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The Info List - John F. Kennedy


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President of the United States

Presidency

Timeline

1960 Campaign

Election

Inauguration

New Frontier Foreign Policy

Doctrine

"A Strategy of Peace" Bay of Pigs

Cuban Missile Crisis Civil Rights Address

Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

Clean Air Peace Corps

"We choose to go to the Moon"

Space programs

Mercury Gemini Apollo

Appointments

Cabinet Judges

Assassination and legacy

November 22, 1963 State Funeral Eternal Flame Memorials Library Legacy Cultural depictions

v t e

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States
President of the United States
from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. Kennedy served at the height of the Cold War, and much of his presidency focused on managing relations with the Soviet Union. A member of the Democratic Party, Kennedy represented the state of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate
United States Senate
prior to becoming president. Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, to Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. and Rose Kennedy. A scion of the Kennedy family, he graduated from Harvard University
Harvard University
in 1940 before joining the U.S. Naval Reserve the following year. During World War II, Kennedy commanded a series of PT boats in the Pacific theater and earned the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his service. After the war, Kennedy represented the 11th congressional district of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
in the United States
United States
House of Representatives from 1947 until 1953. He was subsequently elected to the U.S. Senate and served as the junior Senator from Massachusetts from 1953 until 1960. While serving in the Senate, he published Profiles in Courage, which won the Pulitzer Prize for Biography. In the 1960 presidential election, Kennedy narrowly defeated Republican opponent Richard Nixon, who was the incumbent Vice President. At age 43, he became the youngest elected president as well as the first and only Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
to occupy the office. Kennedy's time in office was marked by high tensions with communist states in the Cold War. He increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam
South Vietnam
by a factor of 18 over President Dwight D. Eisenhower. In April 1961, he authorized a failed joint-CIA attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
in the Bay of Pigs Invasion.[2] He subsequently rejected Operation Northwoods
Operation Northwoods
plans by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to orchestrate false flag attacks on American soil in order to gain public approval for a war against Cuba. In October 1962, U.S. spy planes discovered that Soviet missile bases had been deployed in Cuba; the resulting period of tensions, termed the Cuban Missile Crisis, nearly resulted in the breakout of a global thermonuclear conflict. Domestically, Kennedy presided over the establishment of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
and supported the civil rights movement, but he was largely unsuccessful in passing his New Frontier domestic policies. Kennedy continues to rank highly in historians' polls of U.S. presidents and with the general public. His average approval rating of 70% is the highest of any president in Gallup's history of systematically measuring job approval.[3] On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the state crime, but he was never prosecuted due to his murder by Jack Ruby
Jack Ruby
two days later; Ruby was sentenced to death and died while the sentence was on appeal in 1967. Pursuant to the Presidential Succession Act, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as president later that day. The FBI
FBI
and the Warren Commission
Warren Commission
officially concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin, but various groups challenged the findings of the Warren Report and believed that Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy. After Kennedy's death, Congress enacted many of his proposals, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
and the Revenue Act of 1964.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 U.S. Navy Reserve (1941–1945)

2.1 PT-109 and PT-59 2.2 Military awards

2.2.1 Navy and Marine Corps Medal
Navy and Marine Corps Medal
citation

3 Post-naval service 4 Congressional career (1947–1960)

4.1 House of Representatives (1947–1953) 4.2 Senate (1953–1960)

5 1960 presidential election 6 Presidency (1961–1963)

6.1 Foreign policy

6.1.1 Cuba
Cuba
and the Bay of Pigs Invasion 6.1.2 Cuban Missile Crisis 6.1.3 Latin America
Latin America
and communism 6.1.4 Peace Corps 6.1.5 Southeast Asia 6.1.6 American University
American University
speech 6.1.7 West Berlin
West Berlin
speech 6.1.8 Israel 6.1.9 Iraq 6.1.10 Ireland 6.1.11 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

6.2 Domestic policy

6.2.1 Economy 6.2.2 Federal and military death penalty 6.2.3 Civil Rights Movement

6.3 Civil liberties 6.4 Immigration 6.5 Native American relations 6.6 Space policy 6.7 Administration, Cabinet, and judicial appointments

6.7.1 Judicial appointments

6.7.1.1 Supreme Court 6.7.1.2 Other courts

7 Assassination

7.1 Funeral

8 Personal life, family, and reputation

8.1 Wife and children 8.2 Popular image 8.3 " Camelot
Camelot
Era" 8.4 Health 8.5 Personal tragedies 8.6 Affairs and extramarital relationships

9 Historical evaluations and legacy

9.1 Effect of assassination 9.2 Memorials and eponyms

10 Media 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References

13.1 Citations 13.2 Works cited

14 Further reading

14.1 Primary sources 14.2 Historiography and memory

15 External links

Early life and education John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917, at 83 Beals Street in Brookline, Massachusetts,[4] to businessman/politician Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy and philanthropist/socialite Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy. His grandfathers P. J. Kennedy
P. J. Kennedy
and Boston Mayor John F. Fitzgerald
John F. Fitzgerald
were both Massachusetts
Massachusetts
politicians. All four of his grandparents were children of Irish immigrants.[1] Kennedy had an elder brother, Joseph Jr., and seven younger siblings; Rosemary, Kathleen, Eunice, Patricia, Robert, Jean, and Ted.

Kennedy's birthplace in Brookline, Massachusetts

Kennedy lived in Brookline for the first decade of his life and attended the Edward Devotion School, the Noble and Greenough Lower School, and the Dexter School
Dexter School
through 4th grade. Joe Kennedy's business had kept him away from the family for long stretches of time, and his ventures were concentrated on Wall Street
Wall Street
and Hollywood. In September 1927, the family moved from Brookline to Riverdale, Bronx, New York.[5][6] Young John attended the lower campus of Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys, from 5th to 7th grade. Two years later, the family moved to suburban Bronxville, New York, where Kennedy was a member of Boy Scout
Boy Scout
Troop 2 and attended St. Joseph's Church.[1][7] The Kennedy family
Kennedy family
spent summers and early autumns[8] at their home (rented in 1926, then purchased in 1929)[9] in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, and Christmas and Easter holidays at their winter home in Palm Beach, Florida, later purchased in 1933. In September 1930, Kennedy—then 13 years old—attended the Canterbury School in New Milford, Connecticut, for 8th grade. In April 1931, he had an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home.[10]

The Kennedy family
Kennedy family
at Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, in 1931 with Jack at top left in white shirt. Ted was born the following year.

In September 1931, Kennedy attended Choate, a boarding school in Wallingford, Connecticut, for 9th through 12th grade. His older brother Joe Jr. had already been at Choate for two years and was a football player and leading student. He spent his first years at Choate in his older brother's shadow, and compensated with rebellious behavior that attracted a coterie. They carried out their most notorious stunt by exploding a toilet seat with a powerful firecracker. In the ensuing chapel assembly, the strict headmaster, George St. John, brandished the toilet seat and spoke of certain "muckers" who would "spit in our sea". The defiant Kennedy took the cue and named his group "The Muckers Club", which included roommate and friend Kirk LeMoyne "Lem" Billings.[11] During his years at Choate, Kennedy was beset by health problems that culminated with his emergency hospitalization in 1934 at New Haven Hospital, where doctors thought he might have had leukemia.[12] In June 1934, he was admitted to the Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
in Rochester, Minnesota; the ultimate diagnosis there was colitis.[12] Kennedy graduated from Choate in June of the following year, finishing 64th in a class of 112 students.[6] He had been the business manager of the school yearbook and was voted the "most likely to succeed".[11] In September 1935, Kennedy made his first trip abroad when he traveled to London with his parents and his sister Kathleen. He intended to study under Harold Laski
Harold Laski
at the London School of Economics
London School of Economics
(LSE), as his older brother had done. Ill-health forced his return to America in October of that year, when he enrolled late and spent six weeks at Princeton University.[13] He was then hospitalized for observation at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. He convalesced further at the Kennedy winter home in Palm Beach, then spent the spring of 1936 working as a ranch hand on the 40,000-acre (160 km2) Jay Six cattle ranch outside Benson, Arizona.[14] It is reported that ranchman Jack Speiden worked both brothers "very hard".[15][16] In 1935, Kennedy briefly attended Princeton University
Princeton University
but had to leave after two months due to a gastrointestinal illness. Later, in September 1936, Kennedy enrolled at Harvard College
Harvard College
and his application essay stated: "The reasons that I have for wishing to go to Harvard are several. I feel that Harvard can give me a better background and a better liberal education than any other university. I have always wanted to go there, as I have felt that it is not just another college, but is a university with something definite to offer. Then too, I would like to go to the same college as my father. To be a 'Harvard man' is an enviable distinction, and one that I sincerely hope I shall attain."[17] He produced that year's annual "Freshman Smoker", called by a reviewer "an elaborate entertainment, which included in its cast outstanding personalities of the radio, screen and sports world."[18] He tried out for the football, golf, and swimming teams and earned a spot on the varsity swimming team.[19] Kennedy also sailed in the Star class and won the 1936 Nantucket Sound Star Championship.[20] In July 1937, Kennedy sailed to France—taking his convertible—and spent ten weeks driving through Europe with Billings.[21] In June 1938, Kennedy sailed overseas with his father and older brother to work at the American embassy in London, where his father was President Franklin D. Roosevelt's U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James's.[22] In 1939, Kennedy toured Europe, the Soviet Union, the Balkans, and the Middle East in preparation for his Harvard senior honors thesis. He then went to Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and Germany before returning to London on September 1, 1939, the day that Germany invaded Poland to mark the beginning of World War II. Two days later, the family was in the House of Commons for speeches endorsing the United Kingdom's declaration of war on Germany. Kennedy was sent as his father's representative to help with arrangements for American survivors of the SS Athenia
SS Athenia
before flying back to the U.S. from Foynes, Ireland, to Port Washington, New York, on his first transatlantic flight. When Kennedy was an upperclassman at Harvard, he began to take his studies more seriously and developed an interest in political philosophy. He made the Dean's List in his junior year.[23] In 1940, Kennedy completed his thesis, "Appeasement in Munich", about British participation in the Munich Agreement. The thesis became a bestseller under the title Why England Slept.[24] In addition to addressing Britain's failure to strengthen its military in the lead-up to World War II, the book also called for an Anglo-American alliance against the rising totalitarian powers. While Kennedy became increasingly supportive of U.S. intervention in World War II, his father's isolationist beliefs resulted in the latter's dismissal as ambassador to the United Kingdom, creating a split between the Kennedy and Roosevelt families.[25] In 1940, Kennedy graduated cum laude from Harvard College
Harvard College
with a Bachelor of Arts in government, concentrating on international affairs. That fall, he enrolled at the Stanford Graduate School of Business and audited classes there.[26] In early 1941, Kennedy left and helped his father write a memoir of his three years as an American ambassador. He then traveled throughout South America; his itinerary included Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.[27][28] U.S. Navy Reserve (1941–1945) Main article: Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 In 1940, Kennedy attempted to enter the army's Officer Candidate School, but he was medically disqualified due to his chronic lower back problems. He exercised for months to straighten his back. On September 24, 1941, with the help of the director of the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI)—who was the former naval attaché to Joseph Kennedy—Kennedy joined the United States
United States
Naval Reserve. He was commissioned an ensign on October 26, 1941,[29] and joined the staff of the Office of Naval Intelligence
Office of Naval Intelligence
in Washington, D.C.[30][31][32]

Lieutenant (junior grade)
Lieutenant (junior grade)
Kennedy (standing at right) with his PT-109 crew, 1943

In January 1942, Kennedy was assigned to the ONI field office at Headquarters, Sixth Naval District, in Charleston, South Carolina.[31] He attended the Naval Reserve Officer Training School at Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois, from July 27 to September 27 [30] and then voluntarily entered the Motor Torpedo Boat Squadrons Training Center in Melville, Rhode Island.[31][33] On October 10, he was promoted to lieutenant junior grade.[31] He completed his training on December 2 and was assigned to Motor Torpedo Squadron FOUR.[30] His first command was PT-101 from December 7, 1942, until February 23, 1943:[31] It was a PT boat
PT boat
used for training while Kennedy was an instructor at Melville.[34] He then led three Huckins PT boats—PT-98, PT-99, and PT-101, which were being relocated from MTBRON 4 in Melville, Rhode Island, back to Jacksonville, Florida, and the new MTBRON 14 (formed February 17, 1943). During the trip south, he was hospitalized briefly in Jacksonville after diving into the cold water to unfoul a propeller. Thereafter, Kennedy was assigned duty in Panama
Panama
and later in the Pacific theater, where he eventually commanded two more patrol torpedo (PT) boats.[35] PT-109 and PT-59

Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT-109, 1943

In April 1943, Kennedy was assigned to Motor Torpedo Squadron TWO.[30] On April 24, he took command of PT-109,[36] which was based at Tulagi Island in the Solomon Islands.[31] On the night of August 1–2, PT-109 was on its 31st mission and performing nighttime patrols near New Georgia
New Georgia
in the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
with PT-162 and PT-169.[37] Kennedy spotted a Japanese destroyer nearby and attempted to turn to attack, when PT-109 was rammed suddenly at an angle and cut in half by the destroyer Amagiri, costing two PT-109 crew members[38] their lives.[39][31] Kennedy gathered around the wreckage his surviving ten crew members including those injured, to vote on whether to "fight or surrender". Kennedy stated: "There's nothing in the book about a situation like this. A lot of you men have families and some of you have children. What do you want to do? I have nothing to lose." Shunning surrender, the men swam towards a small island three miles away.[31][40] Despite re-injuring his back in the collision, Kennedy towed a badly burned crewman through the water to the island with a life jacket strap clenched between his teeth,[41] and later to a second island, where his crew was subsequently rescued[31][42] on August 8.[29] Kennedy and Ensign Leonard Thom,[43][44] his executive officer on PT-109, were both later awarded the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for heroism and the Purple Heart Medal
Purple Heart Medal
for injuries.[45] On September 1, 1943, Kennedy returned to duty and took command of the PT-59, a PT boat
PT boat
that had been converted into a gunboat. The plan was to attach one gunboat to each PT boat
PT boat
section.[46] On October 8th, Kennedy was promoted to full lieutenant.[47] On November 2, PT-59, which included three former PT-109 crew members, took part with another boat in the successful rescue of 87 marines stranded on two rescue landing craft on the Warrior River at Choiseul Island, which was held by the Japanese.[48] Under doctor's orders, Kennedy was relieved of his command of PT-59 on November 18, and sent to the hospital on Tulagi.[49] From there he returned to the United States
United States
in early January 1944. After receiving treatment for his back injury, he was released from active duty in late 1944.[50] Beginning in January 1945, Kennedy spent three more months recovering from his back injury at Castle Hot Springs, a resort and temporary military hospital in Arizona.[51][52] Kennedy was in Chelsea Naval Hospital
Chelsea Naval Hospital
from May to December 1944.[30] On June 12, he was presented the Navy and Marine Corps Medal
Navy and Marine Corps Medal
(the Navy's highest noncombat decoration for heroism) for his heroic actions on August 1–2, 1943, and the Purple Heart Medal
Purple Heart Medal
for his back injury on PT-109, on August 1, 1943 (injured on August 2).[53] After the war, Kennedy felt that the medal he had received for heroism was not a combat award and asked that he be reconsidered for the Silver Star Medal for which he had been recommended initially. (His father also requested the Silver Star, which is awarded for gallantry in action, for his son). In 1950, The Department of the Navy offered Kennedy a Bronze Star Medal
Bronze Star Medal
in recognition of his meritorious service, but he would have to return his Navy and Marine Corps Medal
Navy and Marine Corps Medal
in order to receive it. He declined the medal. In 1959, the Navy again offered him the Bronze Star. Kennedy responded, repeating his original request concerning the award. He received the same response from the Navy as he had in 1950. The Navy said his actions were a lifesaving case.[54] Kennedy's two original medals are currently on display at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.[55] On August 12, 1944, Kennedy's older brother, Joe Jr., a Navy pilot, was killed while volunteering for a special and hazardous air mission. His explosive-laden plane blew up when the plane's bombs detonated prematurely while the aircraft was flying over the English Channel.[56] On March 1, 1945, Kennedy retired from the Navy Reserve on physical disability and was honorably discharged with the full rank of lieutenant.[53] When later asked how he became a war hero, Kennedy joked: "It was easy. They cut my PT boat
PT boat
in half."[57] Military awards Kennedy's military decorations and awards include the Navy and Marine Corps Medal; Purple Heart
Purple Heart
Medal; American Defense Service Medal; American Campaign Medal; Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
with three ​3⁄16" bronze stars; and the World War II
World War II
Victory Medal.[1]

Navy and Marine Corps Medal Purple Heart American Defense Service Medal

American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with three stars World War II
World War II
Victory Medal

Navy and Marine Corps Medal
Navy and Marine Corps Medal
citation

For extremely heroic conduct as Commanding Officer of Motor Torpedo Boat 109 following the collision and sinking of that vessel in the Pacific War
Pacific War
area on August 1–2, 1943. Unmindful of personal danger, Lieutenant (then Lieutenant, Junior Grade) Kennedy unhesitatingly braved the difficulties and hazards of darkness to direct rescue operations, swimming many hours to secure aid and food after he had succeeded in getting his crew ashore. His outstanding courage, endurance and leadership contributed to the saving of several lives and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. — James Forrestal, Secretary of the Navy[58]

Post-naval service In April 1945, Kennedy's father, who was a friend of William Randolph Hearst, arranged a position for his son as a special correspondent for Hearst Newspapers; the assignment kept Kennedy's name in the public eye and "expose[d] him to journalism as a possible career."[59] He worked as a correspondent that May, covering the Potsdam Conference and other events.[60] Congressional career (1947–1960) JFK's elder brother Joe had been the family's political standard-bearer and had been tapped by their father to seek the Presidency. Joe's death during the war in 1944 changed that course and the task now fell to the second eldest of the Kennedy siblings – John F. Kennedy.[61] House of Representatives (1947–1953) At the urging of Kennedy's father, U.S. Representative James Michael Curley vacated his seat in the strongly Democratic 11th congressional district in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to become mayor of Boston in 1946. With his father financing and running his campaign, Kennedy won the Democratic primary with 12 percent of the vote, defeating ten other candidates. Though Republicans took control of the House in the 1946 elections, Kennedy defeated his Republican opponent in the general election, taking 73 percent of the vote. Along with Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
and Joseph McCarthy, Kennedy was one of several World War II
World War II
veterans first elected to Congress that year.[62] He served in the House for six years, joining the influential Education and Labor Committee and the Veterans' Affairs Committee. He concentrated his attention on international affairs, supporting the Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine
as the appropriate response to the emerging Cold War. He also supported public housing and opposed the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947, which restricted the power of labor unions. Though not as vocal an anticommunist as McCarthy, Congressman Kennedy supported the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which required Communists to register with the government, and he deplored the "Loss of China."[63] Senate (1953–1960) See also: United States Senate
United States Senate
election in Massachusetts, 1952 and United States Senate
United States Senate
election in Massachusetts, 1958

County results of the 1952 U.S. Senate election in Massachusetts

Kennedy lying on a gurney following spinal surgery, accompanied by Jackie, December 1954

Kennedy endorsing Adlai Stevenson II
Adlai Stevenson II
for the presidential nomination at the 1956 Democratic National Convention
1956 Democratic National Convention
in Chicago

As early as 1949, Kennedy began preparing to run for the Senate in 1952 against Republican three-term incumbent Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
Jr. Joseph Kennedy again financed and managed his son's candidacy, while John Kennedy's younger brother Robert Kennedy
Robert Kennedy
emerged as an important member of the campaign.[64] In the presidential election, General Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
carried Massachusetts
Massachusetts
by a margin of 208,000 votes, but Kennedy defeated Lodge by 70,000 votes for the Senate seat.[65] The following year, he married Jacqueline Bouvier.[66] Kennedy underwent several spinal operations over the next two years. Often absent from the Senate, he was at times critically ill and received Catholic last rites. During his convalescence in 1956, he published Profiles in Courage, a book about U.S. senators who risked their careers for their personal beliefs, for which he won the Pulitzer Prize for Biography
Pulitzer Prize for Biography
in 1957.[67] Rumors that this work was co-written by his close adviser and speechwriter, Ted Sorensen, were confirmed in Sorensen's 2008 autobiography.[68] At the 1956 Democratic National Convention, Senator Kennedy gave the nominating speech for the party's presidential nominee, Adlai Stevenson II.[69] Stevenson let the convention select the Vice Presidential nominee. Kennedy finished second in the balloting, losing to Senator Estes Kefauver
Estes Kefauver
of Tennessee but receiving national exposure as a result.[70] One of the matters demanding Kennedy's attention in the Senate was President Eisenhower's bill for the Civil Rights Act of 1957.[71] Kennedy cast a procedural vote on this, which was considered by some as an appeasement of Southern Democratic opponents of the bill.[71] Kennedy did vote for Title III of the act, which would have given the Attorney General powers to enjoin, but Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson agreed to let the provision die as a compromise measure.[72] Kennedy also voted for Title IV, termed the "Jury Trial Amendment". Many civil rights advocates at the time criticized that vote as one which would weaken the act.[73] A final compromise bill, which Kennedy supported, was passed in September 1957.[74]

Jack Paar
Jack Paar
interviews Senator Kennedy on The Tonight Show
The Tonight Show
(1959).

In 1958, Kennedy was re-elected to a second term in the Senate, defeating his Republican opponent, Boston lawyer Vincent J. Celeste, by a wide margin of 874,608 votes; this represented the largest ever margin in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
politics.[65] It was during his re-election campaign that Kennedy's press secretary at the time, Robert E. Thompson, put together a film entitled The U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy Story, which exhibited a day in the life of the Senator and showcased his family life as well as the inner workings of his office. It was the most comprehensive film produced about Kennedy up to that time.[75] In the aftermath of his re-election, Kennedy began preparing to run for president in 1960.[76] While Kennedy's father was a strong supporter of Senator Joseph McCarthy, McCarthy was also a friend of the Kennedy family. As well, Bobby Kennedy worked for McCarthy's subcommittee, and McCarthy dated Kennedy sister Patricia. In 1954, the Senate voted to censure McCarthy and Kennedy drafted a speech supporting the censure. However, it was not delivered because Kennedy was hospitalized at the time. The speech had the potential of putting Kennedy in the position of participating procedurally by "pairing" his vote against that of another senator. Although Kennedy never indicated how he would have voted, the episode damaged his support among members of the liberal community, including Eleanor Roosevelt, in the 1956 and 1960 elections.[77] 1960 presidential election Main articles: Democratic Party (United States)
Democratic Party (United States)
presidential primaries, 1960 and United States
United States
presidential election, 1960

Kennedy campaigns with his wife Jacqueline in Appleton, Wisconsin, March 1960

On January 2, 1960, Kennedy announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination. Though some questioned Kennedy's youth and experience, his charisma and eloquence earned him numerous supporters. His greatest obstacle to winning the nomination may have been his religion. Many Americans held anti-Catholic attitudes, but his vocal support of the separation of church and state helped to defuse the issue. His religion also helped him win a devoted following among many Catholic voters. Kennedy faced several potential challengers for the Democratic nomination, including Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson, Adlai Stevenson, and Senator Hubert Humphrey. Kennedy traveled extensively to build his support among Democratic elites and voters. At the time, party officials controlled most of the delegates, but several states also held primaries, and Kennedy sought to win several primaries to boost his chances of winning the nomination. In his first major test, Kennedy won the Wisconsin primary, effectively ending Humphrey's hopes of winning the presidency. Nonetheless, Kennedy and Humphrey faced each other in a competitive West Virginia primary in which Kennedy could not benefit from a Catholic bloc, as he had in Wisconsin. Kennedy won the West Virginia primary, impressing many in the party, but at the start of the 1960 Democratic National Convention, it was unclear whether he would win the nomination.[78]

Kennedy and Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
participate in the nation's first televised presidential debate, Washington, D.C., 1960.

When Kennedy entered the convention, he had the most delegates, but not enough to ensure he would win the nomination. Stevenson—the 1952 and 1956 presidential nominee—remained very popular in the party, while Johnson also hoped to win the nomination with the support of party leaders. Kennedy's candidacy also faced opposition from former president Harry S. Truman, who worried about Kennedy's lack of experience. Kennedy knew that a second ballot could result in the nomination of Johnson or another candidate, and his well-organized campaign was able to earn the support of just enough delegates to win the presidential nomination on the first ballot.[79] Kennedy ignored the opposition of his brother, who wanted him to choose labor leader Walter Reuther,[80] and other liberal supporters when he chose Johnson as his vice presidential nominee. He believed that the Texas
Texas
Senator could help him win support in the South.[81] In accepting the presidential nomination, Kennedy gave his well-known "New Frontier" speech, saying: "For the problems are not all solved and the battles are not all won—and we stand today on the edge of a New Frontier.... But the New Frontier of which I speak is not a set of promises—it is a set of challenges. It sums up not what I intend to offer the American people, but what I intend to ask of them."[82]

Outgoing President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
meets with President-elect John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
on December 6, 1960

At the start of the fall general election campaign, Republican nominee Richard Nixon, the incumbent vice president, held a six-point lead in the polls.[83] Major issues included how to get the economy moving again, Kennedy's Roman Catholicism, the Cuban Revolution, and whether the Soviet space and missile programs had surpassed those of the U.S. To address fears that his being Catholic would impact his decision-making, he famously told the Greater Houston
Houston
Ministerial Association on September 12, 1960: "I am not the Catholic candidate for president. I am the Democratic Party candidate for president who also happens to be a Catholic. I do not speak for my Church on public matters – and the Church does not speak for me."[84] Kennedy questioned rhetorically whether one-quarter of Americans were relegated to second-class citizenship just because they were Catholic, and once stated that: "No one asked me my religion [serving the Navy] in the South Pacific."[85] In September and October, Kennedy squared off against Nixon in the first televised presidential debates in U.S. history. During these programs, Nixon had an injured leg, "five o'clock shadow", and was perspiring, making him look tense and uncomfortable. Conversely, Kennedy wore makeup and appeared relaxed, which helped the large television audience to view him as the winner. On average radio listeners thought that Nixon had won or that the debates were a draw.[86] The debates are now considered a milestone in American political history—the point at which the medium of television began to play a dominant role in politics.[67]

1960 electoral vote results

Kennedy's campaign gained momentum after the first debate, and he pulled slightly ahead of Nixon in most polls. On Election Day, Kennedy defeated Nixon in one of the closest presidential elections of the 20th century. In the national popular vote, by most accounts, Kennedy led Nixon by just two-tenths of one percent (49.7% to 49.5%), while in the Electoral College, he won 303 votes to Nixon's 219 (269 were needed to win).[87] Fourteen electors from Mississippi and Alabama refused to support Kennedy because of his support for the civil rights movement; they voted for Senator Harry F. Byrd
Harry F. Byrd
of Virginia, as did an elector from Oklahoma.[87] Kennedy became the youngest person (43) ever elected to the presidency, though Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
was a year younger at 42 when he automatically assumed the office after William McKinley's assassination in 1901.[88] Presidency (1961–1963)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address

Main article: Presidency of John F. Kennedy For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the presidency of John F. Kennedy.

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
takes the Presidential oath of office administered by Chief Justice Earl Warren
Earl Warren
on January 20, 1961, at the Capitol.

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
was sworn in as the 35th president at noon on January 20, 1961. In his inaugural address, he spoke of the need for all Americans to be active citizens, famously saying: "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country." He asked the nations of the world to join together to fight what he called the "common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself."[89] He added:

All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin." In closing, he expanded on his desire for greater internationalism: "Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you.[89]

The address reflected Kennedy's confidence that his administration would chart a historically significant course in both domestic policy and foreign affairs. The contrast between this optimistic vision and the pressures of managing daily political realities at home and abroad would be one of the main tensions running through the early years of his administration.[90]

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
speaking at Rice University
Rice University
in Houston
Houston
on September 12, 1962. Lyndon Johnson can be seen behind him.

Kennedy brought to the White House
White House
a contrast in organization compared to the decision-making structure of former-General Eisenhower; and he wasted no time in scrapping Eisenhower's methods.[91] Kennedy preferred the organizational structure of a wheel with all the spokes leading to the president. He was ready and willing to make the increased number of quick decisions required in such an environment. He selected a mixture of experienced and inexperienced people to serve in his cabinet. "We can learn our jobs together", he stated.[92] Much to the chagrin of his economic advisors who wanted him to reduce taxes, Kennedy quickly agreed to a balanced budget pledge. This was needed in exchange for votes to expand the membership of the House Rules Committee in order to give the Democrats a majority in setting the legislative agenda.[93] Kennedy focused on immediate and specific issues facing the administration, and quickly voiced his impatience with pondering of deeper meanings. Deputy National Security Advisor Walt Whitman Rostow
Walt Whitman Rostow
once began a diatribe about the growth of communism, and Kennedy abruptly cut him off, asking, "What do you want me to do about that today?"[94] Kennedy approved Defense Secretary Robert McNamara's controversial decision to award the contract for the F-111
F-111
TFX (Tactical Fighter Experimental) fighter-bomber to General Dynamics
General Dynamics
(the choice of the civilian Defense department) over Boeing
Boeing
(the choice of the military).[95] At the request of Senator Henry Jackson, Senator John McClellan held 46 days of mostly closed-door hearings before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations investigating the TFX contract from February to November 1963.[96] During the summer of 1962, Kennedy had a secret taping system set up in the White House, most likely to aid his future memoir. It recorded many conversations with Kennedy and his Cabinet members, including those in relation to the "Cuban Missile Crisis".[97] Foreign policy Main article: Foreign policy of the John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
administration

Foreign trips of John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
during his presidency

President Kennedy's foreign policy was dominated by American confrontations with the Soviet Union, manifested by proxy contests in the early stage of the Cold War. In 1961, Kennedy anxiously anticipated a summit with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev. He started off on the wrong foot by reacting aggressively to a routine Khrushchev speech on Cold War
Cold War
confrontation in early 1961. The speech was intended for domestic audiences in the Soviet Union, but Kennedy interpreted it as a personal challenge. His mistake helped raise tensions going into the Vienna
Vienna
Summit of June 1961.[98]

Kennedy with Kwame Nkrumah, the first head of an independent Ghana, March 1961

On the way to the summit, Kennedy stopped in Paris to meet Charles de Gaulle, who advised him to ignore Khrushchev's abrasive style. The French president feared the United States' presumed influence in Europe. Nevertheless, de Gaulle was quite impressed with the young president and his family. Kennedy picked up on this in his speech in Paris, saying that he would be remembered as "the man who accompanied Jackie Kennedy to Paris."[99] On June 4, 1961, the president met with Khrushchev in Vienna
Vienna
and left the meetings angry and disappointed that he had allowed the premier to bully him, despite the warnings he had received. Khrushchev, for his part, was impressed with the president's intelligence, but thought him weak. Kennedy did succeed in conveying the bottom line to Khrushchev on the most sensitive issue before them, a proposed treaty between Moscow and East Berlin. He made it clear that any such treaty which interfered with U.S access rights in West Berlin
West Berlin
would be regarded as an act of war.[100] Shortly after the president returned home, the U.S.S.R. announced its intention to sign a treaty with East Berlin, abrogating any third-party occupation rights in either sector of the city. Kennedy, depressed and angry, assumed that his only option was to prepare the country for nuclear war, which he personally thought had a one-in-five chance of occurring.[101] In the weeks immediately after the Vienna
Vienna
summit, more than 20,000 people fled from East Berlin
East Berlin
to the western sector in reaction to statements from the USSR. Kennedy began intensive meetings on the Berlin issue, where Dean Acheson
Dean Acheson
took the lead in recommending a military buildup alongside NATO
NATO
allies.[102] In a July 1961 speech, Kennedy announced his decision to add $3.25 billion to the defense budget, along with over 200,000 additional troops, stating that an attack on West Berlin
West Berlin
would be taken as an attack on the U.S. The speech received an 85% approval rating.[103]

Kennedy with the Italian Prime Minister Amintore Fanfani, at the White House, in 1963

The following month, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and East Berlin
East Berlin
began blocking any further passage of East Berliners into West Berlin
West Berlin
and erected barbed wire fences across the city, which were quickly upgraded to the Berlin Wall. Kennedy's initial reaction was to ignore this, as long as free access from West to East Berlin
East Berlin
continued. This course was altered when it was learned that West Berliners had lost confidence in the defense of their position by the United States. Kennedy sent Vice President Johnson, along with a host of military personnel, in convoy through West Germany, including Soviet-armed checkpoints, to demonstrate the continued commitment of the U.S. to West Berlin.[104] Kennedy gave a speech at Saint Anselm College
Saint Anselm College
on May 5, 1960, regarding America's conduct in the emerging Cold War. The address detailed how American foreign policy should be conducted towards African nations, noting a hint of support for modern African nationalism by saying that: "For we, too, founded a new nation on revolt from colonial rule."[105] Cuba
Cuba
and the Bay of Pigs Invasion Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion

The President and Vice President take a leisurely stroll on the White House grounds

The prior Eisenhower administration had created a plan to overthrow Fidel Castro's regime in Cuba. The plan, led by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), with help from the U.S. military, was for an invasion of Cuba
Cuba
by a counter-revolutionary insurgency composed of U.S.-trained, anti-Castro Cuban exiles[106][107] led by CIA paramilitary officers. The intention was to invade Cuba
Cuba
and instigate an uprising among the Cuban people in hopes of removing Castro from power.[108] Kennedy approved the final invasion plan on April 4, 1961. The Bay of Pigs Invasion
Bay of Pigs Invasion
began on April 17, 1961. Fifteen hundred U.S.-trained Cubans, called Brigade 2506, landed on the island. No U.S. air support was provided. Allen Dulles, director of the CIA, later stated that they thought the president would authorize any action required for success once the troops were on the ground.[109] By April 19, 1961, the Cuban government had captured or killed the invading exiles, and Kennedy was forced to negotiate for the release of the 1,189 survivors. After twenty months, Cuba
Cuba
released the captured exiles in exchange for $53 million worth of food and medicine.[110] The incident made Castro wary of the U.S. and led him to believe that another invasion would occur.[111] According to biographer Richard Reeves, Kennedy focused primarily on the political repercussions of the plan rather than military considerations. When it failed, he was convinced that the plan was a setup to make him look bad.[112] He took responsibility for the failure, saying: "We got a big kick in the leg and we deserved it. But maybe we'll learn something from it."[113] In late 1961, the White House
White House
formed the Special
Special
Group (Augmented), headed by Robert Kennedy
Robert Kennedy
and including Edward Lansdale, Secretary Robert McNamara, and others. The group's objective—to overthrow Castro via espionage, sabotage, and other covert tactics—was never pursued.[114] Cuban Missile Crisis Main article: Cuban Missile Crisis

Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
and Kennedy confer in Vienna, 1961

On October 14, 1962, CIA U-2 spy planes took photographs of intermediate-range ballistic missile sites being built in Cuba
Cuba
by the Soviets. The photos were shown to Kennedy on October 16; a consensus was reached that the missiles were offensive in nature and thus posed an immediate nuclear threat.[115] Kennedy faced a dilemma: if the U.S. attacked the sites, it might lead to nuclear war with the U.S.S.R., but if the U.S. did nothing, it would be faced with the increased threat from close-range nuclear weapons. The U.S. would also appear to the world as less committed to the defense of the hemisphere. On a personal level, Kennedy needed to show resolve in reaction to Khrushchev, especially after the Vienna summit.[116]

Address on the Buildup of Arms in Cuba

Kennedy addressing the nation on October 22, 1962, about the buildup of arms on Cuba

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More than a third of the members of the National Security Council (NSC) favored an unannounced air assault on the missile sites, but for some of them this conjured up an image of "Pearl Harbor in reverse".[117] There was also some concern from the international community (asked in confidence), that the assault plan was an overreaction in light of the fact that PGM-19 Jupiter
PGM-19 Jupiter
missiles had been placed in Italy and Turkey
Turkey
by Eisenhower in 1958. There could also be no assurance that the assault would be 100% effective.[118] In concurrence with a majority-vote of the NSC, Kennedy decided on a naval quarantine. On October 22 he dispatched a message to Khrushchev and announced the decision on TV.[119] The U.S. Navy would stop and inspect all Soviet ships arriving off Cuba, beginning October 24. The Organization of American States
Organization of American States
gave unanimous support to the removal of the missiles. The president exchanged two sets of letters with Khrushchev, to no avail.[120] United Nations
United Nations
(UN) Secretary General U Thant
U Thant
requested that both parties reverse their decisions and enter a cooling-off period. Khrushchev agreed, Kennedy did not.[121] One Soviet-flagged ship was stopped and boarded. On October 28 Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missile sites, subject to UN inspections.[122] The U.S. publicly promised never to invade Cuba
Cuba
and privately agreed to remove its Jupiter missiles from Italy and Turkey, which were by then obsolete and had been supplanted by submarines equipped with UGM-27 Polaris
UGM-27 Polaris
missiles.[123] This crisis brought the world closer to nuclear war than at any point before or since. In the end, "the humanity" of the two men prevailed.[124] The crisis improved the image of American willpower and the president's credibility. Kennedy's approval rating increased from 66% to 77% immediately thereafter.[125] Latin America
Latin America
and communism Main article: Foreign policy of the John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
administration §  Latin
Latin
America

Kennedy with Chilean President Jorge Alessandri, on an official visit in December 1962

Arguing that "those who make peaceful revolution impossible, will make violent revolution inevitable,"[126] Kennedy sought to contain the perceived threat of communism in Latin America
Latin America
by establishing the Alliance for Progress, which sent aid to some countries and sought greater human rights standards in the region.[127] He worked closely with Governor of Puerto Rico
Governor of Puerto Rico
Luis Muñoz Marín
Luis Muñoz Marín
for the development of the Alliance of Progress, and began working towards the autonomy of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. When the president took office, the Eisenhower administration, through the CIA, had begun formulating plans for the assassination of Castro in Cuba
Cuba
and Rafael Trujillo
Rafael Trujillo
in the Dominican Republic. Kennedy privately instructed the CIA that any such planning must include plausible deniability by the U.S. His public position was in opposition.[128] In June 1961 the Dominican Republic's leader was assassinated; in the days following the event, Undersecretary of State Chester Bowles
Chester Bowles
led a cautious reaction by the nation. Robert Kennedy, who saw an opportunity for the U.S., called Bowles "a gutless bastard" to his face.[129] Peace Corps

Executive Order 10924

Establishment of the Peace Corps

John F. Kennedy's announcement of the establishment of the Peace Corps

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In one of his first presidential acts, Kennedy asked Congress to create the Peace Corps. His brother-in-law, Sargent Shriver, was its first director.[130] Through this program, Americans volunteered to help developing nations in areas such as education, farming, health care, and construction. The organization grew to 5,000 members by March 1963 and 10,000 the following year.[131] Since 1961, over 200,000 Americans have joined the Peace Corps, serving in 139 countries.[132][133] Southeast Asia Main articles: Laotian Civil War, 1963 South Vietnamese coup, Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem, Reaction to the 1963 South Vietnamese coup, Cable 243, Buddhist crisis, Thích Quảng Đức, Xá Lợi Pagoda raids, Krulak Mendenhall mission, and McNamara Taylor mission When briefing Kennedy, Eisenhower emphasized that the communist threat in Southeast Asia required priority; Eisenhower considered Laos
Laos
to be "the cork in the bottle" in regards to the regional threat. In March 1961, Kennedy voiced a change in policy from supporting a "free" Laos to a "neutral" Laos, indicating privately that Vietnam, and not Laos, should be deemed America's tripwire for communism's spread in the area.[134] In May, he dispatched Lyndon Johnson to meet with South Vietnam's President Ngo Dinh Diem. Johnson assured Diem more aid to mold a fighting force that could resist the communists.[135] Kennedy announced a change of policy from support to partnership with Diem to defeat of communism in South Vietnam.[136] During his administration, Kennedy continued policies that provided political and economic support, and military advice and support, to the South Vietnamese government.[137] Late in 1961, the Viet Cong began assuming a predominant presence, initially seizing the provincial capital of Phuoc Vinh.[138] Kennedy increased the number of military advisors and special forces in the area, from 11,000 in 1962 to 16,000 by late 1963, but he was reluctant to order a full-scale deployment of troops.[139][140] A year and three months later on March 8, 1965, his successor, President Lyndon Johnson, committed the first combat troops to Vietnam
Vietnam
and greatly escalated U.S. involvement, with forces reaching 184,000 that year and 536,000 in 1968.[141] In late 1961, President Kennedy sent Roger Hilsman, then director of the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research, to assess the situation in Vietnam. There, Hilsman met Sir Robert Thompson, head of the British Advisory Mission to South Vietnam
South Vietnam
and the Strategic Hamlet Program was formed. It was approved by Kennedy and South Vietnam
Vietnam
President Ngo Dinh Diem. It was implemented in early 1962 and involved some forced relocation, village internment, and segregation of rural South Vietnamese into new communities where the peasantry would be isolated from Communist insurgents. It was hoped that these new communities would provide security for the peasants and strengthen the tie between them and the central government. By November 1963 the program waned and officially ended in 1964.[142] In early 1962, Kennedy formally authorized escalated involvement when he signed the National Security Action Memorandum – "Subversive Insurgency (War of Liberation)".[143] "Operation Ranch Hand", a large-scale aerial defoliation effort, began on the roadsides of South Vietnam.[144]. Depending on which assessment Kennedy accepted (Department of Defense or State) there had been zero or modest progress in countering the increase in communist aggression in return for an expanded U.S. involvement.[145]

Kennedy with future Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt
Harold Holt
in the Oval Office in 1963

In April 1963, Kennedy assessed the situation in Vietnam: "We don't have a prayer of staying in Vietnam. Those people hate us. They are going to throw our asses out of there at any point. But I can't give up that territory to the communists and get the American people to re-elect me."[146] On August 21, just as the new U.S. Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. arrived, Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu
Ngo Dinh Nhu
ordered South Vietnam forces, funded and trained by the CIA, to quell Buddhist demonstrations. The crackdowns heightened expectations of a coup d'état to remove Diem with (or perhaps by) his brother, Nhu.[147] Lodge was instructed to try to get Diem and Nhu to step down and leave the country. Diem would not listen to Lodge.[148] Cable 243
Cable 243
(DEPTEL 243), dated August 24, followed, declaring Washington would no longer tolerate Nhu's actions, and Lodge was ordered to pressure Diem to remove Nhu.[149] Lodge concluded that the only option was to get the South Vietnamese generals to overthrow Diem and Nhu.[150] At week's end, orders were sent to Saigon and throughout Washington to "destroy all coup cables".[151] At the same time, the first formal anti-Vietnam war sentiment was expressed by U.S. clergy from the Ministers' Vietnam Committee.[152] A White House
White House
meeting in September was indicative of the different ongoing appraisals; the president was given updated assessments after personal inspections on the ground by the Department of Defense (General Victor Krulak) and the State Department (Joseph Mendenhall). Krulak said that the military fight against the communists was progressing and being won, while Mendenhall stated that the country was civilly being lost to any U.S. influence. Kennedy reacted, saying: "Did you two gentlemen visit the same country?" The president was unaware that the two men were at such odds that they had not spoken to each other on the return flight.[153] In October 1963, the president appointed Defense Secretary McNamara and General Maxwell D. Taylor
Maxwell D. Taylor
to a Vietnam
Vietnam
mission in another effort to synchronize the information and formulation of policy. The objective of the McNamara Taylor mission
McNamara Taylor mission
"emphasized the importance of getting to the bottom of the differences in reporting from U.S. representatives in Vietnam."[154] In meetings with McNamara, Taylor, and Lodge, Diem again refused to agree to governing measures, helping to dispel McNamara's previous optimism about Diem.[155] Taylor and McNamara were enlightened by Vietnam's vice president, Nguyen Ngoc Tho (choice of many to succeed Diem), who in detailed terms obliterated Taylor's information that the military was succeeding in the countryside.[156] At Kennedy's insistence, the mission report contained a recommended schedule for troop withdrawals: 1,000 by year's end and complete withdrawal in 1965, something the NSC considered a strategic fantasy.[157] In late October, intelligence wires again reported that a coup against the Diem government was afoot. The source, Vietnamese General Duong Van Minh (also known as "Big Minh"), wanted to know the U.S. position. Kennedy instructed Lodge to offer covert assistance to the coup, excluding assassination.[158] On November 1, 1963, South Vietnamese generals, led by "Big Minh", overthrew the Diem government, arresting and then killing Diem and Nhu. Kennedy was shocked by the deaths.[159] News of the coup led to renewed confidence initially—both in America and in South Vietnam—that the war might be won.[160] McGeorge Bundy drafted a National Security Action Memo to present to Kennedy upon his return from Dallas. It reiterated the resolve to fight communism in Vietnam, with increasing military and economic aid and expansion of operations into Laos
Laos
and Cambodia. Before leaving for Dallas, Kennedy told Michael Forrestal that "after the first of the year ... [he wanted] an in depth study of every possible option, including how to get out of there ... to review this whole thing from the bottom to the top." When asked what he thought the president meant, Forrestal said, "it was devil's advocate stuff."[161] Historians disagree on whether Vietnam
Vietnam
would have escalated if Kennedy not been assassinated and had won re-election in 1964.[162] Fueling the debate were statements made by Secretary of Defense McNamara in the film "The Fog of War" that Kennedy was strongly considering pulling the United States
United States
out of Vietnam
Vietnam
after the 1964 election.[163] The film also contains a tape recording of Lyndon Johnson stating that Kennedy was planning to withdraw, a position in which Johnson disagreed.[164] Kennedy had signed National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) 263, dated October 11, which ordered the withdrawal of 1,000 military personnel by the end of the year, and the bulk of them out by 1965.[165][166] Such an action would have been a policy reversal, but Kennedy was moving in a less hawkish direction since his speech about world peace at American University
American University
on June 10, 1963.[167] At the time of Kennedy's death, no final policy decision had been made as to Vietnam.[168] In 2008, Theodore Sorensen
Theodore Sorensen
wrote: "I would like to believe that Kennedy would have found a way to withdraw all American instructors and advisors [from Vietnam]. But... I do not believe he knew in his last weeks what he was going to do."[169] Sorensen added that, in his opinion, Vietnam
Vietnam
"was the only foreign policy problem handed off by JFK to his successor in no better, and possibly worse, shape than it was when he inherited it."[169] U.S. involvement in the region escalated until his successor Lyndon Johnson directly deployed regular U.S. military forces for fighting the Vietnam
Vietnam
War.[170][171] After Kennedy's assassination, President Johnson signed NSAM 273 on November 26, 1963. It reversed Kennedy's decision to withdraw 1,000 troops, and reaffirmed the policy of assistance to the South Vietnamese.[172][173] American University
American University
speech

Kennedy delivers the commencement speech at American University, June 10, 1963

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World Peace Speech

Speech from American University
American University
by John F. Kennedy, June 10, 1963 (duration 26:47)

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On June 10, 1963, Kennedy, at the high point of his rhetorical powers,[174] delivered the commencement address at American University in Washington, D.C. Also known as "Strategy of Peace", Kennedy not only outlined a plan to curb nuclear arms, but also "laid out a hopeful, yet realistic route for world peace at a time when the U.S. and Soviet Union
Soviet Union
faced the potential for an escalating nuclear arms race."[175] The President wished:

to discuss a topic on which too often ignorance abounds and the truth is too rarely perceived—yet it is the most important topic on earth: world peace ... I speak of peace because of the new face of war...in an age when a singular nuclear weapon contains ten times the explosive force delivered by all the allied forces in the Second World War ... an age when the deadly poisons produced by a nuclear exchange would be carried by wind and air and soil and seed to the far corners of the globe and to generations yet unborn ... I speak of peace, therefore, as the necessary rational end of rational men ... world peace, like community peace, does not require that each man love his neighbor—it requires only that they live together in mutual tolerance ... our problems are man-made—therefore they can be solved by man. And man can be as big as he wants.[176]

The president also made two announcements—that the Soviets had expressed a desire to negotiate a nuclear test ban treaty, and that the U.S had postponed planned atmospheric tests.[177] West Berlin
West Berlin
speech

Ich bin ein Berliner
Ich bin ein Berliner
(I am a Berliner) speech

Play media

Ich bin ein Berliner
Ich bin ein Berliner
speech from the Rathaus Schöneberg
Rathaus Schöneberg
by John F. Kennedy, June 26, 1963 (duration 9:01)

Ich bin ein Berliner
Ich bin ein Berliner
(I am a Berliner) speech (audio)

Audio-only version (duration 9:22)

Kennedy delivering his speech in West Berlin

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has original text related to this article: JFK's Ich bin ein Berliner
Ich bin ein Berliner
speech

In 1963, Germany was enduring a time of particular vulnerability due to Soviet aggression to the east, and the impending retirement of West German Chancellor Adenauer.[178] At the same time, French President Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
was trying to build a Franco-West German counterweight to the American and Soviet spheres of influence.[179][180][181] To Kennedy's eyes, this Franco-German cooperation seemed directed against NATO's influence in Europe.[182] On June 26, President Kennedy gave a public speech in West Berlin; he reiterated the American commitment to Germany and criticized communism. He was met with an ecstatic response from a massive audience.[183] Kennedy used the construction of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
as an example of the failures of communism: "Freedom has many difficulties, and democracy is not perfect. But we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in, to prevent them from leaving us." The speech is known for its famous phrase "Ich bin ein Berliner" ("I am a citizen of Berlin"). A million people were on the street for the speech.[183] He remarked to Ted Sorensen
Ted Sorensen
afterwards: "We'll never have another day like this one, as long as we live."[184] See also: Tear down this wall! Israel In 1960, Kennedy stated: "Israel will endure and flourish. It is the child of hope and the home of the brave. It can neither be broken by adversity nor demoralized by success. It carries the shield of democracy and it honors the sword of freedom."[185] Subsequently, as president, Kennedy initiated the creation of security ties with Israel, and he is credited as the founder of the US-Israeli military alliance (which would be continued under subsequent presidents). Kennedy ended the arms embargo that the Eisenhower and Truman administrations had enforced on Israel. Describing the protection of Israel as a moral and national commitment, he was the first to introduce the concept of a 'special relationship' (as he described it to Golda Meir) between the US and Israel.[186]

Kennedy with Israeli Foreign Minister Golda Meir, December 27, 1962

Kennedy extended the first informal security guarantees to Israel in 1962 and, beginning in 1963, was the first US president to allow the sale to Israel of advanced US weaponry (the MIM-23 Hawk), as well as to provide diplomatic support for Israeli policies which were opposed by Arab neighbors; such as its water project on the Jordan River.[187] As result of this newly created security alliance, Kennedy also encountered tensions with the Israeli government over the production of nuclear materials in Dimona
Dimona
which he believed could instigate a nuclear arms-race in the Middle East. After the existence of a nuclear plant was initially denied by the Israeli government, David Ben-Gurion stated in a speech to the Israeli Knesset
Knesset
on December 21, 1960, that the purpose of the nuclear plant at Beersheba
Beersheba
was for "research in problems of arid zones and desert flora and fauna."[188] When Ben-Gurion met with Kennedy in New York, he claimed that Dimona
Dimona
was being developed to provide nuclear power for desalinization and other peaceful purposes "for the time being."[188] In a May 1963 letter to Ben-Gurion, Kennedy wrote that he was skeptical and stated that American support to Israel could be in jeopardy if reliable information on the Israeli nuclear program was not forthcoming, Ben-Gurion repeated previous reassurances that Dimona was being developed for peaceful purposes. The Israeli government resisted American pressure to open its nuclear facilities to International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA) inspections. In 1962, the US and Israeli governments had agreed to an annual inspection regime. A science attaché at the embassy in Tel Aviv concluded that parts of the Dimona
Dimona
facility had been shut down temporarily to mislead American scientists when they visited.[189] According to Seymour Hersh, the Israelis set up false control rooms to show the Americans. Israeli lobbyist Abe Feinberg stated: "It was part of my job to tip them off that Kennedy was insisting on [an inspection]."[189] Hersh contends the inspections were conducted in such a way that it "guaranteed that the whole procedure would be little more than a whitewash, as the president and his senior advisors had to understand: the American inspection team would have to schedule its visits well in advance, and with the full acquiescence of Israel."[190] Marc Trachtenberg argued: "Although well aware of what the Israelis were doing, Kennedy chose to take this as satisfactory evidence of Israeli compliance with America's non-proliferation policy."[191] The American who led the inspection team stated that the essential goal of the inspections was to find "ways to not reach the point of taking action against Israel's nuclear weapons program."[192] Rodger Davies, the director of the State Department's Office of Near Eastern Affairs, concluded in March 1965 that Israel was developing nuclear weapons. He reported that Israel's target date for achieving nuclear capability was 1968–1969.[193] On May 1, 1968, Undersecretary of State Nicholas Katzenbach
Nicholas Katzenbach
told President Johnson that Dimona
Dimona
was producing enough plutonium to produce two bombs a year. The State Department argued that if Israel wanted arms, it should accept international supervision of its nuclear program.[189] Dimona
Dimona
was never placed under IAEA safeguards. Attempts to write Israeli adherence to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
(NPT) into contracts for the supply of U.S. weapons continued throughout 1968.[194] Iraq Main article: Foreign policy of the John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
administration § Iraq

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah
Shah
of Iran, Kennedy, and U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara
Robert McNamara
in the White House
White House
Cabinet Room on April 13, 1962

Relations between the United States
United States
and Iraq became strained following the overthrow of the Iraqi monarchy on July 14, 1958, which resulted in the declaration of a republican government led by Brigadier Abd al-Karim Qasim.[195] On June 25, 1961, Qasim mobilized troops along the border between Iraq and Kuwait, declaring the latter nation "an indivisible part of Iraq" and causing a short-lived " Kuwait
Kuwait
Crisis". The United Kingdom—which had just granted Kuwait
Kuwait
independence on June 19, and whose economy was heavily dependent on Kuwaiti oil—responded on July 1 by dispatching 5,000 troops to the country to deter an Iraqi invasion. At the same time, Kennedy dispatched a U.S. Navy task force to Bahrain, and the UK (at the urging of the Kennedy administration) brought the dispute to United Nations
United Nations
Security Council, where the proposed resolution was vetoed by the Soviet Union. The situation was resolved in October, when the British troops were withdrawn and replaced by a 4,000-strong Arab League
Arab League
force.[196] In December 1961, Qasim's government passed Public Law 80, which restricted the British- and American-owned Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC)'s concessionary holding to those areas in which oil was actually being produced, effectively expropriating 99.5% of the IPC concession. U.S. officials were alarmed by the expropriation as well as the recent Soviet veto of an Egyptian-sponsored UN resolution requesting the admittance of Kuwait
Kuwait
as UN member state, which they believed to be connected. Senior National Security Council adviser Robert Komer worried that if the IPC ceased production in response, Qasim might "grab Kuwait" (thus achieving a "stranglehold" on Middle Eastern oil production), or "throw himself into Russian arms." Komer also made note of widespread rumors that a nationalist coup against Qasim could be imminent, and had the potential to "get Iraq back on [a] more neutral keel."[197] In April 1962, the State Department issued new guidelines on Iraq that were intended to increase American influence there. Meanwhile, Kennedy instructed the CIA—under the direction of Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt Jr.—to begin making preparations for a military coup against Qasim.[198] The anti-imperialist and anti-communist Iraqi Ba'ath Party overthrew and executed Qasim in a violent coup on February 8, 1963. While there have been persistent rumors that the CIA orchestrated the coup, declassified documents and the testimony of former CIA officers indicate that there was no direct American involvement, although the CIA was actively seeking a suitable replacement for Qasim within the Iraqi military and had been informed of an earlier Ba'athist coup plot.[199] The Kennedy administration was pleased with the outcome and ultimately approved a $55-million arms deal for Iraq.[200] Ireland

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
visiting the John Barry Memorial at Crescent Quay in Wexford, Ireland

President Kennedy in motorcade in Patrick Street, Cork, in Ireland
Ireland
on June 28, 1963

During his four-day visit to his ancestral home of Ireland
Ireland
in June 1963,[201] Kennedy accepted a grant of armorial bearings from the Chief Herald of Ireland
Ireland
and received honorary degrees from the National University of Ireland
Ireland
and Trinity College, Dublin.[202] He visited the cottage at Dunganstown, near New Ross, County Wexford where his ancestors had lived before emigrating to America.[203] He also became the first foreign leader to address the Houses of the Oireachtas
Oireachtas
(the Irish parliament).[204] On December 22, 2006, the Irish Department of Justice released declassified police documents indicating that security was heightened as Kennedy was the subject of three death threats during this visit.[205] Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Main article: Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Troubled by the long-term dangers of radioactive contamination and nuclear weapons proliferation, Kennedy and Khrushchev agreed to negotiate a nuclear test ban treaty, originally conceived in Adlai Stevenson's 1956 presidential campaign.[206] In their Vienna
Vienna
summit meeting in June 1961, Khrushchev and Kennedy reached an informal understanding against nuclear testing, but the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
began testing nuclear weapons that September. The United States
United States
responded by conducting tests five days later.[207] Shortly thereafter, new U.S. satellites began delivering images which made it clear that the Soviets were substantially behind the U.S. in the arms race.[208] Nevertheless, the greater nuclear strength of the U.S. was of little value as long as the U.S.S.R. perceived itself to be at parity.[209] In July 1963, Kennedy sent W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
to Moscow to negotiate a treaty with the Soviets.[210] The introductory sessions included Khrushchev, who later delegated Soviet representation to Andrei Gromyko. It quickly became clear that a comprehensive test ban would not be implemented, due largely to the reluctance of the Soviets to allow inspections that would verify compliance.[211] Ultimately, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union were the initial signatories to a limited treaty, which prohibited atomic testing on the ground, in the atmosphere, or underwater, but not underground. The U.S. Senate ratified this and Kennedy signed it into law in October 1963. France was quick to declare that it was free to continue developing and testing its nuclear defenses.[212] Domestic policy

President Kennedy in Fort Worth, Texas, on Friday morning, November 22, 1963

Kennedy called his domestic program the "New Frontier". It ambitiously promised federal funding for education, medical care for the elderly, economic aid to rural regions, and government intervention to halt the recession. Kennedy also promised an end to racial discrimination,[213] though his agenda, which included the endorsement of the Voter Education Project (VEP) in 1962, produced little progress in areas such as Mississippi where the "VEP concluded that discrimination was so entrenched".[214][215] In his 1963 State of the Union address, he proposed substantial tax reform, and a reduction in income tax rates from the current range of 20–90% to a range of 14–65%; he proposed a reduction in the corporate tax rates from 52 to 47%. Kennedy added that the top rate should be set at 70% if certain deductions were not eliminated for high income earners.[213] Congress did not act until 1964, after his death, when the top individual rate was lowered to 70%, and the top corporate rate was set at 48% (see Revenue Act of 1964).[216] To the Economic Club of New York, he spoke in 1963 of "... the paradoxical truth that tax rates are too high and revenues too low; and the soundest way to raise revenue in the long term is to lower rates now."[217] Congress passed few of Kennedy's major programs during his lifetime, but did vote them through in 1964 and 1965 under his successor Johnson.[218] Economy Kennedy ended a period of tight fiscal policies, loosening monetary policy to keep interest rates down and to encourage growth of the economy.[219] He presided over the first government budget to top the $100 billion mark, in 1962, and his first budget in 1961 led to the country's first non-war, non-recession deficit.[220] The economy, which had been through two recessions in three years, and was in one when Kennedy took office, accelerated notably during his presidency. Despite low inflation and interest rates, GDP
GDP
had grown by an average of only 2.2% per annum during the Eisenhower presidency (scarcely more than population growth at the time), and had declined by 1% during Eisenhower's last twelve months in office.[221] The economy turned around and prospered during the Kennedy administration. GDP
GDP
expanded by an average of 5.5% from early 1961 to late 1963,[221] while inflation remained steady at around 1% and unemployment eased.[222] Industrial production rose by 15% and motor vehicle sales rose by 40%.[223] This rate of growth in GDP
GDP
and industry continued until around 1969, and has yet to be repeated for such a sustained period of time.[221] Robert Kennedy
Robert Kennedy
took the position that the steel executives had illegally colluded to fix prices. He stated: "We're going for broke..... their expense accounts, where they've been and what they've been doing..... the FBI
FBI
is to interview them all..... we can't lose this."[224] The administration's actions influenced U.S. Steel
U.S. Steel
to rescind the price increase.[225] The Wall Street
Wall Street
Journal wrote that the administration had acted "by naked power, by threats, by agents of the state security police."[226] Yale law professor Charles Reich opined in The New Republic
The New Republic
that the administration had violated civil liberties by calling a grand jury to indict U.S. Steel
U.S. Steel
for collusion so quickly.[226] A New York Times
New York Times
editorial praised Kennedy's actions and said that the steel industry's price increase "imperils the economic welfare of the country by inviting a tidal wave of inflation."[227] Nevertheless, the administration's Bureau of Budget reported the price increase would have resulted in a net gain for GDP
GDP
as well as a net budget surplus.[228] The stock market, which had steadily declined since Kennedy's election, dropped 10% shortly after the administration's action on the steel industry.[229] Federal and military death penalty As president, Kennedy oversaw the last federal execution prior to Furman v. Georgia, a 1972 case that led to a moratorium on federal executions.[230] Victor Feguer was sentenced to death by a federal court in Iowa and was executed on March 15, 1963.[231] Kennedy commuted a death sentence imposed by a military court on seaman Jimmie Henderson on February 12, 1962, changing the penalty to life in prison.[232] On March 22, 1962, Kennedy signed into law HR5143 (PL87-423), abolishing the mandatory death penalty for first degree murder in the District of Columbia, the only remaining jurisdiction in the United States with such a penalty.[233] The death penalty has not been applied in the District of Columbia since 1957, and has now been abolished.[234] Civil Rights Movement

Thurgood Marshall, appointed to the federal bench by Kennedy in May 1961

The turbulent end of state-sanctioned racial discrimination was one of the most pressing domestic issues of the 1960s. Jim Crow
Jim Crow
segregation was the established law in the Deep South.[235] The Supreme Court of the United States
United States
had ruled in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. Many schools, especially in southern states, did not obey the Supreme Court's decision. The Court also prohibited segregation at other public facilities (such as buses, restaurants, theaters, courtrooms, bathrooms, and beaches) but it continued nonetheless.[236] Kennedy verbally supported racial integration and civil rights; during the 1960 campaign he telephoned Coretta Scott King, wife of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., who had been jailed while trying to integrate a department store lunch counter. Robert Kennedy
Robert Kennedy
called Georgia governor Ernest Vandiver
Ernest Vandiver
and obtained King's release from prison, which drew additional black support to his brother's candidacy.[236] Upon taking office in 1961, Kennedy postponed promised civil rights legislation he made while campaigning in 1960, recognizing that conservative Southern Democrats controlled congressional legislation.[237] Historian Carl M. Brauer concluded that passing any civil rights legislation in 1961 would have been futile.[237] During his first year in office Kennedy appointed many blacks to office including his May appointment of civil rights attorney Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
to the federal bench. [238] In his first State of the Union Address in January 1961, President Kennedy said: "The denial of constitutional rights to some of our fellow Americans on account of race – at the ballot box and elsewhere – disturbs the national conscience, and subjects us to the charge of world opinion that our democracy is not equal to the high promise of our heritage."[239] Kennedy believed the grassroots movement for civil rights would anger many Southern whites and make it more difficult to pass civil rights laws in Congress, including anti-poverty legislation, and he distanced himself from it.[240] Kennedy was concerned with other issues early in his presidency, such as the Cold War, Bay of Pigs fiasco and the situation in Southeast Asia. As articulated by brother Robert, the administration's early priority was to "keep the president out of this civil rights mess." Civil rights movement
Civil rights movement
participants, mainly those on the front line in the South, viewed Kennedy as lukewarm, [238] especially concerning the Freedom Riders, who organized an integrated public transportation effort in the south, and who were repeatedly met with white mob violence, including by law enforcement officers, both federal and state. Kennedy assigned federal marshals to protect the Freedom Riders rather than using federal troops or uncooperative FBI
FBI
agents.[238] Robert Kennedy, speaking for the president, urged the Freedom Riders to "get off the buses and leave the matter to peaceful settlement in the courts."[241] Kennedy feared sending federal troops would stir up "hated memories of Reconstruction" after the Civil War among conservative Southern whites.[238] On March 6, 1961, Kennedy signed Executive Order 10925 which required government contractors to "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed and that employees are treated during employment without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin."[242] It established the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. Displeased with Kennedy's pace addressing the issue of segregation, Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
and his associates produced a document in 1962 calling on the president to follow in the footsteps of Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
and use an Executive Order to deliver a blow for Civil Rights as a kind of Second Emancipation Proclamation. Kennedy did not execute the order.[243] In September 1962, James Meredith
James Meredith
enrolled at the University of Mississippi but was prevented from entering. Attorney General Robert Kennedy responded by sending 400 federal marshals, while President Kennedy reluctantly sent 3,000 troops after the situation on campus turned violent.[244] The Ole Miss riot of 1962
Ole Miss riot of 1962
left two dead and dozens injured, but Meredith did finally enroll for class. Kennedy regretted not sending in troops earlier and he began to doubt whether the "evils of Reconstruction" of the 1860s and 1870s he had been taught or believed in were true.[238] The instigating subculture at the Old Miss riot, and at many other racially ignited events, was the Ku Klux Klan.[245] On November 20, 1962, Kennedy signed Executive Order 11063, prohibiting racial discrimination in federally supported housing or "related facilities".[246] Both the President and the Attorney General were concerned about King's ties to suspected Communists Jack O'Dell and Stanley Levison. After the President and his civil rights expert Harris Wofford pressed King to ask both men to resign from the SCLC, King agreed to ask only O'Dell to resign from the organization and allowed Levison, whom he regarded as a trusted advisor, to remain.[247] In early 1963, Kennedy related to Martin Luther King, Jr., his thoughts on the prospects for civil rights legislation: "If we get into a long fight over this in Congress, it will bottleneck everything else, and we will still get no bill."[248] Civil rights clashes were on the rise that year.[249] Brother Robert and Ted Sorenson pressed Kennedy to take more initiative on the legislative front.[250]

Kennedy's Report to the American People on Civil Rights, June 11, 1963

On June 11, 1963, President Kennedy intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace
George Wallace
blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama
University of Alabama
to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone
Vivian Malone
and James Hood, from attending. Wallace moved aside only after being confronted by Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach
Nicholas Katzenbach
and the Alabama National Guard, which had just been federalized by order of the president. That evening Kennedy gave his famous Report to the American People on Civil Rights on national television and radio, launching his initiative for civil rights legislation—to provide equal access to public schools and other facilities, and greater protection of voting rights.[251][252] His proposals became part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The day ended with the murder of a NAACP leader, Medgar Evers, in front of his home in Mississippi.[253] As the president had predicted, the day after his TV speech, and in reaction to it, House Majority leader Carl Albert called to advise him that his two-year signature effort in Congress to combat poverty in Appalachia (Area Redevelopment Administration) had been defeated, primarily by the votes of Southern Democrats and Republicans.[254] When Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. complemented Kennedy on his remarks, the latter bitterly replied, "Yes, and look at what happened to area development the very next day in the House." He then added, "But of course, I had to give that speech, and I'm glad that I did."[255] On June 16 The New York Times published an editorial which argued that while the president had initially "moved too slowly and with little evidence of deep moral commitment" in regards to civil rights he "now demonstrate[d] a genuine sense of urgency about eradicating racial discrimination from our national life."[256] Earlier, Kennedy had signed the executive order creating the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women
Presidential Commission on the Status of Women
on December 14, 1961.[257] Former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
led the commission. The Commission statistics revealed that women were also experiencing discrimination; its final report, documenting legal and cultural barriers, was issued in October 1963.[258] Further, on June 10, 1963, Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act of 1963, a federal law amending the Fair Labor Standards Act, aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex.[259]

Kennedy meets with leaders of the March on Washington
March on Washington
in the Oval Office, August 28, 1963

Over a hundred thousand, predominantly African Americans, gathered in Washington for the civil rights March on Washington
March on Washington
for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963. Kennedy feared the March would have a negative effect on the prospects for the civil rights bills in Congress, and declined an invitation to speak. He turned over some of the details of the government's involvement to the Dept. of Justice, which channelled hundreds of thousands of dollars to the six sponsors of the March, including the N.A.A.C.P. and Martin Luther King's Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC).[260] To ensure a peaceful demonstration, the organizers and the president personally edited speeches which were inflammatory and agreed the March would be held on a Wednesday and would be over at 4:00 pm. Thousands of troops were placed on standby. Kennedy watched King's speech on TV and was very impressed. The March was considered a "triumph of managed protest", and not one arrest relating to the demonstration occurred. Afterwards, the March leaders accepted an invitation to the White House
White House
to meet with Kennedy and photos were taken. Kennedy felt that the March was a victory for him as well and bolstered the chances for his civil rights bill.[260] Nevertheless, the struggle was far from over. Three weeks later, a bomb exploded on Sunday, September 15, at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham; by the end of the day, four African American children had died in the explosion, and two other children were shot to death in the aftermath.[261] Due to this resurgent violence, the civil rights legislation underwent some drastic amendments that critically endangered any prospects for passage of the bill, to the outrage of the president. Kennedy called the congressional leaders to the White House
White House
and by the following day the original bill, without the additions, had enough votes to get it out of the House committee.[262] Gaining Republican support, Senator Everett Dirksen promised the legislation would be brought to a vote preventing a Senate filibuster.[263] The legislation was enacted by Kennedy's successor President Lyndon B. Johnson, prompted by Kennedy's memory, after his assassination in November, enforcing voting rights, public accommodations, employment, education, and the administration of justice.[263] Civil liberties In February 1962,[264] FBI
FBI
Director J. Edgar Hoover, who was suspicious of civil-rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
and viewed him as an upstart troublemaker,[265] presented the Kennedy Administration with allegations that some of King's close confidants and advisers were communists. Concerned by these allegations, the FBI deployed agents to monitor King in the following months.[264] Robert Kennedy and the president also both warned King to discontinue the suspect associations. After the associations continued, Robert Kennedy issued a written directive authorizing the FBI
FBI
to wiretap King and other leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, King's civil rights organization, in October 1963.[264] Although Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of King's phones "on a trial basis, for a month or so",[266] Hoover extended the clearance so his men were "unshackled" to look for evidence in any areas of King's life they deemed worthy.[267] The wiretapping continued through June 1966 and was revealed in 1968.[268] Immigration During the 1960 campaign Kennedy proposed an overhaul of American immigration and naturalization laws to ban discrimination based on national origin. He saw this proposal as an extension of his planned civil rights agenda as president.[269] These reforms later became law through the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which dramatically shifted the source of immigration from Northern and Western European countries towards immigration from Latin America
Latin America
and Asia. The policy change also shifted the emphasis in the selection of immigrants in favor of family reunification. The late-president's brother, Senator Edward Kennedy helped steer the legislation through the Senate.[270] Native American relations Further information: Kinzua Dam
Kinzua Dam
§ Native Americans, and Seneca nation § Kinzua Dam Construction of the Kinzua Dam
Kinzua Dam
flooded 10,000 acres (4,047 ha) of Seneca nation
Seneca nation
land that they had occupied under the Treaty of 1794, and forced 600 Seneca to relocate to Salamanca, New York. Kennedy was asked by the American Civil Liberties Union
American Civil Liberties Union
to intervene and to halt the project, but he declined, citing a critical need for flood control. He expressed concern about the plight of the Seneca, and directed government agencies to assist in obtaining more land, damages, and assistance to help mitigate their displacement.[271][272] Space policy Further information: Space Race
Space Race
and Space policy of the United States The Apollo program
Apollo program
was conceived early in 1960, during the Eisenhower administration, as a follow-up to Project Mercury, to be used as a shuttle to an Earth-orbital space station, flights around the Moon, or landing on it. While NASA
NASA
went ahead with planning for Apollo, funding for the program was far from certain, given Eisenhower's ambivalent attitude to manned spaceflight.[273] As senator, Kennedy had been opposed to the space program and wanted to terminate it.[274] In constructing his Presidential administration, Kennedy elected to retain Eisenhower's last science advisor Jerome Wiesner
Jerome Wiesner
as head of the President's Science Advisory Committee. Wiesner was strongly opposed to manned space exploration,[275] having issued a report highly critical of Project Mercury.[276][277] Kennedy was turned down by seventeen candidates for NASA
NASA
administrator before the post was accepted by James E. Webb, an experienced Washington insider who served President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
as budget director and undersecretary of state. Webb proved to be adept at obtaining the support of Congress, the President, and the American people.[278] Kennedy also persuaded Congress to amend the National Aeronautics and Space Act
National Aeronautics and Space Act
to allow him to delegate his chairmanship of the National Aeronautics and Space Council to the Vice President, [278][279] both because of the knowledge of the space program Johnson gained in the Senate working for the creation of NASA, and to help keep the politically savvy Johnson occupied.[278] In Kennedy's January 1961 State of the Union address, he had suggested international cooperation in space. Khrushchev declined, as the Soviets did not wish to reveal the status of their rocketry and space capabilities.[280] Early in his presidency, Kennedy was poised to dismantle the manned space program, but postponed any decision out of deference to Johnson, who had been a strong supporter of the space program in the Senate.[274] Kennedy's advisors speculated that a Moon flight would be prohibitively expensive,[281] and he was considering plans to dismantle the Apollo program
Apollo program
due to its cost.[282]

Kennedy proposing a program to Congress that will land men on the Moon, May 1961. Johnson and Sam Rayburn are seated behind him.

However, this quickly changed on April 12, 1961, when Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Gagarin
became the first person to fly in space, reinforcing American fears about being left behind in a technological competition with the Soviet Union.[283] Kennedy now became eager for the U.S. to take the lead in the Space Race, for reasons of strategy and prestige. On April 20, he sent a memo to Johnson, asking him to look into the status of America's space program, and into programs that could offer NASA
NASA
the opportunity to catch up.[284][285] After consulting with Wernher von Braun, Johnson responded approximately one week later, concluding that "we are neither making maximum effort nor achieving results necessary if this country is to reach a position of leadership."[286][287] His memo concluded that a manned Moon landing was far enough in the future that it was likely the United States would achieve it first.[286] Kennedy's advisor Ted Sorensen
Ted Sorensen
advised him to support the Moon landing, and on May 25, Kennedy announced the goal in a speech titled " Special
Special
Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs":

... I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish.[288] Full text 

Play media

Kennedy speaks at Rice University, September 12, 1962 (duration 17:47)

After Congress authorized the funding, Webb began reorganizing NASA, increasing its staffing level, and building two new centers: a Launch Operations Center for the large Moon rocket northwest of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, and a Manned Spacecraft Center on land donated through Rice University
Rice University
in Houston, Texas. Kennedy took the latter occasion as an opportunity to deliver another speech at Rice to promote the space effort on September 12, 1962, in which he said:

No nation which expects to be the leader of other nations can expect to stay behind in this race for space. ... We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard.[289] Full text 

On November 21, 1962, in a cabinet meeting with NASA
NASA
administrator Webb and other officials, Kennedy explained that the Moon shot was important for reasons of international prestige, and that the expense was justified.[290] Johnson assured him that lessons learned from the space program had military value as well. Costs for the Apollo program were expected to reach $40 billion.[291] In a September 1963 speech before the United Nations, Kennedy urged cooperation between the Soviets and Americans in space, specifically recommending that Apollo be switched to "a joint expedition to the Moon".[292] Khrushchev again declined, and the Soviets did not commit to a manned Moon mission until 1964.[293] On July 20, 1969, almost six years after Kennedy's death, Apollo 11
Apollo 11
landed the first manned spacecraft on the Moon. Administration, Cabinet, and judicial appointments

The Kennedy Cabinet

Office Name Term

President John F. Kennedy 1961–1963

Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson 1961–1963

Secretary of State Dean Rusk 1961–1963

Secretary of Treasury C. Douglas Dillon 1961–1963

Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara 1961–1963

Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy 1961–1963

Postmaster General J. Edward Day 1961–1963

John A. Gronouski 1963

Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall 1961–1963

Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman 1961–1963

Secretary of Commerce Luther H. Hodges 1961–1963

Secretary of Labor Arthur Goldberg 1961–1962

W. Willard Wirtz 1962–1963

Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Abraham A. Ribicoff 1961–1962

Anthony J. Celebrezze 1962–1963

The official White House
White House
portrait of John F. Kennedy, painted by Aaron Shikler

Judicial appointments Supreme Court Main article: John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Supreme Court candidates Further information: List of nominations to the Supreme Court of the United States Kennedy appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:

Byron White – 1962 Arthur Goldberg – 1962

Other courts Main article: List of federal judges appointed by John F. Kennedy In addition to his two Supreme Court appointments, Kennedy appointed 21 judges to the United States
United States
Courts of Appeals, and 102 judges to the United States
United States
district courts. Assassination Main article: Assassination of John F. Kennedy

The Kennedys and the Connallys in the presidential limousine moments before the assassination in Dallas

President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, at 12:30 pm Central Standard Time on Friday, November 22, 1963, while on a political trip to Texas
Texas
to smooth over frictions in the Democratic Party between liberals Ralph Yarborough
Ralph Yarborough
and Don Yarborough
Don Yarborough
(no relation) and conservative John Connally.[294] Traveling in a presidential motorcade through downtown Dallas, he was shot once in the back, the bullet exiting via his throat,[295] and once in the head.[295] Kennedy was taken to Parkland Hospital
Parkland Hospital
for emergency medical treatment, where he was pronounced dead 30 minutes later. He was 46 years old and had been in office for 1,036 days. Lee Harvey Oswald, an order filler at the Texas
Texas
School Book
Book
Depository from which the shots were suspected to have been fired, was arrested for the murder of police officer J.D. Tippit, and was subsequently charged with Kennedy's assassination. He denied shooting anyone, claiming he was a patsy,[296][297] and was killed by Jack Ruby
Jack Ruby
on November 24, before he could be prosecuted. Ruby was arrested and convicted for the murder of Oswald. Ruby successfully appealed his conviction and death sentence but became ill and died of cancer on January 3, 1967, while the date for his new trial was being set. President Johnson quickly issued an executive order to create the Warren Commission—chaired by Chief Justice Earl Warren—to investigate the assassination. The commission concluded that Oswald acted alone in killing Kennedy and that Oswald was not part of any conspiracy.[298] The results of this investigation are disputed by many.[299] The assassination proved to be a pivotal moment in U.S. history because of its impact on the nation, and the ensuing political repercussions. A 2004 Fox News poll found that 66% of Americans thought there had been a conspiracy to kill President Kennedy, while 74% thought that there had been a cover-up.[300] A Gallup Poll
Gallup Poll
in mid-November 2013, showed 61% believed in a conspiracy, and only 30% thought that Oswald did it alone.[301] In 1979, the U.S. House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded that it believed "that Kennedy was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy. The committee was unable to identify the other gunmen or the extent of the conspiracy."[302] In 2002, historian Carl M. Brauer concluded that the public's "fascination with the assassination may indicate a psychological denial of Kennedy's death, a mass wish...to undo it."[298] Funeral Main article: State funeral of John F. Kennedy

President Kennedy's family leaving his funeral at the U.S. Capitol Building

A Requiem Mass
Requiem Mass
was celebrated for Kennedy at the Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle on November 25, 1963. The funeral was officiated by Father John J. Cavanaugh.[303] Afterwards, Kennedy was interred in a small plot, (20 by 30 ft.), in Arlington National Cemetery. Over a period of three years (1964–1966), an estimated 16 million people visited his grave. On March 14, 1967, Kennedy's remains were disinterred and moved only a few feet away to a permanent burial plot and memorial. It was from this memorial that the graves of both Robert and Ted Kennedy
Ted Kennedy
were modeled. The honor guard at Kennedy's graveside was the 37th Cadet Class of the Irish Army. Kennedy was greatly impressed by the Irish Cadets on his last official visit to Ireland, so much so that Jackie Kennedy requested the Irish Army
Irish Army
to be the honor guard at her husband's funeral.[304] Kennedy's wife Jacqueline and their two deceased minor children were later interred in the same plot. JFK's brother Robert was buried nearby in June 1968. In August 2009, Ted was also buried near his two brothers. John F. Kennedy's grave is lit with an "Eternal Flame". Kennedy and William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
are the only two U.S. presidents buried at Arlington.[305][306] According to the JFK Library, "I Have a Rendezvous with Death", by Alan Seeger
Alan Seeger
"was one of John F. Kennedy's favorite poems and he often asked his wife to recite it".[307] Personal life, family, and reputation Further information: Kennedy family

The Kennedy family
Kennedy family
in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, in 1963

The Kennedy family
Kennedy family
is one of the most established political families in the United States, having produced a president, three senators, an ambassador, and multiple other representatives, both at the federal and state level. While a Congressman, Kennedy embarked on a seven-week trip to India, Japan, Vietnam, and Israel in 1951, at which point he became close with his then 25-year-old brother Bobby, as well as his 27-year-old sister Pat. Because they were several years apart in age, the brothers had previously seen little of each other. This 25,000-mile (40,000 km) trip was the first extended time they had spent together and resulted in their becoming best friends.[308] Robert would play a major role in his brother's career, and he served as his brother's Attorney General and presidential advisor.[308] Robert would later run for president in 1968 before his assassination, while another Kennedy brother, Ted, ran for president in 1980. Kennedy came in third (behind Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
and Mother Teresa) in Gallup's List of Widely Admired People of the 20th century.[309][310] Kennedy was a life member of the National Rifle Association.[311][312] Wife and children

The First Family in 1962

Kennedy met his future wife, Jacqueline Lee "Jackie" Bouvier (1929–1994), when he was a congressman. Charles L. Bartlett, a journalist, introduced the pair at a dinner party.[313] They were married a year after he was elected senator, on September 12, 1953.[314] Their second child Caroline was born in 1957 and is the only surviving member of JFK's immediate family. John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr., nicknamed "John-John" by the press as a child, was born in late November 1960, 17 days after his father was elected. John Jr., a graduate of Brown University, died in 1999 when the small plane he was piloting crashed en route to Martha's Vineyard.[315] Popular image

The Kennedy brothers: Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Senator Ted Kennedy, and President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
in 1963

Kennedy and his wife were younger in comparison to the presidents and first ladies who preceded them, and both were popular in the media culture in ways more common to pop singers and movie stars than politicians, influencing fashion trends and becoming the subjects of numerous photo spreads in popular magazines. Although Eisenhower had allowed presidential press conferences to be filmed for television, Kennedy was the first president to ask for them to be broadcast live and made good use of the medium.[316] In 1961 the Radio-Television News Directors Association presented Kennedy with its highest honor, the Paul White Award, in recognition of his open relationship with the media.[317] Mrs. Kennedy brought new art and furniture to the White House, and directed its restoration. They invited a range of artists, writers and intellectuals to rounds of White House
White House
dinners, raising the profile of the arts in America. On the White House
White House
lawn, the Kennedys established a swimming pool and tree house, while Caroline attended a preschool along with 10 other children inside the home. The president was closely tied to popular culture, emphasized by songs such as "Twisting at the White House". Vaughn Meader's First Family comedy album, which parodied the president, the first lady, their family, and the administration, sold about four million copies. On May 19, 1962, Marilyn Monroe
Marilyn Monroe
sang "Happy Birthday, Mr. President" at a large party in Madison Square Garden, celebrating Kennedy's upcoming forty-fifth birthday. " Camelot
Camelot
Era" For other uses, see Camelot
Camelot
and King Arthur. The term "Camelot" came to be used retrospectively as iconic of the Kennedy administration, and the charisma of Kennedy and his family. The term was first publicly used by his wife in a post-assassination Life magazine interview with Theodore H. White, in which she revealed his affection for the contemporary Broadway musical of the same name, particularly the closing lines of the title song:[318]

Don't let it be forgot, that once there was a spot, for one brief, shining moment that was known as Camelot. "There'll be great presidents again ... but there will never be another Camelot." — Jacqueline Kennedy[319]

Health In 2002 Robert Dallek wrote an extensive history of Kennedy's health. Dallek was able to consult a collection of Kennedy-associated papers from the years 1955–1963, including X-rays and prescription records from the files of White House
White House
physician Dr. Janet Travell. According to Travell's records, during his presidential years Kennedy suffered from high fevers; stomach, colon, and prostate issues; abscesses; high cholesterol; and adrenal problems. Travell kept a "Medicine Administration Record," cataloguing Kennedy's medications: "injected and ingested corticosteroids for his adrenal insufficiency; procaine shots and ultrasound treatments and hot packs for his back; Lomotil, Metamucil, paregoric, phenobarbital, testosterone, and trasentine to control his diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, and weight loss; penicillin and other antibiotics for his urinary-tract infections and an abscess; and Tuinal
Tuinal
to help him sleep."[12] Years after Kennedy's death, it was revealed that in September 1947, while Kennedy was 30 and in his first term in Congress, he was diagnosed by Sir Daniel Davis at The London Clinic
The London Clinic
with Addison's disease, a rare endocrine disorder. In 1966 Dr. Travell revealed that Kennedy also had hypothyroidism. The presence of two endocrine diseases raises the possibility that Kennedy had autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 (APS 2).[320] Kennedy also suffered from chronic and severe back pain, for which he had surgery and was written up in the American Medical Association's Archives of Surgery. Kennedy's condition may have had diplomatic repercussions, as he appears to have been taking a combination of drugs to treat severe back pain during the 1961 Vienna
Vienna
Summit with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev. The combination included hormones, animal organ cells, steroids, vitamins, enzymes, and amphetamines, and possible potential side effects included hyperactivity, hypertension, impaired judgment, nervousness, and mood swings.[321] Kennedy at one time was regularly seen by no fewer than three doctors, one of whom, Max Jacobson, was unknown to the other two, as his mode of treatment was controversial[322] and used for the most severe bouts of back pain.[323] Into late 1961, there were disagreements among Kennedy's doctors concerning his proper balance of medication and exercise. The president preferred the former, because he was short on time and desired immediate relief.[209] During that time frame, the president's physician, George Burkley, did set up some gym equipment in the White House basement, where Kennedy did stretching exercises for his back three times a week.[324] Details of these and other medical problems were not publicly disclosed during Kennedy's lifetime.[325] The President's primary White House
White House
physician, George Burkley, realized that treatments by Jacobson and Travell, including the excessive use of steroids and amphetamines, were medically inappropriate, and took effective action to remove the president from their care.[326] It was later observed that President Kennedy's leadership (e.g. the 1962 Cuban Missile crisis and other events during 1963) improved greatly once the treatments of Jacobson had been discontinued and been replaced by a medically appropriate regimen under Burkley. Dr. Ghaemi, who studied Kennedy's medical records, concluded there was a "correlation; it is not causation; but it may not be coincidence either".[326] Personal tragedies Main article: Kennedy curse

The newlyweds surrounded by Jack's siblings on their wedding day in Newport, Rhode Island in 1953

Kennedy experienced a number of family tragedies. His older brother Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
was killed in action in 1944 at age 29, when his plane exploded over the English Channel
English Channel
during a first attack execution of Operation Aphrodite
Operation Aphrodite
during World War II.[327] Kennedy's younger sister Rose Marie "Rosemary" Kennedy was born in 1918 with intellectual disabilities and underwent a prefrontal lobotomy at age 23, leaving her permanently incapacitated. His younger sister Kathleen Agnes "Kick" Kennedy died in France as the result of a plane crash in 1948. His wife Jacqueline Kennedy
Jacqueline Kennedy
suffered a miscarriage in 1955 and a stillbirth in 1956: a daughter informally named Arabella.[328] A son, Patrick Bouvier Kennedy, died two days after birth in August 1963. Affairs and extramarital relationships

Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Marilyn Monroe, President Kennedy (back to camera) in 1962

Kennedy was single in the 1940s when he had affairs with Danish journalist Inga Arvad[329] and actress Gene Tierney.[330] Before and after he assumed the presidency, Kennedy reportedly had extramarital affairs with a number of women, including Marilyn Monroe,[331] Gunilla von Post,[332] Judith Campbell,[333] Mary Pinchot Meyer,[334] Marlene Dietrich,[335] Mimi Alford,[336] and his wife's press secretary, Pamela Turnure.[337] The extent of Kennedy's relationship with Monroe is not fully known, although it has been reported that they spent a weekend together in March 1962 while he was staying at Bing Crosby's house.[338] Furthermore, people at the White House
White House
switchboard noted that Monroe had called Kennedy during 1962.[339] J. Edgar Hoover, the FBI director, received reports about Kennedy's indiscretions.[340] Kennedy inspired affection and loyalty from the members of his team and his supporters.[341] According to Reeves, this included "the logistics of Kennedy's liaisons.....[which] required secrecy and devotion rare in the annals of the energetic service demanded by successful politicians."[342] Kennedy believed that his friendly relationship with members of the press would help protect him from public revelations about his sex life.[343] Historical evaluations and legacy The US Special
Special
Forces had a special bond with Kennedy. "It was President Kennedy who was responsible for the rebuilding of the Special
Special
Forces and giving us back our Green Beret," said Forrest Lindley, a writer for the US military newspaper Stars and Stripes who served with Special
Special
Forces in Vietnam.[a] This bond was shown at Kennedy's funeral. At the commemoration of the 25th anniversary of Kennedy's death, General Michael D. Healy, the last commander of Special
Special
Forces in Vietnam, spoke at Arlington Cemetery. Later, a wreath in the form of the Green Beret would be placed on the grave, continuing a tradition that began the day of his funeral when a sergeant in charge of a detail of Special
Special
Forces men guarding the grave placed his beret on the coffin.[344] Kennedy was the first of six presidents to have served in the U.S. Navy,[345] and one of the enduring legacies of his administration was the creation in 1961 of another special forces command, the Navy SEALs,[346] which Kennedy enthusiastically supported.[347] Kennedy's civil rights proposals led to the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[348] President Lyndon B. Johnson, Kennedy's successor, took up the mantle and pushed the landmark Civil Rights Act through a bitterly divided Congress by invoking the slain president's memory.[349][350] President Johnson then signed the Act into law on July 2, 1964. This civil rights law ended what was known as the "Solid South" and certain provisions were modeled after the Civil Rights Act of 1875, signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant.[351]

The dedication of a new forever stamp to honor what would be President John F. Kennedy's 100th birthday

Kennedy's continuation of Presidents Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
and Dwight D. Eisenhower's policies of giving economic and military aid to South Vietnam
Vietnam
left the door open for President Johnson's escalation of the conflict.[352] At the time of Kennedy's death, no final policy decision had been made as to Vietnam, leading historians, cabinet members, and writers to continue to disagree on whether the Vietnam conflict would have escalated to the point it did had he survived.[353][168] His agreement to the NSAM 263[165] action of withdrawing 1,000 troops by the end of 1963, and his earlier 1963 speech at American University,[167] suggest that he was ready to end the Vietnam
Vietnam
War. The Vietnam
Vietnam
War contributed greatly to a decade of national difficulties, amid violent disappointment on the political landscape. Many of Kennedy's speeches (especially his inaugural address) are considered iconic; and despite his relatively short term in office, and the lack of major legislative changes coming to fruition during his term, Americans regularly vote him as one of the best presidents, in the same league as Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Some excerpts of Kennedy's inaugural address are engraved on a plaque at his grave at Arlington. He was posthumously awarded the Pacem in Terris Award
Pacem in Terris Award
(Latin: Peace on Earth). It was named after a 1963 encyclical letter by Pope John XXIII that calls upon all people of goodwill to secure peace among all nations. Kennedy is the only president to have predeceased both his mother and father. He is also the only president to have predeceased a grandparent. His maternal grandmother, Mary Josephine "Josie" Hannon, died in August 1964, nine months after his assassination. Throughout the English-speaking world, the given name Kennedy has sometimes been used in honor of President Kennedy, as well his brother Robert.[354] Effect of assassination Television became the primary source by which people were kept informed of events surrounding John F. Kennedy's assassination. In fact, television started to come of age before the assassination. On September 2, 1963, Kennedy helped inaugurate network television's first half-hour nightly evening newscast according to an interview with CBS Evening News
CBS Evening News
anchor Walter Cronkite.[355]

Kennedy on a U.S. postage stamp, issue of 1967

Newspapers were kept as souvenirs rather than sources of updated information.[citation needed] In this sense his assassination was the first major TV news event of its kind. TV coverage united the nation, interpreting what went on, and creating memories of this space in time.[citation needed] All three major U.S. television networks suspended their regular schedules and switched to all-news coverage from November 22 through November 26, 1963, being on the air for 70 hours, making it the longest uninterrupted news event on American TV until 9/11.[356] The assassination had an effect on many people, not only in the U.S. but around the world. Many vividly remember where they were when they first learned the news that Kennedy was assassinated, as with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, before it and the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
after it. UN Ambassador Adlai Stevenson said of the assassination: "all of us..... will bear the grief of his death until the day of ours." Many people have also spoken of the shocking news, compounded by the pall of uncertainty about the identity of the assassin(s), the possible instigators, and the causes of the killing, as an end to innocence, and in retrospect it has been coalesced with other changes of the tumultuous decade of the 1960s, especially the Vietnam
Vietnam
War. Ultimately, the death of President Kennedy, and the ensuing confusion surrounding the facts of his assassination, are of political and historical importance insofar as they marked a turning point and decline in the faith of the American people in the political establishment—a point made by commentators from Gore Vidal
Gore Vidal
to Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. and implied by Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
in several of his films, such as his landmark 1991 JFK.[citation needed] Memorials and eponyms Main article: Memorials to John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame
John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame
memorial

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
International Airport, American airport in New York City; nation's busiest international gateway John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
School of Government, part of Harvard University John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Space Center, U.S. government installation that manages and operates America's astronaut launch facilities in Merritt Island, Florida USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67), U.S. Navy aircraft carrier ordered in April 1964, launched May 1967, decommissioned August 2007; nicknamed "Big John" USS John F. Kennedy (CVN-79), U.S. Navy aircraft carrier that began construction in 2011, and is scheduled to be placed in commission in 2020 Kennedy half dollar, a fifty-cent coin first minted in 1964 and discontinued in 2002

Media

Kennedy comments on the possible prevention of the Cold War

President Kennedy comments on the possible prevention of the Cold War

Kennedy's message to Turkey

Kennedy's message to Turkish President Cemal Gursel
Cemal Gursel
and The Turkish People on the Anniversary of the Death of Kemal Ataturk, November 10, 1963 (accompanying text)

Announcement to go to the moon

Announcement by John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
to go to the moon (duration 11:00)

Secret Societies speech

JFK Secret Societies speech

Problems playing these files? See media help.

Play media

Newsreel footage of the inauguration ceremony and speeches

See also

Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy Cultural depictions of John F. Kennedy Timeline of the presidency of John F. Kennedy Jesuit Ivy Kennedy curse Kennedy Doctrine Kennedy half dollar Lincoln–Kennedy coincidences urban legend Operation Northwoods Orville Nix, photographer of another film of the assassination "Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy" retort by Senator Lloyd Bentsen, 1988 VP debate The John F. Kennedy Memorial Park
The John F. Kennedy Memorial Park
(in Ireland) The Torch of Friendship Abraham Zapruder, photographer of the primary film of assassination, the Zapruder film. John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
assassination conspiracy theories

General:

History of the United States
United States
(1945–64) List of assassinated American politicians List of Presidents of the United States List of Presidents of the United States
United States
by previous experience List of Presidents of the United States
United States
who died in office List of United States
United States
presidential assassination attempts and plots Presidents of the United States
United States
on U.S. postage stamps

Biography portal United States
United States
Navy portal

Notes

^ Kennedy reversed the Defense Department rulings that prohibited the Special
Special
Forces wearing of the Green Beret. Reeves 1993, p. 116.

References Citations

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^ Cowell, Alan (December 29, 2006). "JFK faced 3 death threats during '63 visit to Ireland". Deseret News. Salt Lake City. New York Times News Service. Archived from the original on August 3, 2016. Retrieved February 23, 2012.  ^ Reeves 1993, p. 552. ^ Reeves 1993, p. 227. ^ Reeves 1993, p. 229. ^ a b Reeves 1993, p. 243. ^ Reeves 1993, p. 542. ^ Reeves 1993, p. 548. ^ Reeves 1993, p. 550. ^ a b Jaikumar, Arjun (July 10, 2011). "On taxes, let's be Kennedy Democrats. Or Eisenhower Republicans. Or Nixon Republicans". Daily Kos. Retrieved February 23, 2012.  ^ "Voter Education Project". kingencyclopedia.stanford.edu.  ^ "Kennedy, John Fitzgerald (1917-1963)". kingencyclopedia.stanford.edu.  ^ Ippolito, Dennis (2004). Why Budgets Matter: Budget Policy and American Politics. Penn State Press. pp. 173–175. ISBN 0-271-02260-4.  ^ Reeves 1993, p. 453. ^ Barnes 2007, p. 8. ^ Frum 2000, p. 293. ^ Frum 2000, p. 324. ^ a b c "BEA: Quarterly GDP
GDP
figures by sector, 1953–1964". United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved February 23, 2012.  ^ "Consumer and Gross Domestic Price Indices: 1913 to 2002" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 11, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2012.  ^ "Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1964" (PDF). U.S. Department of Commerce. July 1964. Retrieved March 28, 2010.  ^ Reeves 1993, p. 298. ^ "The Presidency: Smiting the Foe". TIME. April 20, 1962.  ^ a b O'Brien 2005, p. 645. ^ "Inflation in Steel". New York Times. April 12, 1962.  ^ Reeves 1993, p. 300. ^ Reeves 1993, pp. 318–320. ^ "Executions 1790 to 1963". Web.archive.org. April 13, 2003. Archived from the original on April 13, 2003. Retrieved February 23, 2012.  ^ Goldberg, Carey (May 6, 2001). "Federal Executions Have Been Rare but May Increase". The New York Times. Retrieved February 23, 2012.  ^ Riechmann, Deb (July 29, 2008). "Bush: Former Army cook's crimes warrant execution". ABC News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on July 31, 2008. Retrieved February 23, 2012.  ^ "Legislative Summary: District of Columbia". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library. Retrieved June 8, 2015.  ^ "Norton Letter to U.S. Attorney Says Death Penalty Trial That Begins Today Part of Troubling and Futile Pattern". Office of Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton. January 8, 2007. Retrieved February 23, 2012.  ^ Grantham (1988), The Life and Death of the Solid South: A Political History, p. 156 ^ a b Dallek 2003, pp. 292–293. ^ a b Brauer 2002, p. 487. ^ a b c d e Brauer 2002, p. 490. ^ "John F. Kennedy", Urs Swharz, Paul Hamlyn, 1964 ^ Bryant 2006, pp. 60, 66. ^ Reeves 1993, pp. 123–126. ^ wikisource – Executive Order No. 10925 ^ " Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
and the Global Freedom Struggle". Stanford University.  ^ Bryant 2006, p. 71. ^ Gitlin (2009), The Ku Klux Klan: A Guide to an American Subculture, p. 29 ^ Dallek 2003, p. 580. ^ " Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
and the Global Freedom Struggle". Stanford University.  ^ Reeves 1993, p. 467. ^ In the first week of June there were 160 incidents of violence. Reeves 1993, p. 515. ^ Reeves 1993, p. 515. ^ Reeves 1993, pp. 521–523. ^ Kennedy, John F. "Civil Rights Address". AmericanRhetoric.com. Retrieved September 20, 2007.  ^ Schlesinger 2002, p. 966. ^ Reeves 1993, p. 524. ^ Cohen 2016, p. 357. ^ Goduti Jr. 2012, p. 206. ^ "John F. Kennedy: Executive Order 10980". Retrieved January 25, 2011.  ^ Reeves 1993, p. 433. ^ "The Equal Pay Act Turns 40". Archive.eeoc.gov. Archived from the original on June 26, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2011.  ^ a b Reeves 1993, pp. 580–584. ^ Reeves 1993, pp. 599–600. ^ Reeves 1993, pp. 628–631. ^ a b Brauer 2002, p. 492. ^ a b c "Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)". Stanford University. Retrieved August 2, 2016.  ^ "The FBI's War on King". American Public Radio. Retrieved November 13, 2015.  ^ Herst 2007, p. 372. ^ Herst 2007, pp. 372–374. ^ Garrow, David J. (July 8, 2002). "The FBI
FBI
and Martin Luther King". The Atlantic Monthly.  ^ Kennedy, John F. (August 6, 1960). "From Press Office: Senator John F. Kennedy, Immigration and Naturalization Laws, Hyannis Inn Motel, Hyannis, MA". Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. Retrieved September 20, 2007.  ^ Ludden, Jennifer. "Q&A: Sen. Kennedy on Immigration, Then & Now". NPR. Retrieved September 20, 2007.  ^ Bilharz 2002, p. 55. ^ Kennedy, John F. (August 11, 1961). "320—Letter to the President of the Seneca Nation of Indians Concerning the Kinzua Dam
Kinzua Dam
on the Allegheny River". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved February 25, 2012.  ^ Murray and Cox, Apollo, p. 60. ^ a b Reeves 1993, p. 138. ^ Nelson 2009, p. 145. ^ Levine, Future of the US Space Program, p. 71. ^ Levine, Anold S. (1982). Managing NASA
NASA
in the Apollo Era, chapter 27, "The Lunar Landing Decision and Its Aftermath". NASA
NASA
SP-4102. ^ a b c Nelson 2009, p. 146. ^ Kenney 2000, pp. 115–116. ^ Dallek 2003, p. 502. ^ Dallek 2003, p. 392. ^ Sidey, Hugh (1964), John F. Kennedy, pp. 117–118. ^ Dallek 2003, p. 393. ^ Kennedy, John F. (April 20, 1961). "Memorandum for Vice President". The White House
White House
(Memorandum). Boston, MA: John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved August 1, 2013.  ^ Launius, Roger D. (July 1994). "President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Memo for Vice President, 20 April 1961" (PDF). Apollo: A Retrospective Analysis (PDF). Monographs in Aerospace History Number 3. Washington, D.C.: NASA. OCLC 31825096. Retrieved August 1, 2013.  Key Apollo Source Documents. ^ a b Johnson, Lyndon B. (April 28, 1961). "Memorandum for the President". Office of the Vice President (Memorandum). Boston, MA: John F. Kennedy Presidential Library
John F. Kennedy Presidential Library
and Museum. Retrieved August 1, 2013.  ^ Launius, Roger D. (July 1994). "Lyndon B. Johnson, Vice President, Memo for the President, 'Evaluation of Space Program,' 28 April 1961" (PDF). Apollo: A Retrospective Analysis (PDF). Monographs in Aerospace History Number 3. Washington, D.C.: NASA. OCLC 31825096. Retrieved August 1, 2013.  Key Apollo Source Documents. ^ Kennedy, John F. (1961). "Apollo Expeditions to the Moon: Chapter 2". history.nasa.gov. Retrieved February 26, 2012.  ^ Kennedy, John F. (September 12, 1962). "President John F. Kennedy: The Space Effort". Rice University. Archived from the original on July 8, 2006. Retrieved February 25, 2012.  ^ Selverstone, Marc. "JFK and the Space Race". White House Tapes–Presidential Recordings Program, Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2012.  ^ Dallek 2003, p. 652–653. ^ Wikisource: John F. Kennedy's Address Before the 18th General Assembly of the United Nations ^ Dallek 2003, p. 654. ^ Russ. "26, 2009#P12844 Life in Legacy". Lifeinlegacy.com. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2010.  ^ a b Parkland Hospital
Parkland Hospital
doctors attending to him reported ^ Lee Oswald claiming innocence (film), Youtube.com ^ Warren Commission
Warren Commission
Hearings, vol. 20, p. 366, Kantor Exhibit No. 3—Handwritten notes made by Seth Kantor concerning events surrounding the assassination ^ a b Brauer 2002, p. 497. ^ Gus Russo and Stephen Molton "Did Castro OK the Kennedy Assassination?," American Heritage, Winter 2009. ^ Dana Blanton (June 18, 2004). "Poll: Most Believe 'Cover-Up' of JFK Assassination Facts". Fox News.  ^ "Majority in U.S. Still Believe JFK Killed in a Conspiracy: Mafia, federal government top list of potential conspirators". Gallup, Inc. November 15, 2013. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016.  ^ "Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U.S. House of Representatives". U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved November 11, 2013. ^ Bugliosi 2007, p. 211. ^ Bugliosi 2007, p. 312. ^ This Day in History 1967: JFK's body moved to permanent gravesite, History.com. Retrieved April 8, 2008. ^ "Broadcast Yourself". YouTube. Retrieved January 2, 2010.  ^ "John F. Kennedy's Favorite Poems: "I Have a Rendezvous with Death" (Seeger)". jfklibrary.org. Retrieved August 25, 2015.  ^ a b Reeves 1993, p. 29. ^ The Gallup Poll
Gallup Poll
1999. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc. 1999. pp. 248–249.  ^ "Greatest of the Century". Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll. December 20–21, 1999. Retrieved January 5, 2007.  ^ Raymond, Emilie (2006). From my cold, dead hands: Charlton Heston and American politics. University Press of Kentucky. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-8131-2408-7.  ^ "Books for Lawyers". American Bar Association Journal: 556. 1975.  ^ Cover story, Time magazine, January 20, 1961 ^ Specious allegations in 1997 by UK journalist Terry O'Hanlon Golden, Andrew (July 27, 1997). "JFK The Bigamist..... The Truth At Last; Kennedy was already married when he got wed to Jackie..." Sunday Mirror. Retrieved October 31, 2010.  and by author Seymour Hersh Reingold, Joyce (March 26, 2008). "JFK 'Secret Marriage' A Story With Legs". Palm Beach Daily News. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved October 31, 2010.  that Kennedy had married previously have been soundly disproven. Reeves states that Ben Bradlee, then at Newsweek, inspected FBI
FBI
files on it, and confirmed the falsehood. Reeves 1993, p. 348; for further refutation, see O'Brien 2005, p. 706. ^ "Kennedy Plane Found to Be Fully Functional". The Washington Post. July 31, 1999. Retrieved January 2, 2010.  ^ Rouse, Robert (March 15, 2006). "Happy Anniversary to the first scheduled presidential press conference—93 years young!". American Chronicle. Archived from the original on September 13, 2008.  ^ "RTDNA's Kennedy connections". Radio Television Digital News Association, November 26, 2013. Retrieved May 27, 2014.  ^ The Personal Papers of Theodore H. White (1915–1986): Series 11. Camelot
Camelot
Documents, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library
John F. Kennedy Presidential Library
& Museum quotation:

The 1963 LIFE article represented the first use of the term "Camelot" in print and is attributed with having played a major role in establishing and fixing this image of the Kennedy Administration and period in the popular mind.

^ An Epilogue, in LIFE, Dec 6, 1963, pp.158-9 ^ Mandel, Lee R. (2009). "Endocrine and Autoimmune Aspects of the Health History of John F. Kennedy". Annals of Internal Medicine. 151 (151(5)): 350–354. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-151-5-200909010-00011. PMID 19721023.  ^ Kempe 2011, p. 213. ^ New York Sun September 20, 2005: "Dr. Feelgood" Retrieved July 11, 2011 ^ Reeves 1993, pp. 42, 158-159. ^ Reeves 1993, p. 244. ^ Online NewsHour with Senior Correspondent Ray Suarez
Ray Suarez
and physician Jeffrey Kelman, "Pres. Kennedy's Health Secrets", The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer transcript, November 18, 2002 ^ a b Ghaemi M.D., M.P.H., Nassir (September 14, 2011). "What Jackie Kennedy Didn't Say—and Didn't Know". Psychology Today. Retrieved August 22, 2016.  ^ " Operation Aphrodite
Operation Aphrodite
‹ HistoricWings.com :: A Magazine for Aviators, Pilots and Adventurers". historicwings.com.  ^ "The Children of Jacqueline Kennedy". www.firstladies.org. Retrieved April 16, 2016.  ^ Dallek 2003, pp. 83-85. ^ Osborne 2006, p. 195. ^ Reeves 1993, pp. 315–316. ^ Bone, James (February 17, 2010), "How JFK's Riviera romance led to years of longing", The Times, London. Retrieved April 2, 2010. ^ Reeves 1993, p. 289. ^ Dallek 2003, p. 475. ^ Dallek 2003, p. 58. ^ Garrow, David J. (May 28, 2003). "Substance Over Sex In Kennedy Biography". The New York Times. Retrieved January 20, 2013.  ^ Dallek 2003, pp. 475, 476. ^ Leaming 2006, pp. 379-380. ^ Dallek 2003, p. 581. ^ Dallek 2003, p. 376. ^ Barnes 2007, p. 116. ^ Reeves 1993, p. 291. ^ Dallek 2003, p. 478. ^ "JFK's personal connection to Army's Green Berets". CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved August 3, 2016.  ^ "Presidents Who Served in the U.S. Navy". Frequently Asked Questions. Naval History & Heritage Command. January 11, 2007. Archived from the original on May 5, 2011. Retrieved May 12, 2011.  ^ "Navy SEALs Were Launched in the JFK 'Man on the Moon' Speech". 11 Facts About Navy SEALs. Time Inc.
Time Inc.
Retrieved May 12, 2011. [dead link] ^ Salinger, Pierre (1997). John F. Kennedy: Commander in Chief: A Profile in Leadership. New York: Penguin Studio. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-670-86310-5. Archived from the original on December 20, 2012. Retrieved February 22, 2012.  ^ Dallek 2003, pp. 594-606, 644. ^ Dallek 2003, p. 708. ^ "50 years after win, Kennedy's legacy endures". USA Today. September 26, 2010. Retrieved April 4, 2013.  ^ Walton Jr. & Smith 2000, p. 205. ^ Page, Susan (October 4, 2011). "50 years after win, Kennedy's legacy endures". USA Today. Retrieved December 25, 2011.  ^ Douthat, Ross (November 26, 2011). "The Enduring Cult of Kennedy". New York Times. Retrieved December 3, 2011.  ^ Hanks, Patrick; Hardcastle, Kate; Hodges, Flavia (2006). A Dictionary of First Names. Oxford
Oxford
Paperback Reference (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-19-861060-1.  ^ Cronkite, Walter (1996). A Reporter's Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-57879-1.  ^ Carter, Bill (September 15, 2001). "Viewers Again Return To Traditional Networks". The New York Times. p. A14. 

Works cited

Alford, Mimi; Newman, Judith (2011). Once Upon A Secret: My Affair with President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
and its Aftermath. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-193175-9.  Ballard, Robert D. (2002). Collision With History: The Search for John F. Kennedy's PT 109. Washington, DC: National Geographic. ISBN 978-0-7922-6876-5.  Barnes, John (2007). John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
on Leadership. AMACOM. ISBN 978-0814474556.  Bilharz, Joy Ann (2002) [1998]. The Allegany Senecas and Kinzua Dam: Forced Relocation Through Two Generations. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-1282-4.  Blight, James G.; Lang, Janet M. (2005). The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-4221-1.  Brauer, Carl M. (2002). "John F. Kennedy". In Graff, Henry. The Presidents: A Reference History (7th ed.). pp. 481–498. ISBN 0-684-80551-0.  Brinkley, Alan (2012). John F. Kennedy. Times Books. ISBN 978-0-8050-8349-1.  Bryant, Nick (Autumn 2006). "Black Man Who Was Crazy Enough to Apply to Ole Miss". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (53).  Bugliosi, Vincent (2007). Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. New York: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04525-3.  Cohen, Andrew (2016) [2014]. Two Days in June: John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
and the 48 Hours That Changed History (illustrated, reprint ed.). McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 9780771023897.  Dallek, Robert (2003). An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917–1963. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co. ISBN 978-0-316-17238-7.  Donovan, Robert J. (2001) [1961]. PT-109: John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
in WW II (40th Anniversary ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-137643-3.  Doyle, William (2015). PT-109: An American Epic of War, Survival, and the Destiny of John F. Kennedy. New York City: Harper-Collins. ISBN 978-0-06-234658-2.  Dudley, Robert L.; Shiraev, Eric (2008). Counting Every Vote: The Most Contentious Elections in American History. Dulles, Virginia: Potomac Books. ISBN 978-1-59797-224-6.  Dunnigan, James; Nofi, Albert (1999). Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam
Vietnam
War. St. Martin's. ISBN 978-0-312-19857-2.  Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-04196-1.  Gibson, Bryan R. (2015). Sold Out? US Foreign Policy, Iraq, the Kurds, and the Cold War. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-48711-7.  Gleijeses, Piero (February 1995). "Ships in the Night: The CIA, the White House
White House
and the Bay of Pigs". Journal of Latin
Latin
American Studies. 27 (1): 1–42. ISSN 0022-216X – via JSTOR.  Goduti Jr., Philip A. (2012). Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
and the Shaping of Civil Rights, 1960-1964. McFarland. ISBN 9781476600871.  Herst, Burton (2007). Bobby and J. Edgar: The Historic Face-Off Between the Kennedys and J. Edgar Hoover
J. Edgar Hoover
That Transformed America. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-7867-1982-2.  Jewell, Elizabeth (2005). U.S. Presidents Factbook. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-72073-4.  Karnow, Stanley (1991). Vietnam, A History. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-670-74604-0.  Kempe, Frederick (2011). Berlin 1961. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 978-0-399-15729-5.  Kenney, Charles (2000). John F. Kennedy: The Presidential Portfolio. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-891620-36-2.  Leaming, Barbara (2006). Jack Kennedy: The Education of a Statesman. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393051-61-2.  Maier, Thomas (2004). The Kennedys: America's Emerald Kings.  Matthews, Chris (2011). Jack Kennedy: Elusive Hero. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-3508-9.  McNamara, Robert S. (2000). Argument Without End: In Search of Answers to the Vietnam
Vietnam
Tragedy.  Nelson, Craig (2009). Rocket Men: The Epic Story of the First Men on the Moon. New York, New York: John Murray. ISBN 978-0-670-02103-1.  O'Brien, Michael (2005). John F. Kennedy: A Biography. Thomas Dunne. ISBN 978-0-312-28129-8.  Osborne, Robert (2006). Leading Ladies: The 50 Most Unforgettable Actresses of the Studio Era. Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0811852487.  Reeves, Richard (1993). President Kennedy: Profile of Power. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-64879-4.  Salt, Jeremey (2008). The Unmaking of the Middle East: A History of Western Disorder in Arab lands. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25551-7.  Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr (2002) [1965]. A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-618-21927-8.  Sorensen, Theodore (1966) [1965]. Kennedy (paperback). New York: Bantam. OCLC 2746832.  Tucker, Spencer (2011) [1998]. The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam
Vietnam
War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1851099603.  Walton Jr., Hanes; Smith, Robert C. (2000). American Politics and the African American Quest for Universal Freedom. Addison, Wesley, Longman. ISBN 0-321-07038-0. 

Further reading

This article lacks ISBNs for the books listed in it. Please make it easier to conduct research by listing ISBNs. If the Cite book or citation templates are in use, you may add ISBNs automatically, or discuss this issue on the talk page. (January 2017)

Main article: Bibliography of John F. Kennedy

Brauer, Carl. J (1977). John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
and the Second Reconstruction. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231083676.  Burner, David (1988). John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
and a New Generation. Pearson Longman. ISBN 9780205603459.  Casey, Shaun. The Making of a Catholic President: Kennedy vs. Nixon 1960 (2009) Collier, Peter & Horowitz, David. The Kennedys (1984) Cottrell, John. Assassination! The World Stood Still (1964) Douglass, James W. (2008). JFK and the Unspeakable: Why He Died and Why It Matters. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis Books. ISBN 978-1-57075-755-6.  Fay, Paul B., Jr.
Fay, Paul B., Jr.
The Pleasure of His Company (1966) Freedman, Lawrence. Kennedy's Wars: Berlin, Cuba, Laos
Laos
and Vietnam (2000) Fursenko, Aleksandr and Timothy Naftali. One Hell of a Gamble: Khrushchev, Castro and Kennedy, 1958–1964 (1997) Giglio, James. The Presidency of John F. Kennedy
Presidency of John F. Kennedy
(1991) Hamilton, Nigel. JFK: Reckless Youth (1992) Harper, Paul, and Krieg, Joann P. eds. John F. Kennedy: The Promise Revisited (1988) Harris, Seymour E. The Economics of the Political Parties, with Special
Special
Attention to Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy (1962) Heath, Jim F. Decade of Disillusionment: The Kennedy–Johnson Years (1976) Hersh, Seymour. The Dark Side of Camelot
Camelot
(1997) Kunz, Diane B. The Diplomacy of the Crucial Decade: American Foreign Relations during the 1960s (1994) Lynch, Grayston L. Decision for Disaster Betrayal at the Bay of Pigs (2000) Manchester, William. Portrait of a President: John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
in Profile (1967) Manchester, William (1967). The Death of a President: November 20–25, 1963. New York: Harper & Row. LCCN 67010496.  Newman, John M. JFK and Vietnam: Deception, Intrigue, and the Struggle for Power (1992) Parmet, Herbert. Jack: The Struggles of John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1980) Parmet, Herbert. JFK: The Presidency of John F. Kennedy
Presidency of John F. Kennedy
(1983) Parmet, Herbert. "The Kennedy Myth". In Myth America: A Historical Anthology, Volume II. Gerster, Patrick, and Cords, Nicholas. (editors.) (1997) Piper, Michael Collins. Final Judgment (2004: sixth edition). American Free Press Reeves, Thomas. A Question of Character: A Life of John F. Kennedy (1991); hostile biography Sabato, Larry J. The Kennedy Half-Century: The Lasting Legacy of John F. Kennedy (forthcoming, 2013) Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr.
Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr.
Robert Kennedy
Robert Kennedy
And His Times (2002) [1978] Selverstone, Marc J., ed. A Companion to John F. Kennedy (Wiley-Blackwell, 2014) Whalen, Thomas J. JFK and His Enemies: A Portrait of Power (2014)

Primary sources

Goldzwig, Steven R. and Dionisopoulos, George N., eds. In a Perilous Hour: The Public Address of John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1995) Kennedy, Jacqueline. Jacqueline Kennedy: Historic Conversations on Life with John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(2011). Hyperion Books. ISBN 1401324258.

Historiography and memory

Abramson, Jill. "Kennedy, the Elusive President", The New York Times Book
Book
Review October 22, 2013, notes that 40,000 books have been published about JFK Hellmann, John. The Kennedy Obsession: The American Myth of JFK (1997) Kazin, Michael. "An Idol and Once a President: John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
at 100." Journal of American History 104.3 (Dec 2017): 707-726. Comprehensive coverage of political scholarship, https://doi.org/10.1093/jahist/jax315 Santa Cruz, Paul H. Making JFK Matter: Popular Memory and the 35th President (Denton: University of North Texas
Texas
Press, 2015) xxiv, 363 pp. Selverstone, Marc J., ed. A Companion to John F. Kennedy (Wiley-Blackwell, 2014), Topical essays by scholars focusing on the historiography

External links

Find more aboutJohn F. Kennedyat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource

Official

John F. Kennedy Presidential Library
John F. Kennedy Presidential Library
and Museum John Fitzgerald Kennedy National Historic Site White House
White House
biography

Media coverage

" John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
collected news and commentary". The New York Times.  Appearances on C-SPAN

"Life Portrait of John F. Kennedy", from C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits, November 5, 1999

Radio coverage of the assassination of President Kennedy as broadcast on WCCO-AM Radio (Minneapolis) and CBS Radio

Other

United States
United States
Congress. " John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(id: K000107)". Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress.  John F. Kennedy: A Resource Guide - the Library of Congress Extensive Essays on JFK with shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady - Miller Center of Public Affairs Kennedy Administration from Office of the Historian, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Works by or about John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
at Internet Archive Works by John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
discography at Discogs "John F. Kennedy". Find a Grave. Retrieved November 17, 2013.  John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
on IMDb

v t e

John F. Kennedy

35th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1961–1963) U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(1953–1960) U.S. Representative for MA-11 (1947–1953)

Presidency (timeline)

Presidential Office: Inauguration Cabinet Judicial appointments

Supreme Court

Presidential pardons

Domestic policy: Clean Air Act Communications Satellite Act Community Mental Health Act Equal Pay Act Federal affirmative action Federal housing segregation ban Fifty-mile hikes Food for Peace New Frontier Pilot Food Stamp Program Space policy Status of Women (Presidential Commission) University of Alabama
University of Alabama
integration Voter Education Project

Foreign policy: Alliance for Progress Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

Flexible response Kennedy Doctrine Peace Corps Trade Expansion Act USAID Vietnam
Vietnam
War Cuba: Bay of Pigs Invasion Cuban Project Cuban Missile Crisis

ExComm

Soviet Union: Berlin Crisis Moscow–Washington hotline Vienna
Vienna
summit

White House: Presidential limousine Presidential yacht Resolute desk Situation Room

Presidential speeches

Inaugural address American University
American University
speech "We choose to go to the Moon" Report to the American People on Civil Rights "Ich bin ein Berliner" "A rising tide lifts all boats"

Elections

U.S. States House of Representatives elections, 1946 1948 1950 U.S. Senate election in Massachusetts, 1952 1958 1960 Presidential primaries 1960 Presidential campaign Democratic National Convention
Democratic National Convention
1956 1960 U.S. presidential election, 1960

debates

Personal life

Birthplace and childhood home Kennedy Compound US Navy service PT-109

Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana Arthur Evans PT-59 Castle Hot Springs

Hammersmith Farm Coretta Scott King
Coretta Scott King
phone call Rocking chair "Happy Birthday, Mr. President"

Books

Why England Slept
Why England Slept
(1940) Profiles in Courage
Profiles in Courage
(1956) A Nation of Immigrants
A Nation of Immigrants
(1958)

Death

Assassination

timeline reactions in popular culture

State funeral

Riderless horse attending dignitaries

Gravesite and Eternal Flame

Legacy

John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum
John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum
(Boston) 1964 Civil Rights Act Apollo 11
Apollo 11
Moon landing Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
(Florida) Kennedy Round U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development VISTA Cultural depictions

films Kennedy half dollar U.S. postage stamps U.S. five cent stamp Lincoln–Kennedy coincidences

Operation Sail

Memorials, namesakes

Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (Washington, D.C.) John F. Kennedy International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport
(New York) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Memorial (London) John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial
John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial
(Dallas) John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial
John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial
(Portland, Oregon) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Memorial (Runnymede, Britain) John F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge
John F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge
(Kentucky–Indiana) John F. Kennedy School of Government
John F. Kennedy School of Government
(Harvard Univ.) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Special
Special
Warfare Center and School (Fort Bragg, North Carolina) John F. Kennedy University (California) John Kennedy College (Mauritius) Kennedy Expressway
Kennedy Expressway
(Chicago) MV John F. Kennedy USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) USS John F. Kennedy (CVN-79) Yad Kennedy
Yad Kennedy
(Jerusalem)

Family

Jacqueline Bouvier (wife) Caroline Kennedy
Caroline Kennedy
(daughter) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Jr.

son plane crash

Patrick Bouvier Kennedy
Patrick Bouvier Kennedy
(son) Jack Schlossberg
Jack Schlossberg
(grandson) Rose Schlossberg
Rose Schlossberg
(granddaughter) Tatiana Schlossberg
Tatiana Schlossberg
(granddaughter) Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.
Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.
(father) Rose Fitzgerald (mother) Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
(brother) Rosemary Kennedy
Rosemary Kennedy
(sister) Kathleen Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington
Kathleen Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington
(sister) Eunice Kennedy Shriver
Eunice Kennedy Shriver
(sister) Patricia Kennedy Lawford
Patricia Kennedy Lawford
(sister) Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
(brother) Jean Kennedy Smith
Jean Kennedy Smith
(sister) Ted Kennedy
Ted Kennedy
(brother) P. J. Kennedy
P. J. Kennedy
(grandfather) John F. Fitzgerald
John F. Fitzgerald
(grandfather)

← Dwight D. Eisenhower Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson

Category

Offices and distinctions

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by James Michael Curley Member of the House of Representatives from Massachusetts's 11th congressional district 1947–1953 Succeeded by Tip O'Neill

Party political offices

Preceded by David I. Walsh Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Massachusetts (Class 1) 1952, 1958 Succeeded by Ted Kennedy

Preceded by Adlai Stevenson II Democratic nominee for President of the United States 1960 Succeeded by Lyndon B. Johnson

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. United States
United States
Senator (Class 1) from Massachusetts 1953–1960 Served alongside: Leverett Saltonstall Succeeded by Benjamin A. Smith II

Political offices

Preceded by Dwight D. Eisenhower 35th President of the United States 1961–1963 Succeeded by Lyndon B. Johnson

Honorary titles

Preceded by Unknown Soldiers of World War II and the Korean War Persons who have lain in state or honor in the United States
United States
Capitol rotunda 1963 Succeeded by Douglas MacArthur

Articles related to John F. Kennedy

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Presidents of the United States
United States
(list)

George Washington
George Washington
(1789–1797) John Adams
John Adams
(1797–1801) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
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James Madison
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James Monroe
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John Quincy Adams
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Andrew Jackson
(1829–1837) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1837–1841) William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison
(1841) John Tyler
John Tyler
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James K. Polk
(1845–1849) Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
(1849–1850) Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
(1850–1853) Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce
(1853–1857) James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1857–1861) Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
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Andrew Johnson
(1865–1869) Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
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Rutherford B. Hayes
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James A. Garfield
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Chester A. Arthur
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Grover Cleveland
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Benjamin Harrison
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Grover Cleveland
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William McKinley
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Theodore Roosevelt
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Woodrow Wilson
(1913–1921) Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
(1921–1923) Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
(1923–1929) Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
(1929–1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1933–1945) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945–1953) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1953–1961) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961–1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1963–1969) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1969–1974) Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
(1974–1977) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1977–1981) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1981–1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1989–1993) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
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George W. Bush
(2001–2009) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2009–2017) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2017–present)

Presidency timelines

Wilson Harding Coolidge Hoover F. D. Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower Kennedy L. B. Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan G. H. W. Bush Clinton G. W. Bush Obama Trump

Book Category

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United States
United States
Democratic Party

Chairpersons of the DNC

Hallett McLane Smalley Belmont Schell Hewitt Barnum Brice Harrity Jones Taggart Mack McCombs McCormick Cummings White Hull Shaver Raskob Farley Flynn Walker Hannegan McGrath Boyle McKinney Mitchell Butler Jackson Bailey O'Brien Harris O'Brien Westwood Strauss Curtis White Manatt Kirk Brown Wilhelm DeLee Dodd/Fowler Romer/Grossman Rendell/Andrew McAuliffe Dean Kaine Wasserman Schultz Perez

Presidential tickets

Jackson/Calhoun Jackson/Van Buren Van Buren/R. Johnson Van Buren/None Polk/Dallas Cass/Butler Pierce/King Buchanan/Breckinridge Douglas/H. Johnson (Breckinridge/Lane, SD) McClellan/Pendleton Seymour/Blair Greeley/Brown Tilden/Hendricks Hancock/English Cleveland/Hendricks Cleveland/Thurman Cleveland/Stevenson I W. Bryan/Sewall W. Bryan/Stevenson I Parker/H. Davis W. Bryan/Kern Wilson/Marshall (twice) Cox/Roosevelt J. Davis/C. Bryan Smith/Robinson Roosevelt/Garner (twice) Roosevelt/Wallace Roosevelt/Truman Truman/Barkley Stevenson II/Sparkman Stevenson II/Kefauver Kennedy/L. Johnson L. Johnson/Humphrey Humphrey/Muskie McGovern/(Eagleton, Shriver) Carter/Mondale (twice) Mondale/Ferraro Dukakis/Bentsen B. Clinton/Gore (twice) Gore/Lieberman Kerry/Edwards Obama/Biden (twice) H. Clinton/Kaine

State/ Territorial Parties

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Conventions

(List)

1832 (Baltimore) 1835 (Baltimore) 1840 (Baltimore) 1844 (Baltimore) 1848 (Baltimore) 1852 (Baltimore) 1856 (Cincinnati) 1860 (Baltimore) 1864 (Chicago) 1868 (New York) 1872 (Baltimore) 1876 (Saint Louis) 1880 (Cincinnati) 1884 (Chicago) 1888 (Saint Louis) 1892 (Chicago) 1896 (Chicago) 1900 (Kansas City) 1904 (Saint Louis) 1908 (Denver) 1912 (Baltimore) 1916 (Saint Louis) 1920 (San Francisco) 1924 (New York) 1928 (Houston) 1932 (Chicago) 1936 (Philadelphia) 1940 (Chicago) 1944 (Chicago) 1948 (Philadelphia) 1952 (Chicago) 1956 (Chicago) 1960 (Los Angeles) 1964 (Atlantic City) 1968 (Chicago) 1972 (Miami Beach) 1976 (New York) 1980 (New York) 1984 (San Francisco) 1988 (Atlanta) 1992 (New York) 1996 (Chicago) 2000 (Los Angeles) 2004 (Boston) 2008 (Denver) 2012 (Charlotte) 2016 (Philadelphia)

Affiliated groups

Fundraising

Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee Democratic Governors Association Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee National Conference of Democratic Mayors

Sectional

College Democrats of America Democrats Abroad National Federation of Democratic Women Stonewall Democrats

Stonewall Young Democrats

Young Democrats of America High School Democrats of America

Related articles

History Primaries Debates Party factions Superdelegate 2005 chairmanship election 2017 chairmanship election

Liberalism portal

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United States
United States
Senators from Massachusetts

Class 1

Dalton Cabot Goodhue Mason Adams Lloyd Gore Ashmun Mellen Mills Webster Choate Webster Winthrop Rantoul Sumner Washburn Dawes Lodge, Sr. Butler Walsh Lodge J. Kennedy Smith E. Kennedy Kirk Brown Warren

Class 2

Strong Sedgwick Dexter Foster Pickering Varnum Otis Lloyd Silsbee Davis Bates Davis Everett Rockwell Wilson Boutwell Hoar Crane J. Weeks Walsh Gillett Coolidge Lodge S. Weeks Saltonstall Brooke Tsongas Kerry Cowan Markey

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Members of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts

1st district

F. Ames Dexter Goodhue Holten Sedgwick Skinner Sedgwick J. Bacon Eustis Quincy Ward Jr. Mason Gorham Webster Gorham N. Appleton Gorham A. Lawrence Fletcher A. Lawrence Winthrop N. Appleton Winthrop S. Eliot W. Appleton Scudder T. D. Eliot Hall T. D. Eliot Buffington Crapo R. Davis Randall Wright G. Lawrence Treadway Heselton Conte Olver Neal

2nd district

Goodhue Foster W. Lyman Sedgwick Ward Sr. W. Lyman Shepard J. Crowninshield Story Pickman W. Reed Pickering Silsbee Barstow B. Crowninshield Choate Phillips Saltonstall D. King Rantoul Fay Crocker Buffington O. Ames Harris Long E. Morse Gillett Churchill Bowles Kaynor Granfield Clason Furcolo Boland Neal McGovern

3rd district

Gerry Bourne Coffin Lyman Mattoon Cutler Nelson Livermore White Pickering Nelson Varnum Nelson Osgood Cushing A. Abbott Duncan Edmands Damrell C. Adams Thomas A. Rice Twichell Whiting I Pierce Field B. Dean Field Ranney L. Morse J. Andrew Walker J. R. Thayer R. Hoar C. Washburn J. A. Thayer Wilder Paige F. Foss Casey Philbin Drinan Donohue Early Blute McGovern N. Tsongas

4th district

Sedgwick Dearborn G. Thatcher Wadsworth Foster L. Lincoln Sr. Hastings Varnum W. Richardson Dana Stearns Fuller E. Everett Sa. Hoar Parmenter Thompson Palfrey Thompson Sabine Walley Comins A. Rice Hooper Frost J. Abbott L. Morse Collins O'Neil Apsley Weymouth Tirrell Mitchell Wilder Winslow Stobbs P. Holmes Donohue Drinan Frank Kennedy III

5th district

Partridge Bourne Freeman L. Williams T. Dwight Ely Mills Lathrop Sibley J. Davis L. Lincoln Jr. Hudson C. Allen W. Appleton Burlingame W. Appleton Hooper Alley Butler Gooch Banks Bowman L. Morse Hayden Banks Sh. Hoar Stevens Knox B. Ames J. Rogers E. Rogers B. Morse Cronin P. Tsongas Shannon Atkins Meehan N. Tsongas Markey Clark

6th district

G. Thatcher Leonard J. Reed Sr. J. Smith Taggart S. Allen Locke Kendall Grennell Alvord Baker Ashmun G. Davis Upham T. Davis Alley Gooch Banks Butler Thompson Loring Stone Lovering Lodge Cogswell Moody Gardner Lufkin A. Andrew G. Bates W. Bates Harrington Mavroules Torkildsen Tierney Moulton

7th district

Leonard Ward Sr. Leonard Bullock Bishop Mitchell Barker Baylies Turner Baylies Hulbert Shaw H. Dwight S. Allen Grennell Briggs J. Rockwell Goodrich Banks Gooch Boutwell Brooks Esty E. Hoar Tarbox Butler W. Russell Stone Cogswell W. Everett Barrett Roberts Phelan Maloney W. Connery L. Connery Lane Macdonald Markey Capuano

8th district

Grout G. Thatcher F. Ames Otis Eustis L. Williams Green Gardner Green J. Reed Jr. Baylies Sampson Hobart Lathrop Bates Calhoun J. Adams Mann Wentworth Knapp Train Baldwin G. Hoar J. M. S. Williams Warren Claflin Candler W Russell C. H. Allen Greenhalge Stevens McCall Deitrick Dallinger H. Thayer Dallinger Healey Goodwin Macdonald O'Neill Kennedy II Capuano Lynch

9th district

Varnum Bishop J. Dean Wheaton J. Reed Jr. Folger J. Reed Jr. H. Dwight Briggs Jackson Hastings H. Williams Hale Fowler Little De Witt E. Thayer Bailey A. Walker W. Washburn Crocker G. Hoar W. Rice T. Lyman Ely Burnett Candler G. Williams O'Neil Fitzgerald Conry Keliher Murray Roberts Fuller Underhill Luce R. Russell Luce T. H. Eliot Gifford Nicholson Keith McCormack Hicks Moakley Lynch Keating

10th district

Goodhue Sewall Read Hastings Upham J. Allen Brigham Wheaton Morton F Baylies Bailey H. A. S. Dearborn W. Baylies Borden H. Williams Borden Burnell Grinnell Scudder Dickinson Chaffee Delano Dawes Crocker Stevens Seelye Norcross W. Rice J. E. Russell J. Walker McEttrick Atwood Barrows Naphen McNary O'Connell Curley Murray Tague Fitzgerald Tague Douglass Tinkham Herter Curtis Martin Heckler Studds Delahunt Keating

11th district

Bradbury Bartlett Cutler Stedman A. Bigelow Brigham B. Adams J. Russell Hobart J. Richardson J. Adams J. Reed Jr. Burnell Goodrich Trafton Dawes Chapin Robinson Whiting II Wallace Coolidge Draper Sprague Powers Sullivan Peters Tinkham Douglass Higgins Flaherty Curley Kennedy O'Neill Burke Donnelly

12th district

H. Dearborn I. Parker Lee S. Thatcher Skinner Larned Bidwell Bacon Dewey Hulbert Strong Kendall L. Bigelow Baylies Hodges J. Adams Robinson F. Rockwell Crosby E. Morse Lovering Powers Weeks Curley Gallivan McCormack Keith Studds

13th district

Wadsworth Seaver Ruggles Dowse Eustis J. Reed Jr. Randall Simpkins Greene Weeks Mitchell Carter Luce Wigglesworth Burke

14th district

G. Thatcher Cutts C. King J. Holmes Lovering E. Foss Harris Gilmore Olney Frothingham Wigglesworth Martin

15th district

Wadsworth Ilsley Whitman Widgery Bradbury Whitman Greene Leach Martin Gifford

16th district

S. Thatcher Cook Tallman S. Davis Brown Orr Hill Thacher Walsh Gifford

17th district

Bruce Chandler Gannett F. Carr Wood J. Carr Wilson Kinsley

18th district

Wilson T. Rice J. Parker

19th district

J. Parker Conner Gage Cushman

20th district

Hubbard Parris E. Lincoln

At-large

Cobb

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Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran
Iran
crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam
Vietnam
War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam
Vietnam
War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago
Chicago
school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Buddhist crisis

Events

Huế Phật Đản (Vesak) shootings Hue chemical attacks Self-immolation of Thích Quảng Đức Double Seven Day scuffle Xá Lợi Pagoda raids 1963 South Vietnamese coup
1963 South Vietnamese coup
(reaction) Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem

Policy

Joint Communiqué Cable 243 Krulak–Mendenhall mission McNamara–Taylor mission

Political or religious figures

Bui Van Luong Bửu Hội Thích Quảng Đức Michael Forrestal W. Averell Harriman Roger Hilsman Thich Thien Hoa John F. Kennedy Thich Tinh Khiet Victor H. Krulak Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
Jr. Robert McNamara Joseph Mendenhall Ngô Đình Cẩn Ngô Đình Diệm Ngô Đình Nhu Ngô Đình Thục Nguyễn Ngọc Thơ Nguyễn Đình Thuận Madame Nhu Frederick Nolting Thích Trí Quang Maxwell D. Taylor Trần Văn Chương William Trueheart Vũ Văn Mẫu

Military figures

Lucien Conein Đỗ Cao Trí Đỗ Mậu Dương Văn Minh Huỳnh Văn Cao Lê Quang Tung Lê Văn Kim Nguyễn Hữu Có Nguyễn Khánh Nguyễn Văn Nhung Nguyễn Văn Thiệu Phạm Ngọc Thảo Tôn Thất Đính Trần Kim Tuyến Trần Thiện Khiêm Trần Văn Đôn

Journalists

Peter Arnett Malcolm Browne David Halberstam Marguerite Higgins Neil Sheehan

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PT-109

Craft

PT boat PT-109 PT-59 Japanese destroyer Amagiri

People

John F. Kennedy Biuku Gasa Eroni Kumana Arthur Evans

Media

1962 Song 1963 Film Comic book PT-109 (model) kit Video game The Search for Kennedy's PT 109 (2002 film)

Related

Kasolo Island (Kennedy Island)

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Jacqueline Kennedy
Jacqueline Kennedy
Onassis

Family

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(first husband, presidency) Caroline Kennedy
Caroline Kennedy
(daughter) John F. Kennedy Jr.
John F. Kennedy Jr.
(son) Patrick Bouvier Kennedy
Patrick Bouvier Kennedy
(son) Jack Schlossberg
Jack Schlossberg
(grandson) Rose Schlossberg
Rose Schlossberg
(granddaughter) Tatiana Schlossberg
Tatiana Schlossberg
(granddaughter) Aristotle Onassis
Aristotle Onassis
(second husband) John Vernou Bouvier III
John Vernou Bouvier III
(father) Janet Lee Bouvier (mother) Lee Radziwill
Lee Radziwill
(sister) Hugh D. Auchincloss
Hugh D. Auchincloss
(stepfather) Janet Auchincloss Rutherfurd
Janet Auchincloss Rutherfurd
(half-sister) Edith Ewing Bouvier (aunt)

Life events

Hammersmith Farm Kennedy Compound First Lady of the United States

White House
White House
restoration Televised White House
White House
tour White House
White House
Historical Association White House
White House
Curator Committee for the Preservation of the White House

Assassination of John F. Kennedy State funeral of John F. Kennedy John F. Kennedy Presidential Library
John F. Kennedy Presidential Library
and Museum Eternal Flame and burial site

Fashion

Wedding dress of Jacqueline Bouvier The bouffant hairstyle Pillbox hat Pink Chanel suit

Honors and memorials

Jacqueline Kennedy
Jacqueline Kennedy
Garden Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
High School for International Careers Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
Reservoir Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
School ballet

Other

Cultural depictions Jackie O (1997 opera) Jackie (2016 film)

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Robert F. Kennedy

November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968

United States
United States
Senator from New York, 1965–1968 64th United States
United States
Attorney General, 1961–1964

Life

1948 Palestine visit Senate Committee investigation of Labor and Management Cuban Missile Crisis

ExComm

Civil rights

Freedom Riders Voter Education Project

Baldwin–Kennedy meeting 1964 Democratic National Convention Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation Mississippi Delta tour Kennedy Compound Hickory Hill home

Electoral

1964 U.S. Senate election 1968 presidential campaign

primaries Boiler Room Girls

Speeches

Law Day Address (1961) Day of Affirmation Address
Day of Affirmation Address
(1966) Conflict in Vietnam
Vietnam
and at Home (1968) University of Kansas (1968) Ball State (1968) On the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1968) "On the Mindless Menace of Violence" (1968)

Books

The Enemy Within (1960) The Pursuit of Justice
The Pursuit of Justice
(1964) To Seek a Newer World (1967) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
(1969)

Assassination

Sirhan Sirhan Ambassador Hotel Conspiracy theories Gravesite

Legacy and memorials

Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Department of Justice Building Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Center for Justice and Human Rights

Human Rights Award Journalism Award Book
Book
Award

Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Memorial Stadium Landmark for Peace Memorial Kennedy–King College Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Community Schools Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Bridge

Popular culture

Crisis: Behind a Presidential Commitment (1963 documentary) Robert Kennedy
Robert Kennedy
Remembered (1968 documentary) "Abraham, Martin and John" (1968 song) The Missiles of October
The Missiles of October
(1974 docudrama) Kennedy (1983 miniseries) Blood Feud (1983 film) Prince Jack
Prince Jack
(1985 film) Robert Kennedy
Robert Kennedy
and His Times (1985 miniseries) Hoover vs. The Kennedys (1987 miniseries) Thirteen Days (2000 film) RFK (2002 film) Bobby (2006 film) RFK Must Die (2007 documentary) The Kennedys (2011 miniseries) Ethel (2012 documentary) Jackie (2016 film)

Family, family tree

Ethel Skakel (wife) Kathleen Kennedy (daughter) Joseph P. Kennedy (son) Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Jr. (son) David Kennedy (son) Courtney Kennedy (daughter) Michael Kennedy (son) Kerry Kennedy
Kerry Kennedy
(daughter) Chris Kennedy (son) Max Kennedy
Max Kennedy
(son) Doug Kennedy (son) Rory Kennedy
Rory Kennedy
(daughter) Joseph P. Kennedy III (grandson) Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.
Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.
(father) Rose Kennedy
Rose Kennedy
(mother) Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
(brother) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(brother presidency) Rosemary Kennedy
Rosemary Kennedy
(sister) Kathleen Kennedy Cavendish
Kathleen Kennedy Cavendish
(sister) Eunice Kennedy Shriver
Eunice Kennedy Shriver
(sister) Patricia Kennedy Lawford
Patricia Kennedy Lawford
(sister) Jean Kennedy Smith
Jean Kennedy Smith
(sister) Ted Kennedy
Ted Kennedy
(brother) Patrick J. Kennedy
Patrick J. Kennedy
(grandfather) John F. Fitzgerald
John F. Fitzgerald
(grandfather)

v t e

Ted Kennedy

February 22, 1932 – August 25, 2009

United States
United States
Senator from Massachusetts, 1962–2009

Electoral history

United States Senate
United States Senate
special election in Massachusetts, 1962 United States Senate
United States Senate
election in Massachusetts, 1964 1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 2006 United States
United States
presidential election, 1980 (Democratic Party presidential primaries, 1980)

Books

My Senator and Me: A Dog's-Eye View of Washington, D.C. (2006) True Compass
True Compass
(2009)

Family, family tree

Joan Bennett Kennedy
Joan Bennett Kennedy
(first wife) Victoria Reggie Kennedy
Victoria Reggie Kennedy
(second wife, widow) Kara Kennedy
Kara Kennedy
(daughter) Edward M. Kennedy Jr.
Edward M. Kennedy Jr.
(son) Patrick J. Kennedy
Patrick J. Kennedy
II (son) Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.
Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.
(father) Rose Kennedy
Rose Kennedy
(mother) Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
(brother) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(brother presidency) Rosemary Kennedy
Rosemary Kennedy
(sister) Kathleen Kennedy (sister) Eunice Kennedy Shriver
Eunice Kennedy Shriver
(sister) Patricia Kennedy Lawford
Patricia Kennedy Lawford
(sister) Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
(brother) Jean Kennedy Smith
Jean Kennedy Smith
(sister) Patrick J. Kennedy
Patrick J. Kennedy
I (grandfather) John F. Fitzgerald
John F. Fitzgerald
(grandfather)

Related

Awards and honors Political positions Kennedy Compound Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the United States
United States
Senate Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act Chappaquiddick incident The Dream Shall Never Die Mary Jo Kopechne Friends of Ireland Chappaquiddick (2018 film)

Commons Wikiquote Wikisource
Wikisource
texts

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Kennedy family

I.

P. J. Kennedy
P. J. Kennedy
(1858–1929)

Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.

II.

Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.
Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.
(1888–1969) Rose Kennedy
Rose Kennedy
(1890–1995)

Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(m.) Jacqueline Bouvier Rosemary Kennedy Kathleen Kennedy (m.) William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington Eunice Kennedy (m.) Sargent Shriver Patricia Kennedy (m./div.) Peter Lawford Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
(m.) Ethel Kennedy Jean Kennedy (m.) Stephen Edward Smith Edward M. "Ted" Kennedy (m./div. 1st) Joan Bennett; (m. 2nd) Victoria Reggie

III.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917–1963)

Caroline Kennedy
Caroline Kennedy
(m.) Edwin Schlossberg John F. Kennedy Jr.
John F. Kennedy Jr.
(m.) Carolyn Bessette Patrick Bouvier Kennedy

Eunice Kennedy Shriver
Eunice Kennedy Shriver
(1921–2009)

Bobby Shriver Maria Shriver
Maria Shriver
(m./div.) Arnold Schwarzenegger Timothy Shriver Mark Shriver Anthony Shriver

Patricia Kennedy Lawford
Patricia Kennedy Lawford
(1924–2006)

Christopher Lawford

Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
(1925–1968)

Kathleen Kennedy Townsend Joseph P. Kennedy II Robert F. Kennedy Jr. (m.) Cheryl Hines David A. Kennedy Courtney Kennedy Hill Michael LeMoyne Kennedy Kerry Kennedy
Kerry Kennedy
(m./div.) Andrew Cuomo Christopher G. Kennedy Max Kennedy Douglas Harriman Kennedy Rory Kennedy

Jean Kennedy Smith
Jean Kennedy Smith
(born 1928)

William Kennedy Smith

Ted Kennedy
Ted Kennedy
(1932–2009)

Kara Kennedy Edward M. Kennedy Jr. Patrick J. Kennedy

V.

Rose Schlossberg Tatiana Schlossberg Jack Schlossberg Katherine Schwarzenegger Patrick Schwarzenegger Joseph P. Kennedy III

Related topics

Hickory Hill Kennedy Compound Kennedy curse Merchandise Mart The Kennedys (museum)

Category

Kennedy family

m. = married; div. = divorced; sep. = separated.

v t e

(1952 ←) United States
United States
presidential election, 1956 (→ 1960)

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Dwight D. Eisenhower

VP nominee

Richard Nixon

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Adlai Stevenson

VP nominee

Estes Kefauver

Candidates

John S. Battle Happy Chandler James C. Davis W. Averell Harriman Lyndon B. Johnson Frank Lausche George Bell Timmerman Jr.

Third party and independent candidates

American Vegetarian Party

Nominee

Herbert M. Shelton

VP nominee

Symon Gould

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Enoch A. Holtwick

VP nominee

Herbert C. Holdridge

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

Eric Hass

VP nominee

Georgia Cozzini

Socialist Party

Nominee

Darlington Hoopes

VP nominee

Samuel H. Friedman

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

Farrell Dobbs

VP nominee

Myra Tanner Weiss

Independents and other candidates

T. Coleman Andrews Gerald L. K. Smith

Other 1956 elections: House Senate

v t e

(1956 ←) United States
United States
presidential election, 1960 (→ 1964)

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(campaign)

VP nominee Lyndon B. Johnson

Candidates Ross Barnett Pat Brown Michael DiSalle Paul C. Fisher Hubert Humphrey Lyndon B. Johnson George H. McLain Robert B. Meyner Wayne Morse Albert S. Porter Adlai Stevenson George Smathers Stuart Symington

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee Richard Nixon

VP nominee Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
Jr.

Candidates Barry Goldwater Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
Jr. James M. Lloyd Nelson Rockefeller

Third party and independent candidates

American Vegetarian Party

Nominee Symon Gould

National States' Rights Party

Nominee Orval Faubus

VP nominee J. B. Stoner

Prohibition Party

Nominee Rutherford Decker

VP nominee E. Harold Munn

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee Eric Hass

VP nominee Georgia Cozzini

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee Farrell Dobbs

VP nominee Myra Tanner Weiss

Independents and other candidates

Harry F. Byrd Merritt B. Curtis Lar Daly George Lincoln Rockwell Charles L. Sullivan

Other 1960 elections: House Senate

v t e

Cabinet of President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961–63)

Vice President

Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1961–63)

Secretary of State

Dean Rusk
Dean Rusk
(1961–63)

Secretary of the Treasury

C. Douglas Dillon
C. Douglas Dillon
(1961–63)

Secretary of Defense

Robert McNamara
Robert McNamara
(1961–63)

Attorney General

Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
(1961–63)

Postmaster General

J. Edward Day
J. Edward Day
(1961–63) John A. Gronouski
John A. Gronouski
(1963)

Secretary of the Interior

Stewart Udall
Stewart Udall
(1961–1963)

Secretary of Agriculture

Orville Freeman
Orville Freeman
(1961–63)

Secretary of Commerce

Luther H. Hodges
Luther H. Hodges
(1961–63)

Secretary of Labor

Arthur Goldberg
Arthur Goldberg
(1961–62) W. Willard Wirtz
W. Willard Wirtz
(1962–63)

Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare

Abraham A. Ribicoff
Abraham A. Ribicoff
(1961–62) Anthony J. Celebrezze
Anthony J. Celebrezze
(1962–63)

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

Pulitzer Prize for Biography
Pulitzer Prize for Biography
or Autobiography (1951–1975)

Margaret Louise Coit (1951) Merlo J. Pusey (1952) David J. Mays (1953) Charles A. Lindbergh (1954) William S. White (1955) Talbot Faulkner Hamlin (1956) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1957) Douglas S. Freeman, John Alexander Carroll and Mary Wells Ashworth (1958) Arthur Walworth (1959) Samuel Eliot Morison
Samuel Eliot Morison
(1960) David Donald (1961) Leon Edel
Leon Edel
(1963) Walter Jackson Bate
Walter Jackson Bate
(1964) Ernest Samuels (1965) Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.
Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.
(1966) Justin Kaplan (1967) George Frost Kennan (1968) Benjamin Lawrence Reid (1969) Thomas Harry Williams (1970) Lawrence Thompson (1971) Joseph P. Lash
Joseph P. Lash
(1972) W. A. Swanberg (1973) Louis Sheaffer (1974) Robert Caro
Robert Caro
(1975)

Complete list (1917–1925) (1926–1950) (1951–1975) (1976–2000) (2001–2025)

v t e

National Football Foundation Gold Medal winners

1958: Dwight D. Eisenhower 1959: Douglas MacArthur 1960: Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
& Amos Alonzo Stagg 1961: John F. Kennedy 1962: Byron "Whizzer" White 1963: Roger Q. Blough 1964: Donold B. Lourie 1965: Juan T. Trippe 1966: Earl H. "Red" Blaik 1967: Frederick L. Hovde 1968: Chester J. LaRoche 1969: Richard Nixon 1970: Thomas J. Hamilton 1971: Ronald Reagan 1972: Gerald Ford 1973: John Wayne 1974: Gerald B. Zornow 1975: David Packard 1976: Edgar B. Speer 1977: Louis H. Wilson 1978: Vincent dePaul Draddy 1979: William P. Lawrence 1980: Walter J. Zable 1981: Justin W. Dart 1982: Silver Anniversary Awards (NCAA) - All Honored Jim Brown, Willie Davis, Jack Kemp, Ron Kramer, Jim Swink 1983: Jack Kemp 1984: John F. McGillicuddy 1985: William I. Spencer 1986: William H. Morton 1987: Charles R. Meyer 1988: Clinton E. Frank 1989: Paul Brown 1990: Thomas H. Moorer 1991: George H. W. Bush 1992: Donald R. Keough 1993: Norman Schwarzkopf 1994: Thomas S. Murphy 1995: Harold Alfond 1996: Gene Corrigan 1997: Jackie Robinson 1998: John H. McConnell 1999: Keith Jackson 2000: Fred M. Kirby II 2001: Billy Joe "Red" McCombs 2002: George Steinbrenner 2003: Tommy Franks 2004: William V. Campbell 2005: Jon F. Hanson 2006: Joe Paterno
Joe Paterno
& Bobby Bowden 2007: Pete Dawkins
Pete Dawkins
& Roger Staubach 2008: John Glenn 2009: Phil Knight
Phil Knight
& Bill Bowerman 2010: Bill Cosby 2011: Robert Gates 2012: Roscoe Brown 2013: National Football League
National Football League
& Roger Goodell 2014: Tom Catena
Tom Catena
& George Weiss 2015: Condoleezza Rice 2016: Archie Manning

v t e

Assassination of John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy Lee Harvey Oswald

Assassination

Assassination rifle Timeline J. D. Tippit John Connally Nellie Connally Jacqueline Kennedy

Pink Chanel suit

James Tague William Greer Roy Kellerman Clint Hill Zapruder film

Abraham Zapruder

Dealey Plaza Texas
Texas
School Book
Book
Depository

Sixth Floor Museum

Presidential limousine Parkland Hospital Witnesses

Aftermath

Autopsy Reactions Johnson inauguration Jack Ruby Ruby v. Texas Dictabelt recording Conspiracy theories Single-bullet theory 1992 Assassination Records Act In popular culture

State funeral

Foreign dignitaries Burial site and Eternal Flame

Investigations

Warren Commission Jim Garrison investigation House Select Committee on Assassinations Researchers

v t e

Pacem in Terris Peace and Freedom Award laureates

1960s

1964 John Howard Griffin / John F. Kennedy 1965 Martin Luther King Jr. 1966 R. Sargent Shriver 1967 A. Philip Randolph 1968 James Groppi 1969 Saul Alinsky

1970s

1971 Dorothy Day 1974 Harold Hughes 1975 Hélder Câmara 1976 Mother Teresa 1979 Thomas Gumbleton

1980s

1980 Crystal Lee Sutton / Ernest Leo Unterkoefler 1982 George F. Kennan 1983 Helen Caldicott 1985 Joseph Bernardin 1986 Maurice John Dingman 1987 Desmond Tutu 1989 Eileen Egan

1990s

1990 Mairead Maguire 1991 María Julia Hernández 1992 César Chávez 1993 Daniel Berrigan 1995 Jim Wallis 1996 Samuel Ruiz 1997 Jim and Shelley Douglass

2000s

2000 George G. Higgins 2001 Lech Wałęsa 2002 Gwen Hennessey / Dorothy Hennessey 2004 Arthur Simon 2005 Donald Mosley 2007 Salim Ghazal 2008 Marvin Mottet 2009 Hildegard Goss-Mayr

2010s

2010 John Dear 2011 Álvaro Leonel Ramazzini Imeri 2012 Kim Bobo 2013 Jean Vanier 2014 Simone Campbell 2015 Thích Nhất Hạnh 2016 Gustavo Gutiérrez 2017 Widad Akreyi

Catholicism portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 68910251 LCCN: n79055297 ISNI: 0000 0001 0911 7086 GND: 118561383 SELIBR: 66727 SUDOC: 027317390 BNF: cb121853903 (data) ULAN: 500262206 MusicBrainz: 2966f67a-ed7a-43e7-9a6a-a14aa592b246 NLA: 35266141 NDL: 00445469 NKC: jn20000603341 US Congress: K000107 BNE: XX986535 RKD: 297

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