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John Forbes
Forbes
Kerry (/ˈkɛri/; born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States
United States
Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017. A Democrat, he previously represented Massachusetts in the United States Senate
United States Senate
from 1985 to 2013. He was the Democratic nominee in the 2004 presidential election, losing to Republican incumbent George W. Bush. Kerry was born in Aurora, Colorado
Aurora, Colorado
and attended boarding school in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and New Hampshire. He graduated from Yale University
Yale University
in 1966 with a major in political science. Kerry enlisted in the Naval Reserve in 1966, and between 1968 and 1969, he served an abbreviated four-month tour of duty in South Vietnam
South Vietnam
as officer-in-charge (OIC) of a Swift Boat. For that service, he was awarded combat medals that include the Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal, Bronze Star Medal, and three Purple Heart Medals. Securing an early return to the United States, Kerry joined the Vietnam Veterans Against the War
Vietnam Veterans Against the War
organization in which he served as a nationally recognized spokesman and as an outspoken opponent of the Vietnam War. He appeared in the Fulbright Hearings before the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs where he deemed United States war policy in Vietnam to be the cause of war crimes. After receiving a J.D. from Boston College
Boston College
Law School, Kerry worked as an Assistant District Attorney
Assistant District Attorney
in Massachusetts. He served as Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Governor under Michael Dukakis
Michael Dukakis
from 1983 to 1985 and was elected to the U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
in 1984 and was sworn in the following January. On the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he led a series of hearings from 1987 to 1989 which were a precursor to the Iran–Contra affair. Kerry was re-elected to additional terms in 1990, 1996, 2002, and 2008. On October 11, 2002, Kerry voted to authorize the President "to use force, if necessary, to disarm Saddam Hussein," but warned that the administration should exhaust its diplomatic avenues before launching war.[1] In his 2004 presidential campaign, Kerry criticized George W. Bush
George W. Bush
for the Iraq War. He and his running mate, North Carolina Senator John Edwards, lost the election, finishing 35 electoral votes behind Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney. Kerry returned to the Senate, becoming Chairman of the Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship in 2007 and then of the Foreign Relations Committee in 2009. In January 2013, Kerry was nominated by President Barack Obama to succeed outgoing Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
and then confirmed by the U.S. Senate, assuming the office on February 1, 2013. Kerry retained the position until the end of Obama's tenure on January 20, 2017, he was eventually succeeded by Rex Tillerson.

Contents

1 Early life and education (1943–1966) 2 Military service (1966–1970)

2.1 Duty on the USS Gridley 2.2 Military honors

2.2.1 Silver Star 2.2.2 Bronze Star

2.3 Return from Vietnam 2.4 Controversy

3 Anti-war activism (1970–1971) 4 Early political career (1972–1985)

4.1 1972 Congressional election 4.2 Law career 4.3 Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Governor of Massachusetts 4.4 1984 U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
election

5 U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
(1985–2013)

5.1 Iran–Contra hearings 5.2 George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
administration 5.3 Precursors to presidential bid 5.4 "You get stuck in Iraq" controversy 5.5 Afghanistan/Pakistan 5.6 Voting record

5.6.1 Overall 5.6.2 Iraq

5.7 Leadership 5.8 Committee assignments 5.9 Caucus memberships 5.10 Seniority

6 2004 presidential campaign 7 Later presidential election activities 8 Secretary of State (2013–2017)

8.1 Nomination 8.2 Tenure 8.3 Syria 8.4 Latin America 8.5 Environmentalism 8.6 Global Connect initiative

9 Post-Obama Administration

9.1 Writing his memoirs 9.2 Homes

10 Personal and family life

10.1 Ancestry 10.2 Marriages and children 10.3 Religious beliefs 10.4 Health 10.5 Athletics and sailing

11 Foreign honors 12 Honorary Degrees 13 Electoral history 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

17.1 Official 17.2 Information 17.3 Statements and interviews 17.4 Media coverage

Early life and education (1943–1966) John Forbes
Forbes
Kerry was born on December 11, 1943, in Aurora, Colorado, at Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. He is the second of four children born to Richard John Kerry, a Foreign Service officer and lawyer, and Rosemary Isabel Forbes, a nurse and social activist. His father was raised Catholic
Catholic
(John's paternal grandparents were Austro-Hungarian Jewish immigrants who converted to Catholicism) and his mother was Episcopalian. He was raised with an elder sister named Margaret, a younger sister named Diana, and a younger brother named Cameron. The children were raised in their father's Catholic
Catholic
faith, and John served as an altar boy.[2] Kerry grew up a military brat[3] until his father was discharged from the Army Air Corps, causing the family to settle in Washington, D.C. in 1949.[4] While in Washington, Richard took a spot in the Department of the Navy's Office of General Counsel and soon became a diplomat in the State Department's Bureau of United Nations
United Nations
Affairs.[5] His extended maternal family enjoyed great wealth as members of the Forbes
Forbes
and Dudley–Winthrop families.[6] Kerry's parents themselves were upper-middle class, and a wealthy great aunt paid for him to attend elite boarding schools.[2] In 1957, his father was stationed at the U.S. Embassy in Oslo, Norway, and Kerry was sent back to the United States
United States
to attend boarding school. He first attended the Fessenden School
Fessenden School
in Newton, Massachusetts, and later St. Paul's, Concord, New Hampshire, where he learned skills in public speaking and began developing an interest in politics.[2] Kerry founded the John Winant
John Winant
Society at St. Paul's to debate the issues of the day; the Society still exists there.[7][8]

A young John Kerry
John Kerry
(in white) aboard the yacht of John F. Kennedy, in 1962

In 1962, Kerry entered Yale University, majoring in political science and residing in Jonathan Edwards College.[9]:35 While at Yale, Kerry briefly dated Janet Auchincloss, the younger half-sister of First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy. Through Auchincloss, Kerry was invited to a day of sailing with then-President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
and his family.[10] Kerry played on the varsity Yale Bulldogs Men's soccer
Yale Bulldogs Men's soccer
team, earning his only letter in his senior year. He also played freshman and JV hockey and, in his senior year, JV lacrosse.[11] In addition, he was a member of the Psi Upsilon fraternity and took flying lessons.[9]:37, 43[12] In his sophomore year, Kerry became the Chairman of the Liberal Party of the Yale Political Union, and a year later he served as President of the Union. Amongst his influential teachers in this period was Professor H. Bradford Westerfield, who was himself a former President of the Political Union.[13] His involvement with the Political Union gave him an opportunity to be involved with important issues of the day, such as the civil rights movement and the New Frontier program. He also became a member of Skull and Bones
Skull and Bones
Society, and traveled to Switzerland[14] through AIESEC
AIESEC
Yale.[15][16] Under the guidance of the speaking coach and history professor Rollin Osterweis, Kerry won many debates against other college students from across the nation.[17] In March 1965, as the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
escalated, he won the Ten Eyck prize as the best orator in the junior class for a speech that was critical of U.S. foreign policy. In the speech he said, "It is the spectre of Western imperialism that causes more fear among Africans and Asians than communism and thus, it is self-defeating."[18] Kerry graduated from Yale with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1966. Overall, he had lackluster grades, graduating with a cumulative average of 76 over his four years. His freshman-year average was a 71, but he improved to an 81 average for his senior year. He never received an "A" during his time at Yale; his highest grade was an 89.[19] Military service (1966–1970) Main article: Military career of John Kerry Duty on the USS Gridley On February 18, 1966, Kerry enlisted in the Naval Reserve.[20] He began his active duty military service on August 19, 1966. After completing 16 weeks of Officer Candidate School
Officer Candidate School
at the U.S. Naval Training Center in Newport, Rhode Island, Kerry received his officer's commission on December 16, 1966. During the 2004 election, Kerry posted his military records at his website, and permitted reporters to inspect his medical records. In 2005, Kerry released his military and medical records to the representatives of three news organizations, but has not authorized full public access to those records.[21][22] During his tour on the guided missile frigate USS Gridley, Kerry requested duty in South Vietnam, listing as his first preference a position as the commander of a Fast Patrol Craft
Fast Patrol Craft
(PCF), also known as a "Swift boat."[23] These 50-foot (15 m) boats have aluminum hulls and have little or no armor, but are heavily armed and rely on speed. "I didn't really want to get involved in the war", Kerry said in a book of Vietnam reminiscences published in 1986. "When I signed up for the swift boats, they had very little to do with the war. They were engaged in coastal patrolling and that's what I thought I was going to be doing."[24] However, his second choice of billet was on a river patrol boat, or "PBR", which at the time was serving a more dangerous duty on the rivers of Vietnam.[23] Military honors During the night of December 2 and early morning of December 3, 1968, Kerry was in charge of a small boat operating near a peninsula north of Cam Ranh Bay
Cam Ranh Bay
together with a Swift boat (PCF-60). According to Kerry and the two crewmen who accompanied him that night, Patrick Runyon and William Zaladonis, they surprised a group of Vietnamese men unloading sampans at a river crossing, who began running and failed to obey an order to stop. As the men fled, Kerry and his crew opened fire on the sampans and destroyed them, then rapidly left. During this encounter, Kerry received a shrapnel wound in the left arm above the elbow. It was for this injury that Kerry received his first Purple Heart Medal.[25] Kerry received his second Purple Heart
Purple Heart
for a wound received in action on the Bồ Đề River on February 20, 1969. The plan had been for the Swift boats to be accompanied by support helicopters. On the way up the Bo De, however, the helicopters were attacked. As the Swift boats reached the Cửa Lớn River, Kerry's boat was hit by a B-40 rocket (rocket propelled grenade round), and a piece of shrapnel hit Kerry's left leg, wounding him. Thereafter, enemy fire ceased and his boat reached the Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
safely. Kerry continues to have shrapnel embedded in his left thigh because the doctors that first treated him decided to remove the damaged tissue and close the wound with sutures rather than make a wide opening to remove the shrapnel.[26] Though wounded like several others earlier that day, Kerry did not lose any time off from duty.[27][28] Silver Star Eight days later, on February 28, 1969, came the events for which Kerry was awarded his Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal. On this occasion, Kerry was in tactical command of his Swift boat and two other Swift boats during a combat operation. Their mission on the Duong Keo River included bringing an underwater demolition team and dozens of South Vietnamese Marines to destroy enemy sampans, structures and bunkers as described in the story The Death Of PCF 43.[29] Running into heavy small arms fire from the river banks, Kerry "directed the units to turn to the beach and charge the Viet Cong
Viet Cong
positions" and he "expertly directed" his boat's fire causing the enemy to flee while at the same time coordinating the insertion of the ninety South Vietnamese troops (according to the original medal citation signed by Admiral Zumwalt). Moving a short distance upstream, Kerry's boat was the target of a B-40 rocket round; Kerry charged the enemy positions and as his boat hove to and beached, a Viet Cong
Viet Cong
("VC") insurgent armed with a rocket launcher emerged from a spider hole and ran. While the boat's gunner opened fire, wounding the VC in the leg, and while the other boats approached and offered cover fire, Kerry jumped from the boat to pursue the VC insurgent, subsequently killing him and capturing his loaded rocket launcher.[30][31][32] Kerry's commanding officer, Lieutenant Commander
Lieutenant Commander
George Elliott, stated to Douglas Brinkley
Douglas Brinkley
in 2003 that he did not know whether to court-martial Kerry for beaching the boat without orders or give him a medal for saving the crew. Elliott recommended Kerry for the Silver Star, and Zumwalt flew into An Thoi to personally award medals to Kerry and the rest of the sailors involved in the mission. The Navy's account of Kerry's actions is presented in the original medal citation signed by Zumwalt. The engagement was documented in an after-action report, a press release written on March 1, 1969, and a historical summary dated March 17, 1969.[33] Bronze Star On March 13, 1969, on the Bái Háp River, Kerry was in charge of one of five Swift boats that were returning to their base after performing an Operation Sealords
Operation Sealords
mission to transport South Vietnamese troops from the garrison at Cái Nước
Cái Nước
and MIKE Force advisors for a raid on a Vietcong camp located on the Rach Dong Cung canal. Earlier in the day, Kerry received a slight shrapnel wound in the buttocks from blowing up a rice bunker. Debarking some but not all of the passengers at a small village, the boats approached a fishing weir; one group of boats went around to the left of the weir, hugging the shore, and a group with Kerry's PCF-94 boat went around to the right, along the shoreline. A mine was detonated directly beneath the lead boat, PCF-3, as it crossed the weir to the left, lifting PCF-3 "about 2-3 ft out of water".[34] James Rassmann, a Green Beret advisor who was aboard Kerry's PCF-94, was knocked overboard when, according to witnesses and the documentation of the event, a mine or rocket exploded close to the boat. According to the documentation for the event, Kerry's arm was injured when he was thrown against a bulkhead during the explosion. PCF 94 returned to the scene and Kerry rescued Rassmann who was receiving sniper fire from the water. Kerry received the Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V"
Combat "V"
for "heroic achievement", for his actions during this incident; he also received his third Purple Heart.[35] Return from Vietnam After Kerry's third qualifying wound, he was entitled per Navy regulations to reassignment away from combat duties. Kerry's preferred choice for reassignment was as a military aide in Boston, New York City or Washington, D.C.[36] On April 11, 1969, he reported to the Brooklyn-based Atlantic Military Sea Transportation Service, where he would remain on active duty for the following year as a personal aide to an officer, Rear Admiral Walter Schlech. On January 1, 1970, Kerry was temporarily promoted to full lieutenant.[37] Kerry had agreed to an extension of his active duty obligation from December 1969 to August 1970 in order to perform Swift Boat duty.[38][39] John Kerry was on active duty in the United States
United States
Navy from August 1966 until January 1970. He continued to serve in the Naval Reserve until February 1978.[40] Controversy Main article: John Kerry
John Kerry
military service controversy With the continuing controversy that had surrounded the military service of George W. Bush
George W. Bush
since the 2000 Presidential election (when he was accused of having used his father's political influence to gain entrance to the Texas Air National Guard, thereby protecting himself from conscription into the United States
United States
Army, and possible service in the Vietnam War), John Kerry's contrasting status as a decorated Vietnam War
Vietnam War
veteran posed a problem for Bush's re-election campaign, which Republicans sought to counter by calling Kerry's war record into question. As the presidential campaign of 2004 developed, approximately 250 members of a group called Swift Boat Veterans for Truth (SBVT, later renamed Swift Vets and POWs for Truth) opposed Kerry's campaign. The group held press conferences, ran ads and endorsed a book questioning Kerry's service record and his military awards. The group included several members of Kerry's unit, such as Larry Thurlow, who commanded a swift boat alongside of Kerry's,[41] and Stephen Gardner, who served on Kerry's boat.[42] The campaign inspired the widely used political pejorative 'swiftboating', to describe an unfair or untrue political attack.[43] Most of Kerry's former crewmates have stated that SBVT's allegations are false.[44] Anti-war activism (1970–1971) Main article: Vietnam Veterans Against the War After returning to the United States, Kerry joined the Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW).[45] Then numbering about 20,000,[46] VVAW was considered by some (including the administration of President Richard Nixon) to be an effective, if controversial, component of the antiwar movement.[47] Kerry participated in the "Winter Soldier Investigation" conducted by VVAW of U.S. atrocities in Vietnam, and he appears in a film by that name that documents the investigation.[48] According to Nixon Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird, "I didn't approve of what he did, but I understood the protesters quite well", and he declined two requests from the Navy to court martial Reserve Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Kerry over his antiwar activity.[49] On April 22, 1971, Kerry appeared before a U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
committee hearing on proposals relating to ending the war. The day after this testimony, Kerry participated in a demonstration with thousands of other veterans in which he and other Vietnam War
Vietnam War
veterans threw their medals and service ribbons over a fence erected at the front steps of the United States
United States
Capitol building to dramatize their opposition to the war. Jack Smith, a Marine, read a statement explaining why the veterans were returning their military awards to the government. For more than two hours, almost 1000 angry veterans tossed their medals, ribbons, hats, jackets, and military papers over the fence. Each veteran gave his or her name, hometown, branch of service and a statement. Kerry threw some of his own decorations and awards as well as some given to him by other veterans to throw. As Kerry threw his decorations over the fence, his statement was: "I'm not doing this for any violent reasons, but for peace and justice, and to try and make this country wake up once and for all."[50] Kerry was arrested on May 30, 1971, during a VVAW march to honor American POWs held captive by North Vietnam. The march was planned as a multi-day event from Concord to Boston, and while in Lexington, participants tried to camp on the village green. At 2:30 a.m., local and state police arrested 441 demonstrators, including Kerry, for trespassing. All were given the Miranda Warning
Miranda Warning
and were hauled away on school buses to spend the night at the Lexington Public Works Garage. Kerry and the other protesters later paid a $5 fine, and were released. The mass arrests caused a community backlash and ended up giving positive coverage to the VVAW.[51][52][53] Early political career (1972–1985) 1972 Congressional election In 1970, Kerry had considered running for Congress in the Democratic primary against hawkish Democrat Philip J. Philbin
Philip J. Philbin
of Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district, but deferred in favor of Robert Drinan, a Jesuit priest and anti-war activist, who went on to defeat Philbin.[54] In February 1972, Kerry's wife bought a house in Worcester, with Kerry intending to run against the 4th district's aging thirteen-term incumbent Democrat, Harold Donohue.[54] The couple never moved in. After Republican Congressman F. Bradford Morse
F. Bradford Morse
of the neighboring 5th district announced his retirement and then resignation to become Under-Secretary-General for Political and General Assembly Affairs at the United Nations. The couple instead rented an apartment in Lowell, so that Kerry could run to succeed him.[54] Including Kerry, the Democratic primary race had 10 candidates, including attorney Paul J. Sheehy, State Representative Anthony R. DiFruscia, John J. Desmond and Robert B. Kennedy. Kerry ran a "very expensive, sophisticated campaign", financed by out-of-state backers and supported by many young volunteers.[54] DiFruscia's campaign headquarters shared the same building as Kerry's. On the eve of the September 19 primary, police found Kerry's younger brother Cameron and campaign field director Thomas J. Vallely, breaking into where the building's telephone lines were located. They were arrested and charged with "breaking and entering with the intent to commit grand larceny", but the charges were dropped a year later. At the time of the incident, DiFruscia alleged that the two were trying to disrupt his get-out-the vote efforts. Vallely and Cameron Kerry
Cameron Kerry
maintained that they were only checking their own telephone lines because they had received an anonymous call warning that the Kerry lines would be cut.[54] Despite the arrests, Kerry won the primary with 20,771 votes (27.56%). Sheehy came second with 15,641 votes (20.75%), followed by DiFruscia with 12,222 votes (16.22%), Desmond with 10,213 votes (13.55%) and Kennedy with 5,632 votes (7.47%). The remaining 10,891 votes were split amongst the other five candidates, with 1970 nominee Richard Williams coming last with just 1,706 votes (2.26%).[54][55] In the general election, Kerry was initially favored to defeat the Republican candidate, former State Representative Paul W. Cronin, and conservative Democrat Roger P. Durkin, who ran as an Independent. A week after the primary, one poll put Kerry 26-points ahead of Cronin.[54] His campaign called for a national health insurance system, discounted prescription drugs for the unemployed, a jobs program to clean up the Merrimack River
Merrimack River
and rent controls in Lowell and Lawrence. A major obstacle, however, was the district's leading newspaper, the conservative The Sun. The paper editorialized against him. It also ran critical news stories about his out-of-state contributions and his "carpetbagging", because he had only moved into the district in April. Subsequently, released "Watergate" Oval Office tape recordings of the Nixon White House
White House
showed that defeating Kerry's candidacy had attracted the personal attention of President Nixon.[56] Kerry himself asserts that Nixon sent operatives to Lowell to help derail his campaign.[54] The race was the most expensive for Congress in the country that year[54] and four days before the general election, Durkin withdrew and endorsed Cronin, hoping to see Kerry defeated.[57] The week before, a poll had put Kerry 10 points ahead of Cronin, with Dukin on 13%.[54] In the final days of the campaign, Kerry sensed that it was "slipping away" and Cronin emerged victorious by 110,970 votes (53.45%) to Kerry's 92,847 (44.72%).[58] After his defeat, Kerry lamented in a letter to supporters that "for two solid weeks, [The Sun] called me un-American, New Left antiwar agitator, unpatriotic, and labeled me every other 'un-' and 'anti-' that they could find. It's hard to believe that one newspaper could be so powerful, but they were."[54] He later felt that his failure to respond directly to The Sun's attacks cost him the race.[54] Law career After Kerry's 1972 defeat, he and his wife bought a house in Belvidere, Lowell,[59] entering a decade which his brother Cameron later called "the years in exile".[54] He spent some time working as a fundraiser for the Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE), an international humanitarian organization.[60] In September 1973, he entered Boston College
Boston College
Law School.[61] While studying, Kerry worked as a talk radio host on WBZ and, in July 1974, was named executive director of Mass Action, a Massachusetts
Massachusetts
advocacy association.[54][62] Kerry received his Juris Doctor
Juris Doctor
(J.D.) from Boston College
Boston College
in 1976.[63] While in law school he had been a student prosecutor in the office of the District Attorney
District Attorney
of Middlesex County, John J. Droney.[64] After passing the bar exam and being admitted to the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
bar in 1976, he went to work in that office as a full-time prosecutor.[65] In January 1977, Droney promoted him to First Assistant District Attorney, essentially making Kerry his campaign and media surrogate because Droney was afflicted with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig's Disease). As First Assistant, Kerry tried cases, which included winning convictions in a high-profile rape case and a murder. He also played a role in administering the office, including initiating the creation of special white-collar and organized crime units, creating programs to address the problems of rape and other crime victims and witnesses, and managing trial calendars to reflect case priorities.[66] It was in this role in 1978 that Kerry announced an investigation into possible criminal charges against then Senator Edward Brooke, regarding "misstatements" in his first divorce trial.[67] The inquiry ended with no charges being brought after investigators and prosecutors determined that Brooke's misstatements were pertinent to the case, but were not material enough to have affected the outcome.[68] Droney's health was poor and Kerry had decided to run for his position in the 1978 election should Droney drop out. However, Droney was re-elected and his health improved; he went on to re-assume many of the duties that he had delegated to Kerry.[54] Kerry thus decided to leave, departing in 1979 with assistant DA Roanne Sragow to set up their own law firm.[54][66] Kerry also worked as a commentator for WCVB-TV
WCVB-TV
and co-founded a bakery, Kilvert & Forbes
Forbes
Ltd., with businessman and former Kennedy aide K. Dun Gifford.[54] Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Governor of Massachusetts In 1982, Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Governor of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Thomas P. O'Neill III declined to seek a third term to run for Governor of Massachusetts.[69] Kerry declared his candidacy, entering the primary election alongside Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Secretary of Environmental Affairs Evelyn Murphy, State Senator Samuel Rotondi, State Representative Lou Nickinello and Lois Pines.[70] Kerry won the nomination with 325,890 votes (29%) to Murphy's 286,378 (25.48%), Rotondi's 228,086 (20.29%), Nickinello's 150,829 (13.42%) and Pines' 132,734 (11.81%).[71] In the concurrent gubernatorial primary, former Governor Michael Dukakis
Michael Dukakis
defeated incumbent Governor Edward J. King.[72] The Dukakis/Kerry ticket defeated the Republican ticket of John W. Sears
John W. Sears
and Leon Lombardi in the general election by 1,219,109 votes (61.92%) to 749,679 (38.08%).[73][74] As Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Governor, Kerry led meetings of the Massachusetts Governor's Council.[75] Dukakis also delegated other tasks to Kerry, including serving as the state's liaison to the federal government.[76] He was also active on environmental issues, including combating acid rain.[77] 1984 U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
election

Kerry during his 1984 campaign

The junior U.S. Senator from Massachusetts, Paul Tsongas, announced in 1984 that he would be stepping down for health reasons.[78] Kerry ran, and as in his 1982 race for Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Governor, he did not receive the endorsement of the party regulars at the state Democratic convention.[79] Congressman James Shannon, a favorite of House Speaker Tip O'Neill, was the early favorite to win the nomination, and he "won broad establishment support and led in early polling."[80][81] Again as in 1982, however, Kerry prevailed in a close primary.[82] In his general election campaign, Kerry promised to mix liberalism with tight budget controls. He defeated Republican Ray Shamie despite a nationwide landslide for the re-election of Republican President Ronald Reagan, for whom Massachusetts
Massachusetts
voted by a narrow margin.[83][84] In his victory speech, Kerry asserted that his win meant that the people of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
"emphatically reject the politics of selfishness and the notion that women must be treated as second-class citizens."[85] Tsongas resigned on January 2, 1985, one day before the end of his term. Dukakis appointed Kerry to fill the vacancy, giving him seniority over other new senators who were sworn in on January 3, the scheduled start of their new terms.[86] U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
(1985–2013) See also: Sponsorship of legislation by John Kerry Iran–Contra hearings Main article: Kerry Committee report On April 18, 1985, a few months after taking his Senate seat, Kerry and Senator Tom Harkin
Tom Harkin
of Iowa
Iowa
traveled to Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and met the country's president, Daniel Ortega. Though Ortega had won internationally certified elections, the trip was criticized because Ortega and his leftist Sandinista
Sandinista
government had strong ties to Cuba and the USSR
USSR
and were accused of human rights abuses. The Sandinista government was opposed by the right-wing CIA-backed rebels known as the Contras. While in Nicaragua, Kerry and Harkin talked to people on both sides of the conflict. Through the senators, Ortega offered a cease-fire agreement in exchange for the U.S. dropping support of the Contras. The offer was denounced by the Reagan administration as a "propaganda initiative" designed to influence a House vote on a $14 million Contra aid package, but Kerry said "I am willing..... to take the risk in the effort to put to test the good faith of the Sandinistas." The House voted down the Contra aid, but Ortega flew to Moscow to accept a $200 million loan the next day, which in part prompted the House to pass a larger $27 million aid package six weeks later.[87]

A Senate portrait of Kerry

Meanwhile, Kerry's staff began their own investigations and, on October 14, issued a report that exposed illegal activities on the part of Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Colonel Oliver North, who had set up a private network involving the National Security Council and the CIA to deliver military equipment to right-wing Nicaraguan rebels (Contras). In effect, North and certain members of the President's administration were accused by Kerry's report of illegally funding and supplying armed militants without the authorization of Congress. Kerry's staff investigation, based on a year-long inquiry and interviews with fifty unnamed sources, is said to raise "serious questions about whether the United States
United States
has abided by the law in its handling of the contras over the past three years."[88] The Kerry Committee report
Kerry Committee report
found that "the Contra drug links included..... payments to drug traffickers by the U.S. State Department of funds authorized by the Congress for humanitarian assistance to the Contras, in some cases after the traffickers had been indicted by federal law enforcement agencies on drug charges, in others while traffickers were under active investigation by these same agencies."[89] The U.S. State Department
State Department
paid over $806,000 to known drug traffickers to carry humanitarian assistance to the Contras.[90] Kerry's findings provoked little reaction in the media and official Washington.[91] The Kerry report was a precursor to the Iran–Contra affair. On May 4, 1989, North was convicted of charges relating to the Iran/Contra controversy, including three felonies. On September 16, 1991, however, North's convictions were overturned on appeal.[92] George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
administration On November 15, 1988, at a businessmen's breakfast in East Lynn, Massachusetts, Kerry made a joke about then-President-elect George H. W. Bush and his running mate, saying "if Bush is shot, the Secret Service has orders to shoot Dan Quayle." He apologized the following day.[93] During their investigation of Noriega, Kerry's staff found reason to believe that the Pakistan-based Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) had facilitated Noriega's drug trafficking and money laundering. This led to a separate inquiry into BCCI, and as a result, banking regulators shut down BCCI in 1991. In December 1992, Kerry and Senator Hank Brown, a Republican from Colorado, released The BCCI Affair, a report on the BCCI scandal. The report showed that the bank was crooked and was working with terrorists, including Abu Nidal. It blasted the Department of Justice, the Department of the Treasury, the Customs Service, the Federal Reserve Bank, as well as influential lobbyists and the CIA.[94] Kerry was criticized by some Democrats for having pursued his own party members, including former Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford, although Republicans said he should have pressed against some Democrats even harder. The BCCI scandal was later turned over to the Manhattan District Attorney's office.[95] Precursors to presidential bid See also: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
United States Senate
United States Senate
election, 1996 and United States presidential election, 2000 In 1996, Kerry faced a difficult re-election fight against Governor William Weld, a popular Republican incumbent who had been re-elected in 1994 with 71% of the vote. The race was covered nationwide as one of the most closely watched Senate races that year. Kerry and Weld held several debates and negotiated a campaign spending cap of $6.9 million at Kerry's Beacon Hill townhouse. Both candidates spent more than the cap, with each camp accusing the other of being first to break the agreement.[96] During the campaign, Kerry spoke briefly at the 1996 Democratic National Convention. Kerry won re-election with 52 percent to Weld's 45 percent.[97] In the 2000 presidential election, Kerry found himself close to being chosen as the vice presidential running mate.[98] A release from the presidential campaign of presumptive Democratic nominee Al Gore
Al Gore
listed Kerry on the short list to be selected as the vice-presidential nominee, along with North Carolina Senator John Edwards, Indiana Senator Evan Bayh, Missouri Congressman Richard Gephardt, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Governor Jeanne Shaheen
Jeanne Shaheen
and Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman.[99] "You get stuck in Iraq" controversy On October 30, 2006, Kerry was a headline speaker at a campaign rally being held for Democratic California gubernatorial candidate Phil Angelides at Pasadena City College
Pasadena City College
in Pasadena, California. Speaking to an audience composed mainly of college students, Kerry said, "You know, education, if you make the most of it, you study hard, you do your homework and you make an effort to be smart, you can do well. If you don't, you get stuck in Iraq."[100] The day after the remarks were made public, leaders from both sides of the political spectrum criticized Kerry's remarks, which he said were a botched joke. Republicans including President George W. Bush, Senator John McCain
John McCain
and then-Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert, said that Kerry's comments were insulting to American military forces fighting in Iraq. Democratic Representative Harold Ford, Jr.
Harold Ford, Jr.
called on Kerry to apologize.[101] Kerry initially stated: "Let me make it crystal clear, as crystal clear as I know how. I apologize to no one for my criticism of the president and of his broken policy."[102] Kerry also responded to criticism from George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and Dick Cheney.[103]

Kerry actively supported an independence referendum in South Sudan, January 2011

Kerry said that he had intended the remark as a jab at President Bush, and described the remarks as a "botched joke",[104] having inadvertently left out the key word "us" (which would have been, "If you don't, you get us stuck in Iraq"), as well as leaving the phrase "just ask President Bush" off of the end of the sentence. In Kerry's prepared remarks, which he released during the ensuing media frenzy, the corresponding line was "... you end up getting us stuck in a war in Iraq. Just ask President Bush." He also said that from the context of the speech which, prior to the "stuck in Iraq" line, made several specific references to Bush and elements of his biography, that Kerry was referring to President Bush and not American troops in general.[105] After two days of media coverage, citing a desire not to be a diversion, Kerry apologized to those who took offense at what he called the misinterpretation of his comment.[106] Afghanistan/Pakistan

Kerry leaving the U.S. Embassy in Kabul
Kabul
in 2013

Kerry with Spokesman to the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Zahid Bashir, in 2009

Kerry "has emerged in the past few years as an important envoy for Afghanistan and Pakistan
Pakistan
during times of crisis," a Washington Post report stated in May 2011, as Kerry undertook another trip to the two countries. The killing of Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
"has generated perhaps the most important crossroads yet," the report continued, as the senator spoke at a press conference and prepared to fly from Kabul
Kabul
to Pakistan.[107] Among matters discussed during the May visit to Pakistan, under the general rubric of "recalibrating" the bilateral relationship, Kerry sought and retrieved from the Pakistanis the tail-section of the U.S. helicopter which had had to be abandoned at Abbottabad
Abbottabad
during the bin Laden strike.[108] In 2013, Kerry met with Pakistan's army chief Gen. Ashfaq Parvez Kayani
Ashfaq Parvez Kayani
to discuss the peace process with the Taliban
Taliban
in Afghanistan.[109] Voting record Overall Most analyses place Kerry's voting record on the left within the Senate Democratic caucus.[110] During the 2004 presidential election he was portrayed as a staunch liberal by conservative groups and the Bush campaign, who often noted that in 2003 Kerry was rated the National Journal's top Senate liberal. However, that rating was based only upon voting on legislation within that past year. In fact, in terms of career voting records, the National Journal
National Journal
found that Kerry is the 11th most liberal member of the Senate. Most analyses find that Kerry is at least slightly more liberal than the typical Democratic Senator. Kerry has stated that he opposes privatizing Social Security, supports abortion rights for adult women and minors, supports same-sex marriage, opposes capital punishment except for terrorists, supports most gun control laws, and is generally a supporter of trade agreements. Kerry supported the North American Free Trade Agreement and Most Favored Nation status for China, but opposed the Central American Free Trade Agreement.[citation needed] In July 1997 Kerry joined his Senate colleagues in voting against ratification of the Kyoto Treaty
Kyoto Treaty
on global warming without greenhouse gas emissions limits on nations deemed developing, including India and China.[111] Since then, Kerry has attacked President Bush, charging him with opposition to international efforts to combat global warming.[112] On October 1, 2008, Kerry voted for Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, also known as the TARP bailout.[113] Iraq In the lead up to the Iraq War, Kerry said on October 9, 2002; "I will be voting to give the President of the United States
United States
the authority to use force, if necessary, to disarm Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
because I believe that a deadly arsenal of weapons of mass destruction in his hands is a real and grave threat to our security." Bush relied on that resolution in ordering the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Kerry also gave a January 23, 2003 speech to Georgetown University
Georgetown University
saying "Without question, we need to disarm Saddam Hussein. He is a brutal, murderous dictator; leading an oppressive regime he presents a particularly grievous threat because he is so consistently prone to miscalculation. So the threat of Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
with weapons of mass destruction is real." Kerry did, however, warn that the administration should exhaust its diplomatic avenues before launching war: "Mr. President, do not rush to war, take the time to build the coalition, because it's not winning the war that's hard, it's winning the peace that's hard."[114] After the invasion of Iraq, when no weapons of mass destruction were found, Kerry strongly criticized Bush, contending that he had misled the country: "When the President of the United States
United States
looks at you and tells you something, there should be some trust."[115] Leadership Kerry chaired the Senate Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs
Senate Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs
from 1991 to 1993. The committee's report, which Kerry endorsed, stated there was "no compelling evidence that proves that any American remains alive in captivity in Southeast Asia."[116] In 1994 the Senate passed a resolution, sponsored by Kerry and fellow Vietnam veteran John McCain, that called for an end to the existing trade embargo against Vietnam; it was intended to pave the way for normalization.[117] In 1995, President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
normalized diplomatic relations with the country of Vietnam.[118] Kerry was the chairman of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee from 1987 to 1989. He was reelected to the Senate in 1990, 1996 (after winning re-election against the then-Governor of Massachusetts Republican William Weld), 2002, and 2008. In January 2009, Kerry replaced Joe Biden
Joe Biden
as the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.[119] As a role model for campus leaders across the nation and strong advocate for global development, Kerry was honored by the Millennium Campus Network (MCN) as a Global Generation Award winner in 2011.[120][121] Committee assignments During his tenure, Kerry served on four Senate committees and nine subcommittees:

Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation

Subcommittee on Aviation Operations, Safety, and Security Subcommittee on Communications, Technology, and the Internet (Chairman) Subcommittee on Competitiveness, Innovation, and Export Promotion Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard Subcommittee on Science and Space Subcommittee on Surface Transportation and Merchant Marine Infrastructure, Safety, and Security

Committee on Finance

Subcommittee on Health Care Subcommittee on Energy, Natural Resources, and Infrastructure Subcommittee on International Trade, Customs, and Global Competitiveness

Committee on Foreign Relations (Chairman 2009-2013) Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction

Caucus memberships

Congressional Bicameral High-Speed and Intercity Rail Caucus Congressional Internet Caucus Congressional Vietnam-Era Veterans Caucus (Co-Chair) International Conservation Caucus Senate Prosecutors Caucus (Co-Chair) Senate Oceans Caucus

Seniority Main article: Seniority in the United States
United States
Senate From the beginning of the 113th United States
United States
Congress until his resignation, Kerry ranked as the 7th most senior U.S. Senator. Due to the longevity of Ted Kennedy's service, Kerry was the most senior junior Senator in the 111th United States
United States
Congress. On Tuesday, August 25, 2009, Kerry became the senior senator from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
following Ted Kennedy's death. 2004 presidential campaign Main articles: United States
United States
presidential election, 2004; John Kerry presidential campaign, 2004; and 2004 United States
United States
presidential election controversy and irregularities

Kerry and Teresa Heinz
Teresa Heinz
crossing Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
on the Lake Express during the 2004 campaign

Kerry on the campaign trail in Rochester, Minnesota

In the 2004 Democratic presidential primaries, John Kerry
John Kerry
defeated several Democratic rivals, including Sen. John Edwards
John Edwards
(D-North Carolina.), former Vermont Governor Howard Dean
Howard Dean
and retired Army General Wesley Clark. His victory in the Iowa
Iowa
caucuses is widely believed to be the tipping point where Kerry revived his sagging campaign in New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and the February 3, 2004, primary states like Arizona, South Carolina and New Mexico. Kerry then went on to win landslide victories in Nevada and Wisconsin. Kerry thus won the Democratic nomination to run for President of the United States against incumbent George W. Bush. On July 6, 2004, he announced his selection of John Edwards
John Edwards
as his running mate. Democratic strategist Bob Shrum, who was Kerry's 2004 campaign adviser, wrote an article in Time magazine claiming that after the election, Kerry had said that he wished he had never picked Edwards, and that the two have since stopped speaking to each other.[122] In a subsequent appearance on ABC's This Week, Kerry refused to respond to Shrum's allegation, calling it a "ridiculous waste of time."[123] During his bid to be elected president in 2004, Kerry frequently criticized President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
for starting the Iraq War.[124] While Kerry had initially voted in support of authorizing President Bush to use force in dealing with Saddam Hussein, he voted against an $87 billion supplemental appropriations bill to pay for the subsequent war. His statement on March 16, 2004, "I actually did vote for the $87 billion before I voted against it," helped the Bush campaign to paint him as a flip-flopper and has been cited as contributing to Kerry's defeat.[125] On November 3, 2004, Kerry conceded the race. Kerry won 59.03 million votes, or 48.3 percent of the popular vote; Bush won 62.04 million votes, or 50.7 percent of the popular vote. Kerry carried states with a total of 252 electoral votes. One Kerry elector voted for Kerry's running mate, Edwards, so in the final tally Kerry had 251 electoral votes to Bush's 286.[126] Later presidential election activities

Kerry speaking during the third night of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado

Immediately after the 2004 election, some Democrats mentioned Kerry as a possible contender for the 2008 Democratic nomination. His brother had said such a campaign was "conceivable", and Kerry himself reportedly said at a farewell party for his 2004 campaign staff, "There's always another four years."[127] Kerry established a separate political action committee, Keeping America's Promise, which declared as its mandate "A Democratic Congress will restore accountability to Washington and help change a disastrous course in Iraq",[128] and raised money and channeled contributions to Democratic candidates in state and federal races.[129] Through Keeping America's Promise in 2005, Kerry raised over $5.5 million for other Democrats up and down the ballot. Through his campaign account and his political action committee, the Kerry campaign operation generated more than $10 million for various party committees and 179 candidates for the U.S. House, Senate, state and local offices in 42 states focusing on the midterm elections during the 2006 election cycle.[130] "Cumulatively, John Kerry
John Kerry
has done as much if not more than any other individual senator", Hassan Nemazee, the national finance chairman of the DSCC said.[131] On January 10, 2008, Kerry endorsed Illinois Senator Barack Obama
Barack Obama
for president.[132] He was mentioned as a possible vice presidential candidate for Senator Obama, although fellow Senator Joe Biden
Joe Biden
was eventually chosen. After Biden's acceptance of the vice presidential nomination, speculation arose that John Kerry
John Kerry
would be a candidate for Secretary of State in the Obama administration.[133] However, Senator Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
was offered the position.[134] During the 2012 Obama reelection campaign, Kerry participated in one-on-one debate prep with the president, impersonating the Republican candidate Mitt Romney.[135] Secretary of State (2013–2017)

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry
John Kerry
meets with Grybauskaitė in Vilnius, September 7, 2013

John Kerry
John Kerry
is sworn in as Secretary of State by Justice Elena Kagan, February 1, 2013

Nomination On December 15, 2012, several news outlets reported that President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
would nominate Kerry to succeed Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
as Secretary of State,[136][137] after Susan Rice, widely seen as Obama's preferred choice, withdrew her name from consideration citing a politicized confirmation process following criticism of her response to the 2012 Benghazi attack.[138] On December 21, Obama proposed the nomination[139][140] which received positive commentary. His confirmation hearing took place on January 24, 2013, before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, the same panel where he first testified in 1971.[141][142] The committee unanimously voted to approve him on January 29, 2013, and the same day the full Senate confirmed him on a vote of 94–3.[143][144] In a letter to Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Governor Deval Patrick, Kerry announced his resignation from the Senate effective February 1.[145]

Kerry with Hossein Fereydoun and Mohammad Javad Zarif
Mohammad Javad Zarif
during the announcement of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, July 14, 2015

Tenure

Ukrainian opposition leaders Vitali Klitschko, Arseniy Yatsenyuk
Arseniy Yatsenyuk
and Petro Poroshenko
Petro Poroshenko
meeting Kerry, February 1, 2014

Kerry was sworn in as Secretary of State on February 1, 2013.[146] After six months of rigorous diplomacy within the Middle East, Secretary Kerry was able to have Israeli and Palestinian negotiators agree to start the 2013–14 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks. Senior U.S. officials stated the two sides were able to meet on July 30, 2013 at the State Department
State Department
without American mediators following a dinner the previous evening hosted by Kerry.[147]

Kerry views the Mrajeeb al-Fhood camp for Syrian refugees

On September 27, 2013, he met with the Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif
Mohammad Javad Zarif
during the P5+1 and Iran
Iran
summit, which eventually led to the JCPOA nuclear agreement. It was the highest-level direct contact between the United States
United States
and Iran
Iran
in the last six years, and made him the first U.S. Secretary of State to have met with his Iranian counterpart since 1979 Iranian Revolution.[148][149][150]

John Kerry
John Kerry
and Barack Obama
Barack Obama
meet with Russian President Vladimir Putin to discuss Syria, September 29, 2015

Kerry meets with Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte
Rodrigo Duterte
at Malacañang Palace in Manila, Philippines on July 26, 2016

Kerry meets with Argentine President Mauricio Macri
Mauricio Macri
in Buenos Aires, Argentina on August 4, 2016

In the State Department, Kerry quickly earned a reputation "for being aloof, keeping to himself, and not bothering to read staff memos." Career State Department
State Department
officials have complained that power has become too centralized under Kerry's leadership, which slows department operations when Kerry is on one of his frequent overseas trips. Others in State describe Kerry as having "a kind of diplomatic attention deficit disorder" as he shifts from topic to topic instead of focusing on long-term strategy. When asked whether he was traveling too much, he responded, "Hell no. I'm not slowing down." Despite Kerry's early achievements, morale at State is lower than under Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
according to department employees.[151] However, after Kerry's first six months in the State Department, a Gallup poll found he had high approval ratings among Americans as Secretary of State.[152] After a year, another poll showed Kerry's favorability continued to rise.[153] Less than two years into Kerry's term, the Foreign Policy Magazine's 2014 Ivory Tower survey of international relations scholars asked, "Who was the most effective U.S. Secretary of State in the past 50 years?"; John Kerry
John Kerry
and Lawrence Eagleburger tied for 11th place out of the 15 confirmed Secretaries of State in that period.[154][155] In January 2014, having met with Secretary of State, Archbishop
Archbishop
Pietro Parolin, Kerry said "We touched on just about every major issue that we are both working on, that are issues of concern to all of us. First of all, we talked at great length about Syria, and I was particularly appreciative for the Archbishop’s raising this issue, and equally grateful for the Holy Father’s comments – the Pope's comments yesterday regarding his support for the Geneva II process. We welcome that support. It is very important to have broad support, and I know that the Pope is particularly concerned about the massive numbers of displaced human beings and the violence that has taken over 130,000 lives".[156] Kerry expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict.[157] Kerry said the United States
United States
supported the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen because Saudi Arabia, an ally, was threatened "very directly" by the takeover of neighboring Yemen by the Houthis, but noted that the United States
United States
would not reflexively support Saudi Arabia’s proxy wars against Iran.[158] On December 28, 2016, soon after United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 2334 passed 14-0 with the U.S. abstaining, Kerry joined the rest of the U.N. Security Council in strongly criticizing Israel's settlement policies in a speech.[159] His speech and criticisms met negative reactions from Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu,[160] while UK Prime Minister Theresa May
Theresa May
distanced the UK from Kerry’s strongly worded speech in what appeared to be an attempt to build bridges with the incoming Trump administration.[161] Kerry's speech received positive reactions from Arab nations, but some criticized his remarks as too little, too late from the outgoing administration.[162] Syria Following the August 21, 2013, chemical weapons attack on the Ghouta suburbs of Damascus attributed to Syrian government forces, Kerry became a leading advocate for the use of military force against the Syrian government for what he called "a despot's brutal and flagrant use of chemical weapons."[163] Kerry said on September 9 in response to a reporter's question about whether Syrian President Bashar al-Assad
Bashar al-Assad
could avert a military strike: "He could turn over every single bit of his chemical weapons to the international community in the next week. Turn it over, all of it, without delay, and allow a full and total accounting for that. But he isn't about to do it, and it can't be done, obviously." This unscripted remark initiated a process that would lead to Syria agreeing to relinquish and destroy its chemical weapons arsenal, as Russia treated Kerry's statement as a serious proposal. Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov
Sergey Lavrov
said Russia would work "immediately" to convince Syria relinquish and destroy its large chemical weapons arsenal.[164][165][166][167] Syria quickly welcomed this proposal and on September 14, the UN formally accepted Syria's application to join the convention banning chemical weapons, and separately, the U.S. and Russia agreed on a plan to eliminate Syria's chemical weapons by the middle of 2014, leading Kerry to declare on July 20, 2014: "we struck a deal where we got 100 percent of the chemical weapons out."[168] On September 28, the UN Security Council passed a resolution ordering the destruction of Syria's chemical weapons and condemning the August 21 Ghouta attack.[169] Latin America In a speech before the Organization of American States
Organization of American States
in November 2013, Kerry remarked that the era of the Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
was over. He went on to explain, "The relationship that we seek and that we have worked hard to foster is not about a United States
United States
declaration about how and when it will intervene in the affairs of other American states. It's about all of our countries viewing one another as equals, sharing responsibilities, cooperating on security issues, and adhering not to doctrine, but to the decisions that we make as partners to advance the values and the interests that we share."[170] Environmentalism Kerry has had a long-standing concern with environmentalism as a global issue. In April 2016, he signed the Paris Climate Accords at the United Nations
United Nations
in New York.[171] On November 11, 2016, Kerry became the first Secretary of State and highest-ranking U.S. official to date to visit Antarctica. Kerry spent two days on the continent meeting with researchers and staying overnight at McMurdo Station.[172] In 1994, Kerry led opposition to continued funding for the Integral Fast Reactor, which resulting in the end of funding for the project.[173] However, in light of increasing concerns regarding climate change, in 2017 Kerry reversed his position on nuclear power, saying "Given this challenge we face today, and given the progress of fourth generation nuclear: go for it. No other alternative, zero emissions."[174] Global Connect initiative In September 2015, the U.S. Department of State unveiled a new initiative called "Global Connect" which seeks to provide internet access to over 1.5 billion people around the world who do not have online connectivity by year 2020.[175] In 2016, in partnership with OPIC, Kerry announced an investment of $171 million to enable "a low-cost and rapidly scalable wireless broadband network in India". OPIC’s financing is aimed at helping its Indian Partner, Tikona Digital Networks, to provide Internet through wireless technology.[176][177][178] Post-Obama Administration Kerry retired from his diplomatic work following the end of the Obama administration on January 20, 2017.[179] He did not attend Donald Trump's inauguration on that day, and the following day took part in the 2017 Women's March
2017 Women's March
in Washington D.C.[180] Kerry has taken a strong stand against Trump policies and joined in filing a brief arguing against the new president's executive order banning entry of persons from seven Muslim countries.[181] Writing his memoirs According to news reports, Kerry intends to write his first memoir, which is due to come out in 2018.[182] Homes In April 2017, Kerry purchased a 18-acre property on the northwest corner of Martha's Vineyard
Martha's Vineyard
overlooking Vineyard Sound
Vineyard Sound
in the town of Chilmark, Massachusetts. The property is located in Seven Gates Farm and according to property records, cost $11.75 million for the seven bedroom home.[183] Personal and family life Ancestry Kerry's paternal grandparents, shoe businessman Frederick A. "Fred" Kerry and musician Ida Lowe, were immigrants from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Fred was born as "Fritz Kohn" before he and Ida took on the "Kerry" name and moved to the United States. Fred and Ida were born Jewish, and converted to Catholicism together in Austria.[184] His maternal ancestors were of Scottish and English descent,[9][184] and his maternal grandfather James Grant Forbes
Forbes
II was a member of the Forbes
Forbes
family, while his maternal grandmother Margaret Tyndal Winthrop was a member of the Dudley–Winthrop family. Margaret's paternal grandfather Robert Charles Winthrop
Robert Charles Winthrop
served as the 22nd Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives. Robert's father was Governor Thomas Lindall Winthrop. Thomas' father John Still Winthrop was a great-great-grandson of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony Governor John Winthrop[6] and great-grandson of Governor Thomas Dudley.[9] Through his mother, John is a first cousin once removed of French politician Brice Lalonde.[9][185] Marriages and children

Kerry's daughter Vanessa and grandson Alexander

Kerry was married to Julia Stimson Thorne in 1970, and they had two daughters together:

Alexandra Forbes
Forbes
Kerry (born September 5, 1973), documentary filmmaker Vanessa Bradford Kerry (born December 31, 1976), physician

Kerry at the LBJ Presidential Library
LBJ Presidential Library
in 2016

Kerry at the Great Naadam
Naadam
in Mongolia, 2016

Alexandra was born days before Kerry began law school. In 1982, Julia asked Kerry for a separation while she was suffering from severe depression.[186] They were divorced on July 25, 1988, and the marriage was formally annulled in 1997. "After 14 years as a political wife, I associated politics only with anger, fear and loneliness" she wrote in A Change of Heart, her book about depression. Thorne later married Richard Charlesworth, an architect, and moved to Bozeman, Montana, where she became active in local environmental groups such as the Greater Yellowstone Coalition. Thorne supported Kerry's 2004 presidential run. She died of cancer on April 27, 2006.[187] Kerry and his second wife, Mozambican-born businesswoman and philanthropist Maria Teresa Thierstein Simões Ferreira (known as Teresa), the widow of Kerry's late Pennsylvania Republican Senate colleague Henry John Heinz III, were introduced to each other by Heinz at an Earth Day
Earth Day
rally in 1990. Early the following year, Senator Heinz was killed in a plane crash near Lower Merion. Teresa has three sons from her previous marriage to Heinz, Henry John Heinz IV, André Thierstein Heinz, and Christopher Drake Heinz.[188] Heinz and Kerry were married on May 26, 1995, in Nantucket, Massachusetts.[189] The Forbes 400
Forbes 400
survey estimated in 2004 that Teresa Heinz
Teresa Heinz
Kerry had a net worth of $750 million. However, estimates have frequently varied, ranging from around $165 million to as high as $3.2 billion, according to a study in the Los Angeles Times. Regardless of which figure is correct, Kerry was the wealthiest U.S. Senator while serving in the Senate. Independent of Heinz, Kerry is wealthy in his own right, and is the beneficiary of at least four trusts inherited from Forbes family relatives, including his mother, Rosemary Forbes
Forbes
Kerry, who died in 2002. Forbes
Forbes
magazine (named for the Forbes family
Forbes family
of publishers, unrelated to Kerry) estimated that if elected, and if Heinz family assets were included, Kerry would have been the third-richest U.S. President in history, when adjusted for inflation.[190] This assessment was based on Heinz and Kerry's combined assets, but the couple signed a prenuptial agreement that keeps their assets separate.[191] Kerry's financial disclosure form for 2011 put his personal assets in the range of $230,000,000 to $320,000,000,[192] including the assets of his spouse and any dependent children. This included slightly more than three million dollars worth of H. J. Heinz Company
H. J. Heinz Company
assets, which increased in value by over six hundred thousand dollars in 2013 when Berkshire Hathaway announced their intention to purchase the company.[193] Religious beliefs

Kerry touring a Chinese automobile factory in Beijing

Kerry is a Roman Catholic, and is said to have carried a religious rosary, a prayer book, and a St. Christopher
St. Christopher
medal (the patron saint of travelers) when he campaigned. Discussing his faith, Kerry said: "I thought of being a priest. I was very religious while at school in Switzerland. I was an altar boy and prayed all the time. I was very centered around the Mass and the church." He also said that the Letters of Paul (Apostle Paul) moved him the most, stating that they taught him to "not feel sorry for myself."[2] Kerry told Christianity Today in October 2004:

I'm a Catholic
Catholic
and I practice, but at the same time I have an open-mindedness to many other expressions of spirituality that come through different religions... I've spent some time reading and thinking about religion and trying to study it, and I've arrived at not so much a sense of the differences, but a sense of the similarities in so many ways.[194]

He said that he believed that the Torah, the Quran, and the Bible
Bible
all share a fundamental story which connects with readers.[194] Health In 2003, Kerry was diagnosed with and successfully treated for prostate cancer.[195] On May 31, 2015, Kerry broke his right leg in a biking accident in Scionzier, France, and was flown to Boston's Massachusetts
Massachusetts
General Hospital for recovery. MGH Hip and Knee Replacement Orthopaedic Surgeon Dr. Dennis Burke,[196] who had met Kerry in France and had accompanied him in the plane from France to Boston, set Kerry's right leg on Tuesday, June 2, in a four-hour operation.[197][198] Athletics and sailing In addition to the sports he played at Yale, Kerry is described by Sports Illustrated, among others, as an "avid cyclist",[199][200] primarily riding on a road bike. Prior to his presidential bid, Kerry was known to have participated in several long-distance rides (centuries). Even during his many campaigns, he was reported to have visited bicycle stores in both his home state and elsewhere. His staff requested recumbent stationary bikes for his hotel rooms.[201] He has also been a snowboarder, windsurfer, and sailor.[202] According to the Boston Herald, dated July 23, 2010, Kerry commissioned construction on a new $7 million yacht (a Friendship 75) in New Zealand and moored it in Portsmouth, Rhode Island, where the Friendship yacht company is based.[203] The article claimed this allowed him to avoid paying Massachusetts
Massachusetts
taxes on the property including approximately $437,500 in sales tax and an annual excise tax of about $500.[204][205] However, on July 27, 2010, Kerry stated he had yet to take legal possession of the boat, had not intended to avoid the taxes, and that when he took possession, he would pay the taxes whether he owed them or not.[206] Foreign honors John Kerry
John Kerry
was awarded:[207]

Kerry after he received Grand Office of the Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour
from French Foreign Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault.

Germany: Grand Cross 1st class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany France: Grand Office of the Legion of Honour

Honorary Degrees John Kerry
John Kerry
has received several honorary degrees in recognition of his service to the United States, These Include:

State Date School Degree

Massachusetts May 28, 1988 University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Boston Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws
[208][209]

Massachusetts June 17, 2000 Northeastern University Doctor of Public Service [210]

Ohio May 2006 Kenyon College Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws
[211]

Massachusetts May 19, 2014 Boston College Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws
[212]

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. Electoral history Main article: Electoral history of John Kerry See also

United States
United States
Navy portal Massachusetts
Massachusetts
portal

List of foreign ministers in 2017

References

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John Kerry
chokes up talking about his diplomat father and gets a kiss of approval from Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
during Secretary of State confirmation hearing". Mail Online. London. January 24, 2013.  ^ "Kerry's World: Father Knows Best". cbsnews.com. March 2, 2004.  ^ a b "'Outsider' label follows Kerry in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
despite years in office". News-Sentinel. July 6, 2004.  ^ Goldhaber, Samuel Z. (February 18, 1970). "John Kerry: A Navy Dove Runs for Congress".  ^ Kranish, Michael (June 15, 2003). "A privileged youth, a taste for risk". The Boston Globe.  ^ a b c d e Kranish, Michael; Mooney, Brian C.; Easton, Nina J. (April 27, 2004). "John Kerry: The Complete Biography by The Boston Globe Reporters Who Know Him Best". The Boston Globe. John W. Henry.  ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/04/americas_john_kerry0s_life/html/3.stm ^ "ESPN.com: Page 2 : Rink turns and big deals". go.com. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ "Kerry '66: 'He was going to be president'". Yale Daily News. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ Martin, Douglas. "H. Bradford Westerfield, 79, Influential Yale Professor". The New York Times. January 27, 2008. ^ "At 50, AIESEC
AIESEC
ponders its future". Yale Daily News. January 22, 2007. Archived from the original on April 19, 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ "Welcome to AIESEC". Aiesec.org. Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ " AIESEC
AIESEC
Yale". Yale.edu. Archived from the original on February 17, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013.  ^ "Yale Debate Team, 1965–1966, Yale University
Yale University
Manuscripts & Archives Digital Images Database, Yale University". Images.library.yale.edu. June 18, 2013. Retrieved June 26, 2013.  ^ Leibenluft, Jacob (February 14, 2003). "Kerry '66: 'He was going to be president'". Yale Daily News. Retrieved December 22, 2012.  ^ Kranish, Michael (June 7, 2005). "Yale grades portray Kerry as a lackluster student". The Boston Globe.  ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20040723192004/http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Request_For_History_of_Service.pdf ^ Kranish, Michael (June 7, 2005). "Kerry allows Navy release of military, medical records". The Boston Globe.  ^ Gerstein, Josh (June 21, 2005). "Kerry Grants Three Reporters Broad Access to Navy Records".  ^ a b Official Record Copy of request for duty in Vietnam. Retrieved November 4, 2009. ^ Kranish, Michael (June 16, 2003). "Heroism, and growing concern about war". The Boston Globe.  ^ Brinkley, Douglas. "John Kerry's first Purple Heart". Salon. Archived from the original on February 1, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2007.  ^ Rasmussen, Eric (2004). "Primary Sources: John Kerry's Vietnam Medals" (PDF). Truth and Unfit for Command
Unfit for Command
A Review. kerryvietnam.org. Retrieved September 5, 2013.  ^ Rasmussen, Eric (2004). "Primary Sources: John Kerry's Vietnam Medals" (PDF). Truth and Unfit for Command
Unfit for Command
A Review. kerryvietnam.org. Retrieved September 5, 2013.  ^ Rasmussen, Eric (2004). "Part I: John Kerry
John Kerry
in Vietnam" (PDF). Truth and Unfit for Command
Unfit for Command
A Review. kerryvietnam.org. Retrieved September 5, 2013.  ^ "LTJG Peter N. Upton, The Death Of PCF 43". Mwweb.com. April 12, 1969. Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ " Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal – John F. Kerry" (PDF). Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ Rasmussen, Eric (2004). "Primary Sources: John Kerry's Vietnam Medals" (PDF). Truth and Unfit for Command
Unfit for Command
A Review. kerryvietnam.org. Retrieved September 5, 2013.  ^ Rasmussen, Eric (2004). "Primary Sources: John Kerry's Vietnam Medals" (PDF). Truth and Unfit for Command
Unfit for Command
A Review. kerryvietnam.org. Retrieved September 5, 2013.  ^ Rasmussen, Eric (2004). "Primary Sources: John Kerry's Vietnam Medals" (PDF). Truth and Unfit for Command
Unfit for Command
A Review. kerryvietnam.org. Retrieved September 5, 2013.  ^ Rasmussen, Eric (2004). "Primary Sources: John Kerry's Vietnam Medals" (PDF). Truth and Unfit for Command
Unfit for Command
A Review. kerryvietnam.org. Retrieved September 5, 2013.  ^ " Bronze Star Medal
Bronze Star Medal
– John F. Kerry" (PDF). Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ "Thrice wounded", Official Record Copy via findlaw.com, March 2, 1969. ^ United States
United States
Navy. "Temporary Orders and Ranks (Internet Archive mirror)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 26, 2004. Retrieved September 8, 2006.  ^ http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/jkerry/rqstswiftboat.pdf ^ http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/jkerry/releaseactduty.pdf ^ Critics countered on Kerry record of inactive service – Naval Reserve tour is defended; The Boston Globe; September 10, 2004. ^ "'Hardball with Chris Matthews' for August 19". MSNBC. August 19, 2004. Retrieved April 22, 2013.  ^ Brinkley, Douglas (March 9, 2004). "The Tenth Brother". Time.  ^ Casey, Leo (Spring 2009). "No redemption song: The Case of Bill Ayers". Dissent. University of Pennsylvania Press. 56 (2): 107–111. doi:10.1353/dss.0.0041. ISSN 0012-3846. In recent elections, the patriotism and good names of Democratic war hero candidates, from John Kerry to Max Cleland, had been impugned so successfully that a neologism for such smears—to 'swift boat'—was coined out of the assault on Kerry.  ^

Coile, Zachary (August 6, 2004). "Vets group attacks Kerry; McCain defends Democrat". San Francisco Chronicle.  Zernke, Kate (May 28, 2006). "Kerry Pressing Swift Boat Case Long After Loss". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2014.  Akers, Mary Ann (June 20, 2008). "John Kerry's Vietnam Crew Mates Still Fighting Swift Boating". The Washington Post.  Lehigh, Scot (August 20, 2004). "Kerry comrades have credibility on their side". The Boston Globe. John W. Henry. Retrieved May 4, 2014. 

^ O’Donnell, Lawrence (2017). "Playing with Fire – The 1968 Elections and the Transformation of American Politics” (1st ed.). Penguin Press. p. 6. ISBN 9780399563140.  ^ Lembcke, Jerry (Fall 2003). "Still a Force for Peace".  ^ Williams, Brian. "Nixon targeted Kerry for anti-war views".  ^ The Washington Post, December 9, 2005, "'Winter Soldier': Cold Days in Hell," https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/08/AR2005120801996.html ^ Jan, Tracy; Bryan Bender (December 21, 2012). "Roots of John Kerry's secretary of state ambition lie in wake of 2004 defeat". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 12, 2012. Just three months after losing his campaign to be president  ^ Oliphant, Tom (April 27, 2004). "I watched Kerry throw his war decorations". The Boston Globe.  ^ Unfinished Symphony: Democracy and Dissent – Documentary, 2001. ^ Against the Vietnam War: Writings by Activists, Mary Susannah Robbins, pp. 78–90. ^ Lexington Minute-Man Newspaper, May 23, 1991. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Brian C. Mooney (June 18, 2003). "First campaign ends in defeat". The Boston Globe. Retrieved April 9, 2016.  ^ "MA District 5 - D Primary 1972". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 9, 2016.  ^ Todd Purdum (September 24, 2004). "Echoes of a 1972 Loss Haunt a 2004 Campaign". The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2016.  ^ Associated Press (November 6, 1972). "Durkin Pulls Out of Race in Effort to Defeat Kerry". Nashua Telegraph. Nashua, NH. p. 8.  ^ "MA District 5 1972". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 9, 2016.  ^ Chris Tierney, The Lowell Sun, Remember When?, June 28, 2014 ^ ProCon.org, Alternative Energy Pros and Cons: Biography, John Kerry, retrieved July 28, 2014 ^ Brian C. Mooney, The Boston Globe, John Kerry, candidate in the Making: Part 4; First Campaign Ends in Defeat, June 18, 2003 ^ John J. Mullins, Associated Press, Lowell Sun, For John Kerry
John Kerry
It's Law -- For Now, October 26, 1975 ^ Boston College
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Office of news and Public Affairs, Secretary of State John Kerry
John Kerry
to Boston College
Boston College
Class of 2014: 'Pass On Your Light to Others', May 19, 2014 ^ Meghan E. Irons, The Boston Globe, John Kerry
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Visits Mass. for Farewell Tour, January 31, 2013 ^ James Rainey, Los Angeles Times, Kerry's Crime-Fighting Early Days July 18, 2004 ^ a b Jeffrey Toobin (May 10, 2004). "Kerry's Trials: What the Candidate Learned as a Lawyer". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 9, 2016.  ^ "/ Photo gallery". Boston.com. June 16, 1978. Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ United Press International, Galveston Daily News, Sen. Brooke Not To Face Prosecution For Perjury, August 2, 1978 ^ Michael Pare (December 6, 1999). "Thomas P. O'Neill, III". Providence Business News. Retrieved April 9, 2016.  ^ Stuart E. Weisberg, Barney Frank: The Story of America's Only Left-handed, Gay, Jewish Congressman, 2009, page 170 ^ "MA Lt. Governor - D Primary 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 9, 2016.  ^ Katie Zezima, The New York Times, Ex-Gov. Edward J. King, 81, Who Defeated Dukakis, Dies, September 19, 2006 ^ Marie Marmo Mullaney, Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1988-1994, 1994, pages 177-178 ^ Stan Grossfeld, The Boston Globe, Photo caption: "Governor-elect Michael Dukakis
Michael Dukakis
and Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Governor-elect John Kerry
John Kerry
celebrate their 1982 election victory.", 1982 ^ Bruce L. Brager, John Kerry: Senator from Massachusetts, 2005, page 78 ^ Associated Press, NBCNews.com, '82 Victory Was Key to Kerry's Career, August 9, 2004 ^ Charles P. Pierce (January 29, 2007). "The Misunderestimation of John Kerry". Esquire. Retrieved April 9, 2016.  ^ Paul Duke, Jr., Harvard Crimson, Richardson to Run for Tsongas' Seat; Candidacy Fires Republican Hopes, February 14, 1984 ^ George B. Merry, Christian Science Monitor, Shannon Senate Bid Gets Key Endorsement, June 11, 1984 ^ Paul Duke, Jr., Harvard Crimson, Shannon Bid for Senate Seat Threatens Favorites: Congressman Joins Tough Race Against Markey, Kerry and Bartley, February 7, 1984 ^ Kornacki, Steve (February 7, 2011) Will things finally, really work out for John Kerry?, Salon.com. ^ Martin F. Nolan, San Francisco Chronicle, Can't Kiss Off Kerry / He's a Hardscrabble Campaigner Who Woos Blue-Collar Voters and Fights for Life when Behind, April 4, 2004 ^ Paul Duke, Jr., Harvard Crimson, Republican Stars Shine on Ray Shamie: Heckler, Fahrenkopf Plug Senate Candidate in Boston, October 2, 1984 ^ Dan Payne, Salon.com, How Kerry Wins, April 13, 2004 ^ Fox Butterfield, The New York Times, The 1984 Election: Each State Has its own battles; Democrat Victor in Massachusetts, November 7, 1984 ^ Associated Press, Bangor Daily News, Kerry to be Sworn in to Senate One Day Early to Gain Seniority, January 2, 1985 ^ Farrell, John Aloysius (June 20, 2003). "With probes, making his mark". The Boston Globe. Retrieved June 21, 2006.  ^ " White House
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Official Linked To Arms Deliveries to Contras". The New York Times. October 15, 1986. p. 6.  ^ "Selections from the Senate Committee Report on Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy chaired by Senator John F. Kerry". Retrieved April 21, 2006.  ^ Cockburn, Alexander; Jeffrey St Clair (October 1, 1999). Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press. Verso. ISBN 1-85984-258-5.  ^ Corn, David (July 16, 2001). "Defining John Kerry". The Nation. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Johnston, David (December 24, 1992). "Bush Pardons 6 In Iran
Iran
Affair, Aborting A Weinberger Trial; Prosecutor Assails 'Cover-Up' Bush Diary at Issue 6-Year Inquiry Into Deal of Arms for Hostages All but Swept Away". The New York Times.  ^ "Senator repudiates 'Shoot Quayle' joke". St. Louis Post-Dispatch Archives/AP via Nl.newsbank.com. November 17, 1988. Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ Sirota, David; Baskin, Jonathan (September 2004). "Follow the Money". Archived from the original on September 11, 2004.  ^ "The BCCI Affair – 19 Ed Rogers and Kamal Adham". Fas.org. Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ Rimer, Sara (October 25, 1996). "Promises Yield to Old-Fashioned Politics". The New York Times. Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ Rucker, Philip; Balz, Dan (June 18, 2012). "Obama picks John Kerry to play Romney in mock debate rehearsals". The Washington Post.  ^ Battenfeld, Joe (July 14, 2000). "Kerry's stock rises in VP sweepstakes". CNN.  ^ Connolly, Ceci (August 4, 2000). "Gore Trims VP List To Six – Senators Have Inside Track / Bradley could be `wild card' pick". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved January 9, 2013.  ^ Ryan, Andrew (October 31, 2006). "Kerry says he "botched joke" and lashes out at GOP". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 11, 2007.  ^ "Kerry Events Cut as Democrats Criticize Iraq Remark (Update5)". bloomberg.com. November 1, 2006. Retrieved January 12, 2013.  ^ Loven, Jennifer (November 1, 2006). "Some Democrats join Republicans in pressing Kerry for apology". Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on April 18, 2010.  ^ "Statement of John Kerry
John Kerry
Responding to Republican Distortions, Pathetic Tony Snow Diversions and Distractions". Friends of John Kerry. October 31, 2006. Archived from the original on December 29, 2006. Retrieved January 11, 2007.  ^ Sandalow, Marc (November 2, 2006). "'Botched joke' feeds a frenzy among Dems, GOP and media". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on August 10, 2007.  ^ Zernike, Kate (November 1, 2006). "Flubbed Joke Makes Kerry a Political Punching Bag, Again". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2007.  ^ Stout, David (November 1, 2006). "Kerry Apologizes for Iraq Remark". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2007.  ^ Partlow, Joshua (May 15, 2011). "Kerry: U.S. relationship with Pakistan
Pakistan
at 'critical moment'". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 15, 2011.  ^ Brulliard, Karin (May 17, 2011). " Pakistan
Pakistan
to return U.S. helicopter tail, Kerry says". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 17, 2011.  ^ Kumar Sen, Ashish. "Secretary of State John Kerry
John Kerry
meets with Pakistani army chief to discuss Taliban". The Washington Times. Retrieved March 26, 2013.  ^ How Liberal is John Kerry? FactCheck.org. Retrieved January 28, 2013. ^ "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Senate.gov. Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ "Kerry says U.S. 'a sort of international pariah'". USA TODAY. January 27, 2007.  ^ "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Senate.gov. Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ "Kerry Makes It Official". CBS. September 2, 2003.  ^ "Bush defends Iraq war in face of WMD findings". CNN. January 28, 2004.  ^ "Report of the Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs". U.S. Senate. January 13, 1993. Retrieved January 3, 2008.  ^ Greenhouse, Steven (January 28, 1994). "Senate Urges End to U.S. Embargo Against Vietnam". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2008.  ^ Walsh, James (July 24, 1995). "Good Morning, Vietnam". Time. Retrieved January 5, 2008.  ^ Bryan Bender (November 20, 2008). "Kerry poised to cap long journey". The Boston Globe.  ^ Pearlman, Alex (September 19, 2011). "Global Generation Awards Honor Gen Y's Humanitarian Heroes - The Next Great Generation". Boston.com. Retrieved April 22, 2013.  ^ Shanahan, Mark; Goldstein, Meredith (September 20, 2011). "Dushku honored at Global Generation Awards". Boston.com. Retrieved April 22, 2013.  ^ Shrum, Robert (May 30, 2007). "Kerry's Regrets About John Edwards". Time.com. Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ Pitney, Nico (January 13, 2008). "Kerry Disregards Bob Shrum Book: "Ridiculous Waste Of Time"". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ "Text of Kerry's Acceptance Speech,", NBC News, July 29, 2004. "Saying there are weapons of mass destruction in Iraq doesn't make it so. Saying we can fight a war on the cheap doesn't make it so. And proclaiming mission accomplished certainly doesn't make it so." ^ Barone, Michael; Cohen, Richard E. (2009). The Almanac of American Politics
Politics
2010. Washington, D.C.: National Journal
National Journal
Group. p. 731. ISBN 978-0-89234-120-7. Bush's job approval hovered under 50%, and he trailed Kerry in polls for much of the seven-month campaign. Kerry performed well in debates, being judged the winner in snap polls in all three. Yet he lost. One reason may have been encapsulated by his March 16 defense of his 2003 vote against the supplemental appropriation for Iraq: 'I actually did vote for the $87 billion before I voted against it.' The Bush campaign painted Kerry as a flip-flopper.  ^ http://www.fec.gov/pubrec/fe2004/federalelections2004.pdf ^ Johnson, Glen (November 9, 2004). "Kerry run in '08 called conceivable". The Boston Globe.  ^ "Keeping America's Promise". Keepingamericaspromise.com. July 5, 2007. Archived from the original on November 16, 2006. Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ Johnson, Glen (December 5, 2004). "Kerry creates PAC to back candidates". The Boston Globe.  ^ Mooney, Brain C. (October 9, 2006). "Kerry's barnstorming sparks talk of a run". The Boston Globe.  ^ Klein, Rick; Kranish, Michael (October 21, 2006). "Kerry is pressured to share campaign wealth". The Boston Globe.  ^ "Kerry endorses Obama over '04 running mate". CNN.com. January 10, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ Hosenball, Mark (June 23, 2008). "A Bid for an Obama Cabinet". Newsweek.  ^ " Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
reportedly accepts Barack Obama's Cabinet offer". Latimesblogs. November 21, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2010.  ^ Rama, Padmananda (November 8, 2012). "Likely Suspects: Guessing Obama's Second-Term Cabinet". NPR via northcountrypublicradio.org.  ^ Tapper, Jake (December 15, 2012). " John Kerry
John Kerry
to Be Nominated to Be Secretary of State, Sources Say". ABC News. Retrieved December 15, 2012.  ^ Lavender, Paige (December 15, 2012). " John Kerry
John Kerry
To Get Secretary Of State Nomination, Reports ABC". Huffington Post. Retrieved December 15, 2012.  ^ " Susan Rice
Susan Rice
drops out of running for secretary of state, cites 'very politicized' confirmation process". NBC News. December 12, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2012.  ^ Landler, Mark (December 21, 2012). "Kerry Is Pick for Secretary of State, Official Says". The New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2012.  ^ "Remarks by the President at Nomination of Senator John Kerry
John Kerry
as Secretary of State", The White House, December 21, 2012. ^ "Senator John Kerry's confirmation hearing to serve as U.S. Secretary of State scheduled for next week". Boston.com. January 16, 2013. ^ Nomination of John F. Kerry to be Secretary of State: Hearing Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States
United States
Senate, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, First Session, January 24, 2013 ^ Curry, Tom (January 29, 2013). "Senate votes to confirm Kerry as secretary of state". NBC News. Retrieved January 29, 2013.  ^ "Senate Roll Call Vote". January 29, 2013. Retrieved April 3, 2013.  ^ Kerry, John (January 29, 2013). "Letter to Deval Patrick" (PDF). boston.com. Retrieved January 30, 2013.  ^ "CLINTON OUT, KERRY IN AS SECRETARY OF STATE". Associated Press. Retrieved February 1, 2013.  ^ " Middle East
Middle East
Peace Talks To Resume". Huffington Post. July 30, 2013. Archived from the original on August 2, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2013.  ^ "Diplomats hail new Iranian attitude in nuke talks". Yahoo News. September 27, 2013.  ^ "U.S., Iran
Iran
voice optimism and caution after rare encounter". Yahoo News. September 27, 2013.  ^ "Remarks After the P-5+1 Ministerial on Iran".  ^ Rohde, David (November 20, 2013). "How John Kerry
John Kerry
Could End Up Outdoing Hillary Clinton". The Atlantic.  ^ Arkin, James (September 16, 2013). "Poll: John Kerry's approval tops President Obama's". Politico.  ^ Swift, Art (March 5, 2014). "Secretary of State Kerry's Favorability Rising in the U.S."  ^ Kamen, Al (February 5, 2015). "Scholars votes put Kerry dead last in terms of effectiveness". The Washington Post.  ^ Maliniak, Daniel (February 5, 2015). "The Best International Relations Schools in the World". Foreign Policy.  ^ "Remarks After Meeting With Secretary of State of the Holy See Pietro Parolin". state.gov. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014.  ^ "After airstrikes kill dozens in Gaza, Kerry backs Israel's right to defend itself". The Times of Israel. July 20, 2014.  ^ "Quiet Support for Saudis Entangles U.S. in Yemen". The New York Times. March 13, 2016.  ^ Sanger, David E. (December 28, 2016). "Kerry Rebukes Israel, Calling Settlements a Threat to Peace". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2017.  ^ "Israel-Palestinians: Netanyahu Condemns John Kerry
John Kerry
Speech". BBC. December 29, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2017.  ^ Stewart, Heather (December 29, 2016). "Theresa May's Criticism of John Kerry
John Kerry
Israel
Israel
Speech Sparks Blunt US Reply". The Guardian. Retrieved January 7, 2017.  ^ Hubbard, Ben (December 29, 2016). "Praise for Kerry's Israel
Israel
Speech in Arab World, but Shrugs, Too". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2017.  ^ Baker, Peter; Gordon, Michael R. (August 30, 2013). "Kerry Becomes Chief Advocate for U.S. Attack". The New York Times.  ^ "Syria timeline: how Kerry's gaffe became a plan". The Sydney Morning Herald. September 10, 2013.  ^ "John Kerry's Gaffe Heard Round the World". The Wire. September 9, 2013.  ^ "Kerry's Syria 'gaffe' gains swift traction". AFP. September 9, 2013.  ^ "White House's Syria gaffe offers Obama a chance to climb back from war". The Guardian. September 9, 2013.  ^ http://www.politifact.com/john-kerry-syria-archive/ ^ "Timeline of events leading up to Syria chemical disarmament". AFP. October 6, 2013.  ^ Johnson, Keith (November 18, 2013). "Kerry Makes It Official: 'Era of Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
Is Over'". Wall Street Journal.  ^ ThinkProgress (April 22, 2016). "Alongside 174 Nations And Holding His Granddaughter, John Kerry
John Kerry
Signs Paris Climate Accord — ThinkProgress".  ^ " John Kerry
John Kerry
Lands in Antarctica, Highest US Official to Visit". ABC News. November 11, 2016.  ^ Charles E. Till & Yoon Il Chang (2011). "Plentiful Energy: The Story of the Integral Fast Reactor" (PDF). Self-published.  ^ Gellerman, Bruce (January 9, 2017). "Speaking At MIT, Secretary Of State John Kerry
John Kerry
Urges Action On Climate Change". WBUR. Retrieved January 11, 2017.  ^ "U.S. State Department
State Department
Launches Global Connect Initiatives at UNGA".  ^ "Why internet access is key to development - OPIC : Overseas Private Investment Corporation".  ^ "Remarks at the Global Connect Initiative Event".  ^ Growth, Catherine A. Novelli U. S. Under Secretary of State for Economic; Energy; Environment, the (April 14, 2016). "The New Road to Development: Paving the Way to Global Connectivity".  ^ John Kerry
John Kerry
CV at State Department
State Department
website ^ John Kerry
John Kerry
shows up at Women's March with his dog, Washington Examiner, January 21, 2017 ^ "Kerry, Albright urge court to uphold block on Trump travel ban" ^ " John Kerry
John Kerry
is penning a memoir" Boston Globe, Feb. 1, 2017 ^ Arsenault, Mark; Shanahan, Mark (2017-04-27). " John Kerry
John Kerry
is switching islands". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2017-04-27.  ^ a b Whitmore, Brian (February 22, 2004). "Hearing of roots, Czech village roots Kerry on". The Boston Globe. John W. Henry. Retrieved January 8, 2008.  ^ Reitwiesner, William Addams. "Ancestry of Senator John Forbes
Forbes
Kerry (b. 1943)". Retrieved September 11, 2014.  ^ McLellan, Diana, "Lunch with Diana McLellan – Madame Ex", Washingtonian, Washington Magazine Inc. (July 1996), archived from the original on November 23, 2005.  ^ "Julia Thorne, author and ex-wife of Sen. Kerry, dead at 61". boston.com. April 28, 2006.  ^ Lawrence, Jill (May 26, 2004). "USATODAY.com - With Teresa, expect an unconventional campaign". usatoday.com.  ^ "What Teresa Heinz
Teresa Heinz
found and what she lost". post-gazette.com. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ Ackman, Dan (October 29, 2004). "Kerry Would Be Third-Richest U.S. President If Elected". Forbes.  ^ "What is George W. Bush's net worth vs. John Kerry's net worth?". Ask Yahoo!. August 23, 2004. Archived from the original on August 24, 2004.  ^ Healy, Patrick (2011). " John Kerry
John Kerry
Personal Finance". Open Secret. Archived from the original on January 27, 2013.  ^ Julia La Roche (February 14, 2013). " John Kerry
John Kerry
May Have Made $670,000 On Today's Heinz Deal". Business Insider. Retrieved February 18, 2013.  ^ a b Stricherz, Mark (October 1, 2004). "John Kerry's Open Mind". Christianity Today.  ^ "Sen. Kerry's Surgery A Success". CBS. February 11, 2003.  ^ "Dennis William Burke, MD - Massachusetts
Massachusetts
General Hospital, Boston, MA". massgeneral.org. Archived from the original on August 23, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ "Doctors complete surgery on Secretary Kerry for broken leg - US News". US News & World Report. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ Ben Brumfield and Elise Labott, CNN (June 1, 2015). "Bike accident puts John Kerry
John Kerry
in hospital - CNNPolitics.com". CNN. Retrieved August 27, 2015.  ^ Maloney, Tim (July 24, 2005). "Kerry Au Tour".  ^ "Politics? Armstrong has Kerry's vote..... maybe". CNN. July 23, 2005. Archived from the original on July 25, 2005.  ^ "JK hotel needs". Archived from the original on April 18, 2010.  ^ "ESPN.com: Page 2 : Rink turns and big deals". go.com.  ^ "Friendship Yacht Company". Friendship Yacht Company. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2010.  ^ Sen. John Kerry
John Kerry
skips town on sails tax, Boston Herald, July 23, 2010. ^ Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Boat Excise Rate, cityofboston.gov. ^ "Kerry Says He Mishandled Furor Over Yacht Taxes". NPR.org. The Associated Press. July 30, 2010. Archived from the original on August 11, 2010.  ^ "Remarks at a Ceremony Awarding the Grand Cross 1st Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
to Secretary Kerry". Department of State. Retrieved 5 December 2016.  ^ http://scholarworks.umb.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1080&context=university_newsandviews ^ http://openarchives.umb.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15774coll21/id/502/show/471/rec/22 ^ http://library.northeastern.edu/archives-special-collections/find-collections/northeastern-history/commencement-speakers-honorary ^ http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2006-05-12/features/0605120201_1_honorary-degrees-doctorate-film-studies ^ http://www.bc.edu/publications/chronicle/FeaturesNewsTopstories/2014/topstories/secretary-of-state-kerry-to-receive-honorary-degree-from-boston-.html

Further reading

Brinkley, Douglas (2004). Tour of Duty: John Kerry
John Kerry
and the Vietnam War. New York: William Morrow & Company. ISBN 0-06-056523-3.  Kerry, John; Vietnam Veterans Against the War
Vietnam Veterans Against the War
(1971). The New Soldier. New York: Macmillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-073610-X.  —— (1997). The New War: The Web of Crime That Threatens America's Security. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-81815-9.  —— (2003). A Call to Service: My Vision for a Better America. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-03260-3.  —— Heinz Kerry, Teresa (2007). This Moment on Earth: Today's New Environmentalists and Their Vision for the Future. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-431-6.  Kranish, Michael; Mooney, Brian C.; Easton, Nina J. (2004). John F. Kerry: The Complete Biography by The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe
Reporters Who Know Him Best. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 1-58648-273-4.  McMahon, Kevin; Rankin, David; Beachler, Donald W.; White, John Kenneth (2005). Winning the White House, 2004. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6881-0.  O'Neill, John E.; Corsi, Jerome R. (2004). Unfit for Command: Swift Boat Veterans Speak Out Against John Kerry. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 0-89526-017-4. 

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: John Kerry

Wikiquote has quotations related to: John Kerry

Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Kerry.

Official

Kerry's military records—from JohnKerry.com via the Internet Archive

Information

Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress Profile at Project Vote Smart Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress John Kerry
John Kerry
at Encyclopædia Britannica Appearances on C-SPAN John Kerry
John Kerry
Campaign material—from ArchivoElectoral.org Political donations made by John Kerry Snopes.com: "Service Mettle"—Snopes.com on Kerry's Vietnam service medals

Statements and interviews

John Kerry's letter to his parents about Richard Pershing's death—1968. Statement on behalf of Vietnam Veterans Against the War—April 1971. John Kerry's Senate hearing testimony to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in 1971 (PDF file) John Kerry's complete 1971 statement before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee from National Review Selections from John Kerry's 1971 statement before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee The BCCI Affair, A Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States
United States
Senate, by Senator John Kerry
John Kerry
and Senator Hank Brown, December 1992 Obama rally with John Kerry
John Kerry
and Others MP3 on February 2, 2008, in Sacramento, CA

Media coverage

John Kerry: Candidate in the making, Michael Kranish, The Boston Globe, June 15, 2003 When John Kerry's Courage Went M.I.A., Sydney H. Schanberg, The Village Voice, February 17, 2004] Frontline: The Choice 2004, PBS, two-hour special comparing Kerry and Bush Researcher Alleges Potential Plagiarism in 11 Passages of Kerry's Writings, Josh Gerstein, New York Sun, October 26, 2004 Profile: John Kerry, Paul Reynolds, BBC
BBC
News, November 5, 2004

Political offices

Preceded by Thomas P. O'Neill III Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Governor of Massachusetts 1983–1985 Succeeded by Evelyn Murphy

Preceded by Hillary Clinton United States
United States
Secretary of State 2013–2017 Succeeded by Rex Tillerson

Party political offices

Preceded by Paul Tsongas Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Massachusetts (Class 2) 1984, 1990, 1996, 2002, 2008 Succeeded by Ed Markey

Preceded by George J. Mitchell Chair of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee 1987–1989 Succeeded by John Breaux

Preceded by Al Gore Democratic nominee for President of the United States 2004 Succeeded by Barack Obama

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Paul Tsongas U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Massachusetts 1985–2013 Served alongside: Ted Kennedy, Paul G. Kirk, Scott Brown, Elizabeth Warren Succeeded by Mo Cowan

Preceded by Dale Bumpers Ranking Member of the Senate Small Business Committee 1997–2001 Succeeded by Kit Bond

Preceded by Kit Bond Chair of the Senate Small Business Committee 2001–2003 Succeeded by Olympia Snowe

Ranking Member of the Senate Small Business Committee 2003–2007

Preceded by Olympia Snowe Chair of the Senate Small Business Committee 2007–2009 Succeeded by Mary Landrieu

Preceded by Joe Biden Chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee 2009–2013 Succeeded by Bob Menendez

John Kerry

v t e

John Kerry

Career

Military career 2004 Democratic National Convention 2004 campaign VP selection process Kerry–Feingold Amendment Sponsored legislation

Elections

Senate election, 1984 Senate election, 1990 Senate election, 1996 Senate election, 2002 United States
United States
presidential election, 2004 Senate election, 2008

Related

Going Upriver The New Soldier Military service controversy

swiftboating Unfit for Command

Family

Forbes
Forbes
family Dudley–Winthrop family Teresa Heinz Julia Thorne Alexandra Kerry Vanessa Kerry Richard Kerry Rosemary Forbes
Forbes
Kerry Cameron Kerry

v t e

United States
United States
Secretaries of State

Secretary of Foreign Affairs 1781–89

R. Livingston Jay

Secretary of State 1789–present

Jefferson Randolph Pickering J. Marshall Madison Smith Monroe Adams Clay Van Buren E. Livingston McLane Forsyth Webster Upshur Calhoun Buchanan Clayton Webster Everett Marcy Cass Black Seward Washburne Fish Evarts Blaine Frelinghuysen Bayard Blaine Foster Gresham Olney Sherman Day Hay Root Bacon Knox Bryan Lansing Colby Hughes Kellogg Stimson Hull Stettinius Byrnes G. Marshall Acheson Dulles Herter Rusk Rogers Kissinger Vance Muskie Haig Shultz Baker Eagleburger Christopher Albright Powell Rice (tenure) Clinton (tenure) Kerry (tenure) Tillerson

v t e

Cabinet of President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2009–2017)

Cabinet

Secretary of State

Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
(2009–2013) John Kerry
John Kerry
(2013–2017)

Secretary of the Treasury

Timothy Geithner
Timothy Geithner
(2009–2013) Jack Lew
Jack Lew
(2013–2017)

Secretary of Defense

Robert Gates
Robert Gates
(2009–2011) Leon Panetta
Leon Panetta
(2011–2013) Chuck Hagel
Chuck Hagel
(2013–2015) Ash Carter
Ash Carter
(2015–2017)

Attorney General

Eric Holder
Eric Holder
(2009–2015) Loretta Lynch
Loretta Lynch
(2015–2017)

Secretary of the Interior

Ken Salazar
Ken Salazar
(2009–2013) Sally Jewell
Sally Jewell
(2013–2017)

Secretary of Agriculture

Tom Vilsack
Tom Vilsack
(2009–2017)

Secretary of Commerce

Gary Locke
Gary Locke
(2009–2011) John Bryson
John Bryson
(2011–2012) Penny Pritzker
Penny Pritzker
(2013–2017)

Secretary of Labor

Hilda Solis
Hilda Solis
(2009–2013) Thomas Perez (2013–2017)

Secretary of Health and Human Services

Kathleen Sebelius
Kathleen Sebelius
(2009–2014) Sylvia Mathews Burwell
Sylvia Mathews Burwell
(2014–2017)

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Shaun Donovan
Shaun Donovan
(2009–2014) Julian Castro
Julian Castro
(2014–2017)

Secretary of Transportation

Ray LaHood
Ray LaHood
(2009–2013) Anthony Foxx
Anthony Foxx
(2013–2017)

Secretary of Energy

Steven Chu
Steven Chu
(2009–2013) Ernest Moniz
Ernest Moniz
(2013–2017)

Secretary of Education

Arne Duncan
Arne Duncan
(2009–2016) John King (2016–2017)

Secretary of Veterans Affairs

Eric Shinseki
Eric Shinseki
(2009–2014) Robert McDonald (2014–2017)

Secretary of Homeland Security

Janet Napolitano
Janet Napolitano
(2009–2013) Jeh Johnson
Jeh Johnson
(2013–2017)

Cabinet-level

Vice President

Joe Biden
Joe Biden
(2009–2017)

White House
White House
Chief of Staff

Rahm Emanuel
Rahm Emanuel
(2009–2010) William Daley (2011–2012) Jack Lew
Jack Lew
(2012–2013) Denis McDonough
Denis McDonough
(2013–2017)

Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency

Lisa Jackson (2009–2013) Gina McCarthy
Gina McCarthy
(2013–2017)

Director of the Office of Management and Budget

Peter Orszag (2009–2010) Jack Lew
Jack Lew
(2010–2012) Sylvia Mathews Burwell
Sylvia Mathews Burwell
(2013–2014) Shaun Donovan
Shaun Donovan
(2014–2017)

Trade Representative

Ron Kirk
Ron Kirk
(2009–2013) Michael Froman
Michael Froman
(2013–2017)

Ambassador to the United Nations

Susan Rice
Susan Rice
(2009–2013) Samantha Power
Samantha Power
(2013–2017)

Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers

Christina Romer
Christina Romer
(2009–2010) Austan Goolsbee
Austan Goolsbee
(2010–2011) Alan Krueger
Alan Krueger
(2011–2013) Jason Furman
Jason Furman
(2013–2017)

Administrator of the Small Business Administration

Karen Mills
Karen Mills
(2012–2013)** Maria Contreras-Sweet
Maria Contreras-Sweet
(2014–2017)

* Acting ** took office in 2009, raised to cabinet-rank in 2012 See also: Confirmations of Barack Obama's Cabinet

v t e

United States
United States
Senators from Massachusetts

Class 1

Dalton Cabot Goodhue Mason Adams Lloyd Gore Ashmun Mellen Mills Webster Choate Webster Winthrop Rantoul Sumner Washburn Dawes Lodge, Sr. Butler Walsh Lodge J. Kennedy Smith E. Kennedy Kirk Brown Warren

Class 2

Strong Sedgwick Dexter Foster Pickering Varnum Otis Lloyd Silsbee Davis Bates Davis Everett Rockwell Wilson Boutwell Hoar Crane J. Weeks Walsh Gillett Coolidge Lodge S. Weeks Saltonstall Brooke Tsongas Kerry Cowan Markey

v t e

Current chairs and Ranking Members of United States Senate
United States Senate
committees

Chairs (Republican) Ranking Members (Democratic)

Aging (Special): Susan Collins Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry: Pat Roberts Appropriations: Richard Shelby Armed Services: John McCain Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs: Mike Crapo Budget: Mike Enzi Commerce, Science, and Transportation: John Thune Energy and Natural Resources: Lisa Murkowski Environment and Public Works: John Barrasso Ethics (Select): Johnny Isakson Finance: Orrin Hatch Foreign Relations: Bob Corker Health, Education, Labor and Pensions: Lamar Alexander Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs: Ron Johnson Indian Affairs: John Hoeven Intelligence (Select): Richard Burr International Narcotics Control (Caucus): Chuck Grassley Judiciary: Chuck Grassley Rules and Administration: Roy Blunt Small Business and Entrepreneurship: Jim Risch Veterans' Affairs: Johnny Isakson

Aging (Special): Bob Casey Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry: Debbie Stabenow Appropriations: Patrick Leahy Armed Services: Jack Reed Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs: Sherrod Brown Budget: Bernie Sanders Commerce, Science, and Transportation: Bill Nelson Energy and Natural Resources: Maria Cantwell Environment and Public Works: Tom Carper Ethics (Select): Chris Coons Finance: Ron Wyden Foreign Relations: Bob Menendez Health, Education, Labor and Pensions: Patty Murray Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs: Claire McCaskill Indian Affairs: Tom Udall Intelligence (Select): Mark Warner International Narcotics Control (Caucus): Dianne Feinstein Judiciary: Dianne Feinstein Rules and Administration: Amy Klobuchar Small Business and Entrepreneurship: Jeanne Shaheen Veterans' Affairs: Jon Tester

v t e

United States
United States
Democratic Party

Chairpersons of the DNC

Hallett McLane Smalley Belmont Schell Hewitt Barnum Brice Harrity Jones Taggart Mack McCombs McCormick Cummings White Hull Shaver Raskob Farley Flynn Walker Hannegan McGrath Boyle McKinney Mitchell Butler Jackson Bailey O'Brien Harris O'Brien Westwood Strauss Curtis White Manatt Kirk Brown Wilhelm DeLee Dodd/Fowler Romer/Grossman Rendell/Andrew McAuliffe Dean Kaine Wasserman Schultz Perez

Presidential tickets

Jackson/Calhoun Jackson/Van Buren Van Buren/R. Johnson Van Buren/None Polk/Dallas Cass/Butler Pierce/King Buchanan/Breckinridge Douglas/H. Johnson (Breckinridge/Lane, SD) McClellan/Pendleton Seymour/Blair Greeley/Brown Tilden/Hendricks Hancock/English Cleveland/Hendricks Cleveland/Thurman Cleveland/Stevenson I W. Bryan/Sewall W. Bryan/Stevenson I Parker/H. Davis W. Bryan/Kern Wilson/Marshall (twice) Cox/Roosevelt J. Davis/C. Bryan Smith/Robinson Roosevelt/Garner (twice) Roosevelt/Wallace Roosevelt/Truman Truman/Barkley Stevenson II/Sparkman Stevenson II/Kefauver Kennedy/L. Johnson L. Johnson/Humphrey Humphrey/Muskie McGovern/(Eagleton, Shriver) Carter/Mondale (twice) Mondale/Ferraro Dukakis/Bentsen B. Clinton/Gore (twice) Gore/Lieberman Kerry/Edwards Obama/Biden (twice) H. Clinton/Kaine

State/ Territorial Parties

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming District of Columbia Guam Puerto Rico

Conventions

(List)

1832 (Baltimore) 1835 (Baltimore) 1840 (Baltimore) 1844 (Baltimore) 1848 (Baltimore) 1852 (Baltimore) 1856 (Cincinnati) 1860 (Baltimore) 1864 (Chicago) 1868 (New York) 1872 (Baltimore) 1876 (Saint Louis) 1880 (Cincinnati) 1884 (Chicago) 1888 (Saint Louis) 1892 (Chicago) 1896 (Chicago) 1900 (Kansas City) 1904 (Saint Louis) 1908 (Denver) 1912 (Baltimore) 1916 (Saint Louis) 1920 (San Francisco) 1924 (New York) 1928 (Houston) 1932 (Chicago) 1936 (Philadelphia) 1940 (Chicago) 1944 (Chicago) 1948 (Philadelphia) 1952 (Chicago) 1956 (Chicago) 1960 (Los Angeles) 1964 (Atlantic City) 1968 (Chicago) 1972 (Miami Beach) 1976 (New York) 1980 (New York) 1984 (San Francisco) 1988 (Atlanta) 1992 (New York) 1996 (Chicago) 2000 (Los Angeles) 2004 (Boston) 2008 (Denver) 2012 (Charlotte) 2016 (Philadelphia)

Affiliated groups

Fundraising

Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee Democratic Governors Association Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee National Conference of Democratic Mayors

Sectional

College Democrats of America Democrats Abroad National Federation of Democratic Women Stonewall Democrats

Stonewall Young Democrats

Young Democrats of America High School Democrats of America

Related articles

History Primaries Debates Party factions Superdelegate 2005 chairmanship election 2017 chairmanship election

Liberalism portal

v t e

Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Governors of Massachusetts

Colony (1629–86)

Goffe Humphrey T. Dudley Ludlow Bellingham Winthrop T. Dudley Bellingham Endecott Winthrop T. Dudley Endecott T. Dudley Endecott Bellingham Willoughby Leverett Symonds Bradstreet Danforth

Dominion (1686–89)

Stoughton Nicholson

Province (1692–1776)

Stoughton Povey Tailer Dummer Tailer S. Phips Hutchinson A. Oliver T. Oliver

Commonwealth (since 1776)

T. Cushing B. Lincoln Adams Gill S. Phillips Robbins L. Lincoln Cobb Gray W. Phillips L. Lincoln Jr. Morton Winthrop Armstrong Hull Childs Reed Cushman Huntington Plunkett Brown Benchley Trask Goodrich Nesmith Hayden Claflin Tucker Talbot Knight Long Weston Ames Brackett Haile Wolcott Crane Bates Guild Draper Frothingham Luce Walsh Barry G. Cushing C. Coolidge Cox Fuller Allen Youngman Bacon Hurley Kelly Cahill Bradford A. Coolidge Sullivan Whittier R. Murphy McLaughin Bellotti Richardson Sargent Dwight O'Neill Kerry E. Murphy Cellucci Swift Healey Murray Polito

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Foreign Relations

Barbour Macon Brown Barbour R. King Barbour Macon Sanford Macon Tazewell Forsyth Wilkins Clay Buchanan Rives Archer Allen Sevier Hannegan Benton W. King Foote Mason Sumner Cameron Hamlin Eaton Burnside Edmunds Windom Miller Sherman Morgan Sherman Frye Davis Cullom Bacon Stone Hitchcock Lodge Borah Pittman George Connally Vandenberg Connally Wiley George Green Fulbright Sparkman Church Percy Lugar Pell Helms Biden Helms Biden Lugar Biden Kerry Menendez Corker

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship

Select Committee (1950–1981)

Sparkman Thye Sparkman Smathers Bible Nelson

Full Committee (1981–)

Weicker Bumpers Bond Kerry Bond Kerry Snowe Kerry Landrieu Cantwell Vitter Risch

v t e

Chairs of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee

Johnston Ford Bentsen Mitchell Kerry Breaux Robb Graham Kerrey Torricelli Murray Corzine Schumer Menendez Murray Bennet Tester Van Hollen

v t e

(2000 ←)   United States
United States
presidential election, 2004   (→ 2008)

United States
United States
elections, 2004 Candidates Debates Timeline Super Tuesday Potomac primary Mini-Tuesday

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(campaign) VP nominee Dick Cheney

Candidates John Buchanan Jack Fellure Tom Laughlin

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee John Kerry
John Kerry
(campaign) VP nominee John Edwards

Candidates Carol Moseley Braun Wesley Clark
Wesley Clark
(campaign) Howard Dean
Howard Dean
(campaign) John Edwards
John Edwards
(campaign) Richard Gephardt
Richard Gephardt
(campaign) Bob Graham
Bob Graham
(campaign) Caroline Killeen Dennis Kucinich
Dennis Kucinich
(campaign) Lyndon LaRouche
Lyndon LaRouche
(campaign) Joe Lieberman
Joe Lieberman
(campaign) Al Sharpton

Controversies

Moss v. Bush Voting controversies Kerry military service Bush military service

Third party and independent candidates

Constitution Party

Convention

Nominee Michael Peroutka

VP nominee Chuck Baldwin

Green Party

Convention

Nominee David Cobb
David Cobb
(campaign)

VP nominee Pat LaMarche

Candidates Sheila Bilyeu Peter Camejo Paul Glover Kent Mesplay Lorna Salzman

Libertarian Party

Convention

Nominee Michael Badnarik
Michael Badnarik
(campaign)

VP nominee Richard Campagna

Candidates Gary Nolan Aaron Russo

Personal Choice Party

Nominee Charles Jay

VP nominee Marilyn Chambers

Prohibition Party

Nominee Gene Amondson Alternate nominee Earl Dodge

Reform Party

Nominee Ralph Nader
Ralph Nader
(campaign)

Socialist Equality Party

Nominee Bill Van Auken

Socialist Party

Nominee Walt Brown

VP nominee Mary Alice Herbert

Candidates Eric Chester

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee Róger Calero Alternate nominee James Harris

VP nominee Arrin Hawkins

Workers World Party

Nominee John Parker

VP nominee Teresa Gutierrez

Independents and other candidates

Thomas Harens Tom Laughlin Ralph Nader
Ralph Nader
(campaign) Leonard Peltier

Other 2004 elections House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

The Dudley–Winthrop family tree

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adam Winthrop (1548–1623)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Winthrop (1588–1649)

 

Anne Winthrop (1585–1618)

 

Thomas Fones (1573–1629)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Dudley (1576–1653)

 

 

 

John Winthrop
John Winthrop
the Younger (1606–1676)

 

Henry Winthrop (1608–1630)

 

Elizabeth Fones (1610–c.1673)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Simon Bradstreet (1603–1697)

 

Anne Dudley (1612–1672)

 

Joseph Dudley (1647–1720)

 

Wait Still Winthrop (1642–1717)

 

Fitz-John Winthrop (1638–1707)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paul Dudley (1675–1751)

 

Ann Dudley (1684–1776)

 

John Winthrop, F.R.S. (1681–1747)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Still Winthrop (1720–1776)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Lindall Winthrop (1760–1841)

 

Francis Bayard Winthrop (1754–1817)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Robert Charles Winthrop (1809–1894)

 

Thomas Charles Winthrop (1797–1873)

 

 

 

 

 

Francis B. Winthrop Jr. (1787–1841)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Robert C. Winthrop Jr. (1834–1905)

 

Robert Winthrop (1833–1892)

 

Katherine Wilson Taylor (1839–1925)

 

Theodore Winthrop (1828–1861)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Grant Forbes (1879–1955)

 

Margaret Tyndal Winthrop (1880–1970)

 

Beekman Winthrop (1874–1940)

 

Katherine Taylor Winthrop (1866–1943)

 

Hamilton Fish
Hamilton Fish
Kean (1862–1941)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Richard John Kerry

 

Rosemary Forbes (1913–2002)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Robert Winthrop Kean (1893–1980)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Forbes
Forbes
Kerry (1943–)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Howard Kean (1935–)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Kean
Thomas Kean
Jr. (1968–)

 

 

Notes

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 85415860 LCCN: no90005472 ISNI: 0000 0001 0939 0170 GND: 129062863 SUDOC: 076083284 BNF: cb14441989j (data) NLA: 35268176 NDL: 00962436 NKC: xx0018298 US Congress: K000

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