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John Hume, KCSG (born 18 January 1937) is an Irish former politician from Derry, Northern Ireland. He was a founding member of the Social Democratic and Labour Party, and was co-recipient of the 1998 Nobel Peace Prize, with David Trimble. He was the second leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), a position he held from 1979 until 2001. He has served as a Member of the European Parliament
European Parliament
and a Member of the UK Parliament, as well as a member of the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Assembly. He is regarded as one of the most important figures in the recent political history of Ireland and one of the architects of the Northern Ireland peace process. He is also a recipient of the Gandhi Peace Prize and the Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Award, the only recipient of the three major peace awards. In 2010 he was named "Ireland's Greatest" in a public poll by Irish national broadcaster RTÉ
RTÉ
to find the greatest person in Ireland's history.[1] In 2012, Pope Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
made Hume a Knight Commander of the Papal Order of St. Gregory the Great.[2]

Contents

1 Beginnings 2 Involvement in the Credit Union
Credit Union
movement 3 Political career 4 Reputation 5 Retirement 6 Awards 7 Ireland's greatest 8 Further reading 9 Quotes 10 References 11 External links

Beginnings[edit] John Hume
John Hume
was born in Derry
Derry
with an Irish Catholic background. His great-grandfather was a Presbyterian immigrant from Scotland.[3] Hume was a student at St. Columb's College
St. Columb's College
and at St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, the leading Catholic seminary in Ireland and a recognised college of the National University of Ireland, where he intended to study for the priesthood. Among his teachers was the future Cardinal Tomás Ó Fiaich. He did not complete his clerical studies, but did obtain an M.A degree from the college, and then returned home to his native city and became a teacher. He was a founding member of the Credit Union
Credit Union
movement in the city, and was chair of the University for Derry
Derry
Committee in 1965.[4] Hume became a leading figure in the civil rights movement in the late 1960s along with people such as Hugh Logue. Hume was prominent in the unsuccessful fight to have Northern Ireland's second university established in Derry
Derry
in the mid-sixties. After this campaign, John Hume went on to be a prominent figure in the Derry
Derry
Citizens' Action Committee. The DCAC was set up in the wake of 5 October march through Derry
Derry
which had caused so much attention to be drawn towards the situation in Northern Ireland. The purpose of the DCAC was to make use of the publicity surrounding recent events to bring to light grievances in Derry
Derry
that had been suppressed by the Unionist Government for years. The DCAC, unlike Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Civil Rights Association (NICRA), however, was aimed specifically at a local campaign, improving the situation in Derry
Derry
for all, and maintaining a peaceful stance. The committee also had a Stewards Association that was there to prevent any violence at marches or sit-downs. Involvement in the Credit Union
Credit Union
movement[edit] Hume was a founder member of Derry
Derry
Credit Union. At the age of 27 he became the youngest ever President of the Irish League of Credit Unions. He served as President from 1964 to 1968. He once said that "all the things I've been doing, it's the thing I'm proudest of, because no movement has done more good for the people of Ireland, north and south, than the credit union movement."[5] Political career[edit] Hume became an Independent Nationalist member of the Parliament of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
in 1969 at the height of the civil rights campaign. He was elected to the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Assembly in 1973, and served as Minister of Commerce in the short-lived power-sharing government in 1974. He stood unsuccessfully for the Westminster Parliament at the Londonderry constituency in October 1974, and was elected for Foyle in 1983. In October 1971 he joined four Westminster MPs in a 48-hour hunger strike to protest at the internment without trial of hundreds of suspected Irish republicans. State papers that have been released under the 30 year rule that an Irish diplomat 8 years later in 1979 believed John Hume
John Hume
supported the return of internment, however the SDLP have strenuously denied this.[6] In 1977, Hume challenged a regulation under the Civil Authorities ( Special
Special
Powers) Act (Northern Ireland) 1922 which allowed any soldier to disperse an assembly of three or more people. Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland, Lord Lowry held that the regulation was Ultra Vires under Section 4 Government of Ireland Act 1920
Government of Ireland Act 1920
which forbade the Parliament of Northern Ireland
Parliament of Northern Ireland
to make laws in respect of the army.[7] A founding member of the Social Democratic and Labour Party
Social Democratic and Labour Party
(SDLP), he succeeded Gerry Fitt as its leader in 1979. He has also served as one of Northern Ireland's three Members of the European Parliament
European Parliament
and has served on the faculty of Boston College, from which he received an honorary degree in 1995. Hume was directly involved in 'secret talks' with the British government and Sinn Féin, in effort to bring Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
to the discussion table openly. The talks are speculated[8] to have led directly to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
Anglo-Irish Agreement
in 1985. However the vast majority of unionists rejected the agreement and staged a massive and peaceful public rally in Belfast
Belfast
City Centre to demonstrate their distaste. Many republicans and nationalists rejected it also, as they had seen it as not going far enough.[9] Hume, however, continued dialogue with both governments and Sinn Féin. The "Hume-Adams process" eventually delivered the 1994 IRA ceasefire which ultimately provided the relatively peaceful backdrop against which the Good Friday agreement
Good Friday agreement
was brokered. Reputation[edit] Hume is credited with being the thinker behind many of the recent political developments in Northern Ireland, from the power-sharing Sunningdale Agreement
Sunningdale Agreement
to the Anglo-Irish Agreement
Anglo-Irish Agreement
and the Belfast Agreement. He won the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1998 alongside the then-leader of the Ulster Unionist Party, David Trimble.[10] When David Trimble
David Trimble
became First Minister it was expected that Hume would take the role of his deputy, being leader of the second largest party, the SDLP. Instead this role was handed to Seamus Mallon, also of the SDLP. Some political journalists cited a bad working relationship between Hume and Trimble despite collecting the Nobel prize with him.[11] On his retirement from the leadership of the SDLP in 2001 he was praised across the political divide, even by his longtime opponent, fellow MP and MEP, the Rev. Ian Paisley. Hume holds the Tip O'Neill Chair in Peace Studies at the University of Ulster, currently funded by The Ireland Funds.[12] Retirement[edit] On 4 February 2004, Hume announced his complete retirement from politics, and shepherded Mark Durkan
Mark Durkan
as his successor as SDLP leader. He did not contest the 2004 European election (when his seat was won by Bairbre de Brún
Bairbre de Brún
of Sinn Féin) or the 2005 general election, in which Mark Durkan
Mark Durkan
retained the Foyle constituency for the SDLP. Hume and his wife, Pat, continue to be active in promoting European integration, issues around global poverty and the Credit Union movement. He is also a supporter of the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations
United Nations
Parliamentary Assembly, an organisation which campaigns for democratic reformation of the United Nations.[13] In retirement, he continued to speak publicly, including a visit to Seton Hall University in New Jersey
New Jersey
in 2005, the first Summer University of Democracy of the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
(Strasbourg, 10–14 July 2006), and St Thomas University, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, 18 July 2007. A recent building in the National University of Ireland, Maynooth, was named after him. Hume holds the position of Club President at his local football team, Derry
Derry
City F.C., of whom he has been a keen supporter all his life.[14] He is a patron of the children's charity Plan Ireland.[15][16] He suffers from dementia, which first manifested itself in the late 1990s.[17] Awards[edit]

Honorary D.Litt, St Thomas University, Fredericton, N.B., 2007[18] Honorary LL.D., Boston College, 1995. One of the 44 honorary doctorates Hume has been awarded. Four Freedoms, Freedom of Speech Medal Recipient, 1996[19] Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Peace (co-recipient), 1998. Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Peace Award, 1999[20] International Gandhi Peace Prize, 2001. Freedom of two cities; Derry
Derry
City in 2000 & Cork in 2004.[21][22] Gandhi, King, Ikeda Community Builders Prize, 2005 (presented by the Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
International Chapel, Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia) Honorary Patron, University Philosophical Society, Trinity College Dublin. Ireland's Greatest
Ireland's Greatest
(public poll conducted by RTÉ), 2010 Knight of Saint Gregory, 2012

Ireland's greatest[edit] On 22 October 2010 John Hume
John Hume
was announced as Ireland's greatest person. This was announced by Ryan Tubridy
Ryan Tubridy
on The Late Late Show after a vote by RTÉ
RTÉ
viewers. Hume was up against Michael Collins, Bono, James Connolly
James Connolly
and Mary Robinson
Mary Robinson
for the title.[23] Further reading[edit]

Denis Haughey and Sean Farren, 'John Hume: Irish Peacemaker,' Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2015 John Hume, 'Personal views, politics, peace and reconciliation in Ireland,' Town House, Dublin, 1996. John Hume, ‘ Derry
Derry
beyond the walls: social and economic aspects of the growth of Derry,' Ulster Historical foundation, Belfast, 2002. Barry White, 'John Hume: a statesman of the troubles,' Blackstaff, Belfast, 1984 George Drower, 'John Hume: peacemaker,' Gollancz, 1995 George Drower, 'John Hume: man of peace,' Vista, London, 1996 Paul Routledge, 'John Hume: a biography,' Harper-Collins, London, 1997 Gerard Murray, ' John Hume
John Hume
and the SDLP: impact and survival in Northern Ireland,' Irish Academic Press, Dublin, 1998.

Quotes[edit]

"Over the years, the barriers of the past—the distrust and prejudices of the past—will be eroded, and a new society will evolve, a new Ireland based on agreement and respect for difference."[24] "I thought that I had a duty to help those that weren't as lucky as me."[25]

References[edit]

^ " John Hume
John Hume
proud of 'Ireland's Greatest' award". RTÉ
RTÉ
News. 26 October 2010.  ^ " John Hume
John Hume
knighted by Pope Benedict". BBC News. 6 July 2012.  ^ McCrystal, Cal (4 September 1994). "Ceasefire: It's all just coming together for the fixer: John Hume
John Hume
risked all when he met Sinn Fein. Now there's talk of a Nobel Peace Prize. Cal McCrystal reports".  ^ Gerald McSheffrey, Planning Derry: Planning and Politics in Northern Ireland, p.110 ^ John Hume
John Hume
Interview – page 3 / 8 – Academy of Achievement Archived 29 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Top diplomat thought Hume wanted return of internment". Archived from the original on 2012-07-20.  ^ Robert Lynd Erskine Lowry; ODNB ^ Seamus Mallon (20 November 2017). "It was John Hume, not Sinn Féin, who steered Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
to peace". The Guardian. Ireland is not a romantic dream; it is not a flag; it is 4.5 million people divided into two powerful traditions. The solution will be found not on the basis of victory for either, but on the basis of agreement and a partnership between both. The real division of Ireland is not a line drawn on the map but in the minds and hearts of its people. - John Hume  ^ Northern Ireland: Conflict and ChangeJonathan Tonge (2002) ^ Peace 1998 ^ Abstracts: From process to procession. Calling John Hume. Waiting for a breakthrough – Business, international ^ "Tip O' Neill Chair: John Hume". University of Ulster. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2009.  ^ "Supporters". Campaign for a UN Parliamentary Assembly. Retrieved 2017-09-26.  first1= missing last1= in Authors list (help) ^ "Who's Who?". Derry
Derry
City FC. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-13.  ^ "Girls offer key to achieving Millennium Goals". Plan Ireland. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2010.  ^ "Our Supporters". Plan Ireland. Retrieved 24 September 2010.  ^ "Wife speaks about John Hume's struggle with dementia". RTÉ
RTÉ
News. 2015-11-23. Retrieved 2016-05-30.  ^ St. Thomas University – Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [1] Archived 26 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Irish News, 6 January 1999 Archived 16 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " John Hume
John Hume
receives freedom of Derry". RTÉ. Retrieved Jan 5, 2015.  ^ "'Peace warrior' Hume gets the freedom of Cork". Irish Independent. Retrieved Jan 5, 2015.  ^ " John Hume
John Hume
in running to be named 'Ireland's Greatest'". BBC News. 22 October 2010.  ^ " John Hume
John Hume
Profile". Academy of Achievement. 2009-10-24. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-15.  ^ " John Hume
John Hume
Interview". Academy of Achievement. 2002-06-08. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 

External links[edit]

His Nobel Lecture His Address to the College Historical Society
College Historical Society
of Trinity College Dublin, on Northern Ireland Tip O'Neill Chair in Peace Studies at the University of Ulster Appearances on C-SPAN

Parliament of Northern Ireland

Preceded by Eddie McAteer Member of Parliament for Foyle 1969–1973 Parliament abolished

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Assembly (1973)

New assembly Assembly Member for Londonderry 1973–1974 Assembly abolished

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Constitutional Convention

New convention Member for Londonderry 1975–1976 Convention dissolved

European Parliament

New constituency MEP for Northern Ireland 1979–2004 Succeeded by Bairbre de Brún

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Assembly (1982)

New assembly MPA for Londonderry 1982–1986 Assembly abolished

Parliament of the United Kingdom

New constituency Member of Parliament for Foyle 1983–2005 Succeeded by Mark Durkan

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Forum

New forum Member for Foyle 1996–1998 Forum dissolved

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Assembly

New assembly MLA for Foyle 1998–2000 Succeeded by Annie Courtney

Party political offices

New political party Deputy Leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party 1970–1979 Succeeded by Seamus Mallon

Preceded by Gerry Fitt Leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party 1979–2001 Succeeded by Mark Durkan

v t e

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Executive (1974)

Sunningdale Agreement

Chief Executive

Brian Faulkner

Deputy Chief Executive

Gerry Fitt

Ministers on Executive

Minister of Finance (Herbert Kirk) Minister of Commerce (John Hume) Minister of Environment (Roy Bradford) Minister of Health and Social Services (Paddy Devlin) Minister for Education (Basil McIvor) Minister of Agriculture (Leslie Morrell) Minister of Housing, Local Government and Planning (Austin Currie) Legal Minister and Head of the Office of Law Reform (Oliver Napier) Minister of Information (John Baxter)

Other Ministers

Minister of Community Relations (Ivan Cooper) Minister of Planning and Co-ordination (Eddie McGrady) Minister of Manpower Services (Bob Cooper) Chief Whip (Lloyd Hall-Thompson)

v t e

Social Democratic and Labour Party
Social Democratic and Labour Party
(SDLP)

Leadership

Leaders

Gerry Fitt (1970–1979) John Hume
John Hume
(1979–2001) Mark Durkan
Mark Durkan
(2001–2010) Margaret Ritchie (2010–2011) Alasdair McDonnell
Alasdair McDonnell
(2011–2015) Colum Eastwood
Colum Eastwood
(2015–present)

Deputy Leaders

John Hume
John Hume
(1970–1979) Seamus Mallon (1979–2001) Bríd Rodgers
Bríd Rodgers
(2001–2004) Alasdair McDonnell
Alasdair McDonnell
(2004–2010) Patsy McGlone (2010–2011) Dolores Kelly (2011–2015) Fearghal McKinney
Fearghal McKinney
(2015–2016)

Chair

Eddie McGrady
Eddie McGrady
(1971–1973) Denis Haughey (1973–1978) Bríd Rodgers
Bríd Rodgers
(1978–1980) Sean Farren (1980–1984) Alban Maginness
Alban Maginness
(1984–1990) Mark Durkan
Mark Durkan
(1990–1995) Jonathan Stephenson (1995–1998) Jim Lennon (1998–2000) Alex Attwood
Alex Attwood
(2000–2004) Patricia Lewsley (2004–2007) Eddie McGrady
Eddie McGrady
(2007–2009) Joe Byrne (2009–2012) John Dallat (2012–2013) John Clayton (2013–2015) Rosemary Flanagan (acting, 2015) Roisin Lynch (acting, 2015) Ronan McCay (2015–present)

General Secretary

Paddy Wilson (1970–1972) John Duffy (1972–1975) Dan McAreavey (1975–1980) Don Canning (1980–1981) Bríd Rodgers
Bríd Rodgers
(1981–1983) Eamon Hanna (1983–1986) Patsy McGlone (1986–1992) Gerry Cosgrove (1992–2016)

Elected representatives

Members of the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Assembly

Sinéad Bradley Pat Catney John Dallat Mark H. Durkan Colum Eastwood Claire Hanna Dolores Kelly Nichola Mallon Daniel McCrossan Patsy McGlone Colin McGrath Justin McNulty

Members of the UK Parliament

List

Related organisations

National Democratic Party SDLP Youth

Other articles

Election results

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

v t e

1998 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates

Chemistry

Walter Kohn
Walter Kohn
(United States) John A. Pople (United Kingdom)

Literature

José Saramago
José Saramago
(Portugal)

Peace

John Hume
John Hume
(Ireland) David Trimble
David Trimble
(United Kingdom)

Physics

Robert B. Laughlin
Robert B. Laughlin
(United States) Horst Ludwig Störmer
Horst Ludwig Störmer
(Germany) Daniel Chee Tsui (United States)

Physiology or Medicine

Robert F. Furchgott
Robert F. Furchgott
(United States) Louis J. Ignarro (United States) Ferid Murad
Ferid Murad
(United States)

Economic Sciences

Amartya Sen
Amartya Sen
(India)

Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
recipients 1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

v t e

Gandhi Peace Prize laureates

Julius Nyerere
Julius Nyerere
(1995) A. T. Ariyaratne
A. T. Ariyaratne
(1996) Gerhard Fischer (1997) Ramakrishna Mission
Ramakrishna Mission
(1998) Baba Amte
Baba Amte
(1999) Grameen Bank, Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
(2000) John Hume
John Hume
(2001) Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Educational Trust
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Educational Trust
(2002) Václav Havel
Václav Havel
(2003) Coretta Scott King
Coretta Scott King
(2004) Desmond Tutu
Desmond Tutu
(2005) Chandi Prasad Bhatt
Chandi Prasad Bhatt
(2013) ISRO (2014)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 30346937 LCCN: n85127099 ISNI: 0000 0000 7859 8701 GND: 119444666 SELIBR: 319395 SUDOC: 028944488 BNF: cb140037758 (da

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