas to withdraw. In
the same year, a peace agreement was signed between
the Caliphate. The negotiations were facilitated by the rising power
of the Hamdanids, which caused anxiety to both sides. Despite the
official peace with the Caliphate, ad hoc warfare continued between
the Byzantines and the local Muslim rulers, now aided by the
Hamdanids. The Byzantines attempted to besiege Theodosiopolis in 939,
but the siege was abandoned at the news of the approach of Sayf
al-Dawla's relief army.
By that time, the Byzantines had captured
Arsamosata and additional
strategically important locations in the mountains of southwest
Armenia, posing a direct threat to the Muslim emirates around Lake
Van. To reverse the situation, in 940
Sayf al-Dawla initiated
a remarkable campaign: starting from
Martyropolis), he crossed the
Bitlis pass into Armenia, where he
seized several fortresses and accepted the submission of the local
lords, both Muslim and Christian. He ravaged the Byzantine holdings
around Theodosiopolis and raided as far as Koloneia, which he besieged
Kourkouas arrived with a relief army and forced him to
Sayf al-Dawla was not able to follow up on this effort:
until 945, the
Hamdanids were preoccupied with internal developments
Caliphate and with fighting against their rivals in southern
Iraq and the
Ikhshidids in Syria.
Rus' raid of 941
Main article: Rus'–Byzantine War (941)
The distraction by the
Hamdanids proved fortunate for Byzantium. In
early summer 941, as
Kourkouas prepared to resume campaigning in the
East, his attention was diverted by an unexpected event: the
appearance of a Rus' fleet that raided the area around Constantinople
itself. The Byzantine army and navy were absent from the capital, and
the appearance of the Rus' fleet caused panic among the populace of
Constantinople. While the navy and Kourkouas's army were recalled, a
hastily assembled squadron of old ships armed with
Greek Fire and
placed under the protovestiarios Theophanes defeated the Rus' fleet on
June 11, forcing it to abandon its course toward the city. The
surviving Rus' landed on the shores of
Bithynia and ravaged the
defenseless countryside. The patrikios Bardas Phokas hastened to
the area with whatever troops he could gather, contained the raiders,
and awaited the arrival of Kourkouas's army. Finally,
his army appeared and fell upon the Rus', who had dispersed to plunder
the countryside, killing many of them. The survivors retreated to
their ships and tried to cross to
Thrace under the cover of night.
During the crossing, the entire
Byzantine navy attacked and
annihilated the Rus'.
Campaigns in Mesopotamia and recovery of the Mandylion
The surrender of the
Mandylion to the Byzantine parakoimomenos
Theophanes by the Edessenes, from the Madrid Skylitzes.
Following this distraction, in January 942
Kourkouas launched a new
campaign in the East, which lasted for three years. The first
assault fell on the territory of Aleppo, which was thoroughly
plundered: at the fall of the town of Hamus, near Aleppo, even Arab
sources record the capture of 10–15,000 prisoners by the
Byzantines. Despite a minor counter-raid by Thamal or one of his
retainers (ghilman) from Tarsus in the summer, in autumn Kourkouas
launched another major invasion. At the head of an exceptionally large
army, some 80,000 men according to Arab sources, he crossed from
allied Taron into northern Mesopotamia. Mayyafiriqin, Amida,
Nisibis, Dara—places where no Byzantine army had trod since the days
Heraclius 300 years earlier—were stormed and
ravaged. The real aim of these campaigns, however, was
Edessa, the repository of the "Holy Mandylion". This was a cloth
believed to have been used by
Christ to wipe his face, leaving an
imprint of his features, and subsequently given to King Abgar V of
Edessa. To the Byzantines, especially after the end of the Iconoclasm
period and the restoration of image veneration, it was a relic of
profound religious significance. As a result, its capture would
provide the Lekapenos regime with an enormous boost in popularity and
Kourkouas assailed Edessa every year from 942 onward and devastated
its countryside, as he had done at Melitene. Finally, its emir agreed
to a peace, swearing not to raise arms against Byzantium and to hand
Mandylion in exchange for the return of 200
Mandylion was conveyed to Constantinople, where
it arrived on August 15, 944, on the feast of the Dormition of the
Theotokos. A triumphal entry was staged for the venerated relic, which
was then deposited in the
Theotokos of the Pharos church, the palatine
chapel of the Great Palace. As for Kourkouas, he concluded his
campaign by sacking Bithra (modern Birecik) and Germanikeia (modern
Dismissal and rehabilitation
Despite this triumph, the downfall of Kourkouas, as well as of his
friend and protector, Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos, was imminent. The
two eldest surviving sons of Romanos I, co-emperors Stephen and
Constantine, were jealous of
Kourkouas and had in the past tried to
undermine him, albeit without success. Following the success of
Kourkouas in the East, Romanos I considered marrying his trusted
general into the imperial family. Kourkouas's daughter Euphrosyne was
to be wedded with the emperor's grandson, the future
Romanos II (r.
959–963), the son of his son-in-law and junior emperor Constantine
VII. Although such a union would effectively cement the loyalty of the
army, it would also strengthen the position of the legitimate
Macedonian line, represented by Constantine VII, over the imperial
claims of Romanos's own sons. Predictably, Stephen and
Constantine opposed this decision and prevailed upon their father, who
was by this time old and ill, to dismiss
Kourkouas in the autumn of
Kourkouas was replaced by a certain Pantherios, who was almost
immediately defeated by
Sayf al-Dawla in December while raiding near
Aleppo. On 16 December, Romanos I himself was deposed by Stephen and
Constantine and banished to a monastery on the island of Prote. A few
weeks later, on 26 January, another coup removed the two young
Lekapenoi from power and restored the sole imperial authority to
Kourkouas himself appears to have soon
returned to imperial favour: Constantine provided the money for the
repair of Kourkouas's palace after it was damaged by an earthquake,
and in early 946, he is recorded as having been sent with the
magistros Kosmas to negotiate a prisoner exchange with the Arabs of
Tarsus. Nothing further is known about him.
The fall of the Lekapenoi signalled the end of an era in terms of
personalities, but Kourkouas's expansionist policy continued: he was
Domestic of the Schools
Domestic of the Schools by Bardas Phokas the Elder,
followed by Nikephoros Phokas, who reigned as emperor in 963–969,
and finally, by Kourkouas's own great-nephew, John Tzimiskes, who
reigned as emperor in 969–976. All of them expanded the Byzantine
frontier in the East, recovering
Cilicia and northern Syria with
Antioch, and converting the
Hamdanid emirate of
Aleppo into a
"... the aforementioned magistros and
Domestic of the Schools
Domestic of the Schools John
became unrivalled in matters of war, and set up many and great
trophies, and expanded the Roman boundaries and sacked many Hagarene
Chronicle of Theophanes Continuatus, Reign of Romanos Lekapenos,
Kourkouas ranks among the greatest military leaders Byzantium
produced, a fact recognized by the Byzantines themselves: later
Byzantine chroniclers hailed him as the general who restored the
imperial frontier to the Euphrates, and in a contemporary
eight-book history, written by a protospatharios Michael and now lost
save for a short summary in Theophanes Continuatus, he is acclaimed as
Trajan or Belisarius".
The ground work for his successes had certainly been laid by others:
Michael III, who broke the power of
Melitene at Lalakaon; Basil I, who
destroyed the Paulicians; Leo VI the Wise, who founded the vital theme
of Mesopotamia; and Empress Zoe, who extended Byzantine influence
again into Armenia and founded the theme of Lykandos. It was
Kourkouas and his campaigns, however, that incontrovertibly changed
the balance of power in the northern Middle East, securing the
frontier provinces against Arab raids and turning Byzantium into an
expansionist power. In the words of historian Steven Runciman,
"a lesser general might [...] have cleared the Empire of the Saracens
and successfully defended its borders; but [Kourkouas] did more. He
infused a new spirit into the imperial armies, and led them
victoriously deep into the country of the infidels. The actual area of
his conquests was not so very large; but they sufficed to reverse the
age-old roles of Byzantium and the Arabs. Byzantium now was the
aggressor... [John Kourkouas] was the first of a line of great
conquerors and as the first is worthy of high praise."
^ a: "Kourkouas" represents the transliteration of his Greek
name following the norm used in the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium.
"Kurkuas" and "Curcuas" are different Latinized forms.
^ ODB, "Kourkouas" (A. Kazhdan), pp. 1156–1157.
^ Whittow 1996, pp. 337–338.
^ a b ODB, "Kourkouas, John" (A. Kazhdan), p. 1157.
^ Guilland 1967, pp. 442–443, 446, 463, 571.
^ Guilland 1967, pp. 443, 571.
^ Runciman 1988, pp. 58–62; Guilland 1967, p. 571.
^ Runciman 1988, p. 69.
^ Whittow 1996, p. 418; Guilland 1967, pp. 447, 571.
^ a b c d e f g Whittow 1996, p. 317.
^ Runciman 1988, pp. 70–71, 135; Guilland 1967,
pp. 442–443, 571–572.
^ Whittow 1996, pp. 176–178.
^ El-Cheikh 2004, p. 162; Whittow 1996, pp. 311–314.
^ Whittow 1996, p. 315.
^ Runciman 1988, pp. 136–137.
^ a b c Runciman 1988, p. 137.
^ a b c Treadgold 1997, p. 479.
^ Whittow 1996, p. 310; Treadgold 1998, p. 111.
^ Ter-Ghewondyan 1976, p. 77.
^ Runciman 1988, p. 138.
^ a b c Ter-Ghewondyan 1976, p. 82.
^ a b Treadgold 1997, p. 480.
^ Runciman 1988, pp. 138–139.
^ a b Runciman 1988, p. 139.
^ Runciman 1988, pp. 139–140.
^ a b Runciman 1988, p. 140.
^ Whittow 1996, p. 322; Holmes 2005, p. 314.
^ a b c d e Runciman 1988, p. 141.
^ a b c Jenkins 1987, p. 246.
^ a b c d e f Treadgold 1997, p. 481.
^ Runciman 1988, pp. 141–142.
^ Whittow 1996, pp. 341–342.
^ a b Runciman 1988, p. 142.
^ a b c d e Treadgold 1997, p. 483.
^ a b c Whittow 1996, p. 318.
^ Treadgold 1998, p. 78.
^ ODB, "Sayf al-Dawla" (A. Kazhdan), p. 1848.
^ Runciman 1988, pp. 142–143.
^ Whittow 1996, pp. 319–320; Runciman 1988, pp. 143–144;
Treadgold 1997, pp. 483–484.
^ a b c d e Runciman 1988, p. 144.
^ Whittow 1996, p. 320.
^ Jenkins 1987, pp. 250–251; Runciman 1988, pp. 111–112.
^ Jenkins 1987, p. 251; Runciman 1988, p. 112; Guilland
1967, pp. 442–443, 572.
^ Treadgold 1997, p. 484.
^ a b c d e Whittow 1996, p. 321.
^ a b Jenkins 1987, p. 247.
^ a b Guilland 1967, p. 572.
^ Runciman 1988, p. 5.
^ Runciman 1988, p. 145.
^ a b c d Runciman 1988, p. 146.
^ Treadgold 1997, pp. 484–485; Holmes 2005, pp. 131–132.
^ Treadgold 1997, p. 485.
^ Treadgold 1997, p. 486.
^ Guilland 1967, pp. 442, 572.
^ Whittow 1996, pp. 322–327.
^ Niebuhr 1838, p. 426; Holmes 2005, pp. 135–136.
^ Runciman 1988, p. 148.
^ Whittow 1996, p. 344.
^ Runciman 1988, pp. 146–149.
^ Runciman 1988, p. 150.
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Domestic of the Schools