23 February 1821(1821-02-23) (aged 25)
Rome, Papal States
Cause of death
King's College London
George Keats (brother)
John Keats (/kiːts/; 31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an
English Romantic poet. He was one of the main figures of the second
generation of Romantic poets, along with
Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe
Shelley, despite his works having been in publication for only four
years before his death at age 25 in the year 1821.
Although his poems were not generally well received by critics during
his lifetime, his reputation grew after his death, and by the end of
the 19th century, he had become one of the most beloved of all English
poets. He had a significant influence on a diverse range of poets and
Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges stated that his first encounter with
Keats's work was the most significant literary experience of his
The poetry of Keats is characterised by sensual imagery, most notably
in the series of odes. This is typical of romantic poets, as they
aimed to accentuate extreme emotion through the emphasis of natural
imagery. Today his poems and letters are some of the most popular and
most analysed in English literature. Some of the most acclaimed works
of Keats are "I Stood Tip-toe Upon a Little Hill", "Sleep and Poetry",
and the famous sonnet "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer".
1.1 Early life
1.2 Early career
1.3 Wentworth Place
1.4 Isabella Jones and Fanny Brawne
1.5 Last months: Rome
2.2 Other portrayals
8 Further reading
9 External links
John Keats was born in Moorgate, London, on 31 October 1795 to Thomas
Keats and his wife, born Frances Jennings. There is little evidence of
his exact birth place. Although Keats and his family seem to have
marked his birthday on 29 October, baptism records give the date
as the 31st. He was the eldest of four surviving children; his
younger siblings were George (1797–1841), Thomas (1799–1818), and
Frances Mary "Fanny" (1803–1889) who eventually married Spanish
author Valentín Llanos Gutiérrez. Another son was lost in
infancy. His father first worked as a hostler at the stables
attached to the Swan and Hoop Inn, an establishment he later managed,
and where the growing family lived for some years. Keats believed that
he was born at the inn, a birthplace of humble origins, but there is
no evidence to support his belief. The Globe pub now occupies the
site (2012), a few yards from the modern-day Moorgate station. He
was baptised at St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate, and sent to a local
dame school as a child.
Life mask of Keats by Benjamin Haydon, 1816
His parents were unable to afford Eton or Harrow, so in the
summer of 1803, he was sent to board at John Clarke's school in
Enfield, close to his grandparents' house. The small school had a
liberal outlook and a progressive curriculum more modern than the
larger, more prestigious schools. In the family atmosphere at
Clarke's, Keats developed an interest in classics and history, which
would stay with him throughout his short life. The headmaster's son,
Charles Cowden Clarke, also became an important mentor and friend,
introducing Keats to
Renaissance literature, including Tasso, Spenser,
and Chapman's translations. The young Keats was described by his
friend Edward Holmes as a volatile character, "always in extremes",
given to indolence and fighting. However, at 13 he began focusing his
energy on reading and study, winning his first academic prize in
In April 1804, when Keats was eight, his father died from a skull
fracture, suffered when he fell from his horse while returning from a
visit to Keats and his brother George at school. Thomas Keats died
intestate. Frances remarried two months later, but left her new
husband soon afterwards, and the four children went to live with their
grandmother, Alice Jennings, in the village of Edmonton.
In March 1810, when Keats was 14, his mother died of tuberculosis,
leaving the children in the custody of their grandmother. She
appointed two guardians, Richard Abbey and John Sandell, to take care
of them. That autumn, Keats left Clarke's school to apprentice with
Thomas Hammond, a surgeon and apothecary who was a neighbour and the
doctor of the Jennings family. Keats lodged in the attic above the
surgery at 7 Church Street until 1813. Cowden Clarke, who remained
a close friend of Keats, described this period as "the most placid
time in Keats's life."
From 1814, Keats had two bequests, held in trust for him until his
21st birthday: £800 willed by his grandfather John Jennings (about
£50,000 in today's money) and a portion of his mother's legacy,
£8000 (about £500,000 today), to be equally divided between her
living children.[nb 1] It seems he was not told of either, since he
never applied for any of the money. Historically, blame has often been
laid on Abbey as legal guardian, but he may also have been
unaware. William Walton, solicitor for Keats's mother and
grandmother, definitely did know and had a duty of care to relay the
information to Keats. It seems he did not. The money would have made a
critical difference to the poet's expectations. Money was always a
great concern and difficulty for him, as he struggled to stay out of
debt and make his way in the world independently.
On First Looking into Chapman's Homer
Much have I travell'd in the realms of gold,
And many goodly states and kingdoms seen;
Round many western islands have I been
Which bards in fealty to Apollo hold.
Oft of one wide expanse had I been told
That deep-browed Homer ruled as his demesne;
Yet did I never breathe its pure serene
Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold:
Then felt I like some watcher of the skies
When a new planet swims into his ken;
Or like stout Cortez when with eagle eyes
He star'd at the Pacific — and all his men
Look'd at each other with a wild surmise —
Silent, upon a peak in Darien.
The sonnet "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer"
Having finished his apprenticeship with Hammond, Keats registered as a
medical student at
Guy's Hospital (now part of King's College London)
and began studying there in October 1815. Within a month of starting,
he was accepted as a dresser at the hospital, assisting surgeons
during operations, the equivalent of a junior house surgeon today. It
was a significant promotion, that marked a distinct aptitude for
medicine; it brought greater responsibility and a heavier workload.
Keats's long and expensive medical training with Hammond and at Guy's
Hospital led his family to assume he would pursue a lifelong career in
medicine, assuring financial security, and it seems that at this point
Keats had a genuine desire to become a doctor. He lodged near
the hospital, at 28 St Thomas's Street in Southwark, with other
medical students, including Henry Stephens who became a famous
inventor and ink magnate.
However, Keats's training took up increasing amounts of his writing
time, and he was increasingly ambivalent about his medical career. He
felt that he faced a stark choice. He had written his first
extant poem, "An Imitation of Spenser," in 1814, when he was 19. Now,
strongly drawn by ambition, inspired by fellow poets such as Leigh
Hunt and Lord Byron, and beleaguered by family financial crises, he
suffered periods of depression. His brother George wrote that John
"feared that he should never be a poet, & if he was not he would
destroy himself". In 1816, Keats received his apothecary's
licence, which made him eligible to practise as an apothecary,
physician, and surgeon, but before the end of the year he announced to
his guardian that he was resolved to be a poet, not a surgeon.
Although he continued his work and training at Guy's, Keats devoted
more and more time to the study of literature, experimenting with
verse forms, particularly the sonnet. In May 1816, Leigh Hunt
agreed to publish the sonnet "O Solitude" in his magazine, The
Examiner, a leading liberal magazine of the day. It was the first
appearance in print of Keats's poetry, and Charles Cowden Clarke
described it as his friend's red letter day, the first proof that
Keats's ambitions were valid. Among his poems of 1816 was To My
Brothers. In the summer of that year, Keats went with Clarke to
the seaside town of
Margate to write. There he began "Calidore" and
initiated the era of his great letter writing. On his return to
London, he took lodgings at 8 Dean Street, Southwark, and braced
himself for further study in order to become a member of the Royal
College of Surgeons.
In October 1816, Clarke introduced Keats to the influential Leigh
Hunt, a close friend of Byron and Shelley. Five months later came the
publication of Poems, the first volume of Keats's verse, which
included "I stood tiptoe" and "Sleep and Poetry," both strongly
influenced by Hunt. The book was a critical failure, arousing
little interest, although Reynolds reviewed it favourably in The
Champion. Clarke commented that the book "might have emerged in
Timbuctoo." Keats's publishers, Charles and James Ollier, felt
ashamed of the book. Keats immediately changed publishers to Taylor
and Hessey on Fleet Street. Unlike the Olliers, Keats's new
publishers were enthusiastic about his work. Within a month of the
publication of Poems they were planning a new Keats volume and had
paid him an advance. Hessey became a steady friend to Keats and made
the company's rooms available for young writers to meet. Their
publishing lists eventually included Coleridge, Hazlitt, Clare, Hogg,
Carlyle and Lamb.
Through Taylor and Hessey, Keats met their Eton-educated lawyer,
Richard Woodhouse, who advised them on literary as well as legal
matters and was deeply impressed by Poems. Although he noted that
Keats could be "wayward, trembling, easily daunted," Woodhouse was
convinced of Keats's genius, a poet to support as he became one of
England's greatest writers. Soon after they met, the two became close
friends, and Woodhouse started to collect Keatsiana, documenting as
much as he could about Keats's poetry. This archive survives as one of
the main sources of information on Keats's work. Andrew Motion
represents him as Boswell to Keats' Johnson, ceaselessly promoting the
writer's work, fighting his corner, and spurring his poetry to greater
heights. In later years, Woodhouse was one of the few people to
accompany Keats to Gravesend to embark on his final trip to Rome.
In spite of the bad reviews of Poems, Hunt published the essay "Three
Young Poets" (Shelley, Keats, and Reynolds) and the sonnet "On First
Looking into Chapman's Homer," foreseeing great things to come. He
introduced Keats to many prominent men in his circle, including the
editor of The Times, Thomas Barnes; the writer Charles Lamb; the
conductor Vincent Novello; and the poet John Hamilton Reynolds, who
would become a close friend. He was also regularly meeting William
Hazlitt, a powerful literary figure of the day. It was a decisive
turning point for Keats, establishing him in the public eye as a
figure in what Hunt termed "a new school of poetry." At this time
Keats wrote to his friend Bailey: "I am certain of nothing but the
holiness of the Heart's affections and the truth of the imagination.
What imagination seizes as Beauty must be truth." This passage
would eventually be transmuted into the concluding lines of "Ode on a
Grecian Urn": "'Beauty is truth, truth beauty' – that is all / Ye
know on earth, and all ye need to know". In early December 1816, under
the heady influence of his artistic friends, Keats told Abbey that he
had decided to give up medicine in favour of poetry, to Abbey's fury.
Keats had spent a great deal on his medical training and, despite his
state of financial hardship and indebtedness, had made large loans to
friends such as painter Benjamin Haydon. Keats would go on to lend
£700 to his brother George. By lending so much, Keats could no longer
cover the interest of his own debts.
Having left his training at the hospital, suffering from a succession
of colds, and unhappy with living in damp rooms in London, Keats moved
with his brothers into rooms at 1 Well Walk in the village of
Hampstead in April 1817. Both John and George nursed their brother
Tom, who was suffering from tuberculosis. The house was close to Hunt
and others from his circle in Hampstead, as well as to Coleridge,
respected elder of the first wave of Romantic poets, at that time
living in Highgate. On 11 April 1818, Keats reported that he and
Coleridge had a long walk together on
Hampstead Heath. In a letter to
his brother George, Keats wrote that they talked about "a thousand
things,... nightingales, poetry, poetical sensation, metaphysics."
Around this time he was introduced to
Charles Wentworth Dilke and
In June 1818, Keats began a walking tour of Scotland, Ireland, and the
Lake District with his friend Charles Armitage Brown. Keats' brother
George and his wife Georgina accompanied them as far as Lancaster and
then continued to Liverpool, from where the couple emigrated to
America. They lived in
Ohio and Louisville, Kentucky, until 1841, when
George's investments failed. Like Keats' other brother, they both died
penniless and racked by tuberculosis, for which there was no effective
treatment until the next century. In July, while on the Isle
of Mull, Keats caught a bad cold and "was too thin and fevered to
proceed on the journey." After his return south in August, Keats
continued to nurse Tom, exposing himself to infection. Some
biographers suggest that this is when tuberculosis, his "family
disease," first took hold. "Consumption" was not identified as
a disease with a single infectious origin until 1820, and there was
considerable stigma attached to the condition, as it was often
associated with weakness, repressed sexual passion, or masturbation.
Keats "refuses to give it a name" in his letters. Tom Keats died
on 1 December 1818.
Wentworth Place, now the
Keats House museum (left), Ten Keats Grove
John Keats moved to the newly built Wentworth Place, owned by his
friend Charles Armitage Brown. It was on the edge of
ten minutes' walk south of his old home in Well Walk. The winter of
1818–19, though a difficult period for the poet, marked the
beginning of his annus mirabilis in which he wrote his most mature
work. He had been inspired by a series of recent lectures by
English poets and poetic identity and had also met
Wordsworth. Keats may have seemed to his friends to be living
on comfortable means, but in reality he was borrowing regularly from
Abbey and his friends.
He composed five of his six great odes at Wentworth Place in April and
May and, although it is debated in which order they were written, "Ode
to Psyche" opened the published series. According to Brown, "Ode to a
Nightingale" was composed under a plum tree in the garden.[nb
2] Brown wrote, "In the spring of 1819 a nightingale had built
her nest near my house. Keats felt a tranquil and continual joy in her
song; and one morning he took his chair from the breakfast-table to
the grass-plot under a plum-tree, where he sat for two or three hours.
When he came into the house, I perceived he had some scraps of paper
in his hand, and these he was quietly thrusting behind the books. On
inquiry, I found those scraps, four or five in number, contained his
poetic feelings on the song of our nightingale." Dilke, co-owner
of the house, strenuously denied the story, printed in Richard
Monckton Milnes' 1848 biography of Keats, dismissing it as 'pure
My heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains
My sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk,
Or emptied some dull opiate to the drains
One minute past, and Lethe-wards had sunk:
'Tis not through envy of thy happy lot,
But being too happy in thine happiness,—
That thou, light-winged Dryad of the trees,
In some melodious plot
Of beechen green, and shadows numberless,
Singest of summer in full-throated ease.
First stanza of "Ode to a Nightingale",
"Ode on a Grecian Urn" and "Ode on Melancholy" were inspired by sonnet
forms and probably written after "Ode to a Nightingale". Keats's
new and progressive publishers Taylor and Hessey issued Endymion,
which Keats dedicated to Thomas Chatterton, a work that he termed "a
trial of my Powers of Imagination". It was damned by the critics,
giving rise to Byron's quip that Keats was ultimately "snuffed out by
an article", suggesting that he never truly got over it. A
particularly harsh review by
John Wilson Croker
John Wilson Croker appeared in the April
1818 edition of The Quarterly Review.[nb 3] John Gibson Lockhart
writing in Blackwood's Magazine, described Endymion as "imperturbable
drivelling idiocy". With biting sarcasm, Lockhart advised, "It is a
better and a wiser thing to be a starved apothecary than a starved
poet; so back to the shop Mr John, back to plasters, pills, and
ointment boxes".[nb 4] It was Lockhart at Blackwoods who coined the
defamatory term "the Cockney School" for Hunt and his circle, which
included both Hazlitt and Keats. The dismissal was as much political
as literary, aimed at upstart young writers deemed uncouth for their
lack of education, non-formal rhyming and "low diction". They had not
attended Eton, Harrow or
Oxbridge and they were not from the upper
In 1819, Keats wrote "The Eve of St. Agnes", "La Belle Dame sans
Merci", "Hyperion", "Lamia" and a play, Otho the Great (critically
damned and not performed until 1950). The poems "Fancy" and "Bards
of passion and of mirth" were inspired by the garden of Wentworth
Place. In September, very short of money and in despair considering
taking up journalism or a post as a ship's surgeon, he approached his
publishers with a new book of poems. They were unimpressed with the
collection, finding the presented versions of "Lamia" confusing, and
describing "St Agnes" as having a "sense of pettish disgust" and "a
'Don Juan' style of mingling up sentiment and sneering" concluding it
was "a poem unfit for ladies". The final volume Keats lived to
see, Lamia, Isabella, The Eve of St. Agnes, and Other Poems, was
eventually published in July 1820. It received greater acclaim than
had Endymion or Poems, finding favourable notices in both The Examiner
and Edinburgh Review. It would come to be recognised as one of the
most important poetic works ever published.
Wentworth Place now houses the
Keats House museum.
Isabella Jones and Fanny Brawne
See also: Fanny Brawne
Keats befriended Isabella Jones in May 1817, while on holiday in the
village of Bo Peep, near Hastings. She is described as beautiful,
talented and widely read, not of the top flight of society yet
financially secure, an enigmatic figure who would become a part of
Keats's circle. Throughout their friendship Keats never
hesitates to own his sexual attraction to her, although they seem to
enjoy circling each other rather than offering commitment. He writes
that he "frequented her rooms" in the winter of 1818–19, and in his
letters to George says that he "warmed with her" and "kissed her".
The trysts may have been a sexual initiation for Keats according to
Bate and Gittings. Jones inspired and was a steward of Keats's
writing. The themes of "The Eve of St. Agnes" and "The Eve of St Mark"
may well have been suggested by her, the lyric Hush, Hush! ["o sweet
Isabel"] was about her, and that the first version of "Bright Star"
may have originally been for her. In 1821, Jones was one of
the first in England to be notified of Keats's death.
Letters and drafts of poems suggest that Keats first met Frances
(Fanny) Brawne between September and November 1818. It is likely
that the 18-year-old Brawne visited the Dilke family at Wentworth
Place before she lived there. She was born in the hamlet of West End
(now in the district of West Hampstead), on 9 August 1800. Like
Keats's grandfather, her grandfather kept a
London inn, and both lost
several family members to tuberculosis. She shared her first name with
both Keats's sister and mother, and had a talent for dress-making and
languages as well as a natural theatrical bent. During November
1818 she developed an intimacy with Keats, but it was shadowed by the
illness of Tom Keats, whom John was nursing through this period.
Fanny Brawne taken circa 1850 (photograph on glass)
On 3 April 1819, Brawne and her widowed mother moved into the other
half of Dilke's Wentworth Place, and Keats and Brawne were able to see
each other every day. Keats began to lend Brawne books, such as
Dante's Inferno, and they would read together. He gave her the love
sonnet "Bright Star" (perhaps revised for her) as a declaration. It
was a work in progress which he continued at until the last months of
his life, and the poem came to be associated with their relationship.
"All his desires were concentrated on Fanny". From this point
there is no further documented mention of Isabella Jones. Sometime
before the end of June, he arrived at some sort of understanding with
Brawne, far from a formal engagement as he still had too little to
offer, with no prospects and financial stricture. Keats endured
great conflict knowing his expectations as a struggling poet in
increasingly hard straits would preclude marriage to Brawne. Their
love remained unconsummated; jealousy for his 'star' began to gnaw at
him. Darkness, disease and depression surrounded him, reflected in
poems such as "The Eve of St. Agnes" and "La Belle Dame sans Merci"
where love and death both stalk. "I have two luxuries to brood over in
my walks;" he wrote to her, "...your loveliness, and the hour of my
In one of his many hundreds of notes and letters, Keats wrote to
Brawne on 13 October 1819: "My love has made me selfish. I cannot
exist without you – I am forgetful of every thing but seeing
you again – my Life seems to stop there – I see no
further. You have absorb'd me. I have a sensation at the present
moment as though I was dissolving – I should be exquisitely
miserable without the hope of soon seeing you ... I have been
astonished that Men could die Martyrs for religion – I have
shudder'd at it – I shudder no more – I could be
martyr'd for my Religion – Love is my religion – I could
die for that – I could die for you."
Tuberculosis took hold and he was advised by his doctors to move to a
warmer climate. In September 1820 Keats left for
Rome knowing he would
probably never see Brawne again. After leaving he felt unable to write
to her or read her letters, although he did correspond with her
mother. He died there five months later. None of Brawne's letters
to Keats survive.
It took a month for the news of his death to reach London, after which
Brawne stayed in mourning for six years. In 1833, more than 12 years
after his death, she married and went on to have three children; she
outlived Keats by more than 40 years.
Last months: Rome
During 1820 Keats displayed increasingly serious symptoms of
tuberculosis, suffering two lung haemorrhages in the first few days of
February. He lost large amounts of blood and was bled further
by the attending physician. Hunt nursed him in
London for much of the
following summer. At the suggestion of his doctors, he agreed to move
to Italy with his friend Joseph Severn. On 13 September, they left for
Gravesend and four days later boarded the sailing brig Maria Crowther,
where he made the final revisions of "Bright Star". The journey was a
minor catastrophe: storms broke out followed by a dead calm that
slowed the ship's progress. When they finally docked in Naples, the
ship was held in quarantine for ten days due to a suspected outbreak
of cholera in Britain. Keats reached
Rome on 14 November, by which
time any hope of the warmer climate he sought had disappeared.
Keats's house in Rome
Keats wrote his last letter on 30 November 1820 to Charles Armitage
Brown; "Tis the most difficult thing in the world to me to write a
letter. My stomach continues so bad, that I feel it worse on opening
any book – yet I am much better than I was in Quarantine. Then I am
afraid to encounter the proing and conning of any thing interesting to
me in England. I have an habitual feeling of my real life having past,
and that I am leading a posthumous existence".
On arrival in Italy, he moved into a villa on the
Spanish Steps in
Rome, today the
Keats–Shelley Memorial House
Keats–Shelley Memorial House museum. Despite care
from Severn and Dr. James Clark, his health rapidly deteriorated. The
medical attention Keats received may have hastened his death. In
November 1820, Clark declared that the source of his illness was
"mental exertion" and that the source was largely situated in his
stomach. Clark eventually diagnosed consumption (tuberculosis) and
placed Keats on a starvation diet of an anchovy and a piece of bread a
day intended to reduce the blood flow to his stomach. He also bled the
poet: a standard treatment of the day, but also likely a significant
contributor to Keats's weakness. Severn's biographer Sue Brown
writes: "They could have used opium in small doses, and Keats had
asked Severn to buy a bottle of opium when they were setting off on
their voyage. What Severn didn't realise was that Keats saw it as a
possible resource if he wanted to commit suicide. He tried to get the
bottle from Severn on the voyage but Severn wouldn't let him have it.
Rome he tried again... Severn was in such a quandary he didn't
know what to do, so in the end he went to the doctor who took it away.
As a result Keats went through dreadful agonies with nothing to ease
the pain at all." Keats was angry with both Severn and Clark when they
would not give him laudanum (opium). He repeatedly demanded "how long
is this posthumous existence of mine to go on?"
The first months of 1821 marked a slow and steady decline into the
final stage of tuberculosis. Keats was coughing up blood and covered
in sweat. On first coughing up blood, he said "I know the colour of
that blood! It is arterial blood. I cannot be deceived in that colour.
That drop of blood is my death warrant. I must die."
Severn nursed him devotedly and observed in a letter how Keats would
sometimes cry upon waking to find himself still alive. Severn writes,
Keats raves till I am in a complete tremble for him...about four,
the approaches of death came on. [Keats said] "Severn—I—lift me
up—I am dying—I shall die easy; don't be frightened—be firm, and
thank God it has come." I lifted him up in my arms. The phlegm seem'd
boiling in his throat, and increased until eleven, when he gradually
sank into death, so quiet, that I still thought he slept.
Keats' grave in Rome
John Keats died in
Rome on 23 February 1821 and was buried in the
Protestant Cemetery, Rome. His last request was to be placed under a
tombstone bearing no name or date, only the words, "Here lies One
whose Name was writ in Water." Severn and Brown erected the stone,
which under a relief of a lyre with broken strings, includes the
This Grave / contains all that was Mortal / of a / Young English Poet
/ Who / on his Death Bed, in the Bitterness of his Heart / at the
Malicious Power of his Enemies / Desired / these Words to be /
engraven on his Tomb Stone: / Here lies One / Whose Name was writ in
Water. 24 February 1821
The text bears an echo from
Sed mulier cupido quod dicit amanti / in vento et rapida scribere
oportet aqua (What a woman says to a passionate lover / should be
written in the wind and the running water).
There is a discrepancy of one day between the official date of death
and that on the gravestone. Severn and Brown added their lines to the
stone in protest at the critical reception of Keats's work. Hunt
blamed his death on the Quarterly Review's scathing attack of
"Endymion". As Byron quipped in his narrative poem Don Juan;
'Tis strange the mind, that very fiery particle
Should let itself be snuffed out by an article.
(canto 11, stanza 60)
Seven weeks after the funeral Shelley memorialised Keats in his poem
Adonaïs. Clark saw to the planting of daisies on the grave,
saying that Keats would have wished it. For public health reasons, the
Italian health authorities burned the furniture in Keats's room,
scraped the walls, made new windows, doors and flooring. The
ashes of Shelley, one of Keats's most fervent champions, are buried in
the cemetery and
Joseph Severn is buried next to Keats. Describing the
site today, Marsh wrote, "In the old part of the graveyard, barely a
field when Keats was buried here, there are now umbrella pines, myrtle
shrubs, roses, and carpets of wild violets".
Relief on wall near his grave in Rome
When Keats died at 25, he had been writing poetry seriously for only
about six years, from 1814 until the summer of 1820; and publishing
for only four. In his lifetime, sales of Keats's three volumes of
poetry probably amounted to only 200 copies. His first poem, the
sonnet O Solitude appeared in the Examiner in May 1816, while his
collection Lamia, Isabella,
The Eve of St. Agnes
The Eve of St. Agnes and other poems was
published in July 1820 before his last visit to Rome. The compression
of his poetic apprenticeship and maturity into so short a time is just
one remarkable aspect of Keats's work.
Although prolific during his short career, and now one of the most
studied and admired British poets, his reputation rests on a small
body of work, centred on the Odes, and only in the creative
outpouring of the last years of his short life was he able to express
the inner intensity for which he has been lauded since his death.
Keats was convinced that he had made no mark in his lifetime. Aware
that he was dying, he wrote to
Fanny Brawne in February 1820, "I have
left no immortal work behind me – nothing to make my friends proud
of my memory – but I have lov'd the principle of beauty in all
things, and if I had had time I would have made myself remember'd.
Keats's ability and talent was acknowledged by several influential
contemporary allies such as Shelley and Hunt. His admirers praised
him for thinking "on his pulses", for having developed a style which
was more heavily loaded with sensualities, more gorgeous in its
effects, more voluptuously alive than any poet who had come before
him: 'loading every rift with ore'. Shelley often corresponded
with Keats in
Rome and loudly declared that Keats's death had been
brought on by bad reviews in the Quarterly Review. Seven weeks after
the funeral he wrote Adonaïs, a despairing elegy, stating that
Keats' early death was a personal and public tragedy:
The loveliest and the last,
The bloom, whose petals nipped before they blew
Died on the promise of the fruit.
Although Keats wrote that "if poetry comes not as naturally as the
Leaves to a tree it had better not come at all", poetry did not come
easily to him; his work was the fruit of a deliberate and prolonged
classical self-education. He may have possessed an innate poetic
sensibility, but his early works were clearly those of a young man
learning his craft. His first attempts at verse were often vague,
languorously narcotic and lacking a clear eye. His poetic sense
was based on the conventional tastes of his friend Charles Cowden
Clarke, who first introduced him to the classics, and also came from
the predilections of Hunt's Examiner, which Keats read as a boy.
Hunt scorned the Augustan or 'French' school, dominated by Pope, and
attacked the earlier Romantic poets Wordsworth and Coleridge, now in
their forties, as unsophisticated, obscure and crude writers. Indeed,
during Keats's few years as a published poet, the reputation of the
older Romantic school was at its lowest ebb. Keats came to echo these
sentiments in his work, identifying himself with a 'new school' for a
time, somewhat alienating him from Wordsworth, Coleridge and Byron and
providing the basis from the scathing attacks from Blackwoods and The
Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness
Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun
Conspiring with him how to load and bless
With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eaves run;
To bend with apples the moss'd cottage-trees,
And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core;
To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells
With a sweet kernel; to set budding more,
And still more, later flowers for the bees,
Until they think warm days will never cease,
For Summer has o'er-brimm'd their clammy cells.
First stanza of "To Autumn",
By the time of his death, Keats had therefore been associated with the
taints of both old and new schools: the obscurity of the first wave
Romantics and the uneducated affectation of Hunt's "Cockney School".
Keats's posthumous reputation mixed the reviewers' caricature of the
simplistic bumbler with the image of the hyper-sensitive genius killed
by high feeling, which Shelley later portrayed.
The Victorian sense of poetry as the work of indulgence and luxuriant
fancy offered a schema into which Keats was posthumously fitted.
Marked as the standard-bearer of sensory writing, his reputation grew
steadily and remarkably. His work had the full support of the
influential Cambridge Apostles, whose members included the young
Tennyson,[nb 5] later a popular Poet Laureate who came to regard Keats
as the greatest poet of the 19th century.
Constance Naden was a
great admirer of his poems, arguing that his genius lay in his
'exquisite sensitiveness to all the elements of beauty'. In 1848,
twenty-seven years after Keats's death, Richard Monckton Milnes
published the first full biography, which helped place Keats within
the canon of English literature. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood,
including Millais and Rossetti, were inspired by Keats and painted
scenes from his poems including "The Eve of St. Agnes", "Isabella" and
"La Belle Dame sans Merci", lush, arresting and popular images which
remain closely associated with Keats's work.
In 1882, Swinburne wrote in the
Encyclopædia Britannica that "the Ode
to a Nightingale, [is] one of the final masterpieces of human work in
all time and for all ages". In the twentieth century, Keats
remained the muse of poets such as Wilfred Owen, who kept his death
date as a day of mourning, Yeats and T. S. Eliot. Critic Helen
Vendler stated the odes "are a group of works in which the English
language find ultimate embodiment". Bate declared of To Autumn:
"Each generation has found it one of the most nearly perfect poems in
English" and M. R. Ridley claimed the ode "is the most serenely
flawless poem in our language."
The largest collection of the letters, manuscripts, and other papers
of Keats is in the
Houghton Library at Harvard University. Other
collections of material are archived at the British Library, Keats
House, Hampstead, the
Keats-Shelley Memorial House
Keats-Shelley Memorial House in
Rome and the
Pierpont Morgan Library
Pierpont Morgan Library in New York. Since 1998 the British
Keats-Shelley Memorial Association have annually awarded a prize for
romantic poetry. A
Royal Society of Arts
Royal Society of Arts blue plaque was unveiled
in 1896 to commemorate Keats at Keats House.
None of Keats' biographies were written by people who had known
him. Shortly after his death, his publishers announced they would
speedily publish The memoirs and remains of
John Keats but his friends
refused to cooperate and argued with each other to the extent that the
project was abandoned. Leigh Hunt's
Lord Byron and some of his
Contemporaries (1828) gives the first biographical account, strongly
emphasising Keats's supposedly humble origins, a misconception which
still continues. Given that he was becoming a significant figure
within artistic circles, a succession of other publications followed,
including anthologies of his many notes, chapters and letters.
However, early accounts often gave contradictory or heavily biased
versions of events and were subject to dispute. His friends Brown,
Severn, Dilke, Shelley and his guardian Richard Abbey, his publisher
Fanny Brawne and many others issued posthumous commentary on
Keats's life. These early writings coloured all subsequent biography
and have become embedded in a body of Keats legend.
Shelley promoted Keats as someone whose achievement could not be
separated from agony, who was 'spiritualised' by his decline and too
fine-tuned to endure the harshness of life; the consumptive, suffering
image popularly held today. The first full biography was published
in 1848 by Richard Monckton Milnes. Landmark Keats biographers since
include Sidney Colvin, Robert Gittings,
Walter Jackson Bate
Walter Jackson Bate and Andrew
Motion. The idealised image of the heroic romantic poet who battled
poverty and died young was inflated by the late arrival of an
authoritative biography and the lack of an accurate likeness. Most of
the surviving portraits of Keats were painted after his death, and
those who knew him held that they did not succeed in capturing his
unique quality and intensity.
Sculpture of poet
John Keats (seated on bench) by Vincent Gray –
Chichester, West Sussex, UK. August 2017
John Keats: His Life and Death, the first major motion picture about
the life of Keats, was produced in 1973 by Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc.. It was directed by John Barnes.
John Stride played John Keats
Janina Faye played Fanny Brawne.
The 2009 film Bright Star, written and directed by Jane Campion,
focuses on Keats' relationship with Fanny Brawne. Inspired by the
1997 Keats biography penned by Andrew Motion, it stars
Ben Whishaw as
Abbie Cornish as Fanny.
In Dan Wells's book A Night of Blacker Darkness,
John Keats is
portrayed in a comedic tone. He is the companion and sidekick of the
In Dan Simmons' book Hyperion, one of the characters is a clone of
John Keats, of whom he possesses personality and memories.
In Tim Powers' book The Stress of Her Regard, John Keats, along with
Percy Shelley and Lord Byron, is the victim of a vampire and his gift
with language and poetry is a direct consequence of the vampire
Julie Bozza's book The Fine Point of His Soul tells an alternate,
Gothic fantasy version of Keats' last months in Rome. As a
Shakespearean, Keats is recruited by naval lieutenant Andrew Sullivan
to spy on the antagonist, Adrian Hart, who has dubbed himself 'Iago'.
Joseph Severn, Percy Bysshe and Mary Shelley,
Lord Byron and William
Fletcher also join the cause.
The poem On death on a wall at Breestraat 113 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Keats' letters were first published in 1848 and 1878. During the 19th
century, critics deemed them unworthy of attention, distractions from
his poetic works. During the 20th century they became almost as
admired and studied as his poetry, and are highly regarded within
the canon of English literary correspondence. T. S. Eliot
described them as "certainly the most notable and most important ever
written by any English poet." Keats spent a great deal of
time considering poetry itself, its constructs and impacts, displaying
a deep interest unusual amongst his milieu who were more easily
distracted by metaphysics or politics, fashions or science. Eliot
wrote of Keats's conclusions; "There is hardly one statement of Keats'
about poetry which ... will not be found to be true, and what is
more, true for greater and more mature poetry than anything Keats ever
Few of Keats's letters are extant from the period before he joined his
literary circle. From spring 1817, however, there is a rich record of
his prolific and impressive skills as letter writer. Keats and his
friends, poets, critics, novelists, and editors wrote to each other
daily, and Keats' ideas are bound up in the ordinary, his day-to-day
missives sharing news, parody and social commentary. They glitter with
humour and critical intelligence. Born of an "unself-conscious
stream of consciousness," they are impulsive, full of awareness of his
own nature and his weak spots. When his brother George went to
America, Keats wrote to him in great detail, the body of letters
becoming "the real diary" and self-revelation of Keats's life, as well
as containing an exposition of his philosophy, and the first drafts of
poems containing some of Keats's finest writing and thought.
Gittings describes them as akin to a "spiritual journal" not written
for a specific other, so much as for synthesis.
Keats also reflected on the background and composition of his poetry,
and specific letters often coincide with or anticipate the poems they
describe. In February to May 1819 he produced many of his finest
letters". Writing to his brother George, Keats explored the idea of
the world as "the vale of Soul-making", anticipating the great odes
that he would write some months later. In the letters, Keats
coined ideas such as the
Mansion of Many Apartments and the Chameleon
Poet, concepts that came to gain common currency and capture the
public imagination, despite only making single appearances as phrases
in his correspondence. The poetical mind, Keats argued:
has no self – it is every thing and nothing – It has no character
– it enjoys light and shade;... What shocks the virtuous
philosopher, delights the camelion [chameleon] Poet. It does no harm
from its relish of the dark side of things any more than from its
taste for the bright one; because they both end in speculation. A Poet
is the most unpoetical of any thing in existence; because he has no
Identity – he is continually in for – and filling some other Body
– The Sun, the Moon, the Sea and Men and Women who are creatures of
impulse are poetical and have about them an unchangeable attribute –
the poet has none; no identity – he is certainly the most unpoetical
of all God's Creatures.
He used the term negative capability to discuss the state in which we
are "capable of being in uncertainties, Mysteries, doubts without any
irritable reaching after fact & reason ...[Being] content
with half knowledge" where one trusts in the heart's perceptions.
He wrote later: "I am certain of nothing but the holiness of the
Heart's affections and the truth of Imagination – What the
imagination seizes as Beauty must be truth – whether it existed
before or not – for I have the same Idea of all our Passions as of
Love they are all in their sublime, creative of essential Beauty"
again and again turning to the question of what it means to be a
poet. "My Imagination is a Monastery and I am its Monk", Keats
notes to Shelley. In September 1819, Keats wrote to Reynolds "How
beautiful the season is now – How fine the air. A temperate
sharpness about it ... I never lik'd the stubbled fields as much
as now – Aye, better than the chilly green of spring. Somehow the
stubble plain looks warm – in the same way as some pictures look
warm – this struck me so much in my Sunday's walk that I composed
upon it". The final stanza of his last great ode: "To Autumn"
Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they?
Think not of them, thou hast thy music too,-
While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day,
And touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue;
To Autumn became one of the most highly regarded poems in the
English language.[nb 6][nb 7]
There are areas of his life and daily routine that Keats does not
describe. He mentions little about his childhood or his financial
straits and is seemingly embarrassed to discuss them. There is a total
absence of any reference to his parents. In his last year, as his
health deteriorated, his concerns often gave way to despair and morbid
obsessions. The publications of letters to
Fanny Brawne in 1870
focused on this period and emphasised this tragic aspect, giving rise
to widespread criticism at the time.
John Keats bibliography
Keats's Poetry and Prose. Ed. Jeffrey N. Cox. New York: W.W. Norton
Co., 2008. ISBN 978-0393924916
John Keats. Ed. Susan Wolfson. Longman, 2007.
Selected Letters of John Keats. Ed. Grant F. Scott. Harvard University
John Keats: Poetry Manuscripts at Harvard, a Facsimile Edition. Ed.
Harvard University Press, 1990.
Complete Poems. Ed. Jack Stillinger.
Harvard University Press, 1982.
The Poems of John Keats. Ed. Jack Stillinger. Harvard University
The Letters of
John Keats 1814–1821 Volumes 1 and 2 Ed. Hyder Edward
Harvard University Press, 1958.
The Complete Poetical Works of John Keats. Ed. H. Buxton Forman.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1907.
The Complete Poetical Works and Letters of John Keats. ed. Horace
Elisha Scudder. Boston: Riverside Press, 1899.
^ Keats's share would have increased on the death of his brother Tom
^ The original plum tree no longer survives, though others have been
^ The Quarterly Review. April 1818. 204–08. "It is not, we say, that
the author has not powers of language, rays of fancy, and gleams of
genius – he has all these; but he is unhappily a disciple of
the new school of what has been somewhere called 'Cockney Poetry';
which may be defined to consist of the most incongruous ideas in the
most uncouth language ... There is hardly a complete couplet
enclosing a complete idea in the whole book. He wanders from one
subject to another, from the association, not of ideas, but of
^ Extracts from Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, 3 (1818) p519-24".
Nineteenth Century Literary Manuscripts, Part 4. Retrieved 29 January
2010. "To witness the disease of any human understanding, however
feeble, is distressing; but the spectacle of an able mind reduced to a
state of insanity is, of course, ten times more afflicting. It is with
such sorrow as this that we have contemplated the case of Mr John
Keats .... He was bound apprentice some years ago to a worthy
apothecary in town. But all has been undone by a sudden attack of the
malady ... For some time we were in hopes that he might get off
with a violent fit or two; but of late the symptoms are terrible. The
phrenzy of the "Poems" was bad enough in its way; but it did not alarm
us half so seriously as the calm, settled, imperturbable drivelling
idiocy of Endymion .... It is a better and a wiser thing to be a
starved apothecary than a starved poet; so back to the [apothecary]
shop Mr John, back to 'plasters, pills, and ointment boxes' ".
Tennyson was writing Keats-style poetry in the 1830s and was being
critically attacked in the same manner as his predecessor.
^ Bate p581: "Each generation has found it one of the most nearly
perfect poems in English."
^ The 1888
Encyclopædia Britannica declared that, "Of these [odes]
perhaps the two nearest to absolute perfection, to the triumphant
achievement and accomplishment of the very utmost beauty possible to
human words, may be that of to Autumn and that on a Grecian Urn"
Baynes, Thomas (Ed.).
Encyclopædia Britannica Vol XIV. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1888. OCLC 1387837. 23
^ a b c d O'Neill and Mahoney (1988), 418
Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges (2000). This Craft of Verse. Harvard University
^ a b Motion (1997), 10
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Kelvin Everest,
"Keats, John (1795–1821)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography,
Oxford University Press, 2004 Online (subscription only)
^ "Literary gossip". The Week : a Canadian journal of politics,
literature, science and arts. 1 (4): 61. 27 Dec 1883. Retrieved 23
^ Gittings (1968), 11
^ "Two become one at The Globe". Evening Standard. 12 August 2008.
Retrieved 17 September 2012.
^ Gittings (1968), 24
^ Harrow. Motion (1998), 22
^ Milnes (1848)
^ a b c d e Gittings (1987), 1–3
^ John Keats, Colvin, S, (1917)
^ Monckton Milnes (1848), xiii
^ Motion (1999), 46
^ Motion, Andrew (1999-04-15). Keats. University of Chicago Press.
^ "See the British National Archives for conversion rates".
Nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
^ Motion (1998), 74
^ Motion (1998), 98
^ Motion (1997), 94
^ a b Hirsch, Edward (2001)
^ Colvin (2006), 35
^ Keats, John (1816). "Sonnett VIII. To My Brothers". Allpoetry.com.
Retrieved October 31, 2015.
^ Motion (1998), 104–5
^ Motion proposes that the Olliers suggested Keats leave their
publishing lists. See Motion (1997) p156
^ Motion (1997), 156
^ Motion (1997), 157
^ Gittings (1968), 155
^ Motion (1997), 116–120
^ Motion (1997) 130
^ Keats' letter to Benjamin Bailey, 22 November 1817
^ Bate (1964) p632
^ Motion (1997), 365–66
^ Motion (1997), 364, 184
^ Tracing the Keats Family in America New York Times Koch 30 July
1922. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
^ Motion (1997), 494
^ Letter of 7 August 1818; Brown (1937)
^ Motion (1997), 290
^ Zur Pathogenie der Impetigines. Auszug aus einer brieflichen
Mitteilung an den Herausgeber. [Müller's] Archiv für Anatomie,
Physiologie und wissenschaftliche Medicin. 1839, p82.
^ De Almeida (1991), 206–07; Motion (1997), 500–01
^ a b O'Neill and Mahoney (1988), 419
^ a b c d "Keats, John" The Oxford Companion to English Literature.
Edited by Dinah Birch. Oxford University Press Inc.
^ Brown, Charles Armitage. Life of John Keats. London. Oxford
University Press, 1937. pp.53–54.
^ Hart, Christopher. (2 August 2009.) "Savour John Keats' poetry in
garden where he wrote". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
^ Bate (1963), 63
^ The odes of Keats and their earliest known manuscripts (1970) John
Keats, Robert Gittings, Kent State University Press, 65 ISBNa
^ Motion (1997) pp204-5
^ A preface to Keats (1985) Cedric Thomas Watts, Longman, University
of Michigan p90 ISBN 9780582353671
^ Gittings (1968), 504
^ a b Kennedy, Maev. "Keats's
London home reopens after major
refurbishment". The Guardian, 22 July 2009. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
^ a b Motion (1997), 180–1
^ a b c Gittings (1968), 139
^ Walsh William (1981) Introduction to Keats Law Book Co of
^ Gittings (1956), Mask of Keats. Heinmann, 45
^ Gittings (1968), 262
^ Gittings (1968), 268
^ Gittings (1968), 264
^ a b Gittings (1968), 293–298
^ a b Gittings (1968), 327–331
^ Houghton Library, Harvard University, I shall ever be your dearest
John Keats and Fanny Brawne. "1820".
^ Richardson, 1952, 112
^ Bate (1964), 636
^ Motion (1997), 496
^ a b "A window to the soul of John Keats" by Marsh, Stefanie. The
Times, 2 November 2009. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
^ Keats's Last Letter, written to
Charles Armitage Brown
Charles Armitage Brown from Rome, 30
^ Brown (2009)
^ a b c Flood, Alison. "Doctor's mistakes to blame for Keats's
agonising end, says new biography". The Guardian, 26 October 2009.
Retrieved 29 January 2010.
^ R. Porter, The greatest benefit to mankind, [W POR 6], pp. 440.
^ Colvin (1917), 208
^ Adonais: An
Elegy on the Death of John Keats. Representative Poetry
Online. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
^ Richardson, 1952, p89.
^ "Keats's keeper". Motion, Andrew. The Guardian, 7 May 2005.
Retrieved 29 January 2010.
^ a b
Andrew Motion (23 January 2010). "Article 23 January 2010 An
introduction to the poetry of John Keats". London: Guardian. Retrieved
15 February 2010.
^ Strachan (2003), 2
^ a b Walsh (1957), 220–221
^ To Fanny Brawne, February 1820 (?)
^ Keats Letter To Percy Bysshe Shelley, 16 August 1820
Adonaïs by Shelley is a despairing elegyof 495 lines and 55
Spenserian stanzas. It was published that July 1820 and he came to
view it as his "least imperfect" work.
Adonaïs (Adonaïs: An
Elegy on the Death of John Keats, Author of
Endymion, Hyperion, etc.) by Shelley, published 1821
^ "University of Toronto –
Adonaïs by Shelley".
^ a b c d e f Gittings (1987), 18–21
^ a b Gittings (1987), 157
^ 'Poesy Club', Mason College Magazine, 4.5 (October 1886), 106.
^ "Keats, John". Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition, Vol. XIV.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1882. 22–24
^ Vendler (1983) 60
^ Bate (1963) 581
^ Ridley & Clarendon (1933) 289
^ The Keats-Shelley Poetry Award. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
^ "KEATS, JOHN (1795–1821)". English Heritage. Retrieved
^ a b c Gittings (1968), 3
^ Gittings (1968), 5
^ Motion (1997), 499
^ The Academy of American Poets[permanent dead link] "Bright Star":
Campion's Film About the Life and Love of Keats.
^ "Talking Pictures: 'Bright Star' – 2 1/2 stars".
^ "A Night of Blacker Darkness". Goodreads. Retrieved
^ "Hyperion (Hyperion Cantos, #1)". Goodreads. Retrieved
^ "The Stress of Her Regard". Goodreads. Retrieved 2017-02-06.
^ "The Fine Point of His Soul". Goodreads. Retrieved 2017-02-06.
^ a b c d e f g Gittings (1987), 12–17
^ Strachan (2003), 12
T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism (1937) p100
T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism (1937) p101
^ Gittings (1968), 66
^ Letter to George Keats, Sunday 14 February 1819
^ Scott, Grant (ed.), Selected Letters of John Keats, Harvard
University Press (2002)
^ Wu, Duncan (2005) Romanticism: an anthology: Edition: 3,
illustrated. Blackwell, 2005 p.1351. citing Letter to George Keats.
Sunday, 21 December 1817
^ Keats letter to Benjamin Bailey, 22 November 1817
^ Houghton (2008), 184
Bate, Walter Jackson (1964). John Keats. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
Bate, Walter Jackson (2012). Negative Capability: The Intuitive
Approach in Keats (1965), reprinted with a new intro by Maura Del
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Brown, Charles Armitage (1937). The Life of John Keats, ed. London:
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Brown, Sue (2009). Joseph Severn, A Life: The Rewards of Friendship.
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Critics, and After-Fame. New York: Octagon Books.
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Keats.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: John Keats
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
John Keats on the British Library's Discovering Literature website
Biography of Keats at poets.org
John Keats at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
John Keats at Internet Archive
John Keats at
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
The Harvard Keats Collection at the Houghton Library, Harvard
John Keats at the British Library
Keats House, Hampstead: official website
The Keats-Shelley House museum in Rome
John Keats at the National Portrait Gallery, London
Keats, John (1795–1821) Poet at the National Register of Archives
John Keats bibliography
List of poems by John Keats
1819 odes (1819)
"On First Looking into Chapman's Homer" (1816)
"Sleep and Poetry" (1817)
"Ode to a Nightingale" (1819)
"La Belle Dame sans Merci" (1820)
"Ode on a Grecian Urn" (1820)
"Ode on Melancholy" (1820)
"Ode to Psyche" (1820)
"To Autumn" (1820)
"Bright star, would I were steadfast as thou art" (1838)
"Ode on Indolence" (1848)
"When I have Fears that I may Cease to Be" (1848)
"You say you love; but with a voice" (1914)
Isabella, or the Pot of Basil
Isabella, or the Pot of Basil (1820)
The Eve of St. Agnes
The Eve of St. Agnes (1820)
The Fall of Hyperion: A Dream (1856-7)
Charles Armitage Brown
Charles Cowden Clarke
John Hamilton Reynolds
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Percy Bysshe Shelley (see his poem on Keats: Adonaïs)
Keats–Shelley Memorial House
Keats and His Nightingale: A Blind Date
Gothic Revival (architecture)
Hudson River School
Romanticism in science
Opium and Romanticism
A. v. Arnim
B. v. Arnim
P. B. Shelley
« Age of Enlightenment
ISNI: 0000 0001 2137 2872
BNF: cb12174982p (data)