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JOHN VI KANTAKOUZENOS, CANTACUZENUS, or CANTACUZENE (Greek : Ἰωάννης ΣΤʹ Καντακουζηνός, _Iōannēs ST′ Kantakouzēnos_; Latin : _Johannes Cantacuzenus_; c. 1292 – 15 June 1383) was a Greek nobleman , statesman, and general . He served as Grand Domestic under Andronikos III Palaiologos and regent for John V Palaiologos before reigning as Byzantine emperor in his own right from 1347 to 1354. Usurped by his former ward, he retired to a monastery under the name JOASAPH CHRISTODOULOS and spent the remainder of his life as a monk and historian.

CONTENTS

* 1 Life

* 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Reign * 1.3 Retirement

* 2 Family * 3 Works * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References

LIFE

EARLY LIFE

Main article: Second Palaiologan Civil War

Born in Constantinople , John Kantakouzenos was the son of Michael Kantakouzenos , governor of the Morea ; Donald Nicol speculates that he may have been born after his father's death and raised as an only child. Through his mother Theodora Palaiologina Angelina, he was related to the then-reigning house of Palaiologos . He was also related to the imperial dynasty through his wife Eirene Asanina, a second cousin of Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos . Kantakouzenos became a close friend to Andronikos III and was one of his principal supporters in Andronikos's struggle against his grandfather, Andronikos II Palaiologos . On the accession of Andronikos III in 1328, he was entrusted with the supreme administration of affairs and served as Grand Domestic throughout his reign. He was named regent to Andronikos's successor, the 9-year-old John V , upon the emperor's death in June 1341.

Kantakouzenos apparently began with no imperial ambitions of his own, having refused several times to be crowned co-emperor by Andronikos III. After the death of the emperor, Kantakouzenos again refused to take the throne, insisting on the legitimacy of John V's claim and contenting himself with overseeing the empire's administration until the boy came of age. Whether he would have remained loyal is unknowable but, despite his professed devotion to John V and his mother Anna , she came to suspect him of treason. His close friendship with the late emperor and power over his successor had aroused the jealousy of his former protégés, the Patriarch John Kalekas and Alexios Apokaukos ; after a series of failed attempts, they succeeded in overthrowing his regency in September 1341 while he was out of the capital readying an army against the Crusader principalities that still held parts of the Peloponnesus . He attempted to negotiate with the usurpers, but this was rebuffed and his army was ordered to disband. Further, his relatives in Constantinople were driven into exile or imprisoned, with their property confiscated by the new regents. His mother Theodora died owing to the mistreatment she suffered while under house arrest. His army ignored the new regents' orders and proclaimed Kantakouzenos emperor at Didymoteichon in Thrace as John VI. He accepted this, while continuing to style himself as the junior ruler to John V.

The ensuing civil war lasted six years; calling in foreign allies and mercenaries of every description, the two sides completely disrupted and almost ruined the empire. At first, John VI was obliged to flee to Serbia , where Stefan Dušan protected his men and helped them secure areas of the Balkans. The Serbians changed to support the regents and John VI struck a disgraceful bargain with the Turks , giving Orhan , bey of Bursa , his daughter for his harem and permitting him to take Greek Christians as slaves . The Greco-Turkish force prevailed and John VI entered Constantinople in triumph in 1346 or 1347. His opponents—including the patriarch—were deposed from their positions and his status as co-emperor was legitimized. _ John VI as emperor (left_) and monk (_right_)

REIGN

During John's reign, the empire—already fragmented, impoverished, and weakened—continued to be assailed on every side.

The Genovese , disregarding the terms of the treaty which permitted their colony at Galata , began fortifying and arming it. Their customs dues undercut the Byzantines and meant that as much as 87% of the revenue from control of the Bosphorus went to them instead of the empire. John VI attempted to rebuild the shattered Byzantine navy in preparation for the war he expected to follow a reduction of Constantinople's own customs dues. He was able to borrow enough to construct 9 fair-sized ships and about 100 smaller ones before he lowered the rates and began siphoning off Genoa's income. When they did declare war , however, they were able to sink or capture his fleet by early 1349. The Genovese were forced to negotiate after major areas of Galata were burnt, including its wharves and warehouses, but the Byzantine Empire thenceforth was forced to turn to an alliance with the Republic of Venice for naval protection. This led to their involvement in Venice's 1350 war against Genoa, but Paganino Doria was able to force John VI (and the twelve ships he had fielded) out of the war by a Pyrrhic victory off Constantinople the next year.

In 1351, Kantakouzenos oversaw the Eastern Orthodox Ninth Ecumenical Council of Constantinople , wherein Gregory Palamas ' mystical Hesychastic theology was declared Orthodox over the rationalistic theology of Barlaam of Calabria and Western Scholasticism .

By this time, Stefan Dušan had taken Albania , Macedonia , and Epirus . John VI secured help against further incursions by again allying with the Turks. Following an earthquake, they annexed Callipolis ( Gallipoli )—their first foothold in Europe—in partial payment of his many debts in 1354.

He made his son Matthew Kantakouzenos another co-emperor in 1353, but John VI's attempts to expand taxation to repay the government's debts had long been displeasing. He was removed from power by John V at the end of 1354.

RETIREMENT

Kantakouzenos retired to a monastery , where he assumed the name of Joasaph Christodoulos and occupied himself with literary labors, which have been called eloquent. His 4-volume _History_ of the year 1320-1356 served as an apologia for his actions. They are therefore not always trustworthy, including defects in matters where he was not personally involved, but are supplemented by the contemporary work of Nicephorus Gregoras .

In 1367 Joasaph was appointed the representative of the Eastern Orthodox Church to negotiate with the Latin Patriarch Paul to attempt a reconciliation of the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches. They agreed to call a grand ecumenical council to be attended by the Pope and all the patriarchs, archbishops, and bishops of both the eastern and western churches. This plan was subsequently refused by Pope Urban V and so nothing came of it.

Kantakouzenos died in the Peloponnese and was buried by his sons at Mistra in Laconia .

FAMILY

By his wife Irene Asanina , a daughter of Andronikos Asan (son of Ivan Asen III of Bulgaria by Irene Palaiologina, Empress of Bulgaria , herself daughter of Michael VIII Palaiologos ), John VI Kantakouzenos had several children, including:

* Matthew Kantakouzenos , co-emperor 1353–1357, later Despot of the Morea * Manuel Kantakouzenos , Despot of the Morea * Andronikos Kantakouzenos (died 1347) * Maria Kantakouzene, who married Nikephoros II Orsini of Epirus * Theodora Kantakouzene , who married Sultan Orhan of the Ottoman Empire * Helena Kantakouzene , who married John V Palaiologos

WORKS

Kantakouzenos's 4-volume _History_ was published by J. Pontanus in 1603, by Ludwig Schopen at Bonn as part of the _Corpus Scriptorum Hist. Byz._ c. 1830; and by J.-P. Migne at Paris. He also wrote a commentary on the first five books of Aristotle 's _Ethics _ and several controversial theological treatises, including a defense of Hesychasm and a work _Against Mohammedanism_ printed in Migne.

SEE ALSO

* Byzantine Empire portal

* List of Byzantine emperors

NOTES

* ^ His entry into the city later formed the subject of Constantine Cavafy 's poem "John Kantakouzenos Triumphs".

* ^ _EB_ (1911) , p. 438. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _EB_ (1878) . * ^ Donald M. Nicol, _The Byzantine family of Kantakouzenos (Cantacuzenus) ca. 1100-1460: a genealogical and prosopographical study_ (Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1968),pp. 35f * ^ Nicol, _Byzantine family_, pp. 30f * ^ Nicol, _Byzantine family_, p. 104 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _EB_ (1911) , p. 439. * ^ Ristelhueber, René, _A History of the Balkan Peoples_, p. 35 * ^ Philip Sherrard, _Byzantium_ Great Ages of Man Series Time-Life Books, New York 1966 pp.74-75 * ^ Norwich, John Julius. _Byzantium: The Decline and Fall_ (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996) p. 332 * ^ Nicol, _Byzantine family_, p. 108 * ^ Peter F. Sugar, _Southeastern Europe Under Ottoman Rule_, 1354-1804, (University of Washington Press, 1996), 15-16. * ^ Migne (ed.), _Patrologia Graeca_ (in Latin), Vols. CLIII & CLIV & (in Greek) * ^ Migne (ed.), _Patrologia Graeca_ (in Latin), Vol. CLIV & (in Greek)

REFERENCES

* _ Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Johannes Cantacuzenus", Encyclopædia Britannica _, 5 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 27 * _ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "John VI or V", Encyclopædia Britannica _, 15 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 438–439

* _ Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium _, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991 * Harris, Jonathan (2015), _The Lost World of Byzantium_, New Haven: Yale University Press * Nicol, Donald M. (1996), _The Reluctant Emperor: A Biography of John Cantacuzene, Byzantine Emperor and Monk, c.1295-1383_, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press

John VI Kantakouzenos KANTAKOUZENOS DYNASTY BORN: Unknown 1292 DIED: 15 June 1383

REGNAL TITLES

Preceded by John V Palaiologos BYZANTINE EMPEROR 1347–1353 _with John V Palaiologos _ _(1341–1376)_ _ Matthew Kantakouzenos _ _(1353–1357)_ Succeeded by John V Palaiologos

* v * t * e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

* Augustus * Tiberius * Caligula * Claudius * Nero * Galba * Otho * Vitellius * Vespasian * Titus * Domitian * Nerva * Trajan * Hadrian * Antoninus Pius * Marcus Aurelius _and_ Lucius Verus * Commodus * Pertinax * Didius Julianus * (_ Pescennius Niger _) * (_ Clodius Albinus _) * Septimius Severus * Caracalla _with Geta _ * Macrinus _with Diadumenian _ * Elagabalus * Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

* Maximinus Thrax * Gordian I _and_ Gordian II * Pupienus _and_ Balbinus * Gordian III * Philip the Arab _with Philippus II _ * Decius _with Herennius Etruscus _ * Hostilian * Trebonianus Gallus _with Volusianus _ * Aemilianus * Valerian * Gallienus _with Saloninus and Valerian II _ * Claudius Gothicus * Quintillus * Aurelian * Tacitus * Florian * Probus * Carus * Carinus _and_ Numerian

* _Gallic Emperors_: * Postumus * _( Laelianus )_ * Marius * Victorinus * _( Domitianus II )_ * Tetricus I _with Tetricus II as Caesar_

Dominate 284–395

* Diocletian (whole empire) * Diocletian (East) _and_ Maximian (West) * Diocletian (East) _and_ Maximian (West) _with Galerius (East) and Constantius Chlorus (West) as Caesares_ * Galerius (East) _and_ Constantius Chlorus (West) _with Severus (West) and Maximinus Daia (East) as Caesares_ * Galerius (East) _and_ Severus (West) _with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus Daia (East) as Caesares_ * Galerius (East) _and_ Maxentius (West) _with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus Daia (East) as Caesares_ * Galerius (East) _and_ Licinius I (West) _with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus Daia (East) as Caesares_ * _ Maxentius (alone)_ * Licinius I (West) _and_ Maximinus Daia (East) _with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens _ * Licinius I (East) _and_ Constantine the Great (West) _with Licinius II , Constantine II , and Crispus as Caesares_ * (_Martinian _) * Constantine the Great (whole empire) _with son Crispus as Caesar _ * Constantine II * Constans I * Magnentius _with Decentius as Caesar _ * Constantius II _with Vetranio _ * Julian * Jovian * Valentinian the Great * Valens * Gratian * Valentinian II * Magnus Maximus _with Flavius Victor _ * Theodosius the Great

Western Empire 395–480

* Honorius * (_Constantine III _ _with son Constans II _) * Constantius III * Joannes _as Western usurper in Ravenna _ * Valentinian III * Petronius Maximus _with Palladius _ * Avitus * Majorian _then_ Libius Severus _then_ Anthemius _then_ Olybrius * Glycerius * Julius Nepos (de jure) * _ Romulus Augustulus (Usurper)_

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

* Arcadius * Theodosius II * Pulcheria * Marcian * Leo I the Thracian * Leo II * Zeno (first reign) * Basiliscus _with son Marcus as co-emperor_ * Zeno (second reign) * Anastasius I Dicorus * Justin I * Justinian the Great * Justin II * Tiberius II Constantine * Maurice _with son Theodosius as co-emperor_ * Phocas * Heraclius * Constantine III * Heraklonas * Constans II * Constantine IV _with brothers Heraclius and Tiberius and then Justinian II as co-emperors_ * Justinian II (first reign) * Leontios * Tiberios III * Justinian II (second reign) _with son Tiberius as co-emperor_ * Philippikos * Anastasios II * Theodosius III * Leo III the Isaurian * Constantine V * Artabasdos * Leo IV the Khazar * Constantine VI * Irene * Nikephoros I * Staurakios * Michael I Rangabe _with son Theophylact as co-emperor_ * Leo V the Armenian _with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor_ * Michael II the Amorian * Theophilos * Michael III * Basil I the Macedonian * Leo VI the Wise * Alexander * Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos * Romanos I Lekapenos _with sons Christopher , Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors_ * Romanos II * Nikephoros II Phokas * John I Tzimiskes * Basil II * Constantine VIII * Zoe (first reign) _and_ Romanos III Argyros * Zoe (first reign) _and_ Michael IV the Paphlagonian * Michael V Kalaphates * Zoe (second reign) _with_ Theodora * Zoe (second reign) _and_ Constantine IX Monomachos * Constantine IX Monomachos (sole emperor) * Theodora * Michael VI Bringas * Isaac I Komnenos * Constantine X Doukas * Romanos IV Diogenes * Michael VII Doukas _with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine _ * Nikephoros III Botaneiates * Alexios I Komnenos * John II Komnenos _with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor_ * Manuel I Komnenos * Alexios II Komnenos * Andronikos I Komnenos * Isaac II Angelos * Alexios III Angelos * Alexios IV Angelos * _ Nicholas Kanabos as usurper chosen by the Senate _ * Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

* Constantine Laskaris * Theodore I Laskaris * John III Doukas Vatatzes * Theodore II Laskaris * John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

* Michael VIII Palaiologos * Andronikos II Palaiologos _with Michael IX Palaiologos as co-emperor_ * Andronikos III Palaiologos * John V Palaiologos * John VI Kantakouzenos _with John V Palaiologos and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors_ * John V Palaiologos * Andronikos IV Palaiologos * John VII Palaiologos * Andronikos V Palaiologos * Manuel II Palaiologos * John VIII Palaiologos * Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics usually indicate an usurper or co-emperor.

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 121572768 * LCCN : n83032365 * GND : 118712470 * SUDOC : 069653607 * BNF : cb12078250x (data)

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